Science.gov

Sample records for 21st century achievement

  1. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  2. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  3. Music Education in the 21st Century in the United Kingdom: Achievements, Analysis and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan, Ed.; Creech, Andrea. Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of music education in the UK is constantly shifting and developing. This book provides a timely and unique overview of this restless sector by considering the achievements of music education, analysing its current performance and setting out aspirations for the future. "Music Education in the 21st Century in the United Kingdom"…

  4. Student Achievement in New Literacies for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2003-01-01

    Describes some alternative conceptions of middle-level student achievement based on case studies profiling new literacies in U.S. and Canadian classrooms. Identifies characteristics of fluency in multiple forms of representation, critical thinking and talking about student work, adaptability of individual and collaborative activities, and high…

  5. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  6. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society.

  7. Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Small, Dorothy; Walker, Leanne; Wilson, Richard L.; Wintle, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. In part this is because, as a nation,…

  8. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  9. Achieving Quality Assurance and Moving to a World Class University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2013-01-01

    Globalization in the 21st century has brought innumerable challenges and opportunities to universities and countries. Universities are primarily concerned with how to ensure the quality of their education and how to boost their local and global competitiveness. The pressure from both international competition and public accountability on…

  10. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society. The citations reads: "ESO has revolutionized the operations of ground-based astronomical observatories with a new end-to-end data flow system, designed to improve the transmission and management of astronomical observations and data over transcontinental distances." This year's awards, in 10 categories, were presented at a gala event at the National Building Museum, attended by over 250 guests, including leaders of the information technology industry, former award recipients, judges, scholars, and diplomats representing many of the 54 countries from which the 17-year-old program's laureates have come. "The Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Awards are presented to companies from around the world whose visionary use of information technology promotes positive social, economic and educational change," said Bob Carrigan, president and CEO of Computerworld and chairman of the Chairmen's Committee of the Computerworld Honors Program. "The recipients of these awards are the true heroes of the information age and have been appropriately recognized by the leading IT industry chairmen as true revolutionaries in their fields." ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO Receives the Award in the Science Category [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 496 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 992 pix - 470k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1550 pix - 1.1M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 18/05: Receiving the Computerworld 21st Century Achievement Award for Science

  11. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society. The citations reads: "ESO has revolutionized the operations of ground-based astronomical observatories with a new end-to-end data flow system, designed to improve the transmission and management of astronomical observations and data over transcontinental distances." This year's awards, in 10 categories, were presented at a gala event at the National Building Museum, attended by over 250 guests, including leaders of the information technology industry, former award recipients, judges, scholars, and diplomats representing many of the 54 countries from which the 17-year-old program's laureates have come. "The Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Awards are presented to companies from around the world whose visionary use of information technology promotes positive social, economic and educational change," said Bob Carrigan, president and CEO of Computerworld and chairman of the Chairmen's Committee of the Computerworld Honors Program. "The recipients of these awards are the true heroes of the information age and have been appropriately recognized by the leading IT industry chairmen as true revolutionaries in their fields." ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO Receives the Award in the Science Category [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 496 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 992 pix - 470k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1550 pix - 1.1M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 18/05: Receiving the Computerworld 21st Century Achievement Award for Science

  12. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  13. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  14. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  15. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  16. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  17. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  19. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  20. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  1. High-Quality 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Academic Achievement among Frequent Participants and Non-Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstead, Jenell; King, Mindy Hightower

    2011-01-01

    This study examined academic differences between students who attended 21st Century Community Learning Center (CCLC) programs frequently (60 or more days) and matched nonattendees during the 2008-2009 school year. Schools included in the study represented only those centers found to be implementing high-quality programming, as measured by a…

  2. Extended Professional Development in Project-Based Learning: Impacts on 21st Century Skills Teaching and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Nate K.; Ravitz, Jason; Whisman, Andy

    2012-01-01

    From 2008 to 2010, project-based learning (PBL) was a major focus of the Teacher Leadership Institute (TLI), undertaken by the West Virginia Department of Education (WVDE), as a method for teaching 21st century skills. Beginning in January 2011, a summative evaluation was conducted to investigate the effect of PBL implementation on teachers'…

  3. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  4. Achieving patient engagement in multiple sclerosis: A perspective from the multiple sclerosis in the 21st Century Steering Group.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Peter; Boyko, Alexey; Centonze, Diego; Elovaara, Irina; Giovannoni, Gavin; Havrdová, Eva; Hommes, Otto; Kesselring, Jurg; Kobelt, Gisela; Langdon, Dawn; LeLorier, Jacques; Morrow, Sarah A; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Schippling, Sven; Thalheim, Christoph; Thompson, Heidi; Vermersch, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    While advances in medicine, technology and healthcare services offer promises of longevity and improved quality of life (QoL), there is also increasing reliance on a patient׳s skills and motivation to optimize all the benefits available. Patient engagement in their own healthcare has been described as the 'blockbuster drug of the century'. In multiple sclerosis (MS), patient engagement is vital if outcomes for the patient, society and healthcare systems are to be optimized. The MS in the 21st Century Steering Group devised a set of themes that require action with regard to patient engagement in MS, namely: 1) setting and facilitating engagement by education and confidence-building; 2) increasing the importance placed on QoL and patient concerns through patient-reported outcomes (PROs); 3) providing credible sources of accurate information; 4) encouraging treatment adherence through engagement; and 5) empowering through a sense of responsibility. Group members independently researched and contributed examples of patient engagement strategies from several countries and examined interventions that have worked well in areas of patient engagement in MS, and other chronic illnesses. The group presents their perspective on these programs, discusses the barriers to achieving patient engagement, and suggests practical strategies for overcoming these barriers. With an understanding of the issues that influence patient engagement in MS, we can start to investigate ways to enhance engagement and subsequent health outcomes. Engaging patients involves a broad, multidisciplinary approach.

  5. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  6. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  7. Toward achievement in the "knowledge economy" of the 21st century: Preparing students through T-STEM academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Alberto

    Schools are constantly engaged in implementing reform strategies to prepare students for post-secondary education leading to their career choices. Challenges here involve education initiatives addressing programs not strategically planned, educators not prepared for transition, and no follow-up support beyond initial implementation stages. This study examined school reform initiatives by the Texas Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math academies toward better-quality instruction, to prepare students for post-secondary education, and in-turn, for the knowledge economy of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to gauge the effectiveness of these academies in math, science, and engineering, and if these academies are successful educational-reform systems. Inductive data analysis was conducted from general program data and teacher interviews from one rural and one urban high school. Data were obtained through observations, interviews, and program documents. The coding system subdivided the data into domains to establish semantic relationship, and to uncover frames within the data. Terms under each domain served as parameters for each respective domain. The practice of member-checking, peer debriefing, and data triangulation ensured validity, and case study protocols established reliability of results. Results indicated that T-STEM academies have implemented educational reform strategies that produce better-prepared graduates for post-secondary education and perhaps students that are prepared for the knowledge economy. Implications of the study for social change include heighten awareness of effective instructional practices to increase student achievement, as well as contribute to future STEM development relative to economic trends.

  8. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  9. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  10. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  11. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  12. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  13. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The seminar on "Creating 21st Century Learning Environments" was organized by the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the OECD Program on Educational Building (PEB). The seminar was posed as a networked learning experience with professionals from throughout the world presenting their accomplishments and findings.…

  14. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  15. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  16. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  17. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  18. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  19. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  20. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  1. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  2. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  3. 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Bernita E.

    2003-01-01

    Like many institutions of higher learning, Hocking College has struggled to define, document, and assess those general skills deemed necessary for success in the workplace and life. An opportunity for Hocking College to focus on this task was provided through its participation in the 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project sponsored by The League…

  4. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  5. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  6. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  7. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  8. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  9. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  10. Evidence-Based Strategies for Leading 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    How can a school best use technology for teaching and learning? This inspiring book profiles eight visionary schools that are achievers in how they approach technology. In this companion to "Leading 21st Century Schools," Lynne Schrum and Barbara Levin offer insights direct from principals, teachers, superintendents, and others involved in…

  11. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  12. Dragging scientific publishing into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khan, Razib; Goodman, Laurie; Mittelman, David

    2014-12-11

    Scientific publishers must shake off three centuries of publishing on paper and embrace 21st century technology to make scientific communication more intelligible, reproducible, engaging and rapidly available.

  13. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  14. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  15. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  16. Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John

    Research predicts that 21st century society will be very different from 20th century society. What is good conduct in the 21st century? Good conduct is advantageous to work, job, and career. Students who learn good conduct now will benefit in their school lives and in future careers. This handbook aims to prepare everyone's personal conduct for…

  17. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  18. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  19. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  20. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  1. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  2. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  3. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  4. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  5. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  6. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  7. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  8. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  9. Vaccines for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-05-06

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2-3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  10. Molecular medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, C; Seidman, C E

    2001-01-01

    When Watson and Crick proposed the double helix model for DNA structure in a 2 page Nature article in 1953, no one could have predicted the enormous impact this finding would have on the study of human disease. Over the last decade in particular, major advances have been made in our understanding of both normal biological processes and basic molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of medical diseases. Knowledge obtained from basic cellular, molecular and genetic studies has enabled the development of strategies for the modification, prevention and potential cure of human diseases. This brief overview focuses on the enormous impact molecular studies have had on various aspects of medicine. The inherited cardiac disorder hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is used here as a model to illustrate how molecular studies have not only redefined 'gold standards' for diagnosis, but have also influenced management approaches, increased our understanding of fundamental disease-causing mechanisms and identified potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The near-completion of the Human Genome Project, which identifies the 3.2 billion base pairs that comprise the human genome (the so-called 'Book of Life'), has exponentially heightened the focus on the importance of molecular studies and how such studies will impact on various aspects of medicine in the 21st century.

  11. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  12. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  13. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  14. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  15. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  16. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, ... tone or your toddler's crying? Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets can be distracting from child-rearing, ...

  17. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  18. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  19. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  20. Creating a 21st-Century Intelligent Health System

    PubMed Central

    Newt, Gingrich; Nancy, Desmond

    2008-01-01

    In most areas of life, Americans enjoy the ease and convenience offered by advances in technology, communications, and transportation. Every day we experience the 21st-century model of America, which is one of effectiveness, accuracy, speed, flexibility, efficiency, lower cost, more choices, and greater achievement. We can shop online, compare prices for goods and services, and when decisions need to be made, we have access to a wide array of information sources to assist in making those decisions. In short, Americans enjoy great latitude in our power to determine what is best for us. This is not, however, the case when it comes to health and healthcare. In our current healthcare system, individuals are dependent on a structure that has resisted the natural progress and modernization achieved by market-oriented, 21st-century industries. The information age has been leaving health behind. Although it is the nature of a science- and technology-based entrepreneurial free market to provide more choices of higher quality at lower cost, in the healthcare sector, prices continue to rise, quality is inconsistent, and individuals lack the information, incentives, and power to make choices. PMID:25126206

  1. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  2. Promoting 21st Century Skills in the Classroom through the Use of Authentic Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Swann, J. L.; Manfredi, L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing students for the workforce starts well before they start college. The Mars Student Imaging Project has incorporated 21st Century Skills into their project to help the students practice and sharpen these skills. Professional development for the educational facilitators helps the teachers become familiar with these skills. By augmenting the authentic research project with these 21st Century Skills, the students are able to achieve a higher level experience that mirrors the real-world workforce.

