Science.gov

Sample records for 21st century model

  1. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  2. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  3. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  4. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  5. Military medical modeling and simulation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Moses, G; Magee, J H; Bauer, J J; Leitch, R

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine".

  6. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  7. The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Mariale

    2012-01-01

    "The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools" serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply relevant research from educational and cognitive neuroscience to classroom…

  8. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  9. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  10. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  11. 3-D Geometric Modeling for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Holly K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes new geometric computer models used in contemporary computer-aided design (CAD) software including wire frame, surface, solid, and parametric models. Reviews their use in engineering design and discusses the impact of these new technologies on the engineering design graphics curriculum. (Author/CCM)

  12. Model Rocketry in the 21st-Century Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Ken

    2004-10-01

    Model rocketry has changed since my introduction to it as an eighth-grade student. Two of these changes are important for the use of rocketry in the physics classroom. First, simulation software, which is relatively inexpensive and very powerful, allows students to create and fly virtual models of their rocket designs. Second, lightweight and sophisticated electronics2 are available for logging flight data and for controlling flight operations such as deploying parachutes. In this technology-rich context, designing, building, and flying model rockets can capture the interest of today's physics students.

  13. Computer modeling brings slag control into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrniotis, C.

    2005-10-01

    Many power plants have switched from bituminous coals to Powder River Basin coals to comply with lower SOx emissions limits. Although this has been a successful strategy, increased slagging has led many plants to seek coals with lower sodium content. But the increased demand for these coals has raised their prices. Can anything else be done to simultaneously widen fuel options, control costs, and keep the slag devil at bay? Targeted In-Furnace Injection (TIFI), which uses CFD modeling and virtual reality visualization techniques can address all three issues. The modelling program targets areas of the radiant and convection sections of a boiler with chemicals to reduce or eliminate slagging and fouling. The article describes the two different forms of CFD modelling and the virtual reality engine used in TIFI technology. The technology has been successfully used with the same chemical attitude for three years at Hugo Station in Fort Towson, OK. 3 figs.

  14. Learnership/Leadership Model: "Travelling into the 21st Century."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra M.; Toomey, Fran

    An abstract is presented for an interactive workshop in which participants solve problems in groups to learn, practice, and integrate the Learnership/Leadership Model. Learning and leading are critical for future success in educational and industrial organizations as many have expressed, including, but not limited to, C. Argyris, W. Bennis, M.…

  15. Developing Mindful Learners Model: A 21st Century Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry

    The Developing Mindful Learners Model (DMLM), developed within the framework of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, connects three factors--content, framework, and world vision--for the purpose of helping underachieving students to become more "mindful": i.e., to become one who welcomes new ideas, considers more than one perspective,…

  16. Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khon, V. C.; Mokhov, I. I.; Pogarskiy, F. A.; Babanin, A.; Dethloff, K.; Rinke, A.; Matthes, H.

    2014-04-01

    While wave heights globally have been growing over recent decades, observations of their regional trends vary. Simulations of future wave climate can be achieved by coupling wave and climate models. At present, wave heights and their future trends in the Arctic Ocean remain unknown. We use the third-generation wave forecast model WAVEWATCH-III forced by winds and sea ice concentration produced within the regional model HIRHAM, under the anthropogenic scenario SRES-A1B. We find that significant wave height and its extremes will increase over different inner Arctic areas due to reduction of sea ice cover and regional wind intensification in the 21st century. The opposite tendency, with a slight reduction in wave height appears for the Atlantic sector and the Barents Sea. Our results demonstrate the complex wave response in the Arctic Ocean to a combined effect of wind and sea ice forcings in a climate-change scenario during the 21st century.

  17. Classroom Technology Integration: A Comparative Study of Participants and Non-Participants in the 21st Century Model Classroom Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Darrell Grady

    2013-01-01

    This study provided a unique opportunity to examine how two groups of teachers experienced the integration of technology in a K-12 school system in the southeastern United States. The total number of respondents (n = 338) included 21st Century Model Classroom (CMC) program teachers (n = 27) and non-participants (n = 311). Teachers in the 21st CMC…

  18. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  19. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  20. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  1. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  2. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  3. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(104)] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950–2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones. PMID:23836646

  4. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones.

  5. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  6. 21-st century precipitation estimation in the Danube middle and lower basin by EVT modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Stanciu, A.

    2010-09-01

    The simulated precipitation for the 20-th and 21-st centuries at 10 stations from the Danube middle and lower basin are analysed together with the daily pressure values at sea level from March, April, May for 42 years obtained from the four GCMs (CNRM, ECHAM5-MPI, EGMAM and IPSL). For the 20-th century the period 1958-1999 was considered and for the 21-st century 2 periods of 42 years were selected: 2009-2050 and 2051-2092 from the A1B scenario. In the pressure field, the predictors from three key zones were selected as being significant for the precipitation behavior from the Danube middle and lower basin. A nonhomogeneus hidden Markov model (NHMM) with 7 states was applied for the precipitation from 10 stations, for observations and also for each of the considered scenarios, with 3 predictors defined in the key points. The precipitation values were corrected by bias and the predictors were the same for all models, calculated from pressure values corrected by bias. After the modelling of the daily precipitation through a NHMM, a simulation was done on 100 achievements each one with 42 years and 90 days each year. In this way, the daily maximum precipitation amounts during spring from 4200 years were selected. This simulation was necessary in order to increase the statistical selection volume necessary within the modelling through distribution of the extreme values. From these precipitation simulated with NHMM for 4200 years, the maximum daily amounts during spring were selected and then modelled with a generalized distribution of the extreme values (GEV). For the modelling by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) the daily precipitation values which exceed a certain threshold were selected. After testing several thresholds values, it was concluded that the most adequate is the 50 mm threshold for each of the 10 considered stations. Also it was made an average of the precipitation on the 10 considered stations and from the analysis of the different thresholds it

  7. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  8. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, M.; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  9. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  10. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  12. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  13. Drought analysis of 21st century global and land surface hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzo, G.; VanLanen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainty and reliability of global hydrological and land surface models (GHMs & LSMs) in detection of hydrological drought are some of the most common questions for the analysis of the extremes of future climate. The fact that one unique model cannot capture the whole physics related to the global change is commonly reflected in the differences between global circulation models and global hydrological models and the use of multi-model ensemble means. Hydrological droughts are one of the main concerns in the analysis of future water resources scenarios. This study explores how future drought characteristics change through a multi-model drought analysis. Runoff simulations of seven models (GHMs & LSMs) were used to determine the overall changes in number of drought events and average drought durations. Results from monthly forcing variables from 3 GCMs (all A2 scenario and some B1 scenario) were inter-compared. The analysis covered three periods of time; late 20th century (1971-2000, control period), middle 21st century (2021-2050) and late 21th century (2071-2100). All drought events have been determined by using a monthly variable threshold analysis with 80th percentile. The results point to important differences between models for the cold arid regions in the northern hemisphere. Increase of drought events is more notorious in tropical humid regions. Analysis of differences between models in number and distribution of arid regions as well as variation of spatial drought events for specific regions is an important step ahead.

  14. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, L.; Resplandy, L.; Orr, J. C.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Gehlen, M.; Halloran, P.; Heinze, C.; Ilyina, T.; Séférian, R.; Tjiputra, J.; Vichi, M.

    2013-02-01

    Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth System Models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration parthways (RCP) over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in 2090s (compared to 1990s) for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 °C, -0.33 pH unit, -3.45% and -8.6%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 °C, -0.07 pH unit, -1.81% and -2.0% respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of sub-surface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity.

  15. Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kathryn, Ed.; Archambault, Leanna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills, methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our students--the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The examples found in this report have unique elements and…

  16. Are you speaking French in Japan? Home care's 21st-century leadership model.

    PubMed

    Conn, C D; Seago, M L

    1995-10-01

    Home care leadership is headed for change in the 21st century in demographics as well as legislative issues. With the influx of men into a female-dominated industry, leadership in home care will need to integrate the language of traditional male and female culture into a workable management style.

  17. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  18. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  19. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, L.; Resplandy, L.; Orr, J. C.; Doney, S. C.; Dunne, J. P.; Gehlen, M.; Halloran, P.; Heinze, C.; Ilyina, T.; Séférian, R.; Tjiputra, J.; Vichi, M.

    2013-10-01

    Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs) over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s) for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72) °C, -0.33 (±0.003) pH unit, -3.45 (±0.44)% and -8.6 (±7.9)%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45) °C, -0.07 (±0.001) pH unit, -1.81 (±0.31)% and -2.0 (±4.1)%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface oxygen prompt us to

  20. Alignment with the Common Core Standards: A 21st Century How-to Model for Successful CTE Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a 21st century how-to model for successful career and technical education (CTE) programs. The Geometry in Construction program is the brainchild of two educators, a CTE and a math teacher, who wanted to design a rigorous geometry course taught through a project-based curriculum. This article discusses how they did it, and…

  1. Optimism Reborn. Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution, the Citizen Power Development Model and the Construction of "21st Century Socialism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Nicaragua's Participative Education Revolution and the Citizen Power national development model in the construction of socialism in the 21st century in Latin America and the Caribbean through the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America--Peoples' Trade Agreement. Centred around the notion of "revolutionary democracy",…

  2. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving the Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L.; Plummer, D.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, with all showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21 st century (21 C), and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to carry on increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21 C and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression the upper stratospheric ozone increase comes from almost equal contributions due to decrease in halogens and cooling from increased greenhouse gas concentrations. The evolution of lower stratospheric ozone differs with latitude. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21C, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21 C and returns to 1960 levels. For all models there is an earlier return for ozone to historical levels in the northern hemisphere. This is thought to be due to interhemispheric differences in transport.

  3. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  4. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  5. The human subject: an integrative animal model for 21(st) century heart failure research.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekera, P Charukeshi; Pippin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure remains a leading cause of death and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Despite decades of extensive research conducted at enormous expense, only a handful of interventions have significantly impacted survival in heart failure. Even the most widely prescribed treatments act primarily to slow disease progression, do not provide sustained survival advantage, and have adverse side effects. Since mortality remains about 50% within five years of diagnosis, the need to increase our understanding of heart failure disease mechanisms and development of preventive and reparative therapies remains critical. Currently, the vast majority of basic science heart failure research is conducted using animal models ranging from fruit flies to primates; however, insights gleaned from decades of animal-based research efforts have not been proportional to research success in terms of deciphering human heart failure and developing effective therapeutics for human patients. Here we discuss the reasons for this translational discrepancy which can be equally attributed to the use of erroneous animal models and the lack of widespread use of human-based research methodologies and address why and how we must position our own species at center stage as the quintessential animal model for 21(st) century heart failure research. If the ultimate goal of the scientific community is to tackle the epidemic status of heart failure, the best way to achieve that goal is through prioritizing human-based, human-relevant research.

  6. Modelling Soil Erosion Risk and its Impacts in the Mediterranean area for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Soil degradation and erosion will be influenced during the 21st century both by climate and related or anthropogenic land use changes. Many current negative impacts of soil erosion may thus be amplified, and as certain soil thresholds are exceeded, potentially new and different problems could arise. Soils in the Mediterranean environment may be particularly vulnerable to such global changes because of contrasted climate, low vegetation cover and specific poor soil characteristics. It is therefore crucial to understand the potential impacts of global change on soils erosion and its consequences on soil functions such as support of vegetation, local water balance, loss of organic matter (on-site impacts) as well as on sediment transfer in surface water reservoirs (off-site impact). The objective of the work presented here was to improve our understanding of the impact of global change, as it can be predicted by currently used global change scenarios for the period until 2100, on soil resources and to develop indicators and models for soil vulnerability assessment within the Mediterranean basin. Specific drivers of soil erosion affected by the global change were identified and their impacts on erosion processes were quantified using erosion models at small and medium catchments scales. Soil vulnerability indicators were developed from the use of these models for the assessment of soil depth reduction and the siltation of reservoirs. The project also developed uncertainty analysis and validation of erosion prediction using results of field investigations in three test areas in France, Tunisia and Morocco.