  3. Partnership 2000: a journey to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hepner, L F; Hopkins, L G

    2000-01-01

    Building partnerships is a valuable strategy for achieving success in forming a strong foundation for nursing in the 21st century. The demands of the changing health care environment require that managers and staff change the context in which patient care delivery is accomplished. Managers must be willing to unleash the power of the human capital of staff nurses. Staff nurses must be willing to take a seat at the table and share the leadership role with their manager. Both must engage in building an environment that facilitates continued learning, establishes effective relationships with other health care team members and patients, creates an environment that attracts and retains professional nursing staff, expects professional development from one another, and realizes that collective accountability can be achieved through sharing the leadership.

  4. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  5. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  6. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered. 8 refs.

  7. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Burke, Thomas A; Jones, James J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the "Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments" workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered.

  8. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  9. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  10. Challenges facing occupational health services in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, P

    1999-12-01

    The mission and tasks of occupational health services are reviewed in the context of the global megatrends of productivity increase, population overgrowth, and the implications of changes in the technology of information and communication. Current trends in attempts to achieve harmonization with respect to the concept and tasks of occupational health services in the European Union are described, along with the basic features of occupational health services as a human service organization with implications for the setting of objectives and criteria for assessing quality and performance and ethics. The need to adopt a quality-focused approach to occupational health service programs is emphasized, and some of the inhibitions and obstacles to quality work are mentioned. The need for professional commitment to develop and implement quality concepts is outlined. Evidence-based health care in the setting of occupational health services and some salient aspects of professional ethics in the 21st century are commented on.

  11. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives.

  12. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  13. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  14. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  15. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  16. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  17. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions for…

  18. Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Maniotes, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    How can students learn to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and become lifelong learners in a rapidly changing information environment? How can students learn, create, and find meaning from multiple sources of information? These are fundamental questions facing educators in designing schools for 21st-century learners.…

  19. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  20. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  1. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  2. Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Kavalier, Barbara R.; Flannigan, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the 21st century, "literate" defined a person's ability to read and write, separating the educated from the uneducated. With the advent of a new millennium and the rapidity with which technology has changed society, the concept of literacy has assumed new meanings. Experts in the field suggest that the current generation of…

  3. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  4. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  5. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  6. Backers of "21st-Century Skills" Take Flak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "21st-century skills" is everywhere in education policy discussions these days, from faculty lounges to the highest echelons of the U.S. education system. Broadly speaking, it refers to a push for schools to teach critical-thinking, analytical, and technology skills, in addition to the "soft skills" of creativity, collaboration, and…

  7. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  8. Changing Chemical Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, George E.

    2005-01-01

    A change of science program to help graduate as well as undergraduate students to choose multidisciplinary careers in 21st century is discussed. This would help serve better not only to students but the entire profession of chemical science as well as the scientific proficiency of the entire country.

  9. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  10. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  11. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  12. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  13. Considerations for 21st-Century Disciplinary Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    While the conceiving of 21st-century schools has rightly included much discussion on curriculum and instruction, changing demands and conditions also present necessary changes in the way that student behavior is managed. A review of the literature on student discipline over the past decade reveals three particular issues that warrant attention in…

  14. Higher Education in International Perspective - Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G.

    This book presents a collection of essays dealing with key issues and trends facing the future of higher education on the international level as the world moves into the 21st century. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges" (Torsten Husen); "Patterns in Higher…

  15. Defining Postsecondary Degrees in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kenneth I.; Guffey, James; Oliverio, Ponzio

    2016-01-01

    The competition for jobs in the 21st century is increasingly being driven by defining postsecondary learning in light of new and complex environments. To succeed, students must be prepared with knowledge to compete in these environments. Historically, higher education has defined these requirements in their own terms, often through learning…

  16. Parenting in the 21st Century: A Return to Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Yolanda K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Parents are potentially the most influential individuals in children's lives. The 21st Century parent has to compete, however, with multiple sources of information, both human and nonhuman, (e.g. children's peers, non-familial adults, TV, technology gadgets, Internet) in shaping the minds, values, and beliefs of children. In the absence of a…

  17. Universal Education: A Goal for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, W. Douglas

    The most important worldwide goal of the 21st century should be universal education; that is, by the year 2099, every child, no matter where, should have access to free, state-sponsored education for 12 years. In committing themselves to the 100-year goal, each nation should keep in mind these 5 important facts: (1) within a nation with sufficient…

  18. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  19. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  20. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  1. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  2. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  3. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  4. Engineering Education for Leadership in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirasinghe, Chan

    The engineering profession and, consequently, the education process for engineers must respond to several new realities in order to be successful in the 21st century. Some aspects of the new reality that are relevant to engineering education are as follows: the globalization of commerce; the information revolution; innovations in technology; the…

  5. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  6. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help Wanted:…

  7. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  8. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  9. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  10. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  11. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  12. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  13. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  14. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  15. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  16. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  17. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  18. Educator or Bully? Managing the 21st Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Educator or Bully?" offers a comprehensive approach to classroom management for both novice and veteran teachers who are interested in examining their current classroom management performance, especially with respect to how it reflects the characteristics of the 21st century classroom. Practices presented are based on sound educational theory.…

  19. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  20. PR in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  1. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  2. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  3. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  4. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  5. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  6. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  7. Creating 21st Century Classrooms: What District Level Instructional Leaders Know about Leading 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Jeff Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Common Core standards and 21st century instruction are topics at the forefront of current educational literature (Greenstein, 2012; Long, 2012; Sheninger & Larkin, 2012; Wilson, 2006). Though Common Core standards may provide a foundation for the literacy and numeracy that has been identified in preparation for college and career, even Common…

  8. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  9. Gerontological nursing in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, V; Barry, R

    1998-06-01

    The approaching millennium brings not only a muted but also a challenging vision for the future of gerontological nursing. This vision is muted by the rhetoric of the 90s dictating the elimination of costly programs with the potential to diminish quality. It is a vision of challenge to advocate for, protect, demand, and create a new framework that will guarantee high-quality health care for older patients. In an attempt to clarify that vision, this article outlines three areas of gerontological nursing: education, practice, and research. The future direction in these areas will dictate how collective thinking can support health care for older people in the next century and beyond. These components of nursing must be integrated to develop quality care needed by older patients.

  10. Corneal infections in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Corbett, Melanie C

    2015-10-01

    Ninety years ago, the first issue of the Postgraduate Medical Journal published a review of an article written by Mr Robert Lindsay-Rea, a consultant ophthalmic surgeon in the Western Ophthalmic Hospital and an oculist in the West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases, entitled "A preliminary report on the treatment of keratitis". Today, microbial keratitis remains an important cause of avoidable visual impairment in the world. The aetiology of microbial keratitis has changed greatly over the past century due to the discovery of antibiotics, improvement in sanitation and education, the rising trend of contact lens wear and increased air travel. Significant advances have also been made in our understanding and management of this important disorder. This article highlights some of these changes and discusses the current management and research.

  11. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    PubMed

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside. PMID:27630274

  12. Reliability for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Wilson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The sophistication of science and teclinology is growing almost exponentially. Government and industry are relying more and more on science's advanced methods to assess reliability coupled with pcrformance, safety, surety, cost, schedule, etc. Unfortunately, policy, cost, schedule, and other constraints imposed by the real world inhibit the ability of researchers to calculate these metrics efficiently and accurately using traditional methods. Because of such constraints, reliability must undergo an evolutionary change. The first step in this evolution is to reinterpret the concepts and responsibilities of scientists responsible for reliability calculations to meet the new century's needs. The next step is to mount a multidisciplinary approach to the quantification of reliability and its associated metrics using both empirical methods and auxiliary data sources, such as expert knowledge, corporate memory, and mathematical modeling and simulation.

  13. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  14. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  15. 21st century workflow: A proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is rapidly developing, but early systems have been slow to gain traction outside of niche applications such as: Second-opinion telepathology, immunostain interpretation, and intraoperative telepathology. Pathologists have not yet developed a well-articulated plan for effectively utilizing digital imaging technology in their work. This paper outlines a proposal that is intended to begin meaningful progress toward achieving helpful computer-assisted pathology sign-out systems, such as pathologists’ computer-assisted diagnosis (pCAD). pCAD is presented as a hypothetical intelligent computer system that would integrate advanced image analysis and better utilization of existing digital pathology data from lab information systems. A detailed example of automated digital pathology is presented, as an automated breast cancer lymph node sign-out. This proposal provides stakeholders with a conceptual framework that can be used to facilitate development work, communication, and identification of new automation strategies. PMID:25535592

  16. Engineering education in 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Firoz; Sarkar, Rashid; La Brooy, Roger; Chowdhury, Harun

    2016-07-01

    The internationalization of engineering curricula and engineering practices has begun in Europe, Anglosphere (English speaking) nations and Asian emerging economies through the Bologna Process and International Engineering Alliance (Washington Accord). Both the Bologna Process and the Washington Accord have introduced standardized outcome based engineering competencies and frameworks for the attainment of these competencies by restructuring existing and undertaking some new measures for an intelligent adaptation of the engineering curriculum and pedagogy. Thus graduates with such standardized outcome based curriculum can move freely as professional engineers with mutual recognition within member nations. Despite having similar or near similar curriculum, Bangladeshi engineering graduates currently cannot get mutual recognition in nations of Washington Accord and the Bologna Process due to the non-compliance of outcome based curriculum and pedagogy. This paper emphasizes the steps that are required to undertake by the engineering educational institutions and the professional body in Bangladesh to make the engineering competencies, curriculum and pedagogy compliant to the global engineering alliance. Achieving such compliance will usher in a new era for the global mobility and global engagement by Bangladesh trained engineering graduates.

  17. Photometric calibrations for 21st century science

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Deustua, Susana E.; Smith, J.Allyn; Adelman, Saul; Allam, Sahar S.; Baptista, Brian; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Clem, James L.; Conley, Alex; Edelstein, Jerry; /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /NOAO, Tucson

    2009-02-01

    The answers to fundamental science questions in astrophysics, ranging from the history of the expansion of the universe to the sizes of nearby stars, hinge on our ability to make precise measurements of diverse astronomical objects. As our knowledge of the underlying physics of objects improves along with advances in detectors and instrumentation, the limits on our capability to extract science from measurements is set, not by our lack of understanding of the nature of these objects, but rather by the most mundane of all issues: the precision with which we can calibrate observations in physical units. In principle, photometric calibration is a solved problem - laboratory reference standards such as blackbody furnaces achieve precisions well in excess of those needed for astrophysics. In practice, however, transferring the calibration from these laboratory standards to astronomical objects of interest is far from trivial - the transfer must reach outside the atmosphere, extend over 4{pi} steradians of sky, cover a wide range of wavelengths, and span an enormous dynamic range in intensity. Virtually all spectrophotometric observations today are calibrated against one or more stellar reference sources, such as Vega, which are themselves tied back to laboratory standards in a variety of ways. This system's accuracy is not uniform. Selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are calibrated extremely well, but discontinuities of a few percent still exist, e.g., between the optical and infrared. Independently, model stellar atmospheres are used to calibrate the spectra of selected white dwarf stars, e.g. the HST system, but the ultimate accuracy of this system should be verified against laboratory sources. Our traditional standard star systems, while sufficient until now, need to be improved and extended in order to serve future astrophysics experiments. This white paper calls for a program to improve upon and expand the current networks of spectrophotometrically

  18. Making Teaching a 21st Century Profession: Tony Blair's Big Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, John

    2008-01-01

    From his very earliest days in office, Tony Blair believed that if he was to achieve his broader educational reforms then the teaching profession itself needed modernising--it had to become a "21st century profession". This paper charts the background to this aspiration and the complex range of interrelated policies used to achieve that reform.…

  19. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  1. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  2. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  3. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  4. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  5. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  6. 77 FR 47432 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  8. A Snapshot of OST Programming in Philadelphia: An Evaluation of Six 21st Century Community Learning Center Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Tracey A.; Gao, Jian; Kumar, Anurag; Edmunds, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at the 21st Century Community Learning Center (CCLC) programs evaluated by Research for Action (RFA). It seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Who participated in the 21st CCLC programs and how frequently did they participate?; (2) What elements of program quality were in place to achieve the intended outcomes?; and (3)…

  9. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  10. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  11. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  13. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  14. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives. PMID:21612722

  15. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  16. Demanding excellence in the 21st century 1

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Chiropractic theory and development is briefly explored and compared with contemporary medical theory. Theoretical and philosophical assumptions in chiropractic, this writer predicts, may be challenged and altered in the 21st century. Technological advances and a slow trend in chiropractic toward a more scientific basis may result in improved theory, practice, and utilization in the next century. In order for such advances to occur, however, the profession must change some deeply rooted attitudes regarding scientific research and practice, adopt new attitudes regarding the need for clinical research, and ultimately become consumers of chiropractic research and of chiropractic techniques that have been subject to research.