  7. The human subject: an integrative animal model for 21st century heart failure research

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekera, P Charukeshi; Pippin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure remains a leading cause of death and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Despite decades of extensive research conducted at enormous expense, only a handful of interventions have significantly impacted survival in heart failure. Even the most widely prescribed treatments act primarily to slow disease progression, do not provide sustained survival advantage, and have adverse side effects. Since mortality remains about 50% within five years of diagnosis, the need to increase our understanding of heart failure disease mechanisms and development of preventive and reparative therapies remains critical. Currently, the vast majority of basic science heart failure research is conducted using animal models ranging from fruit flies to primates; however, insights gleaned from decades of animal-based research efforts have not been proportional to research success in terms of deciphering human heart failure and developing effective therapeutics for human patients. Here we discuss the reasons for this translational discrepancy which can be equally attributed to the use of erroneous animal models and the lack of widespread use of human-based research methodologies and address why and how we must position our own species at center stage as the quintessential animal model for 21st century heart failure research. If the ultimate goal of the scientific community is to tackle the epidemic status of heart failure, the best way to achieve that goal is through prioritizing human-based, human-relevant research. PMID:26550463

  8. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century. PMID:26538172

  9. 21st century Mediterranean sea level rise: Steric and atmospheric pressure contributions from a regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Somot, Samuel

    2008-09-01

    An Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model coupled over the Mediterranean basin and forced by river runoff and influxes from the Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea is used to obtain estimates of sea level rise in the region during the 21st century. Changes in temperature and salinity under the A2 emission scenario, which corresponds to a high level of anthropogenic gas concentration in the atmosphere, are investigated in the different sub-basins and are used to compute the steric sea level change in the region. Significant spatial variability is observed. This model projects a maximum steric sea level rise of 25 cm. The mean steric sea level rise value predicted is around 13 cm with lower values in the eastern Mediterranean and higher values at the western Mediterranean. Coastal sea level rise values are found to be smaller, although this is partly due to the smaller range of vertical integration in the computation of sea level changes. Warming and salinification of the intermediate waters are also predicted to occur simultaneously thus partly compensating each other. The effects of atmospheric pressure changes are added to the steric sea level obtained from the model giving up to 2 mbars and thus also compensating some of the thermal expansion. Circulation changes will in certain areas also add up to 6 cm of sea level rise. There is no predicted seasonal bias in the sea level rise indicating that the seasonal cycles will remain unaffected. These results are derived from a single model and therefore can only been seen as part of a methodological study. Similar investigations should be applied to a range of models and scenarios in order to obtain a range of the future sea level change in the Mediterranean basin and its associated uncertainties.

  10. Modeling the response of subglacial drainage at Paakitsoq, west Greenland, to 21st century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Banwell, Alison F.; Arnold, Neil S.; Willis, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is losing mass at an accelerating rate, much uncertainty remains about how surface runoff interacts with the subglacial drainage system and affects water pressures and ice velocities, both currently, and into the future. Here, we apply a physically based, subglacial hydrological model to the Paakitsoq region, west Greenland, and run it into the future to calculate patterns of daily subglacial water pressure fluctuations in response to climatic warming. The model is driven with moulin input hydrographs calculated by a surface routing model, forced with distributed runoff. Surface runoff and routing are simulated for a baseline year (2000), before the model is forced with future climate scenarios for the years 2025, 2050, and 2095, based on the IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our results show that as runoff increases throughout the 21st century, and/or as RCP scenarios become more extreme, the subglacial drainage system makes an earlier transition from a less efficient network operating at high water pressures, to a more efficient network with lower pressures. This will likely cause an overall decrease in ice velocities for marginal areas of the GrIS. However, short-term variations in runoff, and therefore subglacial pressure, can still cause localized speedups, even after the system has become more efficient. If these short-term pressure fluctuations become more pronounced as future runoff increases, the associated late-season speedups may help to compensate for the drop in overall summer velocities, associated with earlier transitioning from a high to a low pressure system.

  11. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  12. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  13. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The seminar on "Creating 21st Century Learning Environments" was organized by the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and the OECD Program on Educational Building (PEB). The seminar was posed as a networked learning experience with professionals from throughout the world presenting their accomplishments and findings.…

  14. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  15. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  16. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  17. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  18. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  19. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  20. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  1. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  2. 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Bernita E.

    2003-01-01

    Like many institutions of higher learning, Hocking College has struggled to define, document, and assess those general skills deemed necessary for success in the workplace and life. An opportunity for Hocking College to focus on this task was provided through its participation in the 21st Century Learning Outcomes Project sponsored by The League…

  3. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  4. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  5. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  6. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  7. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  8. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  9. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  10. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  11. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  12. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  13. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  14. Molecular medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, C; Seidman, C E

    2001-01-01

    When Watson and Crick proposed the double helix model for DNA structure in a 2 page Nature article in 1953, no one could have predicted the enormous impact this finding would have on the study of human disease. Over the last decade in particular, major advances have been made in our understanding of both normal biological processes and basic molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of medical diseases. Knowledge obtained from basic cellular, molecular and genetic studies has enabled the development of strategies for the modification, prevention and potential cure of human diseases. This brief overview focuses on the enormous impact molecular studies have had on various aspects of medicine. The inherited cardiac disorder hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is used here as a model to illustrate how molecular studies have not only redefined 'gold standards' for diagnosis, but have also influenced management approaches, increased our understanding of fundamental disease-causing mechanisms and identified potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The near-completion of the Human Genome Project, which identifies the 3.2 billion base pairs that comprise the human genome (the so-called 'Book of Life'), has exponentially heightened the focus on the importance of molecular studies and how such studies will impact on various aspects of medicine in the 21st century.

  15. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  16. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  17. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  18. Estimation of Flood Frequencies under Changing Climate Conditions During 21st Century by means of a Numerical Coupled Atmospheric-Hydrologic Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Trinh, T. Q.; Ishida, K.; Fischer, I.; Nosacka, J.; Brown, K.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of climate change on hydrologic flow regimes, particularly extreme events, necessitates modeling of future flows in order to best inform water resources management. The presented modeling approach simulated future flows in the Cache Creek watershed in California, over the 21st century using a hydro-climate model (WEHY-HCM) forced by future climate projections. The future climate projections, based on four emission scenarios, simulated by two GCMs (ECHAM5 and CCSM3) under several initial conditions, were dynamically downscaled using MM5, a regional climate model. The downscaled future precipitation data were bias-corrected before being input into the fully physically-based WEHY watershed hydrology model to simulate the flows at hourly intervals along the main Cache Creek branch and its tributaries during 2010-2099. The results suggest an increasing trend in flood peak discharge magnitudes at the outlet of the studied watershed throughout the 21st century. Similarly, estimates of the 100 and 200-year flood discharge magnitudes increase throughout the study period toward future in the 21st century. The differences among the historical flood frequency, and the flood frequencies during the first half and second half of the 21st century are indicative of the ongoing non-stationarity in the 21st century hydro-climate regime of the study region.

  19. Dragging scientific publishing into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khan, Razib; Goodman, Laurie; Mittelman, David

    2014-12-11

    Scientific publishers must shake off three centuries of publishing on paper and embrace 21st century technology to make scientific communication more intelligible, reproducible, engaging and rapidly available.

  20. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  1. Projected hydrological changes in the 21st century and related uncertainties obtained from a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, S.

    2012-04-01

    21st century climate change is likely to have a significant impact on the hydrological cycle and thus has the potential to impose additional water stress in several regions. Thus, this study focuses on the assessment of the implications of climate change for global hydrological regimes and related water resources states for the 21st century. Different climate and hydrological models show quite different projected changes with a large variation of uncertainty within the climate - hydrology modelling chain. Therefore, multiple climate and hydrological models were used within the European project "Water and Global Change" (WATCH) to assess the hydrological response to climate change and to project the future state of global and large scale water resources. Climate model data were taken from projections of three coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs) (ECHAM5/MPIOM, CNRM-CM3, LMDZ-4) following the A2 and B1 emission scenarios. Due to the systematic errors of climate models, their output has been corrected with a statistical bias correction method and then the output was used directly to force global hydrological models (GHMs) (MPI-HM, LPJmL, WaterGAP, VIC, MacPDM, H08, GWAVA, JULES) to calculate the corresponding changes in hydrological fluxes. The analyses focus on the changes in the hydrological characteristics for twelve large, continental river basins without taking into account direct anthropogenic influences in the hydrological simulations. The hydrological cycle was evaluated and multiple-model based projections were analysed for the terrestrial components of the hydrological cycle focusing on the time period of 2071-2100. Global maps are constructed to identify regions where the water cycle and associated water resources are significantly impacted by climate change, and which regions are vulnerable to these changes in terms of e.g. water availability. The uncertainties due to the choice of GCM and GHM are also assessed.

  2. Projected rainfall and temperature changes over Malaysia at the end of the 21st century based on PRECIS modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Jui Le; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Hein, David; Lee, Dong-In

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates projected changes in rainfall and temperature over Malaysia by the end of the 21st century based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2, A1B and B2 emission scenarios using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS). The PRECIS regional climate model (HadRM3P) is configured in 0.22° × 0.22° horizontal grid resolution and is forced at the lateral boundaries by the UKMO-HadAM3P and UKMOHadCM3Q0 global models. The model performance in simulating the present-day climate was assessed by comparing the modelsimulated results to the Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE) dataset. Generally, the HadAM3P/PRECIS and HadCM3Q0/PRECIS simulated the spatio-temporal variability structure of both temperature and rainfall reasonably well, albeit with the presence of cold biases. The cold biases appear to be associated with the systematic error in the HadRM3P. The future projection of temperature indicates widespread warming over the entire country by the end of the 21st century. The projected temperature increment ranges from 2.5 to 3.9°C, 2.7 to 4.2°C and 1.7 to 3.1°C for A2, A1B and B2 scenarios, respectively. However, the projection of rainfall at the end of the 21st century indicates substantial spatio-temporal variation with a tendency for drier condition in boreal winter and spring seasons while wetter condition in summer and fall seasons. During the months of December to May, ~20-40% decrease of rainfall is projected over Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, particularly for the A2 and B2 emission scenarios. During the summer months, rainfall is projected to increase by ~20-40% across most regions in Malaysia, especially for A2 and A1B scenarios. The spatio-temporal variations in the projected rainfall can be related to the changes in the weakening monsoon circulations, which in turn alter the patterns of

  3. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  4. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  5. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  6. A Delphi Study to Identify Components of a New Model for Teaching and Learning 21st Century Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiselhofer, Melissa Ann

    2010-01-01

    Reading online texts requires additional and more complex skills than those required for print based reading. The problem addressed in this study was the paucity of research regarding the definition, framework, and theoretical perspective underpinning the changing paradigm of 21st century literacy skills, The purpose of the study was to develop a…

  7. The 21st Century Literacies Gap: A Case for Adoption of the Student Learning Networks Model Grades 9-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Sara; Pasque, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 99% of the U.S. population understands that "teaching and learning 21st century skills are very important to the country's future economy", while 80% of those surveyed understand that "the things students need to learn in school today are different than they were 20 years ago". This study also showed that 88% of of the respondents…

  8. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  9. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  10. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  11. Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John

    Research predicts that 21st century society will be very different from 20th century society. What is good conduct in the 21st century? Good conduct is advantageous to work, job, and career. Students who learn good conduct now will benefit in their school lives and in future careers. This handbook aims to prepare everyone's personal conduct for…

  12. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  13. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  14. A Bayesian network modeling approach to forecasting the 21st century worldwide status of polar bears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    To inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, whether or not to list polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), we projected the status of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) for decades centered on future years 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2095. We defined four ecoregions based on current and projected sea ice conditions: seasonal ice, Canadian Archipelago, polar basin divergent, and polar basin convergent ecoregions. We incorporated general circulation model projections of future sea ice into a Bayesian network (BN) model structured around the factors considered in ESA decisions. This first-generation BN model combined empirical data, interpretations of data, and professional judgments of one polar bear expert into a probabilistic framework that identifies causal links between environmental stressors and polar bear responses. We provide guidance regarding steps necessary to refine the model, including adding inputs from other experts. The BN model projected extirpation of polar bears from the seasonal ice and polar basin divergent ecoregions, where ≈2/3 of the world's polar bears currently occur, by mid century. Projections were less dire in other ecoregions. Decline in ice habitat was the overriding factor driving the model outcomes. Although this is a first-generation model, the dependence of polar bears on sea ice is universally accepted, and the observed sea ice decline is faster than models suggest. Therefore, incorporating judgments of multiple experts in a final model is not expected to fundamentally alter the outlook for polar bears described here.

  15. An Integral ASIE ID Model: The 21st Century Instructional Design Model for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zain, Ismail Md.; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Hashim, Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Design of instruction is an important feature in teacher education at fulfilling the needs of 4Cs ("critical thinker," "communicator," "collaborator," "creator") developing "a globally competitive learners". As Instructional design models (ID) need to move from adopting a standard approach to…

  16. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of vegetation distribution in the northern high latitudes during the 21st century with a dynamic vegetation model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yueyang; Zhuang, Qianlai; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen; Sokolov, Andrei; Kicklighter, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to assess how high-latitude vegetation may respond under various climate scenarios during the 21st century with a focus on analyzing model parameters induced uncertainty and how this uncertainty compares to the uncertainty induced by various climates. The analysis was based on a set of 10,000 Monte Carlo ensemble Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) simulations for the northern high latitudes (45(o)N and polewards) for the period 1900-2100. The LPJ Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) was run under contemporary and future climates from four Special Report Emission Scenarios (SRES), A1FI, A2, B1, and B2, based on the Hadley Centre General Circulation Model (GCM), and six climate scenarios, X901M, X902L, X903H, X904M, X905L, and X906H from the Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In the current dynamic vegetation model, some parameters are more important than others in determining the vegetation distribution. Parameters that control plant carbon uptake and light-use efficiency have the predominant influence on the vegetation distribution of both woody and herbaceous plant functional types. The relative importance of different parameters varies temporally and spatially and is influenced by climate inputs. In addition to climate, these parameters play an important role in determining the vegetation distribution in the region. The parameter-based uncertainties contribute most to the total uncertainty. The current warming conditions lead to a complexity of vegetation responses in the region. Temperate trees will be more sensitive to climate variability, compared with boreal forest trees and C3 perennial grasses. This sensitivity would result in a unanimous northward greenness migration due to anomalous warming in the northern high latitudes. Temporally, boreal needleleaved evergreen plants are projected to decline considerably, and a large portion of C3 perennial grass is projected to disappear by the end of

  18. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  19. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  20. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  1. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  2. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  3. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  4. Vaccines for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-05-06

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2-3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  5. Carbon cycle extremes during the 21st century in CMIP5 models: Future evolution and attribution to climatic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Reichstein, Markus; von Buttlar, Jannis; Mu, Mingquan; Randerson, James T.; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate extremes such as droughts and heat waves affect terrestrial ecosystems and may alter local carbon budgets. However, it still remains uncertain to what degree extreme impacts in the carbon cycle influence the carbon cycle-climate feedback both today and the near future. Here we analyze spatiotemporally contiguous negative extreme anomalies in gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) in model output of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble and investigate their future development and attribution to climatic drivers. We find that relative to the overall increase in global carbon uptake, negative extremes in GPP and NEP lose importance toward the end of the 21st century. This effect can be related to elevated CO2 concentrations and higher amounts of available water at the global scale, partially mitigating the impacts of droughts and heat waves, respectively. Overall, based on CMIP5 models, we hypothesize that terrestrial ecosystems might be more resilient against future climate extremes than previously thought. Future work will have to further scrutinize these results considering that various biological and biogeochemical feedbacks are not yet integrated within Earth system models.

  6. The solar cycle and solar dynamo models: past accomplishments, present status and a strategy for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2016-07-01

    We describe the primary observational features of solar cycles, as seen in the photosphere, and review progress made over the past sixty years to simulate and predict these features using magneto-hydrodynamic dynamo models. The focus is on the so-called Babcock-Leighton flux-transport (BLFT) dynamo models, calibrated for the Sun, which so far have been the most successful in simulation, and the only ones tested for prediction. The proposed 21st century strategy for progress emphasizes the need (a) to use modern data assimilation techniques, so successful for Earth's atmosphere simulation and prediction, to exploit all available solar observations, and (b) to generalize BLFT dynamo models to 3D to simulate and predict longitude-dependent cycle features. The 3D models must include (a) global HD and MHD instabilities in the solar tachocline, which probably create spatial patterns and time dependence that is reflected in surface observations, such as active longitudes, and (b) processes that capture the statistics and effects of emerging active regions that are tilted with respect to latitude circles, in order to accurately represent the surface source of poloidal fields, whose transport to the poles is responsible for polar field reversals.

  7. Concise review: humanized models of tumor immunology in the 21st century: convergence of cancer research and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Thibaudeau, Laure; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2015-06-01

    Despite positive testing in animal studies, more than 80% of novel drug candidates fail to proof their efficacy when tested in humans. This is primarily due to the use of preclinical models that are not able to recapitulate the physiological or pathological processes in humans. Hence, one of the key challenges in the field of translational medicine is to "make the model organism mouse more human." To get answers to questions that would be prognostic of outcomes in human medicine, the mouse's genome can be altered in order to create a more permissive host that allows the engraftment of human cell systems. It has been shown in the past that these strategies can improve our understanding of tumor immunology. However, the translational benefits of these platforms have still to be proven. In the 21st century, several research groups and consortia around the world take up the challenge to improve our understanding of how to humanize the animal's genetic code, its cells and, based on tissue engineering principles, its extracellular microenvironment, its tissues, or entire organs with the ultimate goal to foster the translation of new therapeutic strategies from bench to bedside. This article provides an overview of the state of the art of humanized models of tumor immunology and highlights future developments in the field such as the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies to further enhance humanized murine model systems.

  8. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  10. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  11. Rethinking Business Models for 21st Century Higher Education: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichy, Jessica; Enström, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    The late 20th century was an era of social, economic, technological, and political change, resulting in significant shifts in the perception of enlightenment, knowledge, and education. The impact of these changes have become quite apparent in higher education where there is now mounting pressure for faculty to deliver high quality education to an…

  12. The Performance in Context Model: A 21st Century Tertiary Dance Teaching Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Kym; Huddy, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Despite tertiary institutions acknowledging that reflective practice is an essential component of undergraduate dance teacher training, there is often a disparity between the tertiary students' reflective skills and the more sophisticated reflective ability needed to navigate the twenty-first-century workforce. This paper charts the evolution of a…

  13. 21st Century Trends in Antarctic Temperature and Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Area in the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines trends in Antarctic temperature and APSC, a temperature proxy for the area of polar stratospheric clouds, in an ensemble of Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations of the 21st century. A selection of greenhouse gas, ozone-depleting substance, and sea surface temperature scenarios is used to test the trend sensitivity to these parameters. One scenario is used to compare temperature trends in two versions of the GEOS CCM. An extended austral winter season is examined in detail. In May, June, and July, the expected future increase in CO2-related radiative cooling drives temperature trends in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. At 50 hPa, a 1.3 K cooling is expected between 2000 and 2100. Ozone levels increase, despite this robust cooling signal and the consequent increase in APSC, suggesting the enhancement of stratospheric transport in future. In the lower stratosphere, the choice of climate change scenarios does not affect the magnitude of the early winter cooling. Midwinter temperature trends are generally small. In October, APSC trends have the same sign as the prescribed halogen trends. That is, there are negative APSC trends in "grealistic future" simulations, where halogen loading decreases in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and CO2 continues to increase. In these simulations, the speed of ozone recovery is not influenced by either the choice of sea surface temperature and greenhouse gas scenarios or by the model version.

  14. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Burke, Thomas A; Jones, James J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the "Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments" workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered.

  15. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  16. Fully Aligned Academic Health Centers: A Model for 21st-Century Job Creation and Sustainable Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reece, E. Albert; Chrencik, Robert A.; Miller, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Alignment is the degree to which component parts of academic health centers (AHCs) work cohesively. Full alignment allows AHCs to act quickly and cohesively toward common goals and to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves, particularly where collaboration is essential. Maryland’s two major AHCs—University of Maryland Medicine (UMM) and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM)—have experienced periods of significant misalignment during each of their histories. Their most recent periods of misalignment caused significant negative economic and academic impacts. However, the process of realigning their clinical and research missions has not only given them a renewed economic vigor but has also paid significant dividends for the state of Maryland, helping it weather the current recession much better than other regions of the country. The two AHCs’ continued economic success during the recession has led Maryland lawmakers to increasingly seek out their expertise in attempts to stimulate economic development. Indeed, UMM, JHM, and other fully aligned AHCs have shown that they can be powerful economic engines and offer a model of job growth and economic development in the 21st century. PMID:22622215

  17. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  18. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  19. What Can the Bohr-Sommerfeld Model Show Students of Chemistry in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-01-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. To increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study aims to elaborate a framework…

  20. Towards 21st century stellar models: Star clusters, supercomputing and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. W.; Constantino, T. N.; D'Orazi, V.; Meakin, C.; Stello, D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kuehn, C.; De Silva, G. M.; Arnett, W. D.; Lattanzio, J. C.; MacLean, B. T.

    2016-09-01

    Stellar models provide a vital basis for many aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. Recent advances in observational astronomy - through asteroseismology, precision photometry, high-resolution spectroscopy, and large-scale surveys - are placing stellar models under greater quantitative scrutiny than ever. The model limitations are being exposed and the next generation of stellar models is needed as soon as possible. The current uncertainties in the models propagate to the later phases of stellar evolution, hindering our understanding of stellar populations and chemical evolution. Here we give a brief overview of the evolution, importance, and substantial uncertainties of core helium burning stars in particular and then briefly discuss a range of methods, both theoretical and observational, that we are using to advance the modelling. This study uses observational data from from HST, VLT, AAT, Kepler, and supercomputing resources in Australia provided by the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) and Pawsey Supercomputing Centre.

  1. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  2. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  3. The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maire, Nicolas; Hegnauer, Michael; Nguyen, Dana; Godelmann, Lucas; Hoffmann, Axel; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) is an eLearning tool for health cadres and scientists introducing basic concepts of sub-national, rational district-based health planning and systems thinking under resources constraint. HRAM allows the evaluation of resource allocation strategies in relation to key outcome measures such as coverage, equity of services achieved and number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented. In addition, the model takes into account geographical and demographic characteristics and populations' health seeking behaviour. It can be adapted to different socio-ecological and health system settings. PMID:22639131

  4. A Reference Model for Distribution Grid Control in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; De Martini, Paul; Kristov, Lorenzo

    2015-07-01

    Intensive changes in the structure of the grid due to the penetration of new technologies, coupled with changing societal needs are outpacing the capabilities of traditional grid control systems. The gap is widening at an accelerating rate with the biggest impacts occurring at the distribution level due to the widespread adoption of diverse distribution-connected energy resources (DER) . This paper outlines the emerging distribution grid control environment, defines the new distribution control problem, and provides a distribution control reference model. The reference model offers a schematic representation of the problem domain to inform development of system architecture and control solutions for the high-DER electric system.

  5. The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maire, Nicolas; Hegnauer, Michael; Nguyen, Dana; Godelmann, Lucas; Hoffmann, Axel; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) is an eLearning tool for health cadres and scientists introducing basic concepts of sub-national, rational district-based health planning and systems thinking under resources constraint. HRAM allows the evaluation of resource allocation strategies in relation to key outcome measures such as coverage, equity of services achieved and number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented. In addition, the model takes into account geographical and demographic characteristics and populations' health seeking behaviour. It can be adapted to different socio-ecological and health system settings.