  17. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katitia, David Melita Ole

    2015-01-01

    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  18. A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; West, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that at a time when disappointing student performance, stark achievement gaps, and an ever-"flattening" world call for retooling American schools for the 21st century, the most daunting impediments to doing so are the teacher collective bargaining agreements that regulate virtually all aspects of school district…

  19. Bibliographic Control or Chaos: An Agenda for National Bibliographic Services in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper addresses bibliographic services in the 21st century. The paper begins by reviewing achievements of the past 30 years, including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC), MARC, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The cataloging of electronic resources is…

  20. Eastman Kodak Company: 21st Century Learning Challenge. Volunteer Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Wanda M.; And Others

    The Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge is a companywide, 10-year corporate commitment to improve mathematics, science, and technology achievement for all students in the communities around Kodak's manufacturing plants. The Rochester (New York) initiative for which this training manual is presented is a partnership among Kodak, the Rochester…

  1. Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  2. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Laura C.; Stephenson, David B.; Lockwood, Julia F.; Maisey, Paul E.

    2016-08-01

    A decline in damaging European windstorms has led to a reduction in insured losses in the 21st century. This decline is explored by identifying a damaging windstorm characteristic and investigating how and why this characteristic has changed in recent years. This novel exploration is based on 6103 high-resolution model-generated historical footprints (1979-2014), representing the whole European domain. The footprint of a windstorm is defined as the maximum wind gust speed to occur at a set of spatial locations over the duration of the storm. The area of the footprint exceeding 20 ms-1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms-1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms-1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715) exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  3. Buildings for the 21st Century, Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The spring issue contains information on a series of high-performance building brochures, the State Energy Program, a new modular and manufactured home, a new buildings database, solid-state ceramic lighting, weatherization, simplified Web site addresses, a Colorado home builder, and upcoming events and meetings.

  4. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  5. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  6. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    PubMed

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  7. Adapting human lifestyles for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Howard, G S

    2000-05-01

    A number of ecological problems (e.g., global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, acid rain) have been identified, which threaten to reduce the quality of human life in the 21st century. These problems are human produced, resulting primarily from over-population and over-consumption. Alterations in people's awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors may stimulate changes in their political and economic systems, which in turn might foster the kind of lifestyle changes that could mitigate these ecological problems. Psychologists can play a role in helping individuals and systems advance toward the goal of becoming a sustainable society: one that satisfies its current needs without jeopardizing the prospects of future generations.

  8. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  9. Space power technology into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Faymon, K.A.; Fordyce, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the space power systems of the early 21st century. The focus is on those capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state-of-the-art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century. The power system technologies considered include solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state-of-the-art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  10. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to centuries and millennia. The

  11. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  12. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  13. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Meinshausen, Malte; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Joos, Fortunat; Strassmann, Kuno M.; Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Den Elzen, Michel; Fujino, Junicho; Kejun, Jiang; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2008-10-06

    Estimates on 21st century global mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multi-gas mitigation scenarios now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. By combing emission pathway results from multiple energy-economic models, we show that these mitigation scenarios result in a range of 21st century temperature increase of 0.5 to 4.2°C over 1990 levels as compared to 1.3-7.3 °C for the no-policy cases. About half the range is due to differences in the assumed stringency of the global climate policy and half is due to uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system, specifically, the carbon cycle and climate sensitivity. A minimum warming of about 0.5-2.7°C (avg. 1.3oC) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here - highlighting the need for both emission mitigation and adaptation policies.

  14. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  15. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW) memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs). The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification. PMID:20226073

  16. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  17. Formative Report on the District of Columbia 21st Century Community Learning Center Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Chaplin, Duncan

    This report describes the implementation of the DC 21st Century Learning Centers (DC 21st CCLC) Summer 2000 program, which enrolled about 1,000 children attending 9 middle and junior high schools. The report is designed to provide feedback to managers of the DC 21st CCLC program and to inform Children and Youth Investment Partnership, of which DC…

  18. Advances in Haematological Pharmacotherapy in 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2010-01-01

    Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein molecules, recombinant molecules, newer immunomodulators, enzyme replacement therapy and above all a plethora of targetted molecules targeting innumerable pathways involved in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis has given immense number of clinically usable molecules in the hand of modern haematologists to treat diverse hitherto untreatable haematological disorders effectively. In addition many old molecules are finding newer uses in diverse fields, thalidomide as an antiangiogenic molecule is a prime example of this genre. Present overview has tried to capture this rapidly evolving area in a broad canvas without going into details of indications and contraindications of the use of various drugs. PMID:21629633

  19. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  20. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  1. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented.

  2. Quo vadimus? The 21st Century and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Allan D.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is related of computer driven multimedia to the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP). Multimedia is defined here as computer integration and output of text, animation, audio, video, and graphics. Multimedia is the stage of computer based information that allows access to experience. The concepts are also drawn in of hypermedia, intermedia, interactive multimedia, hypertext, imaging, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Examples of these technology developments are given for NASA, private industry, and academia. Examples of concurrent technology developments and implementations are given to show how these technologies, along with multimedia, have put us at the threshold of the 21st century. The STI Program sees multimedia as an opportunity for revolutionizing the way STI is managed.

  3. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. Novel Propulsion and Power Concepts for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA s vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and NO(x)). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. And the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions.

  5. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  6. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  7. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  8. A potential 21st century satellite communications application - Personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, E. K.; Douville, R.

    1990-03-01

    It has been forecast that not only will the future needs for satellite communications grow, especially in the area of broadcasting and mobile services, but also that the requirements will be diversified. For voice and data traffic, satellite communications started with the requirements of the telephone companies. Over the past few years, with the availability of Ku-band and VSAT systems, private business networks have emerged. Heading into the 21st century, satellite communications will expand into the personal services domain. This paper describes a concept for a satellite-based personal radio system. To realize the personal communications system, the portable terminals have to be inexpensive and small, similar to the present portable or handheld cellular radio-phones in size. The system aspects, such as selection of frequency band, multiple access and payload configuration will be addressed. The advanced technology required for the portable personal satellite communications system will be discussed.

  9. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  10. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented. PMID:11167577

  11. 77 FR 33479 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  12. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  13. The NOAA Archives of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K. S.; Relph, J.; Kihn, E.; Bates, J. J.; McCulloch, L.; McDonald, K. R.; Vizbulis, R.

    2009-12-01

    Early in the 21st century, the Open Archival Information System Reference Model (OAIS-RM) swept across the international digital archive community, bringing with it a common language and functional framework for the long term preservation of environmental information. The OAIS-RM has had a significant impact within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), where the archive-related roles and responsibilities of the various offices and entities within the agency were not clearly identified. This lack of clarity was especially acute with respect to interactions between the three NOAA National Data Centers - Oceanographic, Climatic, and Geophysical - and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). Through 2008 and 2009, each of these offices individually, then together as a group, undertook an extensive mapping of their existing and planned capabilities to the functional entities of the OAIS-RM. The result of this process was a new clarity which puts the Data Centers forth as the NOAA Archives, with CLASS as the critical supporting information technology (IT) infrastructure. Under this new paradigm, the Data Centers lead all interactions with both data producers and consumers, reflecting their more discipline-focused involvement with and understanding of the designated communities they serve. The CLASS infrastructure focuses now on meeting the common IT requirements of the three Data Centers, reflecting its capabilities and expertise in designing and deploying rigorous IT systems. The new paradigm is allowing NOAA to move forward together in a more unified and cooperative manner, better aligned to meet the 21st century challenges of data stewardship.

  14. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  15. Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, V. C.; Mokhov, I. I.; Pogarskiy, F. A.; Babanin, A.; Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Matthes, H.

    2014-04-01

    While wave heights globally have been growing over recent decades, observations of their regional trends vary. Simulations of future wave climate can be achieved by coupling wave and climate models. At present, wave heights and their future trends in the Arctic Ocean remain unknown. We use the third-generation wave forecast model WAVEWATCH-III forced by winds and sea ice concentration produced within the regional model HIRHAM, under the anthropogenic scenario SRES-A1B. We find that significant wave height and its extremes will increase over different inner Arctic areas due to reduction of sea ice cover and regional wind intensification in the 21st century. The opposite tendency, with a slight reduction in wave height appears for the Atlantic sector and the Barents Sea. Our results demonstrate the complex wave response in the Arctic Ocean to a combined effect of wind and sea ice forcings in a climate-change scenario during the 21st century.

  16. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  17. California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

  18. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  19. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  20. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  1. 21st Century Skills Development: Learning in Digital Communities--Technology and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of student performance in the 21 st century skills of Information and Communication (ICT) Literacy and collaboration. In this project, extant data from the Assessment and Teaching for 21st Century Skills project (ATC21S) will be examined. ATC21S is a collaborative effort among educational agencies in six countries,…

  2. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  3. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  4. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  5. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  6. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  7. Theme: Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Susan S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Educating Leaders" (Townsend); "To Be or Not to Be" (Peasley); "That Was Then, This Is Now" (Knight); "Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?" (Hotaling); "Do We Need Teacher Education in the 21st Century?" (Conroy); "Who Is Going to Do What?" (Neason, Kotrlik); "Is There a Place for Teacher Education in the 21st…

  8. Leap of Faith: Take the Plunge into a 21st-Century Conception of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Allison

    2009-01-01

    A 21st-century conception of learning is much more than adopting new skills and integrating them into the curriculum or purchasing new technologies and placing them in classrooms--it is the fundamental shift from a teacher-centered learning environment to a student-centered one. Being an educator in a 21st-century learning environment is a…

  9. "21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

  10. 75 FR 20765 - A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-9286 Filed 4-19-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3125-W0-P ... Memorandum of April 16, 2010--A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of April 16, 2010 A 21st Century Strategy...

  11. Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Research in Management Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Charles, Ed.; DeFillippi, Robert, Ed.

    This book series focuses on trends in theory and practice likely to influence 21st century management education. This first volume examines a series of innovative and distinctive approaches to rethinking management education for the 21st century. Part 1 of the collection, "Rethinking What We Teach," contains: (1) "Development of Political Skill"…

  12. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  13. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  14. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  15. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  16. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  17. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  18. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  19. Inquiring into Professional Development in a Newly Designed 21st Century School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkenhauer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent new paradigms are emphasizing the need for more powerful learning opportunities that meet the needs of 21st century learners. One way to change education to better meet the needs of the 21st century is to reimagine school architecture. The purpose of this research was to study the ways practitioner inquiry can serve as a mechanism for…

  20. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  1. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  2. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Martin L

    2010-02-01

    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website, AltTox.org, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.