  6. Nurse Practitioner Curriculum for the 21st Century: A Model for Evaluation and Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagan, Mary Jo; Berg, Judy; Root, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Presents a model for revision of nurse practitioner curricula that has three components: (1) curriculum goals; (2) health policy and state regulation; and (3) community needs and demands. Describes data sources for the revision process: current students, graduates, faculty, community, and federal, state, and local agencies. (SK)

  7. Aquatic Ecosystem Services in the 21st Century Northeast Corridor: Assessment Using a Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R. J.; Wollheim, W. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Northeast United States will be significantly impacted by both global climate change and the regional-scale strategic management decisions made in the next few years. We have developed a Regional Earth System Model for the Northeast Corridor (NE-RESM) that simulates the impacts of climate, land use, and development policy on the interacting cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. The NE-RESM will provide a unique and critically needed tool for policymakers to understand how their current decisions will impact ecosystem services over the 21st Century. To test our modeling framework, we conducted a retrospective experiment focusing on the water-energy-economy nexus during the period 2000-2010. Component models were developed to 'translate' physical outputs from the NE-RESM - such as stream discharge and water temperature - into ecosystem services including water regulation for thermoelectric cooling and the ability for streams to serve as a refugia for wildlife. Simulations were performed both with and without Clean Water Act limits on thermal pollution. Through this work, we were able to obtain spatially distributed information on how these laws impact power generation by the thermoelectric sector but also enable Northeast streams to serve as habitat for temperature-sensitive aquatic species (Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, River Herring and the American Eel). Our ongoing research examines future climate and policy scenarios through 2100. We are considering the impact of changing land cover patterns (a return to agriculture vs. suburban sprawl) and various strategies to meet energy and municipal water needs under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5).

  8. A multi-model and multi-index evaluation of drought characteristics in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, Danielle; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Nayak, Munir A.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that can have severe and long-lasting impacts on natural and human systems. Although increases in global greenhouse forcing are expected to change the characteristics and impacts of drought in the 21st century, there remains persistent uncertainty about how changes in temperature, precipitation and soil moisture will interact to shape the magnitude - and in some cases direction - of drought in different areas of the globe. Using data from 15 global climate models archived in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we assess the likelihood of changes in the spatial extent, duration and number of occurrences of four drought indices: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Supply-Demand Drought Index (SDDI). We compare these characteristics in two future periods (2010-2054 and 2055-2099) of the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). We find increases from the baseline period (1961-2005) in the spatial extent, duration and occurrence of "exceptional" drought in subtropical and tropical regions, with many regions showing an increase in both the occurrence and duration. There is strong agreement on the sign of these changes among the individual climate models, although some regions do exhibit substantial uncertainty in the magnitude of change. The changes in SPEI and SDDI characteristics are stronger than the changes in SPI and SRI due to the greater influence of temperature changes in the SPEI and SDDI indices. In particular, we see a robust permanent emergence of the spatial extent of SDDI from the baseline variability in West, East and Saharan Africa as early as 2020 and by 2080 in several other subtropical and tropical regions. The increasing likelihood of exceptional drought identified in our results suggests increasing risk of drought-related stresses for natural and human systems should greenhouse gas

  9. Predicted 21st century changes in seasonal extreme precipitation events in the parallel climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael F.

    2004-06-07

    Twenty-year return value of annual and seasonal maxima of daily precipitation are calculated from a set of transiently forced coupled general circulation model simulations. The magnitude and pattern of return values are found to be highly dependent on the seasonal cycle. A similar dependence is found for projected future changes in return values. The correlation between the spatial pattern of return value changes and mean precipitation changes is found to be low. Hence, the changes in mean precipitation do not provide significant information about changes in precipitation extreme values.

  10. In Vitro Cerebrovascular Modeling in the 21st Century: Current and Prospective Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Palmiotti, Christopher A.; Prasad, Shikha; Naik, Pooja; Abul, Kaisar MD; Sajja, Ravi K.; Achyuta, Anilkumar H.; Cucullo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the brain homeostasis and dynamically responds to events associated with systemic and/or rheological impairments (e.g., inflammation, ischemia) including the exposure to harmful xenobiotics. Thus, understanding the BBB physiology is crucial for the resolution of major central nervous system CNS) disorders challenging both health care providers and the pharmaceutical industry. These challenges include drug delivery to the brain, neurological disorders, toxicological studies, and biodefense. Studies aimed at advancing our understanding of CNS diseases and promoting the development of more effective therapeutics are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, there are major hindering factors inherent to in vivo studies such as cost, limited throughput and translational significance to humans. These factors promoted the development of alternative in vitro strategies for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of the BBB in relation to brain disorders as well as screening tools to aid in the development of novel CNS drugs. Herein, we provide a detailed review including pros and cons of current and prospective technologies for modelling the BBB in vitro including ex situ, cell based and computational (in silico) models. A special section is dedicated to microfluidic systems including micro-BBB, BBB-on-a-chip, Neurovascular Unit-on-a-Chip and Synthetic Microvasculature Blood-Brain Barrier. PMID:25098812

  11. The Pittsburgh Reference Laboratory Alliance: a model for laboratory medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, J; Mango, P; McLinden, S; Becich, M J; Triulzi, D

    1997-04-01

    The Pittsburgh Reference Library Alliance (RLA) represents a successful response by hospital laboratories to the new realities of medical economics and practice. By using informatics technology to integrate the laboratory resources of community hospitals and academic medical centers across western Pennsylvania, the RLA has created a large virtual laboratory that can compete for price with large national referral laboratories. More significantly, the combination of medical expertise, the ties to academic and community centers, and the regional medical database of the RLAs allows laboratory medicine to be practiced in a new proactive way. This should provide better and more cost-effective patient care. The success of the RLA is a model for regional cooperation in pathology and potentially in other medical specialties and demonstrates the importance of informatics in the future of medical practice. PMID:9124206

  12. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, ... tone or your toddler's crying? Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets can be distracting from child-rearing, ...

  13. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  14. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  15. Projections of oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century using the IPSL Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2015-07-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known about how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. Assuming nitrification as the dominant N2O formation pathway, we implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production which differ primarily under low-oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high-CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12 % in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 TgN yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), i.e., in the eastern tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production, associated primarily with denitrification. While there are many uncertainties in the relative contribution and changes in the N2O production pathways, the increasing storage seems unequivocal and determines largely the decrease in N2O emissions in the future. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However

  16. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  17. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Laura C.; Stephenson, David B.; Lockwood, Julia F.; Maisey, Paul E.

    2016-08-01

    A decline in damaging European windstorms has led to a reduction in insured losses in the 21st century. This decline is explored by identifying a damaging windstorm characteristic and investigating how and why this characteristic has changed in recent years. This novel exploration is based on 6103 high-resolution model-generated historical footprints (1979-2014), representing the whole European domain. The footprint of a windstorm is defined as the maximum wind gust speed to occur at a set of spatial locations over the duration of the storm. The area of the footprint exceeding 20 ms-1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms-1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms-1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715) exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  18. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  19. Space power technology into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Faymon, K.A.; Fordyce, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the space power systems of the early 21st century. The focus is on those capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state-of-the-art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century. The power system technologies considered include solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state-of-the-art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  20. Creating a 21st-Century Intelligent Health System

    PubMed Central

    Newt, Gingrich; Nancy, Desmond

    2008-01-01

    In most areas of life, Americans enjoy the ease and convenience offered by advances in technology, communications, and transportation. Every day we experience the 21st-century model of America, which is one of effectiveness, accuracy, speed, flexibility, efficiency, lower cost, more choices, and greater achievement. We can shop online, compare prices for goods and services, and when decisions need to be made, we have access to a wide array of information sources to assist in making those decisions. In short, Americans enjoy great latitude in our power to determine what is best for us. This is not, however, the case when it comes to health and healthcare. In our current healthcare system, individuals are dependent on a structure that has resisted the natural progress and modernization achieved by market-oriented, 21st-century industries. The information age has been leaving health behind. Although it is the nature of a science- and technology-based entrepreneurial free market to provide more choices of higher quality at lower cost, in the healthcare sector, prices continue to rise, quality is inconsistent, and individuals lack the information, incentives, and power to make choices. PMID:25126206

  1. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Meinshausen, Malte; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Joos, Fortunat; Strassmann, Kuno M.; Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Den Elzen, Michel; Fujino, Junicho; Kejun, Jiang; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2008-10-06

    Estimates on 21st century global mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multi-gas mitigation scenarios now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. By combing emission pathway results from multiple energy-economic models, we show that these mitigation scenarios result in a range of 21st century temperature increase of 0.5 to 4.2°C over 1990 levels as compared to 1.3-7.3 °C for the no-policy cases. About half the range is due to differences in the assumed stringency of the global climate policy and half is due to uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system, specifically, the carbon cycle and climate sensitivity. A minimum warming of about 0.5-2.7°C (avg. 1.3oC) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here - highlighting the need for both emission mitigation and adaptation policies.

  2. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  3. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  4. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered. 8 refs.

  5. New model estimates of changes in the duration of the navigation period for the Northern Sea Route in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, I. I.; Khon, V. Ch.; Prokof'eva, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    New estimates of changes in the duration of the navigation period for the Northern Sea Route (NSR) are obtained based on calculations with the current generation of global climate models under moderate anthropogenic impacts in the 21st century. In order to obtain more reliable estimates, it was analyzed whether or not the present climate models can simulate both the average conditions of sea ice and their interannual variation and tendencies to change in the Arctic basin, in particular on the NSR, as compared to the satellite data for recent decades.

  6. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  7. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  8. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  9. Reliability for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Wilson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The sophistication of science and teclinology is growing almost exponentially. Government and industry are relying more and more on science's advanced methods to assess reliability coupled with pcrformance, safety, surety, cost, schedule, etc. Unfortunately, policy, cost, schedule, and other constraints imposed by the real world inhibit the ability of researchers to calculate these metrics efficiently and accurately using traditional methods. Because of such constraints, reliability must undergo an evolutionary change. The first step in this evolution is to reinterpret the concepts and responsibilities of scientists responsible for reliability calculations to meet the new century's needs. The next step is to mount a multidisciplinary approach to the quantification of reliability and its associated metrics using both empirical methods and auxiliary data sources, such as expert knowledge, corporate memory, and mathematical modeling and simulation.

  10. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  11. Predicting the future distribution of Polar Bear Habitat in the polar basin from resource selection functions applied to 21st century general circulation model projections of sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Douglas, David C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2007-01-01

    Predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) habitat distribution in the Arctic polar basin during the 21st century were developed to help understand the likely consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellite-collared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, coastlines, and sea ice) collected between 1985–1995 to build habitat use models called Resource Selection Functions (RSF). The RSFs described habitats polar bears preferred in each of four seasons: summer (ice minimum), autumn (growth), winter (ice maximum) and spring (melt). When applied to the model source data and to independent data (1996–2006), the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st century sea ice concentration predicted by 10 general circulation models (GCM) described in the International Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The 10 GCMs we used had high concordance between their simulations of 20th century summer sea ice extent and the actual ice extent derived from passive microwave satellite observations. Predictions of the amount and rate of change in polar bear habitat varied among GCMs, but all GCMs predicted net habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Projected losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the peripheral seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi Sea and Barents Sea. Losses were least in high-latitude regions where RSFs predicted an initial increase in optimal habitat followed by a modest decline. The largest seasonal reductions in habitat were predicted for spring and summer. Average area of optimal polar bear habitat during summer in the polar basin declined from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985–1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model average of 0.58 million km2 in 2045–2054 (-42% change), 0.36 million km2 in 2070–2079 (-64% change), and 0

  12. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  13. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  14. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions for…

  15. Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Maniotes, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    How can students learn to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and become lifelong learners in a rapidly changing information environment? How can students learn, create, and find meaning from multiple sources of information? These are fundamental questions facing educators in designing schools for 21st-century learners.…

  16. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  17. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  18. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  19. Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Kavalier, Barbara R.; Flannigan, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the 21st century, "literate" defined a person's ability to read and write, separating the educated from the uneducated. With the advent of a new millennium and the rapidity with which technology has changed society, the concept of literacy has assumed new meanings. Experts in the field suggest that the current generation of…

  20. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  1. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  2. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  3. Backers of "21st-Century Skills" Take Flak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "21st-century skills" is everywhere in education policy discussions these days, from faculty lounges to the highest echelons of the U.S. education system. Broadly speaking, it refers to a push for schools to teach critical-thinking, analytical, and technology skills, in addition to the "soft skills" of creativity, collaboration, and…

  4. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  5. Changing Chemical Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, George E.

    2005-01-01

    A change of science program to help graduate as well as undergraduate students to choose multidisciplinary careers in 21st century is discussed. This would help serve better not only to students but the entire profession of chemical science as well as the scientific proficiency of the entire country.

  6. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  7. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  8. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  9. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  10. Considerations for 21st-Century Disciplinary Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    While the conceiving of 21st-century schools has rightly included much discussion on curriculum and instruction, changing demands and conditions also present necessary changes in the way that student behavior is managed. A review of the literature on student discipline over the past decade reveals three particular issues that warrant attention in…

  11. Higher Education in International Perspective - Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G.

    This book presents a collection of essays dealing with key issues and trends facing the future of higher education on the international level as the world moves into the 21st century. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges" (Torsten Husen); "Patterns in Higher…

  12. Defining Postsecondary Degrees in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kenneth I.; Guffey, James; Oliverio, Ponzio

    2016-01-01

    The competition for jobs in the 21st century is increasingly being driven by defining postsecondary learning in light of new and complex environments. To succeed, students must be prepared with knowledge to compete in these environments. Historically, higher education has defined these requirements in their own terms, often through learning…

  13. Parenting in the 21st Century: A Return to Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Yolanda K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Parents are potentially the most influential individuals in children's lives. The 21st Century parent has to compete, however, with multiple sources of information, both human and nonhuman, (e.g. children's peers, non-familial adults, TV, technology gadgets, Internet) in shaping the minds, values, and beliefs of children. In the absence of a…

  14. Universal Education: A Goal for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, W. Douglas

    The most important worldwide goal of the 21st century should be universal education; that is, by the year 2099, every child, no matter where, should have access to free, state-sponsored education for 12 years. In committing themselves to the 100-year goal, each nation should keep in mind these 5 important facts: (1) within a nation with sufficient…

  15. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  16. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  17. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  18. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  19. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  20. Engineering Education for Leadership in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirasinghe, Chan

    The engineering profession and, consequently, the education process for engineers must respond to several new realities in order to be successful in the 21st century. Some aspects of the new reality that are relevant to engineering education are as follows: the globalization of commerce; the information revolution; innovations in technology; the…

  1. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  2. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help Wanted:…

  3. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  4. Evidence-Based Strategies for Leading 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    How can a school best use technology for teaching and learning? This inspiring book profiles eight visionary schools that are achievers in how they approach technology. In this companion to "Leading 21st Century Schools," Lynne Schrum and Barbara Levin offer insights direct from principals, teachers, superintendents, and others involved in…

  5. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  6. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  7. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  8. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  9. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  10. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  11. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  12. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  13. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  14. Educator or Bully? Managing the 21st Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Educator or Bully?" offers a comprehensive approach to classroom management for both novice and veteran teachers who are interested in examining their current classroom management performance, especially with respect to how it reflects the characteristics of the 21st century classroom. Practices presented are based on sound educational theory.…

  15. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  16. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  17. Multimodel assessment of the factors driving stratospheric ozone evolution over the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.; Nielsen, J. E.; Olivié, D.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J.; Rozanov, E.; Shepherd, T. G.; Shibata, K.; Stolarski, R. S.; TeyssèDre, H.; Tian, W.; Yamashita, Y.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  18. PR in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  19. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  20. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  1. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  2. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  3. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  4. The NOAA Archives of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K. S.; Relph, J.; Kihn, E.; Bates, J. J.; McCulloch, L.; McDonald, K. R.; Vizbulis, R.

    2009-12-01

    Early in the 21st century, the Open Archival Information System Reference Model (OAIS-RM) swept across the international digital archive community, bringing with it a common language and functional framework for the long term preservation of environmental information. The OAIS-RM has had a significant impact within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), where the archive-related roles and responsibilities of the various offices and entities within the agency were not clearly identified. This lack of clarity was especially acute with respect to interactions between the three NOAA National Data Centers - Oceanographic, Climatic, and Geophysical - and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). Through 2008 and 2009, each of these offices individually, then together as a group, undertook an extensive mapping of their existing and planned capabilities to the functional entities of the OAIS-RM. The result of this process was a new clarity which puts the Data Centers forth as the NOAA Archives, with CLASS as the critical supporting information technology (IT) infrastructure. Under this new paradigm, the Data Centers lead all interactions with both data producers and consumers, reflecting their more discipline-focused involvement with and understanding of the designated communities they serve. The CLASS infrastructure focuses now on meeting the common IT requirements of the three Data Centers, reflecting its capabilities and expertise in designing and deploying rigorous IT systems. The new paradigm is allowing NOAA to move forward together in a more unified and cooperative manner, better aligned to meet the 21st century challenges of data stewardship.

  5. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  6. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  7. Creating 21st Century Classrooms: What District Level Instructional Leaders Know about Leading 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Jeff Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Common Core standards and 21st century instruction are topics at the forefront of current educational literature (Greenstein, 2012; Long, 2012; Sheninger & Larkin, 2012; Wilson, 2006). Though Common Core standards may provide a foundation for the literacy and numeracy that has been identified in preparation for college and career, even Common…

  8. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  9. Gerontological nursing in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Burggraf, V; Barry, R

    1998-06-01

    The approaching millennium brings not only a muted but also a challenging vision for the future of gerontological nursing. This vision is muted by the rhetoric of the 90s dictating the elimination of costly programs with the potential to diminish quality. It is a vision of challenge to advocate for, protect, demand, and create a new framework that will guarantee high-quality health care for older patients. In an attempt to clarify that vision, this article outlines three areas of gerontological nursing: education, practice, and research. The future direction in these areas will dictate how collective thinking can support health care for older people in the next century and beyond. These components of nursing must be integrated to develop quality care needed by older patients.

  10. Corneal infections in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Corbett, Melanie C

    2015-10-01

    Ninety years ago, the first issue of the Postgraduate Medical Journal published a review of an article written by Mr Robert Lindsay-Rea, a consultant ophthalmic surgeon in the Western Ophthalmic Hospital and an oculist in the West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases, entitled "A preliminary report on the treatment of keratitis". Today, microbial keratitis remains an important cause of avoidable visual impairment in the world. The aetiology of microbial keratitis has changed greatly over the past century due to the discovery of antibiotics, improvement in sanitation and education, the rising trend of contact lens wear and increased air travel. Significant advances have also been made in our understanding and management of this important disorder. This article highlights some of these changes and discusses the current management and research.

  11. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    PubMed

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato

    2016-09-01

    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside. PMID:27630274

  12. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  13. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley rising branch. Model results suggest that the narrowing of the Hadley cell ascent is also eddy-driven.

  14. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  15. Talents for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Michael, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of a Texas journal on gifted education focuses on future challenges and options. "A Thoughtful Look at the Concept of Talent Development" (Francoys Gagne) discusses definitions of giftedness and talent and describes a differentiated model of giftedness and talent that includes five aptitude domains: intellectual, creative,…

  16. Personality Theories for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Classic personality theories, although intriguing, are outdated. The five-factor model of personality traits reinvigorated personality research, and the resulting findings spurred a new generation of personality theories. These theories assign a central place to traits and acknowledge the crucial role of evolved biology in shaping human…

  17. Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Much of what teachers need to know to be successful is invisible to lay observers, leading to the view that teaching requires little formal study and to frequent disdain for teacher education programs. The weakness of traditional program models that are collections of largely unrelated courses reinforce this low regard. This article argues that we…

  18. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  19. Molecular parasitology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases, and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations has converted them into model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. In the present chapter we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study.

  20. Research universities for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-05-01

    The `public outcomes` from research universities are educated students and research that extends the frontiers of knowledge. Measures of these `public outcomes` are inadequate to permit either research or education consumers to select research universities based on quantitative performance data. Research universities annually spend over $20 billion on research; 60% of these funds are provided by Federal sources. Federal funding for university research has recently grown at an annual rate near 6% during a time period when other performers of Federal research have experienced real funding cuts. Ten universities receive about 25% of the Federal funds spent on university research. Numerous studies of US research universities are reporting storm clouds. Concerns include balancing research and teaching, the narrow focus of engineering education, college costs, continuing education, and public funding of foreign student education. The absence of research on the `public outcomes` from university research results in opinion, politics, and mythology forming the basis of too many decisions. Therefore, the authors recommend studies of other nations` research universities, studies of various economic models of university research, analysis of the peer review process and how well it identifies the most capable research practitioners and at what cost, and studies of research university ownership of intellectual property that can lead to increased `public outcomes` from publicly-funded research performed by research universities. They advocate two practices that could increase the `public outcomes` from university research. These are the development of science roadmaps that link science research to `public outcomes` and `public outcome` metrics. Changes in the university research culture and expanded use of the Internet could also lead to increased `public outcomes`. They recommend the use of tax incentives to encourage companies to develop research partnerships with research

  1. Crystallographic education in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Gražulis, Saulius; Sarjeant, Amy Alexis; Moeck, Peter; Stone-Sundberg, Jennifer; Snyder, Trevor J.; Kaminsky, Werner; Oliver, Allen G.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Dawe, Louise N.; Rychkov, Denis A.; Losev, Evgeniy A.; Boldyreva, Elena V.; Tanski, Joseph M.; Bernstein, Joel; Rabeh, Wael M.; Kantardjieff, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    There are many methods that can be used to incorporate concepts of crystallography into the learning experiences of students, whether they are in elementary school, at university or part of the public at large. It is not always critical that those who teach crystallography have immediate access to diffraction equipment to be able to introduce the concepts of symmetry, packing or molecular structure in an age- and audience-appropriate manner. Crystallography can be used as a tool for teaching general chemistry concepts as well as general research techniques without ever having a student determine a crystal structure. Thus, methods for younger students to perform crystal growth experiments of simple inorganic salts, organic compounds and even metals are presented. For settings where crystallographic instrumentation is accessible (proximally or remotely), students can be involved in all steps of the process, from crystal growth, to data collection, through structure solution and refinement, to final publication. Several approaches based on the presentations in the MS92 Microsymposium at the IUCr 23rd Congress and General Assembly are reported. The topics cover methods for introducing crystallography to undergraduate students as part of a core chemistry curriculum; a successful short-course workshop intended to bootstrap researchers who rely on crystallography for their work; and efforts to bring crystallography to secondary school children and non-science majors. In addition to these workshops, demonstrations and long-format courses, open-format crystallographic databases and three-dimensional printed models as tools that can be used to excite target audiences and inspire them to pursue a deeper understanding of crystallography are described. PMID:26664347

  2. Photometric calibrations for 21st century science

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Deustua, Susana E.; Smith, J.Allyn; Adelman, Saul; Allam, Sahar S.; Baptista, Brian; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Clem, James L.; Conley, Alex; Edelstein, Jerry; /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /NOAO, Tucson

    2009-02-01

    The answers to fundamental science questions in astrophysics, ranging from the history of the expansion of the universe to the sizes of nearby stars, hinge on our ability to make precise measurements of diverse astronomical objects. As our knowledge of the underlying physics of objects improves along with advances in detectors and instrumentation, the limits on our capability to extract science from measurements is set, not by our lack of understanding of the nature of these objects, but rather by the most mundane of all issues: the precision with which we can calibrate observations in physical units. In principle, photometric calibration is a solved problem - laboratory reference standards such as blackbody furnaces achieve precisions well in excess of those needed for astrophysics. In practice, however, transferring the calibration from these laboratory standards to astronomical objects of interest is far from trivial - the transfer must reach outside the atmosphere, extend over 4{pi} steradians of sky, cover a wide range of wavelengths, and span an enormous dynamic range in intensity. Virtually all spectrophotometric observations today are calibrated against one or more stellar reference sources, such as Vega, which are themselves tied back to laboratory standards in a variety of ways. This system's accuracy is not uniform. Selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are calibrated extremely well, but discontinuities of a few percent still exist, e.g., between the optical and infrared. Independently, model stellar atmospheres are used to calibrate the spectra of selected white dwarf stars, e.g. the HST system, but the ultimate accuracy of this system should be verified against laboratory sources. Our traditional standard star systems, while sufficient until now, need to be improved and extended in order to serve future astrophysics experiments. This white paper calls for a program to improve upon and expand the current networks of spectrophotometrically

  3. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  4. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  5. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  6. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  7. 77 FR 47432 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation...