  3. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  4. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  5. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  6. Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Waugh, D. W.; Bodeker, G. E.; Cordero, E.; Akiyoshi, H.; Austin, J.; Beagley, S. R.; Boville, B. A.; Braesicke, P.; Brühl, C.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dameris, M.; Deckert, R.; Deushi, M.; Frith, S. M.; Garcia, R. R.; Gettelman, A.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Mancini, E.; Manzini, E.; Marsh, D. R.; Matthes, S.; Nagashima, T.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pawson, S.; Pitari, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Scinocca, J. F.; Semeniuk, K.; Shepherd, T. G.; Shibata, K.; Steil, B.; Stolarski, R. S.; Tian, W.; Yoshiki, M.

    2007-08-01

    Simulations from eleven coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs) employing nearly identical forcings have been used to project the evolution of stratospheric ozone throughout the 21st century. The model-to-model agreement in projected temperature trends is good, and all CCMs predict continued, global mean cooling of the stratosphere over the next 5 decades, increasing from around 0.25 K/decade at 50 hPa to around 1 K/decade at 1 hPa under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. In general, the simulated ozone evolution is mainly determined by decreases in halogen concentrations and continued cooling of the global stratosphere due to increases in greenhouse gases (GHGs). Column ozone is projected to increase as stratospheric halogen concentrations return to 1980s levels. Because of ozone increases in the middle and upper stratosphere due to GHG-induced cooling, total ozone averaged over midlatitudes, outside the polar regions, and globally, is projected to increase to 1980 values between 2035 and 2050 and before lower-stratospheric halogen amounts decrease to 1980 values. In the polar regions the CCMs simulate small temperature trends in the first and second half of the 21st century in midwinter. Differences in stratospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly) among the CCMs are key to diagnosing the intermodel differences in simulated ozone recovery, in particular in the Antarctic. It is found that there are substantial quantitative differences in the simulated Cly, with the October mean Antarctic Cly peak value varying from less than 2 ppb to over 3.5 ppb in the CCMs, and the date at which the Cly returns to 1980 values varying from before 2030 to after 2050. There is a similar variation in the timing of recovery of Antarctic springtime column ozone back to 1980 values. As most models underestimate peak Cly near 2000, ozone recovery in the Antarctic could occur even later, between 2060 and 2070. In the

  7. The Nanchang communication about the potential for the implementation of conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation to achieve food security in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent peer reviewed manuscripts have reported on the great challenges humanity is confronting during the XXI century, including a changing climate, depletion of water resources from groundwater and/or snow caps sources that are needed for agricultural production, deforestation, desertificat...

  8. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  9. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  10. The hateful patient revisited: Relevance for 21st century medicine.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Ulman, Anne-Marie; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    While the practice of medicine has changed over the years, including technological advances, access to medical information, and the narrowing of socio-economic and educational gaps between the clinician and his/her patients, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship has not diminished over time. This can be a very rewarding interaction. However, many physicians experience a great deal of anger, inadequacy and frustration, and much of the actual practice of medicine may become a burden rather than a source of satisfaction. Physicians may encounter a subset of patients who engender strong negative feelings, despair and even downright malice. An understanding of the "hateful patient" can therefore be very informative to the physician. Several categories of such patients may be described, and sensitivity to the phenomenon will lead to improved physician well-being, less self-destructive patient behavior and a lower risk of litigation. Several factors may assist the 21st century physician in managing the "hateful patient" in an empathic manner and in making some sense of why the patient has resorted to negative response patterns. Ultimately, a failure to consider these issues will result in poorer medical care and, no less important, reduced satisfaction of both patients and doctors. The intention of this article is to revisit the concept and to place it in the context of contemporary medical practice.

  11. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    PubMed

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  12. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Erika; Korom, Irma; Raskó, Zoltán; Kis, Erika; Varga, János; Oláh, Judit; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect. PMID:21151693

  13. Optics education: a blueprint for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines Walker, Janice M.; Biggs, Jason; Gibbons, Aimee; Putnam, Gloria G.; Nally, T. L.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2002-05-01

    In latter 2001, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering and the Optical Society of America (OSA) will hold a series of three workshops to develop a long-range plan for impacting formal science education in optics in the U.S. The National Science Foundation, with matching support from the societies and industry participants, is funding these workshops. This paper will report out on the workshop results. The stated goal of the workshops is the creation of A Blueprint for the 21st Century. This Blueprint will include an analysis of short and long-term needs in optics education, an assessment of resources and capacities of the optics community to meet these needs, and development of an action plan for a more visible and viable national optics education program. The workshops will be held between July and November 2001 in varying locations around the U.S. Participants in the workshops will include members of OSA and SPIE, and a variety of experts in informal, youth, and minority science education. The workshops will be independently evaluated for their effectiveness in meeting the stated goals of the workshops.

  14. Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Asakura, Shoji; Daneshian, Mardas; Hofman-Huether, Hana; Leist, Marcel; Meunier, Leo; Reif, David; Rossi, Anna; Schmutz, Markus; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - A Vision and a Strategy, many initiatives started to foster a major paradigm shift for toxicity testing - from apical endpoints in animal-based tests to mechanistic endpoints through delineation of pathways of toxicity (PoT) in human cell based systems. The US EPA has funded an important project to develop new high throughput technologies based on human cell based in vitro technologies. These methods are currently being incorporated into the chemical risk assessment process. In the pharmaceutical industry, the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs are evaluated during preclinical investigations that include drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety toxicology studies. The results of these studies are analyzed and extrapolated to predict efficacy and potential adverse effects in humans. However, due to the high failure rate of drugs during the clinical phases, a new approach for a more predictive assessment of drugs both in terms of efficacy and adverse effects is getting urgent. The food industry faces the challenge of assessing novel foods and food ingredients for the general population, while using animal safety testing for extrapolation purposes is often of limited relevance. The question is whether the latest paradigm shift proposed by the Tox21c report for chemicals may provide a useful tool to improve the risk assessment approach also for drugs and food ingredients.

  15. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  16. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  17. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  18. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  19. Stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century: The chlorofluorocarbon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) exists in a dynamic equilibrium in the stratosphere, balanced between formation by solar ultraviolet photolysis ({lambda} < 242 nm) of molecular O{sub 2} (O + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3}) and destruction by various chemical processes including several chain reaction sequences triggered by HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and ClO{sub x} radicals. The ozone dissipates over Antarctica by November through northward mixing, only to begin reappearing in late August of the following year. Substantial ozone losses have also appeared, although not as spectacularly as over Antarctica, in the Northern Hemisphere's temperate and polar regions. The primary cause for the Antarctic ozone loss, and the probable cause for the northern losses, is the increasing concentration in the stratosphere of anthropogenic chlorine, especially chlorine released by solar UV photolysis from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds such as CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12), CCl{sub 3}F (CFC-11) and CCl{sub 2}FCClF{sub 2} (CFC-113). Because these molecules have average atmospheric lifetimes of many decades, excess anthropogenic chlorine will persist in the stratosphere for comparable time periods, and the Antarctic ozone hole will be an important atmospheric phenomenon throughout the 21st century.

  20. Propulsion and power for 21st century aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Whitlow, Woodrow

    2004-05-01

    Air transportation in the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meet public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st century aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, highly efficient, virtually inaudible (outside airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO 2 and NO x). This vision includes intelligent engines capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish missions with either minimal or no human intervention. Distributed vectored propulsion will replace current two to four wing mounted and fuselage mounted engine configurations with a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. Other innovative concepts, such as the pulse detonation engine (PDE), which potentially can replace conventional gas turbine engines, also are reviewed. It is envisioned that a hydrogen economy will drive the propulsion system revolution towards the ultimate goal of silent aircrafts with zero harmful emissions. Finally, it is envisioned that electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  1. Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix.

    PubMed

    Embry, Michelle R; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doerrer, Nancy G; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Doe, John E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The RISK21 integrated evaluation strategy is a problem formulation-based exposure-driven risk assessment roadmap that takes advantage of existing information to graphically represent the intersection of exposure and toxicity data on a highly visual matrix. This paper describes in detail the process for using the roadmap and matrix. The purpose of this methodology is to optimize the use of prior information and testing resources (animals, time, facilities, and personnel) to efficiently and transparently reach a risk and/or safety determination. Based on the particular problem, exposure and toxicity data should have sufficient precision to make such a decision. Estimates of exposure and toxicity, bounded by variability and/or uncertainty, are plotted on the X- and Y-axes of the RISK21 matrix, respectively. The resulting intersection is a highly visual representation of estimated risk. Decisions can then be made to increase precision in the exposure or toxicity estimates or declare that the available information is sufficient. RISK21 represents a step forward in the goal to introduce new methodologies into 21st century risk assessment. Indeed, because of its transparent and visual process, RISK21 has the potential to widen the scope of risk communication beyond those with technical expertise.

  2. Human hookworm infection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.

  3. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  4. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  5. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  6. More Than Pumpkins in October: Visual Literacy in the 21st Century. A School Board Member's Guide to Enhancing Student Achievement through Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA.

    This publication is written for school board members, who face decisions that will restructure how children learn. A comprehensive art education program can enhance the quality of children's education and help achieve excellence in a school system. This document: (1) presents the philosophy underlying comprehensive visual arts education programs;…

  7. Achieving Independence: The Challenge for the 21st Century. A Decade of Progress in Disability Policy--Setting an Agenda for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    The National Council on Disability (NCD) held a National Summit on Disability Policy on April 27-29, 1996 at which 300 grassroots disability leaders gathered to discuss how to achieve independence in the next decade. Following an analysis of disability demographics and disability rights and culture, disability policy is assessed in 11 areas:…

  8. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  9. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  10. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  11. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  12. Streamlined payload processing in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Craig; Meade, Phillip

    2001-02-01

    Launching payloads into space continues to be a weekly occurrence around the world. Although it is becoming commonplace, it has not become a low-cost or low-risk, quick and simple process. Out of these conditions, concepts have been developed and efforts are underway to create a generic set of processes and tools that will advance payload processing into the 21st Century by making it more efficient and less complicated. These new approaches are developing more cost effective, shorter cycle time processes, and require fewer resources than in the past. The KSC Center of Excellence for Payload Processing, built on the last 40 years of experience in processing all types of payloads (Shuttle, Expendable, Space Station, etc.), has been addressing these areas. Development is complete and operations are underway on the high fidelity checkout system used to perform final verification of flight interfaces between the International Space Station (ISS) and its science experiments. This system is typical of what has been used in the past for verifying interfaces which include: high, medium, and low rate data communications; video, command and data handling; power; and fluids/gases. The system also contains an ISS Program equivalent ground station, which will receive and process payload telemetry and distribute that telemetry to the appropriate customers. The recently developed concepts and projects underway address the lifecycle of payload processing, integrating agency and customer needs and requirements, and support geographically distributed processing. These concepts have driven out areas of synergy and leverage which enable large improvements to be proposed for payloads headed for Space Station or flying on Shuttle. .

  13. Military medical modeling and simulation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Moses, G; Magee, J H; Bauer, J J; Leitch, R

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine".