  8. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  10. Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Waugh, D. W.; Bodeker, G. E.; Cordero, E.; Akiyoshi, H.; Austin, J.; Beagley, S. R.; Boville, B. A.; Braesicke, P.; Brühl, C.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dameris, M.; Deckert, R.; Deushi, M.; Frith, S. M.; Garcia, R. R.; Gettelman, A.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Mancini, E.; Manzini, E.; Marsh, D. R.; Matthes, S.; Nagashima, T.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Pawson, S.; Pitari, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Scinocca, J. F.; Semeniuk, K.; Shepherd, T. G.; Shibata, K.; Steil, B.; Stolarski, R. S.; Tian, W.; Yoshiki, M.

    2007-08-01

    Simulations from eleven coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs) employing nearly identical forcings have been used to project the evolution of stratospheric ozone throughout the 21st century. The model-to-model agreement in projected temperature trends is good, and all CCMs predict continued, global mean cooling of the stratosphere over the next 5 decades, increasing from around 0.25 K/decade at 50 hPa to around 1 K/decade at 1 hPa under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. In general, the simulated ozone evolution is mainly determined by decreases in halogen concentrations and continued cooling of the global stratosphere due to increases in greenhouse gases (GHGs). Column ozone is projected to increase as stratospheric halogen concentrations return to 1980s levels. Because of ozone increases in the middle and upper stratosphere due to GHG-induced cooling, total ozone averaged over midlatitudes, outside the polar regions, and globally, is projected to increase to 1980 values between 2035 and 2050 and before lower-stratospheric halogen amounts decrease to 1980 values. In the polar regions the CCMs simulate small temperature trends in the first and second half of the 21st century in midwinter. Differences in stratospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly) among the CCMs are key to diagnosing the intermodel differences in simulated ozone recovery, in particular in the Antarctic. It is found that there are substantial quantitative differences in the simulated Cly, with the October mean Antarctic Cly peak value varying from less than 2 ppb to over 3.5 ppb in the CCMs, and the date at which the Cly returns to 1980 values varying from before 2030 to after 2050. There is a similar variation in the timing of recovery of Antarctic springtime column ozone back to 1980 values. As most models underestimate peak Cly near 2000, ozone recovery in the Antarctic could occur even later, between 2060 and 2070. In the

  11. Methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes during the 21st century: An analysis with process-based models of lake evolution and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2015-12-01

    The importance of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the global carbon cycle has been suggested by recent studies. These studies indicated that climate change influences this methane source mainly in two ways: the warming of lake sediments and the evolution of thermokarst lakes. Few studies have been conducted to quantify the two impacts together in a unified modeling framework. Here we adapt a region-specific lake evolution model to the pan-Arctic scale and couple it with a lake methane biogeochemical model to quantify the change of this freshwater methane source in the 21st century. Our simulations show that the extent of thaw lakes will increase throughout the 21st century in the northern lowlands of the pan-Arctic where the reworking of epigenetic ice in drained lake basins will continue. The projected methane emissions by 2100 are 28.3 ± 4.5 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a low warming scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6) and 32.7 ± 5.2 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a high warming scenario (RCP 8.5), which are about 2.5 and 2.9 times the simulated present-day emissions. Most of the emitted methane originates from nonpermafrost carbon stock. For permafrost carbon, the methanogenesis will mineralize a cumulative amount of 3.4 ± 0.8 Pg C under RCP 2.6 and 3.9 ± 0.9 Pg C under RCP 8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The projected emissions could increase atmospheric methane concentrations by 55.0-69.3 ppb. This study further indicates that the warming of lake sediments dominates the increase of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the future.

  12. Hotter days and droughts to continue through the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    As heat waves become more frequent and droughts cause famines and drive up food prices, climate policies will need to account for changes in extremes in temperature and precipitation, as global mean temperatures continue to rise through the 21st century. Using HadGEM2, a new ocean-atmosphere coupled climate model, Caesar and Lowe investigated the effects of different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios on maximum and minimum air temperatures as well as on the amounts of rainfall in different parts of the world. The authors compared two scenarios through the 21st century, the first one with an aggressive mitigation scenario, in which global emissions begin to decrease in the early 21st century and reach nearly zero by 2100; the second scenario had no mitigation. The researchers' results show that extreme temperatures would scale with increasing mean temperature, at least until the middle of the 21st century: As air temperatures increase, countries across the globe would experience hotter days and an increasing number of heat waves, even with aggressive mitigation. However, mitigation may provide some amelioration, particularly through the second half of the 21st century; the northern midlatitudes would benefit most from mitigation measures, although northern South America and parts of the United States, Africa, and Asia could also avoid large increases in extreme temperature maxima by following similar mitigation policies.

  13. Demanding excellence in the 21st century 1

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Chiropractic theory and development is briefly explored and compared with contemporary medical theory. Theoretical and philosophical assumptions in chiropractic, this writer predicts, may be challenged and altered in the 21st century. Technological advances and a slow trend in chiropractic toward a more scientific basis may result in improved theory, practice, and utilization in the next century. In order for such advances to occur, however, the profession must change some deeply rooted attitudes regarding scientific research and practice, adopt new attitudes regarding the need for clinical research, and ultimately become consumers of chiropractic research and of chiropractic techniques that have been subject to research.

  14. Carbon Residence Time Explains Changes in Predicted 21st Century Vegetation Carbon across CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Liang, J.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Global averaged surface temperature has increased by 0.6 °C over the period 1986 to 2005; and will continue rising 1.0-3.7 °C during the last 30 years of this century. Land ecosystems can sequester approximately one third of annual anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, dynamics of land sink is one of the key components to determine the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and accordingly surface temperature. The accuracy of predicted surface temperature will largely depend on the uncertainty of predicted land carbon uptake. Unfortunately, the uncertainties of future land sink predicted by Earth System Models (ESMs) involved in CMIP5 turned out to be very large. The spread of the land carbon uptake within a specific Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenario was larger than those variation between the four scenarios. Moreover, predicted soil carbon stocks by the end of this century extended to a wide range. Quantifying the uncertainties in predicted vegetation carbon and identifying the causes for the uncertainties will help improve ESMs' performance and give the priorities for model development. In this study, we investigated uncertainties in projections of vegetation carbon by twelve CMIP5 ESMs during the twenty-first century and explored the sources of uncertainties across the models. We found that the predicted changes of vegetation carbon by the end of this century varied quite much across the ESMs under the RCP8.5 scenario, from declining of 190 Pg C to increasing of 320 Pg C. These changes of vegetation carbon can be attributed mostly to the changes in carbon residence time, rather than net primary productivity. We further investigated model's differences in their responses of vegetation carbon to temperature, precipitation and CO2 among the ESMs. Our results have the potential to help improve CMIP5 ESMs for more reliable predictions.

  15. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  16. Modeled changes in extreme wave climate for US and US-affiliated Pacific Islands during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, J. B.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Erikson, L. H.; Hegermiller, C.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Waves are the dominant spatially- and temporally-varying processes that influence the coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact the coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of these islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5., for Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive the global WAVEWATCH III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific. Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall, the December-February extreme significant wave heights increase from present to mid century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights decrease throughout the century. Peak wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line through all seasons, whereas peak periods increase in the eastern half of the study area; these trends are smaller during December-February and greatest during June-August. Extreme wave directions in equatorial Micronesia during June-August undergo an approximate 30 degree counter-clockwise rotation from primarily northwest to west. The spatial patterns and trends are similar between the two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios, with the magnitude of the trends greater for the higher scenario.

  17. 21st century projections of ocean ecology and productivity across the CMIP5 models: contrasting the Southern Ocean and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Leung, S.

    2014-12-01

    We use the newest generation of fully-coupled earth system models to study and contrast the response of Southern Ocean and Arctic phytoplankton productivity and biomass to 21st century climate change. The Arctic is warming at a rate much higher than the Southern high latitudes. Despite fundamental differences between the physical responses to climate in these regions, CMIP5 modes predict small increases in biological production both in the SO and the Arctic, partially compensating for the severe loss of primary production in the rest of the oceans. South of 40ºS, the CMIP5 models predict a complex, zonally-banded pattern of phytoplankton abundance and productivity changes driven by shifts in light and iron availability with future warming, in agreement with patterns and mechanisms emerging from a satellite trend analysis and other recent observational work. Increased SAM plays a major role in these projections, as increased Southern Ocean westerlies act both to increase mixing and phytoplankton light limitation in a band around 50S, and to modify iron supply to the surface in regions where phytoplankton are iron limited. By contrast, phytoplankton are light and nitrate co-limited in the strongly stratified Arctic ocean. Here we find that over 100 years, release of light limitation due to sea ice retreat is counter-balanced by an increase in nitrogen limitation due to increased stratification. While most models predict net increases in Arctic production by the end of the 21st century, the different strengths of nutrient-light co-limitation among models result in different magnitude changes in production across models. We assess the multi-model 100-year trend significance using a novel technique based on bootstrap combined with a weighting scheme based in similarity across models. We find that model uncertainty in ecological and biogeochemical parameters is higher than for the physical parameters. Additionally, the spread in model predictions is smaller than the

  18. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Jóhannesson, T.; Hannesdóttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

    2011-04-01

    The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeast coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1986, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936-1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by DGPS and correlation of SPOT5 images. The 21% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895-2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios from a study of the effect of climate change on energy production in the Nordic countries (the CES project). If the average climate of 2000-2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century, and the glacier will almost disappear if the climate warms as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30-40 years and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

  19. Changing the Clinical Psychology Training Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper proposes that the American Psychological Association establish a standard model of training for doctoral programs in clinical psychology requiring a specific number of credits, along with specific course recommendations appropriate for practice in the 21st century. This model should reflect the impact of psychology on the biological…

  20. Human hookworm infection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.

  1. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  2. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  3. Buildings for the 21st Century, Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The spring issue contains information on a series of high-performance building brochures, the State Energy Program, a new modular and manufactured home, a new buildings database, solid-state ceramic lighting, weatherization, simplified Web site addresses, a Colorado home builder, and upcoming events and meetings.

  4. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  5. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  6. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  7. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    PubMed

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  8. Adapting human lifestyles for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Howard, G S

    2000-05-01

    A number of ecological problems (e.g., global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, acid rain) have been identified, which threaten to reduce the quality of human life in the 21st century. These problems are human produced, resulting primarily from over-population and over-consumption. Alterations in people's awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors may stimulate changes in their political and economic systems, which in turn might foster the kind of lifestyle changes that could mitigate these ecological problems. Psychologists can play a role in helping individuals and systems advance toward the goal of becoming a sustainable society: one that satisfies its current needs without jeopardizing the prospects of future generations.