  14. [Prospect of chemotherapy in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Omura, S

    2000-10-01

    "Golden Era in Chemotherapy" has begun with the discovery of penicillin in the early 1940's and lasted for two decades during which many antibiotics were discovered. However, the once-believed bright prospect that every infectious disease could be eliminated on the earth by the discovery of antibiotics had to be canceled owing to the emerging of drug-resistant microbes. It was indeed a rat race. We are now at the point when we have to seek another way to combat infectious diseases: One possible way might be not to eradicate the microbes but to coexist with them so long as they do no harm to the human hosts. The first step of infection with pathogens to the host is the adherence of the microbes to the surface of host cells. Therefore, the method how to inhibit this adhesion of microbes to the host cells may provide a new tool to prevent the development of infectious diseases without elimination of microbes from the host. This is just an example of strategy by which humans and pathogens coexist at peace and should be taken into consideration for the development of new-type antibiotics or "anti-infective drugs" in the 21st century. The analysis of genome sequences has been accelerated recently for various pathogenic bacteria one by one. New targets in the pathogenic microbes for the development of new antibiotics can, therefore, be determined from the genetic point of view. The discovery of antibiotics has indeed been the history of collection of innumerable species and/or strains of bacteria from the soils to search for the biologically active anti-pathogenic agents. The current progress in the technology of molecular genetics, however, will certainly make it possible to search for active molecules by DNA technology; bacterial DNA but not whole microorganisms from the soil is to be transformed into the conventional bacteria and searched for active molecules with combat against pathogens. PMID:11109775

  15. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  16. Using the Framework for 21st-Century School Nursing Practice in Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Erin D; Duff, Carolyn; Wright, Janet

    2016-09-01

    NASN recently developed a Framework for 21st-Century School Nursing Practice (Framework) to guide school nursing activities. The principles and components of the Framework can be used as a guide in achieving high-quality school nurse practice. The purpose of this article is to share how school nurses can use the Framework in their daily practice, invite nurses to identify one new way the Framework can be used in your practice this school year, and implement and evaluate the change. PMID:27481475

  17. Workshop Proceedings: Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Barbara A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications initiated the planning of a technology development program, Astrotech 21, to develop the technological base for the Astrophysics missions developed in the period 1995 to 2015. The Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century Workshop was one of three Integrated Technology Planning workshops. Its objectives were to develop an understanding of the future comprehensive development program to achieve the required capabilities. Program plans and recommendations were prepared in four areas: x ray and gamma ray sensors, ultraviolet and visible sensors, direct infrared sensors, and heterodyne submillimeter wave sensors.

  18. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  19. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  20. The Keepers of the Key: Development Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crease, Skid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of development education in the 21st century. Awareness of the global interconnectedness of issues of water, food, health, education, and wealth is broadening the scope of development education to include a closer look at home. (CCM)

  1. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.

    2010-04-01

    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  2. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  3. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  4. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  5. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  6. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  7. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  8. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    as with NSAIDs also represent newer technological developments of the 21st century. What started out as drugs to control inflammation, pain and fever in the last two centuries now has exploded to reveal an enormous range and type of anti-inflammatory agents and discovery of new therapeutic targets to treat a whole range of conditions that were never hitherto envisaged.

  9. General Education in the 21st Century: A Report of the University of California Commission on General Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the Commission on General Education in the 21st Century--a panel of University of California faculty and administrators--issues a call for renewed attention to general education in research universities, highlighting specific reforms for University of California campuses. In addition to analyzing the historical, institutional, and…

  10. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christopher P.; Balapure, Anil K.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C.; Fowle, John R.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved. PMID:26523530

  11. From research to policy and practice: the School of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Edward; Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    2007-04-01

    Current education reform policies focus on raising academic achievement and ensuring that all students have access to high-quality education. Because the achievement gap is apparent even before children enter school, the authors believe that education reform must encompass the early childhood years. The current dialogue about universal preschool presents an opportunity to address the need for a national system for early care and education. The authors believe this system should provide quality child care and preschool experiences for all children and embrace a whole-child approach that nurtures not only cognitive development but physical and mental health and social-emotional behaviors that are also important to successful schooling. The School of the 21st Century provides an example of an effective early care and education system using the public schools. The authors' work with the School of the 21st Century shows that schools can provide high-quality, developmentally appropriate care and that these programs benefit later school performance.

  12. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

    2014-05-01

    We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

  13. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century.

  14. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  15. Multimodel assessment of the factors driving stratospheric ozone evolution over the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olivié, D.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J.; Rozanov, E.; Shepherd, T. G.; Shibata, K.; Stolarski, R. S.; TeyssèDre, H.; Tian, W.; Yamashita, Y.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  16. Deterrence and strategic defense in the 21st century. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    McManaway, W.F.

    1993-04-15

    The United States' experience with a deterrent security strategy is colored by more than 40 years of confrontation with the Soviet Union. Over the Cold War years, American political leadership wrestled with two foreign policy challenges: the threat of communist expansion and the danger of nuclear weapons. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, communist expansion may be a thing of the past. Nevertheless, nuclear weapons are still with us in large numbers. Of the many challenges facing American statecraft in the 21st century, few are as foreboding as the accelerating proliferation of nuclear weapons and the means for their delivery. Although intelligence professionals cannot confidently predict the 21st century international environment, several trends characterize what we might find. There will still be ideological competitors, in some cases involved in intractable regional conflicts. Furthermore, nuclear and conventional military technologies will increasingly spread, militarizing old regional battles. As new nuclear regimes emerge, their political calculations will be tempered by these longstanding animosities, possibly escalating lower order regional violence to nuclear confrontation. The United States must address the significant issues raised by growing regional nuclear potential adversaries if it expects to influence the international order required to achieve the National Security Strategy's envisioned Age of Democratic Peace.

  17. Hotter days and droughts to continue through the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    As heat waves become more frequent and droughts cause famines and drive up food prices, climate policies will need to account for changes in extremes in temperature and precipitation, as global mean temperatures continue to rise through the 21st century. Using HadGEM2, a new ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model, Caesar and Lowe investigated the effects of different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios on maximum and minimum air temperatures as well as on the amounts of rainfall in different parts of the world. The authors compared two scenarios through the 21st century, the first one with an aggressive mitigation scenario, in which global emissions begin to decrease in the early 21st century and reach nearly zero by 2100; the second scenario had no mitigation. The researchers' results show that extreme temperatures would scale with increasing mean temperature, at least until the middle of the 21st century: As air temperatures increase, countries across the globe would experience hotter days and an increasing number of heat waves, even with aggressive mitigation. However, mitigation may provide some amelioration, particularly through the second half of the 21st century; the northern midlatitudes would benefit most from mitigation measures, although northern South America and parts of the United States, Africa, and Asia could also avoid large increases in extreme temperature maxima by following similar mitigation policies.

  18. Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

  19. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  20. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  1. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  2. 21-st century precipitation estimation in the Danube middle and lower basin by EVT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Stanciu, A.

    2010-09-01

    The simulated precipitation for the 20-th and 21-st centuries at 10 stations from the Danube middle and lower basin are analysed together with the daily pressure values at sea level from March, April, May for 42 years obtained from the four GCMs (CNRM, ECHAM5-MPI, EGMAM and IPSL). For the 20-th century the period 1958-1999 was considered and for the 21-st century 2 periods of 42 years were selected: 2009-2050 and 2051-2092 from the A1B scenario. In the pressure field, the predictors from three key zones were selected as being significant for the precipitation behavior from the Danube middle and lower basin. A nonhomogeneus hidden Markov model (NHMM) with 7 states was applied for the precipitation from 10 stations, for observations and also for each of the considered scenarios, with 3 predictors defined in the key points. The precipitation values were corrected by bias and the predictors were the same for all models, calculated from pressure values corrected by bias. After the modelling of the daily precipitation through a NHMM, a simulation was done on 100 achievements each one with 42 years and 90 days each year. In this way, the daily maximum precipitation amounts during spring from 4200 years were selected. This simulation was necessary in order to increase the statistical selection volume necessary within the modelling through distribution of the extreme values. From these precipitation simulated with NHMM for 4200 years, the maximum daily amounts during spring were selected and then modelled with a generalized distribution of the extreme values (GEV). For the modelling by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) the daily precipitation values which exceed a certain threshold were selected. After testing several thresholds values, it was concluded that the most adequate is the 50 mm threshold for each of the 10 considered stations. Also it was made an average of the precipitation on the 10 considered stations and from the analysis of the different thresholds it

  3. New Approaches to Providing Individualized Diabetes Care in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Priscilla W.; Corathers, Sarah D.; Raymond, Jennifer; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Building from a foundation of rapid innovation, the 21st century is poised to offer considerable new approaches to providing modern diabetes care. The focus of this paper is the evolving role of diabetes care providers collaboratively working with patients and families toward the goals of achieving optimal clinical and psychosocial outcomes for individuals living with diabetes. Advances in monitoring, treatment and technology have been complemented by trends toward patient-centered care with expertise from multiple health care disciplines. The evolving clinical care delivery system extends far beyond adjustment of insulin regimens. Effective integration of patient-centered strategies, such as shared-decision making, motivational interviewing techniques, shared medical appointments, and multidisciplinary team collaboration, into a dynamic model of diabetes care delivery holds promise in reaching glycemic targets and improving patients’ quality of life. PMID:25901504

  4. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1999-08-01

    In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources. PMID:10464789

  5. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands. PMID:24351806

  6. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  7. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  8. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    PubMed

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  9. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge. PMID:21149687

  10. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  11. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  12. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  13. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  14. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  15. "What Have the Humanities to Offer 21st-Century Europe?": Reflections of a Note Taker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Humanities have much to offer 21st-century Europe, in terms of both method and issues which may complement and correct those of Science and Social Science. These include, for instance, humanities' generation of plural narratives and plural explanations, of attention to singularity and complexity, and to others' sensibilities and ways of…

  16. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  17. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  18. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  19. Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Volume 1: News You Can Use

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Eber, K.; Jones, J.

    1999-06-04

    This is the first edition of the Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter which is designed for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy stakeholders with interest in the Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS).

  20. Critical Characteristics of Successful After-School Programs: An Evaluation of the 21st Century Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Nancy P.

    With the recent U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Initiative there has been a proliferation of after-school programs emerging in rural, suburban, and urban school communities across the country. Although these programs are financially supported through the federal government, the grants are only funded for a 3-year period. Given the…

  1. Show Me the Money Resources: Financial Literacy for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Some economists have called the current U.S. economic environment the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Many educators and parents believe it is more important than ever for students to master financial literacy skills. To become successful and responsible 21st century citizens, students need to graduate globally competitive for…

  2. A Global Imperative: The Report of the 21st Century Literacy Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This monograph, the report of the 21st Century Literacy Summit held in April 2005, presents a working definition for this emerging field, and details strategic priorities and recommendations that were the summit's major outcomes. The five strategic priorities--(1) Develop a Strategic Research Agenda; (2) Raise Awareness and Visibility of the…

  3. 21st Century Skills: What Are They and How Do We Assess Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the "hottest" topics in the educational measurement community in the past decade has been the assessment of 21st century skills. This special issue demonstrates work being performed in this realm. The present article provides a context for the four primary articles that follow and a brief but broad view of some models of 21st…

  4. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  5. Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

  6. Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century: What Role for High School Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    2005-01-01

    As part of the broader policy debate on how to reform K-12 education, particularly high schools, basic questions about career and technical education are on the table. "Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century" begins with a summary of what researchers know--and do not know--about the value of high school career-focused…

  7. Meeting the Tests of Time: Small States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The analytic category of "small states" remains problematic in the 21st century. Its legitimacy as a rigorous conceptual category continues to be debated; even as small states assume a strident visibility on the world stage because of climate change negotiations. This paper reviews the scepticism that hovers around the small state concept, and…

  8. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  9. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  10. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  11. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  12. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  13. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  14. Information Literacy in the General Education: A New Requirement for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of information literacy as it applies to general education, arguing that information literacy will be an integral part of culture and a cultural change agent in the 21st century. Suggests the incorporation of the visual and aural into the idea of text changes the static nature of texts, leading to the need for multimedia…