  9. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  10. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    PubMed

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  11. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge. PMID:21149687

  12. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  13. The importance of sea-ice area biases in 21st century multi-model projections of Antarctic net precipitation and temperature and their relative change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models exhibit large biases in sea ice area (SIA) in their historical simulations. This study has explored the impacts of these biases on multi-model uncertainty in CMIP5 ensemble projections of 21st century change in Antarctic surface temperature, net precipitation and SIA. The analysis is based on time slice climatologies in the RCP8.5 future scenario (2070-2099) and historical (1970-1999) simulations across 37 different CMIP5 models. Projected changes in net precipitation, temperature and SIA are found to be strongly associated with simulated historical mean SIA (e.g. cross-model correlations of r = 0.77, 0.70 and -0.86, respectively). Furthermore, historical SIA bias is found to have a large impact on the simulated ratio between net precipitation response and temperature response. This ratio is smaller in models with smaller-than-observed historical SIA. These findings are particularly relevant to quantifying and reducing model uncertainty in projections of Antarctic surface mass balance and associated contributions to sea level change.

  14. 21st Century Skills: What Are They and How Do We Assess Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the "hottest" topics in the educational measurement community in the past decade has been the assessment of 21st century skills. This special issue demonstrates work being performed in this realm. The present article provides a context for the four primary articles that follow and a brief but broad view of some models of 21st…

  15. Weather, Climate, Web 2.0: 21st Century Students Speak Climate Science Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Cheryl White; Kennedy, Teresa; Odell, Michael R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) employ extensive scaffolding that results in cognitive load reduction and allows students to learn in complex domains. Hybrid teacher professional development models (PDM) using 21st century social collaboration tools embedding PBL and IL shows promise as a systemic approach for increasing…

  16. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  17. Rethinking and Retooling for the 21st Century: A Must for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The principal's role must change to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Administrative thinking must shift from efficiency to effectiveness. This article presents an Iceberg Model to enable the administrator to become an instructional leader by building a knowledge base, developing a philosophy and vision, and modifying observable behavior.…

  18. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  19. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  20. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  1. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  2. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  3. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  4. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  5. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW) memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs). The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification. PMID:20226073

  6. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  7. Can uncertainties in sea ice albedo reconcile patterns of data-model discord for the Pliocene and 20th/21st centuries?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Francis, Jane E; Hill, Daniel J.; Pickering, Steven J.; Pope, James O; Salzmann, Ulrich; Wade, Bidget S

    2014-01-01

    General Circulation Model simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Myr ago) currently underestimate the level of warming that proxy data suggest existed at high latitudes, with discrepancies of up to 11°C for sea surface temperature estimates and 17°C for surface air temperature estimates. Sea ice has a strong influence on high-latitude climates, partly due to the albedo feedback. We present results demonstrating the effects of reductions in minimum sea ice albedo limits in general circulation model simulations of the mPWP. While mean annual surface air temperature increases of up to 6°C are observed in the Arctic, the maximum decrease in model-data discrepancies is just 0.81°C. Mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by up to 2°C, with a maximum model-data discrepancy improvement of 1.31°C. It is also suggested that the simulation of observed 21st century sea ice decline could be influenced by the adjustment of the sea ice albedo parameterization.

  8. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.

    The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to centuries and millennia. The

  9. Formative Report on the District of Columbia 21st Century Community Learning Center Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Chaplin, Duncan

    This report describes the implementation of the DC 21st Century Learning Centers (DC 21st CCLC) Summer 2000 program, which enrolled about 1,000 children attending 9 middle and junior high schools. The report is designed to provide feedback to managers of the DC 21st CCLC program and to inform Children and Youth Investment Partnership, of which DC…

  10. Advances in Haematological Pharmacotherapy in 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2010-01-01

    Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein molecules, recombinant molecules, newer immunomodulators, enzyme replacement therapy and above all a plethora of targetted molecules targeting innumerable pathways involved in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis has given immense number of clinically usable molecules in the hand of modern haematologists to treat diverse hitherto untreatable haematological disorders effectively. In addition many old molecules are finding newer uses in diverse fields, thalidomide as an antiangiogenic molecule is a prime example of this genre. Present overview has tried to capture this rapidly evolving area in a broad canvas without going into details of indications and contraindications of the use of various drugs. PMID:21629633

  11. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  12. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  13. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  14. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented.

  15. Quo vadimus? The 21st Century and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Allan D.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is related of computer driven multimedia to the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP). Multimedia is defined here as computer integration and output of text, animation, audio, video, and graphics. Multimedia is the stage of computer based information that allows access to experience. The concepts are also drawn in of hypermedia, intermedia, interactive multimedia, hypertext, imaging, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Examples of these technology developments are given for NASA, private industry, and academia. Examples of concurrent technology developments and implementations are given to show how these technologies, along with multimedia, have put us at the threshold of the 21st century. The STI Program sees multimedia as an opportunity for revolutionizing the way STI is managed.

  16. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  17. Novel Propulsion and Power Concepts for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA s vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and NO(x)). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. And the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions.

  18. Challenges facing occupational health services in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, P

    1999-12-01

    The mission and tasks of occupational health services are reviewed in the context of the global megatrends of productivity increase, population overgrowth, and the implications of changes in the technology of information and communication. Current trends in attempts to achieve harmonization with respect to the concept and tasks of occupational health services in the European Union are described, along with the basic features of occupational health services as a human service organization with implications for the setting of objectives and criteria for assessing quality and performance and ethics. The need to adopt a quality-focused approach to occupational health service programs is emphasized, and some of the inhibitions and obstacles to quality work are mentioned. The need for professional commitment to develop and implement quality concepts is outlined. Evidence-based health care in the setting of occupational health services and some salient aspects of professional ethics in the 21st century are commented on.

  19. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  20. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  1. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  2. A potential 21st century satellite communications application - Personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, E. K.; Douville, R.

    1990-03-01

    It has been forecast that not only will the future needs for satellite communications grow, especially in the area of broadcasting and mobile services, but also that the requirements will be diversified. For voice and data traffic, satellite communications started with the requirements of the telephone companies. Over the past few years, with the availability of Ku-band and VSAT systems, private business networks have emerged. Heading into the 21st century, satellite communications will expand into the personal services domain. This paper describes a concept for a satellite-based personal radio system. To realize the personal communications system, the portable terminals have to be inexpensive and small, similar to the present portable or handheld cellular radio-phones in size. The system aspects, such as selection of frequency band, multiple access and payload configuration will be addressed. The advanced technology required for the portable personal satellite communications system will be discussed.

  3. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  4. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented. PMID:11167577

  5. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives.

  6. Partnership 2000: a journey to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hepner, L F; Hopkins, L G

    2000-01-01

    Building partnerships is a valuable strategy for achieving success in forming a strong foundation for nursing in the 21st century. The demands of the changing health care environment require that managers and staff change the context in which patient care delivery is accomplished. Managers must be willing to unleash the power of the human capital of staff nurses. Staff nurses must be willing to take a seat at the table and share the leadership role with their manager. Both must engage in building an environment that facilitates continued learning, establishes effective relationships with other health care team members and patients, creates an environment that attracts and retains professional nursing staff, expects professional development from one another, and realizes that collective accountability can be achieved through sharing the leadership.

  7. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  8. 77 FR 33479 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  9. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  10. Continued increase in atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude in the 21st century projected by the CMIP5 Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the Northern Hemisphere, atmospheric CO2 concentration declines in spring and summer, and rises in fall and winter. Ground-based and aircraft-based observation records indicate that the amplitude of this seasonal cycle has increased in the past. Will this trend continue in the future? In this paper, we analyzed simulations for historical (1850-2005) and future (RCP8.5, 2006-2100) periods produced by 10 Earth system models participating in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Our results present a model consensus that the increase of CO2 seasonal amplitude continues throughout the 21st century. Multi-model ensemble relative amplitude of detrended global mean CO2 seasonal cycle increases by 62 ± 19% in 2081-2090, compared to 1961-1970. This amplitude increase corresponds to a 68 ± 25% increase in net biosphere production (NBP). The results show that the increase of NBP amplitude mainly comes from enhanced ecosystem uptake during Northern Hemisphere growing season under future CO2 and temperature conditions. Separate analyses on net primary production (NPP) and respiration reveal that enhanced ecosystem carbon uptake contributes about 75% of the amplitude increase. Stimulated by higher CO2 concentration and high-latitude warming, enhanced NPP likely outcompetes increased respiration at higher temperature, resulting in a higher net uptake during the northern growing season. The zonal distribution and spatial pattern of NBP change suggest that regions north of 45° N dominate the amplitude increase. Models that simulate a stronger carbon uptake also tend to show a larger increase of NBP seasonal amplitude, and the cross-model correlation is significant (R=0.73, p< 0.05).

  11. Changes in interannual climate sensitivities of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 21st century predicted by CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongwen; Wang, Tao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial carbon fluxes are sensitive to climate change, but the interannual climate sensitivity of the land carbon cycle can also change with time. We analyzed the changes in responses of net biome production (NBP), net primary production (NPP), and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) to interannual climate variations over the 21st century in the Earth System Models (ESMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. Under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5, interannual temperature sensitivities of NBP (γTempNBP), NPP (γTempNPP), and Rh (γTempRh) remain relatively stable at global scale, yet with large differences among ESMs and spatial heterogeneity. Modeled γTempNPP and γTempRh appear to increase in parallel in boreal regions, resulting in unchanged γTempNBP. Tropical γTempNBP decreases in most models, due to decreasing γTempNPP and relatively stable γTempRh. Across models, the changes in γTempNBP can be mainly explained by changes in γTempNPP rather than changes in γTempRh, at both global and regional scales. Interannual precipitation sensitivities of global NBP (γPrecNBP), NPP (γPrecNPP), and Rh (γPrecRh) are predicted not to change significantly, with large differences among ESMs. Across models, the changes in γPrecNBP can be mainly explained by changes in γPrecNPP rather than changes in γPrecRh in temperate regions, but not in other regions. Changes in the interannual climate sensitivities of carbon fluxes are consistent across RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 but larger in more intensive scenarios. More effort should be considered to improve terrestrial carbon flux responses to interannual climate variability, e.g., incorporating biogeochemical processes of nutrient limitation, permafrost dynamics, and microbial decomposition.

  12. Assessing Agricultural Risks of Climate Change in the 21st Century in a Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Elliott, Joshua; Deryng, Delphine; Ruane, Alex C.; Mueller, Christoph; Arneth, Almut; Boote, Kenneth J.; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Khabarov, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the results from an intercomparison of multiple global gridded crop models (GGCMs) within the framework of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project and the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project. Results indicate strong negative effects of climate change, especially at higher levels of warming and at low latitudes; models that include explicit nitrogen stress project more severe impacts. Across seven GGCMs, five global climate models, and four representative concentration pathways, model agreement on direction of yield changes is found in many major agricultural regions at both low and high latitudes; however, reducing uncertainty in sign of response in mid-latitude regions remains a challenge. Uncertainties related to the representation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and high temperature effects demonstrated here show that further research is urgently needed to better understand effects of climate change on agricultural production and to devise targeted adaptation strategies.