  15. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  16. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher…

  17. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  18. Weather, Climate, Web 2.0: 21st Century Students Speak Climate Science Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Cheryl White; Kennedy, Teresa; Odell, Michael R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) employ extensive scaffolding that results in cognitive load reduction and allows students to learn in complex domains. Hybrid teacher professional development models (PDM) using 21st century social collaboration tools embedding PBL and IL shows promise as a systemic approach for increasing…

  19. Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century: Implications for the Profession and Administrator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Joanne; And Others

    In 1991, the Oregon Legislature passed a landmark educational reform bill, the "Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century," providing for an extended school year, instructional accountability, establishment of state-funded, alternative learning centers, and a restructured high school program issuing certificates of mastery. High school as it is…

  20. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Quality Afterschool Learning Opportunities for America's Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kanter, Adriana; Williams, Rebecca; Cohen, Gillian; Stonehill, Robert

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, implemented through a public-private partnership between the U.S. Department of Education and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, provides grants to communities to fund public schools as community education centers. The community education centers are intended to allow students after-school…

  1. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  2. Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kathryn, Ed.; Archambault, Leanna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills, methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our students--the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The examples found in this report have unique elements and…

  3. Cultural Narratives of Academic Leadership at the Dawn of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langland, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on what's being written about "leadership" at this moment--from the late 90s through the first decade of the 21st century. These narratives have a short shelf life, an appropriate metaphor because, like goods in a produce market, they spoil relatively quickly. And each appears to offer a definitive assessment of…

  4. Are you speaking French in Japan? Home care's 21st-century leadership model.

    PubMed

    Conn, C D; Seago, M L

    1995-10-01

    Home care leadership is headed for change in the 21st century in demographics as well as legislative issues. With the influx of men into a female-dominated industry, leadership in home care will need to integrate the language of traditional male and female culture into a workable management style.

  5. The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Mariale

    2012-01-01

    "The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools" serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply relevant research from educational and cognitive neuroscience to classroom…

  6. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  7. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  8. Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.

    This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

  9. Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Sparks, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing "21st-century skills." Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with…

  10. Synopsis of the Carnegie Report on Teaching: "A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Sara

    This review of the Carnegie Report on Teaching, "A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century" presents an overview the report's goals for the future of the teaching profession. Written by the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, the report goal's were to: (1) remind America of its economic challenges; (2) "assert the primacy of education…

  11. Engineering Students for the 21st Century: Student Development through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Alan; Bunting, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Through support of the National Science Foundation's Department Level Reform program, "Engineering Students for the 21st Century" (ES21C) has implemented a ten-course sequence designed to help students develop into engineers. Spread across the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) curriculum at Oklahoma State University, these…

  12. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  13. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  14. From Engagement to Ecotone: Land-Grant Universities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Pendleton-Jullian, Ann; Adler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the country's land-grant colleges and universities will celebrate their sesquicentennial. This anniversary provides a good opportunity to consider how these distinctively American institutions have evolved over the past 150 years and how well they are doing today in preparing students for the 21st century. Resilience will be a key…

  15. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  16. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the…

  17. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  18. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  19. "Holding Environments": Creating Spaces to Support Children's Environmental Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2004-01-01

    For many children across the globe, whether in low or high income nations, growing up in the 21st century will mean living in overcrowded, unsafe and polluted environments which provide limited opportunity for natural play and environmental learning. Yet Agenda 21, the Habitat Agenda and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  20. Themes in Counseling Journals: A Decade of Changes Affecting 21st Century Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James M.

    2007-01-01

    A content analysis of 1799 articles published during the period of 1996-2006 in four counseling journals confirmed three major themes and four emerging themes that are likely to become trends in 21st century counseling. The major themes included Research, Multiculturalism, and Pedagogy. Research represents the top-ranked stable theme in the…

  1. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  2. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  3. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  4. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time.

  5. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  6. An Unfinished Symphony: 21st Century Teacher Education Using Knowledge Creating Heutagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jean; Newman, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Globalisation has changed the way most people live, work and study in the 21st century. Teachers and teacher educators, like other professionals, must embrace these changes to be effective in their jobs and one ongoing change is the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for lifelong learning. In this paper we describe how one group…

  7. 76 FR 72003 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...., Evaluation and Research Officer, Institute of Museum and Library Services, 1800 M St., NW., Washington, DC... funds made available by the Institute. Current research initiatives include analysis of grants made to educational and training programs by the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program between 2003 and...

  8. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  9. "21st-Century Skills" Focus Shifts West Virginia Teachers' Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    As West Virginia increasingly emphasizes the teaching of content in application, the shift demands a fundamental change in teachers' roles. Teachers are no longer just purveyors of facts, but also the facilitators of elaborate activities that help students exercise what are often called 21st-century skills. Business leaders and policymakers more…

  10. Challenges Facing Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.; Cuamea, Karina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the presidents and chancellors of Hispanic-serving institutions identified 5 challenges that their institutions will face as the end of the first decade of the 21st century approaches. Almost 8 of 10 respondents listed lack of funding as the most important challenge. The 2nd most important issue was the poor academic preparedness of…

  11. Learning the Real-World Skills of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a summer internship program at South Houston High School which utilizes an innovative curriculum to teach students 21st century skills alongside core academics. Using the Transitions career education curriculum--a comprehensive curriculum created by ASCL Educational Services to fulfill Chicago Public Schools' need for soft…

  12. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  13. Rethinking and Retooling for the 21st Century: A Must for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The principal's role must change to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Administrative thinking must shift from efficiency to effectiveness. This article presents an Iceberg Model to enable the administrator to become an instructional leader by building a knowledge base, developing a philosophy and vision, and modifying observable behavior.…

  14. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  15. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  16. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  17. International Curriculum of White Education through Teacher's Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to white education for international curriculum through teacher's education for 21st century. The theory of "White Education" will be a message for development of globalization, information technology, based on knowledge, human rights education, environmental education,…

  18. Realizing the Promise of 21st-Century Education: An Owner's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce; Calhoun, Emily

    2012-01-01

    While many futurists tout the value of teaching students 21st-century skills, bridging the concept with the practice is best accomplished by professional educators. Authors Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun know how to actualize the critical reforms that enable schools to prepare students for today's workforce. They outline a clear vision for…

  19. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  20. A Study of California Public School District Superintendents and Their Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittisriboongul, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the strategies, practices, and leadership skills utilized by California superintendents in implementing 21st-century skills in their respective districts. A mixed-methods design was used, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis. Quantitative data from 37 California superintendents were collected…

  1. Reading and Responding in the 21st Century: Digital Literacies and the NYSRA Charlotte Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pegeen; Paige, Christine; Sweredoski, Dawn; Yanoff, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading projects that integrate technology engage today's students and prepare them to be literate in the 21st century. In this article, we describe in detail successful podcasting and wiki projects conducted with NYSRA Charlotte Award nominated books. We also explore additional digital literacy projects that teachers can use in their literature…

  2. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports cite the need to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education in order to attract and train a diverse pool of talented students prepared to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 21st century. A growing body of research reveals that the nature and quality of science instruction in introductory college…

  3. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  4. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  5. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  6. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  7. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  8. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  9. Social Development of 21st Century and Reform of China's Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation. The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society. The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present…

  10. Distance Learning in the 21st Century University: Key Issues for Leaders and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2012-01-01

    The changes precipitated by today's computer-based technologies are perhaps no more keenly felt than in the field of education, where technological innovation signals fundamental transformations in the manner in which educational programs will be delivered to 21st century students. Online learning is providing higher education institutions with an…

  11. Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student. Viewing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To complement the 40-minute documentary, "Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student," the "Institute for Higher Education Policy" (IHEP) has developed a viewing guide to help facilitate thought-provoking and meaningful dialogue. This guide provides a film synopsis, suggested discussion formats, profiles of…

  12. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  13. Mindful Strengths Development: Leveraging Students' Strengths for 21st Century Learning and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanious, Christy M.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous change characterizing 21st century society has significant implications for higher education. Educators and business leaders increasingly recognize that education within and preparation for a context of change requires learning environments fostering openness, flexibility, and engagement with other ideas and people. Such…

  14. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  15. Preparing the Workforce for the 21st Century: The Nurse Educator's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This document consists of synopses of selected presentations on the nurse educator's challenge in preparing the workforce for the 21st century that were made during the 1998 meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. In her paper "Redesigning Health Care Delivery," Karlene Kerfoot described changes in health care delivery systems…

  16. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…

  17. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  18. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Leann F.

    2013-01-01

    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  19. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  20. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  1. Learning Outcomes for the 21st Century: Report of a Community College Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia D.; Miles, Cindy L.; Baker, Ronald L.; Schoenberger, R. Laurence

    This booklet describes a study that helped clarify the current status of community college efforts in defining and documenting student acquisition of 21st Century Skills (general education skills). This study is traced through four stages: (1) an exploratory focus group involving presidents from ten U.S. community colleges recognized as leaders in…

  2. Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy. Also: The Female Intervention Team; National Girls' Caucus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvenile Justice, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This issue of the serial "Juvenile Justice" is devoted to the theme of female juvenile defenders and contains three articles on this subject. The lead article, "Investing in Girls: A 21st Century Strategy," by Leslie Acoca, stresses that addressing the needs of adolescent girls, who make up the fastest growing segment of the juvenile justice…

  3. Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

  4. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  5. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  6. Is Your School Ready for the 21st Century? A General Overview for Planning Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Dorothy F.

    Three factors--demographic changes, economic changes, and high technology--will cause increasing diversity and consequently result in changes in school curriculum and policy priorities for the 21st century. Demographic trends will change because of changing birth patterns, aging of the population, changing family status, and increasing demand for…

  7. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  8. Using the Digital Transmedia Magazine Project to Support Students with 21st-Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…

  9. The Political Economy of Work in the 21st Century: Implications for an Aging American Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin

    The prospective place of the aging worker in the employment environment of the 21st century is examined. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the real world of work and retirement; (2) the changing employment environment; (3) the restructuring of business in the United States; (4) globalization and the economy; (5) downsizing…

  10. Journey to the 21st Century. A Summary of OCLC's Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., Dublin, OH.

    This report on some of the strategic planning decisions that OCLC has made for the 21st century begins by describing the evolution of OCLC from a pioneer in the computer revolution with its Online Union Catalog and Shared Cataloging System in 1971 to a system that currently has nearly 60 distinct offerings. Corresponding computer and…

  11. 21st-Century Literacies, Critical Media Pedagogies, and Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In the second decade of the 21st century, information has been globalized, digitized, and sped up to move at the speed of thought. Being literate in this new world means programming personal websites, sending e-mails from mobile devices and spending hours communicating via virtual social networks. Our students are products of this world. However,…

  12. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  13. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  14. Tox21: Putting a Lens on the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the release of the NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century, a Vision and Strategy" (NRC, 2007), two NIH institutes and EPA formed a collaboration (Tox21) to 1) identify mechanisms of chemically induced biological activity, 2) prioritize chemicals for mo...

  15. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  16. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  17. Changing the Clinical Psychology Training Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper proposes that the American Psychological Association establish a standard model of training for doctoral programs in clinical psychology requiring a specific number of credits, along with specific course recommendations appropriate for practice in the 21st century. This model should reflect the impact of psychology on the biological…

  18. Rethinking the Framework for 21st-Century Education: Toward a Communitarian Conception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.; Goh, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the current frameworks for 21st-century education by critiquing the individualist view of education that underpins them. It is argued that such a view of education overemphasizes technical rationality and neglects the importance of moral values and the role of the community in shaping the individual's identity, ethics, and…

  19. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  20. Projecting Agricultural Education Programs for the 21st Century Using a Modified Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.

    A modified three-step Delphi procedure was used to conduct a series of national studies of futurists regarded by their peers as top experts in agricultural education. The primary objective was to project enrollments in agricultural education programs for the 21st century. Other study objectives were to ascertain whether the Delphi technique could…

  1. General Education for the 21st Century: A Quest for Common Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In the early years of the 21st century, general education programs in U.S. postsecondary institutions stand at the center of multiple competing pressures, from demands for accountability to calls for increasing assurances of articulation across institutions. Complicating potential responses to these normative pressures is the challenge inherent in…

  2. Adult Learners: Why They Are Important to the 21st Century College or University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bash, Lee

    2003-01-01

    College-based adult learning programs are beset by low status, lack of institutional support, cash-cow syndrome, lack of faculty investment, and the dichotomy of traditional/adult students. The academy should embrace an entrepreneurial mission in order to adapt to the challenges of the 21st century. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  3. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  4. Is Mobile Learning the Future of 21st Century Education? Educational Considerations from Various Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Minakshi; Moseley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key trends currently affecting the practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry, as mentioned in "The 2011 Horizon Report," is that learners prefer flexibility and mobility. Mobile learning is gaining popularity as an emerging trend facilitating the process of teaching and learning in the 21st Century. Research indicates…

  5. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  6. The Role of 21st Century Skills in Two Rural Regional Areas of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sean B.; McDermott, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Budgetary shortfalls and excessive layoffs have left public schools with a deficiency of professional innovation as well as modern theory and practice. It is imperative that educators identify the exemplary school systems that are engaging students and adults in 21st century education, and broadcast those patterns of success to schools in need of…

  7. A Study of California Public School District Superintendents and Their Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The number of school districts needing to focus their attention on ensuring that their students are receiving a 21st Century education has grown considerably with the creation of the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the looming deadline of the 2014-2015 school year when the new assessments will be given. The assessment dates,…

  8. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  9. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  10. BIOMIND Portal for Developing 21st Century Skills and Overcoming Students' Misconception in Biology Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vebrianto, Rian; Rery, Radjawaly Usman; Osman, Kamisah

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of BIOMIND portal in enhancing students' 21st century skills and overcoming their misconceptions in Biology subject. 118 Indonesian high school students were involved in this quasi-experimental study. The experimental group underwent learning experiences using BIOMIND portal whereas the…

  11. Teachers' Level of Awareness of 21st Century Occupational Roles in Rivers State Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uche, Chineze M.; Kaegon, Leesi E. S. P.; Okata, Fanny Chiemezie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles in Rivers state secondary schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of study comprised of 247 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis of Rivers state which gave a…

  12. Science in the 21st Century: More than Just the Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jeremy F.; Pimentel, Diane Silva; McNeill, Katherine L.; Barnett, Michael; Strauss, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors have worked to meet the demands of the 21st century by using the Urban EcoLab, an urban ecology curriculum based on the National Science Education Standards. This curriculum emphasizes the local and community-based nature of science and is freely available for teachers to view, download, and use. As part of the curriculum the authors…

  13. Workplace, Organizational, and Societal: Three Domains of Learning for 21st-Century Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Barto, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Interconnections between workplace and organizational learning can highlight the ongoing changes taking place that prestage the need for learning cities and regions. The diverse institutions that comprise cities and regions can function as organizational learning mechanisms in the 21st century. Learning cities themselves can also be conceptualized…

  14. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  15. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric

    For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced economy. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after opening to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…

  16. Evolving Technologies Require Educational Policy Change: Music Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Renee

    2013-01-01

    There is growing discussion among education and government authorities on rethinking education in the 21st century. This increasing area of interest has come in response to the evolution of technology and its effect on the future needs and requirements of society. Online applications and social networking capabilities have accelerated in…

  17. What is Mental Retardation? Ideas for an Evolving Disability in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzky, Harvey N., Ed.; Greenspan, Stephen, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a rare peek into the divergent--and at times contentious--points of view among world's leading researchers on what the condition of mental retardation is and how it should be defined, measured, and implemented in the 21st century. It is a candid and insightful collection of essays from experts on issues ranging from whether mental…

  18. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  19. English-Language Learners, Fan Communities, and 21st-Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws from literature on language, literacy studies, and 21st century skills to explore how English-language learning (ELL) youths, through their engagement with digital technologies and popular media, are developing the sort of proficiencies that have been identified as crucial to effective participation in an increasingly globalized…

  20. The Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missett, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…

  1. 21st Century Community Learning Centers Descriptive Study of Program Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; McGhee, Raymond, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Education's Policy and Program Studies Service contracted with SRI International and its partner, Policy Studies Associates, to undertake an evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers. The following evaluation questions informed this study: (1) What is the nature of activities in centers that are…

  2. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  3. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  4. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  5. Project-Based Learning: Differentiating Instruction for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Project-based learning has emerged as one of today's most effective instructional practices. In PBL, students confront real-world issues and problems, collaborate to create solutions, and present their results. This exciting new book describes how PBL fosters 21st century skills and innovative thinking. The author provides instructional…

  6. Rebuilding the Campus: A Higher Education Priority for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The 21st century is within the planning horizon of today's campus decision-makers and government policies. There is currently a heavy demand to fund the reduction of deferred maintenance and make functional program improvements on campuses nationwide. Integrated capital asset management programs for all facilities are essential to success. (MSE)

  7. Life Designing: A Paradigm for Career Construction in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Nota, Laura; Rossier, Jerome; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Guichard, Jean; Soresi, Salvatore; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovative responses in an international forum. We used…

  8. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  9. A Vision and Strategy:Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manuscript provides an introduction and overview for a series of five papers resulting from a SETAC Pellston Workshop titled A Vision and Strategy for Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century: Defining Adverse Outcome Pathways Associated with Ecological Risk. It proposes...

  10. Student Teaching Abroad: An Experience for 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; Chacko, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty first century teachers need to be proficient in technology, skilled as reflective practitioners, and able to reflect on diversity in a myriad of ways: learning styles, special needs, cultural differences, racial differences, developmentally appropriate differences, teaching styles, and personality differences of children, teachers, parents,…

  11. Space Station in the 21st century - A social perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A human factors and sociological consideration of Space Station crew facilities and interactions is presented which attempts to place the experiences of astronaut communities in the larger context of late 20th century industrial, economic, and cultural trends. Attention is given to the relationship of Space Station communities to 'Information Society' - related historical developments.

  12. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  13. Education for the 21st Century: Lessons and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Roberto; Draxler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of proposals contained in the 1996 report "Learning: the Treasure Within" by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (established by UNESCO), the authors examine the influence and pertinence of its construct of education on the four pillars learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning…

  14. The Latin American University: Facing the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albornoz, Orlando

    This collection of essays examines the status of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on historical trends, the administration of universities, and the influence of higher education on the greater society. It reviews the evolution of universities in the area during the 20th century, highlighting the emergence of Latin…

  15. Demographics and Lifelong Learning Institutes in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinagel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century the population of the United States, as indeed the rest of the world, was growing older. Since 1900 the percentage of Americans 65 years of age and older has more than tripled (from 4 percent in 1900 to 13 percent in 2009), and the number has increased from 3 million to 40 million. "Between 2010 and 2050, the…

  16. America's future: Transition to the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The last several centuries have led humanity to believe that each succeeding generation can expect to live better than did the previous generation. But this is no longer true, and, to survive, the human species must successfully face four impending crises: overpopulation, the destruction of the biosphere, the end of cheap and available energy, and the threat of thermonuclear holocaust.

  17. Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William B.; And Others

    Four key trends will shape the American labor force in the final years of the 20th century. The American economy should grow at a relatively healthy pace. Despite its international comeback, however, U.S. manufacturing constitutes a much smaller share of the economy in the year 2000 than it does today. The work force will grow slowly, becoming…

  18. Design or Decline: America Facing the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Nathan H.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the role of industrial design in the twenty-first century. Explains that technology has widened the gap between rich and poor societies. Argues that future designers must concern themselves with the quality of life. Includes a description of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Industrial Design Program. (KM)

  19. 2020 Vision: The EICCD Moves into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blong, John T.; Friedel, Janice N.

    In 1989, the Eastern Iowa Community College District (EICCD) undertook a project to develop a collective image of what the community college should be in the coming century. The reasons for seeking this "shared vision" were to create institutional focus, foster commitment, build communication, and reaffirm the college's mission and beliefs…

  20. Preparing Teachers and Librarians to Collaborate to Teach 21st Century Skills: Views of LIS and Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Don; Gross, Melissa; Witte, Shelbie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an exploratory research project in which library and information studies (LIS) faculty and education faculty were asked about their views on teaching pre-service school librarians and teachers 21st Century Skills (as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills) and librarian-teacher collaboration.…

  1. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  2. Developing Skills for Youth in the 21st Century: The Role of Elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development,…

  3. When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Dynarski, Mark; Moore, Mary; Deke, John; Mansfield, Wendy; Pistorino, Carol; Warner, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers program has supported after-school programs since 1998. Research on the effects of after-school programs has been inconclusive, leading to an ongoing debate about the effects of after-school programs. To examine the implementation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program and…

  4. How Do We Know They're Getting Better? Assessment for 21st Century Minds, K-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barell, John

    2012-01-01

    How do we measure students inquiry, problem-solving, and critical thinking abilities so that we know they are prepared to meet the challenges of the 21st century? John Barell explains how inquiry leads to problem-solving and provides specific steps for formative assessment that informs instruction of 21st century skills. Included are examples that…

  5. Turning up the H.E.A.T. on Student Learning: Assessing 21st Century Skills in Classrooms Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moersch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Best practices involving 21st Century Skills have been analyzed and debated in "Educational Technology" and in other publications; yet, the fidelity of implementation in the overwhelming majority of school systems nationwide has been fragmented at best. This article proposes strategies for assessing 21st Century Skills or H.E.A.T. (Higher-order…

  6. Open up the Ceiling on the Common Core State Standards: Preparing Students for 21st-Century Literacy--Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Sally Valentino

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative is the latest effort to reform education through standards. This article examines how the Standards promise to prepare students for the changing world of the 21st century, yet do not consider the changing nature of literacy--especially the centrality of the Internet as a 21st century text, and online…

  7. The Availability and Use of 21st Century Technology Tools in South Carolina Secondary Public School Library Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Kathleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of South Carolina secondary school library media specialists to prepare students to meet the "AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner" (American Association of School Librarians, 2009b) by investigating the availability of 21st century technology tools, the confidence level of media…

  8. What Learning Environments Best Address 21st-Century Students' Perceived Needs at the Secondary Level of Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, J. Brett; Schumacher, Gary; Vesey, Winona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a recent study was to determine what learning environments best address the needs of 21st-century students at the secondary level. This study concluded that the presence of a positive 21st-century learning environment is related to student satisfaction and student-teacher relationships. While the majority of the literature on…

  9. Terrorism, Globalization, and Fear: Physics in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, Irving

    2002-09-11

    In the last half of the 20th century, the US emerged as a center for physics education and research. European science, which had all but relocated to the American continent after the war, rapidly returned to create a resurgent inventory of centers of excellence. Nonetheless, throughout the remainder of the century, students continued to flock to US Universities and labs - first from Europe and increasingly from Asia. But declining federal investments, enhanced global distribution of the research enterprise, and falling undergraduate enrollments worldwide have increased the viscosity of international scientific exchange. Terrorist attacks and alarms of espionage have produced policy proposals that may exacerbate this trend. Is this the end for American prominence in science?

  10. Untreatable infections?--The challenge of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Parry, C M

    1998-06-01

    The triumph of antibiotics over bacterial pathogens that has occurred in the latter half of this century looks increasingly threatened as we approach the new millennium. Increasing resistance in important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Shigella, and Streptococcus pneumoniae threatens the lives of millions. The increasing problems with drug resistance in (C. diphtheriae, Salmonella typhi and the pneumococcus in Vietnam are presented as examples of the challenge confronting tropical countries.

  11. Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, N V; Battisti, D S; Beachy, R N; Cooper, P J M; Fischhoff, D A; Hodges, C N; Knauf, V C; Lobell, D; Mazur, B J; Molden, D; Reynolds, M P; Ronald, P C; Rosegrant, M W; Sanchez, P A; Vonshak, A; Zhu, J-K

    2010-02-12

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century's demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. PMID:20150494

  12. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  13. Caste in 21st Century India: Competing Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates regarding inclusion of caste in 2011 Census have raised questions about whether caste still matters in modern India. Ethnographic studies of the mid-20th century identified a variety of dimensions along which caste differentiation occurs. At the same time, whether this differentiation translates into hierarchy remains a contentious issue as does the persistence of caste, given the economic changes of the past two decades. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 41,554 households conducted in 2005, this paper examines the relationship between social background and different dimensions of well-being. The results suggest continued persistence of caste disparities in education, income and social networks. PMID:22736803

  14. Aerospace engineering curriculum for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.

    1995-01-01

    The second year of the study was devoted to completing the information-gathering phase of this redesign effort, using the conclusions from that activity to prepare the initial structure for the new curriculum, publicizing activities to a wider engineering forum, and preparing the department faculty (Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at University of Cincinnati) for the roles they will play in the curriculum redesign and implementation. These activities are summarized briefly in this progress report. Attached is a paper resulting from the data acquisition of this effort, 'Educating Aerospace Engineers for the Twenty-First Century: Results of a Survey.'

  15. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  16. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26907968

  17. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, I; Rubin, GJ; Wessely, S

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as ‘multiple chemical sensitivity’ and ‘electrosensitivity,’ can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3rd century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these ‘illnesses of modernity’ are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

  18. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits.

    PubMed

    Boyd, I; Rubin, Gj; Wessely, S

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises.

  19. The future of space science in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, R. M.

    2001-06-01

    Space Science helped the start of the open space race after the launch of Sputnik-1 in 1957. Conversely, the use of space vehicles during the cold war allowed the scientists to conduct many observations and make discoveries which have dramatically changed our views of our own Solar System and of the Universe. What will be the future of this activity in the next century, with the disappearance of the cold war justification and in the context of shrinking budgets? Is there a future for space exploration? For what benefit and how will space science programmes be conducted? Who will be the main players? Are there limits to our ability to explore? The pioneers of space research in the post-Sputnik-1 era, like J-L. Steinberg, had both an easier and a more difficult time than space scientists of today. Nevertheless, space science will only survive in the next century if it succeeds in reaching the deep interest and motivation of society at large.

  20. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".

  1. Indoor environments and health: moving into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Spengler, John D

    2003-09-01

    The quality of our indoor environments affects well-being and productivity, and risks for diverse diseases are increased by indoor air pollutants, surface contamination with toxins and microbes, and contact among people at home, at work, in transportation, and in many other public and private places. We offer an overview of nearly a century of research directed at understanding indoor environments and health, consider current research needs, and set out policy matters that need to be addressed if we are to have the healthiest possible built environments. The policy context for built environments extends beyond health considerations to include energy use for air-conditioning, selection of materials for sustainability, and design for safety, security, and productivity.

  2. Childbirth Education in the 21st Century: An Immodest Proposal

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Charlotte A.; De Vries, Raymond G.

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth education was an important social movement in the 20th century but has lost its way in recent years. We describe the reasons for the dwindling importance of childbirth education and offer a proposal for reform that will align childbirth education with the needs of today's birthing mothers. Our plan will create “Centers for the Childbearing Year” (CCBYs) and a new model of childbirth educator, which we call the “birth coach.” The CCBY is the place for women to go to for information and support related to fertility, pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care; the birth coach combines the role of childbirth educator, doula, and postpartum caregiver. In creating a fresh model of childbirth education, we not only honor our pioneers but also rediscover the wisdom in community and relationship that childbirth offers us, and we learn in new ways to journey alongside each other to create new possibilities for birthing families. PMID:18769525

  3. A unifying view of 21st century systems biology.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Marc

    2009-12-17

    The idea that multi-scale dynamic complex systems formed by interacting macromolecules and metabolites, cells, organs and organisms underlie some of the most fundamental aspects of life was proposed by a few visionaries half a century ago. We are witnessing a powerful resurgence of this idea made possible by the availability of nearly complete genome sequences, ever improving gene annotations and interactome network maps, the development of sophisticated informatic and imaging tools, and importantly, the use of engineering and physics concepts such as control and graph theory. Alongside four other fundamental "great ideas" as suggested by Sir Paul Nurse, namely, the gene, the cell, the role of chemistry in biological processes, and evolution by natural selection, systems-level understanding of "What is Life" may materialize as one of the major ideas of biology.

  4. Transforming Performance Measurement for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatry, Harry P.

    2014-01-01

    While substantial progress has been made in spreading performance measurement across the country and world, much of the information from performance measurement systems has been shallow. Modern technology and the considerable demand for information on progress in achieving the outcomes of public programs and policies are creating major…

  5. Subjectivism: A Learning Paradigm for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This paper describes subjectivism, a new learning paradigm that incorporates successful pedagogic practices from the past into an affect-structured constructivism. Its two goals are student empowerment and subject enculturation. Student empowerment is achieved by designing learning for success so students can take credit for and feel confidence…

  6. Organizing for Learning: Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.; Lane, John J., Ed.

    In this monograph, 13 authors offer their perspectives on the essential components of good schools. One interesting commonality is the tension expressed between institutional structure and personal values. Another issue that surfaces centers on the rising expectations of society for school achievement and the need for making learning more student…

  7. Coaching: An Apprenticeship Approach for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salavert, Roser

    2015-01-01

    Coaching, an apprentice-based approach to support professional and personal development towards achieving set goals, is a well-established practice in the fields of sports training and management and one of the fastest growing professional development methods in the education field. How the coaching partnership fosters leadership and improves…

  8. A Year of Progress: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Achievements of the Department of Interior for 1981 in the areas of natural resources, parks, wildlife areas, water, Western lands, Indian reservations, and island territories are reported. Section 1 outlines increases in onshore and offshore oil and gas, coal, and geothermal leases on federal lands. Section 2 describes results in the change of…

  9. Education as a Human Right in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    According to the United Nations, education is a right to which all human beings are entitled. Since 2000, the UN has been promoting the Millennium Development Goal to achieve free universal primary education for all, regardless of gender, by 2015. If the UN is correct to suggest that education is both a human right in itself and an indispensable…

  10. Curricular Elements for Learner Success--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are widening access to meet demand and to realize the benefits of an educated citizenry. Widened access has resulted in increased learner diversity, and consequently, differing expectations for teaching and learning. Achieving desired learning outcomes in this context suggests the need to examine curricular design,…

  11. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  12. 21st century market opportunities for advanced fibers and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    High-strength, high-modulus fibers based upon either carbon, organic polymers, or ceramics are relatively new materials. Full-scale commercial production of these fibers began within the last 25 years. Current sales of advanced fibers are measured in thousands of tons per year, not in hundreds of thousands of tons per year, as are sales of glass structural fibers. Selling prices are measured in tens of dollars per pound as compared to dollars per pound for glass fiber. Therefore, advanced fibers must still be considered as specialty materials that will be selected based only upon their high performance. While much thanks is due to the aerospace and sporting goods industries for keeping the interest in advanced fibers and composites alive, it is generally agreed that the market will not grow (and prices will not decline) until these fibers are accepted in the industrial market. This presentation identifies industrial market opportunities for advanced fibers and composites in the next century, which is actually tomorrow in the time-line from the beginning of commercialization of advanced fibers. Specific, potential applications are cited, and the estimated volumes and values of these application given. 3 tabs.

  13. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  14. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    PubMed

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities. PMID:27272998

  15. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    PubMed

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities.

  16. Going forward into the 21st century. Stewart Conference endpaper.

    PubMed

    McClure, M L

    2001-01-01

    The issues addressed in these brief remarks represent some of the most serious problems that we will need to solve if we hope to deliver the kind of health care that is needed in the new century. What a challenge! In approaching this task we will have to be so much more creative than we have ever been. As our colleague, Joann Disch (2000), suggested in a recent column, we will need to learn that creativity is often a matter of asking the right questions. Her prime example was a good one and one that I would leave you with today. "...the major transformation that occurred in Nomadic societies (was) when the question changed from, 'How do we get to the water?" to, "How do we get the water to come to us?" (p. 311). On all these major issues, it will take a great deal of thoughtful deliberation and hard work for us to "get the water to come to us." I do believe that we can manage this, however, and I also believe that nurses will need to exert more leadership in this effort. But nurses will also need to step up to the plate and take a more active role than we have been willing to take in the past. That may well prove to be the most difficult test for our profession, simply being generous enough with our time and talents, remembering that the trick is not to have all the right answers but rather to ask the right questions. Carpe diem! Seize the day!

  17. Vision in elasmobranchs and their relatives: 21st century advances.

    PubMed

    Lisney, T J; Theiss, S M; Collin, S P; Hart, N S

    2012-04-01

    This review identifies a number of exciting new developments in the understanding of vision in cartilaginous fishes that have been made since the turn of the century. These include the results of studies on various aspects of the visual system including eye size, visual fields, eye design and the optical system, retinal topography and spatial resolving power, visual pigments, spectral sensitivity and the potential for colour vision. A number of these studies have covered a broad range of species, thereby providing valuable information on how the visual systems of these fishes are adapted to different environmental conditions. For example, oceanic and deep-sea sharks have the largest eyes amongst elasmobranchs and presumably rely more heavily on vision than coastal and benthic species, while interspecific variation in the ratio of rod and cone photoreceptors, the topographic distribution of the photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in the retina and the spatial resolving power of the eye all appear to be closely related to differences in habitat and lifestyle. Multiple, spectrally distinct cone photoreceptor visual pigments have been found in some batoid species, raising the possibility that at least some elasmobranchs are capable of seeing colour, and there is some evidence that multiple cone visual pigments may also be present in holocephalans. In contrast, sharks appear to have only one cone visual pigment. There is evidence that ontogenetic changes in the visual system, such as changes in the spectral transmission properties of the lens, lens shape, focal ratio, visual pigments and spatial resolving power, allow elasmobranchs to adapt to environmental changes imposed by habitat shifts and niche expansion. There are, however, many aspects of vision in these fishes that are not well understood, particularly in the holocephalans. Therefore, this review also serves to highlight and stimulate new research in areas that still require significant attention. PMID

  18. Management of facial paralysis in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason Y K; Byrne, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    Facial paralysis is a clinical entity associated with significant morbidity, which has a treatment paradigm that is continually evolving. Surgical management of the paralyzed face poses significant challenges to achieve the goal of returning patients to their premorbid states. Here we attempt to review the advances in facial reanimation, in particular with regards to chronic facial paralysis. These include recent developments in static and dynamic rehabilitation including advances like artificial muscles for eyelid reconstruction, dynamic muscle transfer for the eye, and orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer.

  19. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C

    2016-12-01

    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions.

  20. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century.

    PubMed

    McGaghie, William C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.