  13. Assessing agricultural risks of climate change in the 21st century in a global gridded crop model intercomparison

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Deryng, Delphine; Ruane, Alex C.; Müller, Christoph; Arneth, Almut; Boote, Kenneth J.; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Khabarov, Nikolay; Neumann, Kathleen; Piontek, Franziska; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin; Stehfest, Elke; Yang, Hong; Jones, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present the results from an intercomparison of multiple global gridded crop models (GGCMs) within the framework of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project and the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project. Results indicate strong negative effects of climate change, especially at higher levels of warming and at low latitudes; models that include explicit nitrogen stress project more severe impacts. Across seven GGCMs, five global climate models, and four representative concentration pathways, model agreement on direction of yield changes is found in many major agricultural regions at both low and high latitudes; however, reducing uncertainty in sign of response in mid-latitude regions remains a challenge. Uncertainties related to the representation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and high temperature effects demonstrated here show that further research is urgently needed to better understand effects of climate change on agricultural production and to devise targeted adaptation strategies. PMID:24344314

  14. Assessing agricultural risks of climate change in the 21st century in a global gridded crop model intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Deryng, Delphine; Ruane, Alex C; Müller, Christoph; Arneth, Almut; Boote, Kenneth J; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Khabarov, Nikolay; Neumann, Kathleen; Piontek, Franziska; Pugh, Thomas A M; Schmid, Erwin; Stehfest, Elke; Yang, Hong; Jones, James W

    2014-03-01

    Here we present the results from an intercomparison of multiple global gridded crop models (GGCMs) within the framework of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project and the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project. Results indicate strong negative effects of climate change, especially at higher levels of warming and at low latitudes; models that include explicit nitrogen stress project more severe impacts. Across seven GGCMs, five global climate models, and four representative concentration pathways, model agreement on direction of yield changes is found in many major agricultural regions at both low and high latitudes; however, reducing uncertainty in sign of response in mid-latitude regions remains a challenge. Uncertainties related to the representation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and high temperature effects demonstrated here show that further research is urgently needed to better understand effects of climate change on agricultural production and to devise targeted adaptation strategies.

  15. Continued increase in atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude in the 21st century projected by the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.

    2014-06-01

    Superimposed on the continued increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is a prominent seasonal cycle. Ground-based and aircraft-based observation records show that the amplitude of this seasonal cycle has increased. Will this trend continue into future? In this paper, we analyzed simulations for historical (1850-2005) and future (RCP8.5, 2006-2100) periods produced by 10 Earth System Models participating the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Our results show a model consensus that the increase of CO2 seasonal amplitude continues throughout the 21st century. The seasonal amplitude of the multi-model global mean detrended CO2 increases from 1.6 ppm during 1961-1970 to 2.7 ppm during 2081-2090, and the mean relative amplitude increases by 62 ± 19%. This increase is dominated by a 68 ± 25% increase from Net Biosphere Production (NBP). We then show the increase of NBP amplitude mainly comes from enhanced ecosystem uptake during Northern Hemisphere growing season under future CO2 and temperature conditions. Separate analyses on net primary production and respiration reveal that enhanced ecosystem carbon uptake contributes to about 75% of the amplitude increase. Stimulated by higher CO2 concentration and high-latitude warming, enhanced net primary production likely outcompetes increased respiration at higher temperature. Zonal distribution and the spatial pattern of NBP change suggest that regions north of 45° N dominate the amplitude increase. We also found that changes of NBP and its seasonal amplitude are significantly (R = 0.73, p < 0.05) correlated - models that simulate a stronger carbon uptake tend to show a larger change of NBP seasonal amplitude.

  16. A Review of 21st Century Utility of a Biopsychosocial Model in United States Medical School Education

    PubMed Central

    Jaini, Paresh Atu; Lee, Jenny Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Current medical practice is grounded in a biomedical model that fails to effectively address multifaceted lifestyle and morbidogenic environmental components that are the root causes of contemporary chronic diseases. Utilizing the biopsychosocial (BPS) model in medical school training may produce competent healthcare providers to meet the challenge of rising chronic illnesses that are a result of these factors. This study explored the current trend of research on the utility of the BPS model in medical education and examined medical school curricula that have explicitly adopted the BPS model. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted on the BPS model and medical education since the 1970s using multiple databases. Descriptive analysis was used to illustrate findings regarding the trends of the BPS model in medical education and its utility in specific medical schools in the United States. Results Major findings illustrated a growing trend in research on the BPS model in medical education since the 1970s with literature in this area most visible since 2000. The same trend was established for the incorporation of psychosocial or behavioral and social science components in medical education. From our peer-reviewed literature search, only 5 medical schools featured utility of the BPS model in their curricula utilizing variable educational processes. Conclusion Although literature regarding the BPS model in medical education is growing, the explicit utility of the BPS model in medical school is limited. Our findings can stimulate educational processes and research endeavors to advance medical education and medical practice to ensure that future doctors can meet the challenge of rising lifestyle and environmental associated illnesses. PMID:26770891

  17. The genus Xenopus as a multispecies model for evolutionary and comparative immunobiology of the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Cohen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The Xenopus model for immunological research offers a collection of invaluable research tools including MHC-defined clones, inbred strains, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies. Further, the annotated full genome sequence of X. tropicalis and its remarkable conservation of gene organization with mammals, as well as ongoing genome mapping and mutagenesis studies in X. tropicalis, add a new dimension to the study of immunity. In this paper, we review uses of this amphibian model to study: the development of the immune system; vascular and lymphatic regeneration; immune tolerance; tumor immunity; immune responses to important emerging infectious diseases; and the evolution of classical and non-classical MHC class I genes. We also discuss the rich potential of the species with different degrees of polypoidy resulting from whole genome-wide duplication of the Xenopodinae subfamily as a model to study regulation at the genome level. PMID:21277325

  18. A Framework for Linking High-Throughput Modeling and Measurement Efforts to Advance 21st Century Exposure Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    The past five years have witnessed a rapid shift in the exposure science and toxicology communities towards high-throughput (HT) analyses of chemicals as potential stressors of human and ecological health. Modeling efforts have largely led the charge in the exposure science field...

  19. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  20. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  1. Changes in snow cover over China in the 21st century as simulated by a high resolution regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Giorgi, Filippo

    2011-10-01

    On the basis of the climate change simulations conducted using a high resolution regional climate model, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, at 25 km grid spacing, future changes in snow cover over China are analyzed. The simulations are carried out for the period of 1951-2100 following the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. The results suggest good performances of the model in simulating the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, as well as the starting and ending dates of snow cover to the present day (1981-2000). Their spatial distributions and amounts show fair consistency between the simulation and observation, although with some discrepancies. In general, decreases in the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, together with postponed snow starting dates and advanced snow ending dates, are simulated for the future, except in some places where the opposite appears. The most dramatic changes are found over the Tibetan Plateau among the three major snow cover areas of Northeast, Northwest and the Tibetan Plateau in China.

  2. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-13

    Indian leadership has been crucial in both the establishment of the foundational capabilities of the Power Partnership as well as the realization of opportunities for applied policy implementation. Understanding policy regimes that support and accelerate the transition to clean, smart, efficient, affordable, and reliable electricity will help inform decisions that enable innovative solutions, or even disruptive innovations. India has already demonstrated a wide variety of business model innovation in a wide range of industries. Its potential to do the same in the power sector is an enormous opportunity. Indian contributions to international knowledge about the legal, regulatory and business environment will be an integral component of the Power Partnership program.

  3. Enhanced Terrestrial Carbon Uptake in the Northern High Latitudes in the 21st Century from the C4MIP Model Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, H.; Zeng, N.; Joseph, R.

    2008-12-01

    The ongoing and projected rapid warming in the Arctic region under climate change may lead to dramatic changes in the ecosystems and carbon cycle in the Northern High Latitudes (NHL; poleward of 60˚N). On the one hand, warming and higher CO2 stimulate vegetation growth wherein tundra transitions to boreal forests, taking up CO2 from the atmosphere. On the other hand, warming accelerates decomposition of dead organic matter, losing soil carbon to the atmosphere. The resulting net land-atmosphere CO2 flux is important for future carbon-cycle climate feedback and climate change. Here, the NHL carbon storage is investigated using the simulations from the Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP). Our analysis suggests that the NHL is highly likely to be a carbon sink with a 11-model mean of 0.4 PgC yr-1 by 2100, and a cumulative increase of 40 PgC from 1860, of which 18 PgC comes from vegetation (a 47% increase) and 22 PgC, surprisingly, comes from soil carbon (an 8% increase). The future carbon sink in the NHL is mainly attributable to CO2 fertilization and warming, both effects enhancing vegetation growth, with warming more important according to the C4MIP models. Warming also tends to increase soil decomposition and drain soil carbon, but this is compensated by increased vegetation turnover, a rarely highlighted factor. This biomass turnover is caused by higher vegetation productivity. This leads to the soil being a carbon sink in the 21st century. However, after 2060, the NHL soil carbon growth rate begins to decrease because soil decomposition accelerates at high temperature and catches up with the input from biomass turnover. Such competing mechanisms may lead to a switch of NHL soil pool from a net carbon sink to source only after 2100. All these effects are enhanced as a result of positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks.

  4. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  5. Modeling Global Water Use for the 21st Century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative and Its Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Y.; Florke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Eisner, S.; Fischer, G.; Tramberend, S.; Satoh, Y.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yillia, P.; Ringler, C.; Burek, P.; Wiberg, D.

    2016-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years, and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity conditions already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of the world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative coordinates its work with other ongoing scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

  6. Modeling global water use for the 21st century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative and its approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Eisner, S.; Fischer, G.; Tramberend, S.; Satoh, Y.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yillia, P.; Ringler, C.; Wiberg, D.

    2015-08-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity condition already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions initiative (WFaS) coordinates its work with other on-going scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

  7. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

    2014-05-01

    We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

  8. California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

  9. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  10. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  11. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  12. 21st Century Skills Development: Learning in Digital Communities--Technology and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of student performance in the 21 st century skills of Information and Communication (ICT) Literacy and collaboration. In this project, extant data from the Assessment and Teaching for 21st Century Skills project (ATC21S) will be examined. ATC21S is a collaborative effort among educational agencies in six countries,…

  13. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  14. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  15. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  16. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  17. Theme: Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Susan S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Educating Leaders" (Townsend); "To Be or Not to Be" (Peasley); "That Was Then, This Is Now" (Knight); "Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?" (Hotaling); "Do We Need Teacher Education in the 21st Century?" (Conroy); "Who Is Going to Do What?" (Neason, Kotrlik); "Is There a Place for Teacher Education in the 21st…

  18. Leap of Faith: Take the Plunge into a 21st-Century Conception of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Allison

    2009-01-01

    A 21st-century conception of learning is much more than adopting new skills and integrating them into the curriculum or purchasing new technologies and placing them in classrooms--it is the fundamental shift from a teacher-centered learning environment to a student-centered one. Being an educator in a 21st-century learning environment is a…

  19. "21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

  20. 75 FR 20765 - A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-9286 Filed 4-19-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3125-W0-P ... Memorandum of April 16, 2010--A 21st Century Strategy for America's Great Outdoors #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Memorandum of April 16, 2010 A 21st Century Strategy...

  1. Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Research in Management Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Charles, Ed.; DeFillippi, Robert, Ed.

    This book series focuses on trends in theory and practice likely to influence 21st century management education. This first volume examines a series of innovative and distinctive approaches to rethinking management education for the 21st century. Part 1 of the collection, "Rethinking What We Teach," contains: (1) "Development of Political Skill"…

  2. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  3. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  4. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  5. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  6. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  7. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  8. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  9. Inquiring into Professional Development in a Newly Designed 21st Century School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkenhauer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent new paradigms are emphasizing the need for more powerful learning opportunities that meet the needs of 21st century learners. One way to change education to better meet the needs of the 21st century is to reimagine school architecture. The purpose of this research was to study the ways practitioner inquiry can serve as a mechanism for…

  10. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  11. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  12. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Martin L

    2010-02-01

    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website, AltTox.org, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.

  13. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  14. Parkinsonism and Neurological Manifestations of Influenza Throughout the 20th and 21st Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Julie; Smeyne, Richard J.; Jang, Haeman; Miller, Bayard; Okun, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Given the recent paper by Jang et al. on “A Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus” which reported a novel animal model of parkinsonism, we aimed to perform a complete historical review of the 20th and 21st century literature on parkinsonism and neurological manifestations of influenza. Scope There were at least twelve major flu pandemics reported in the literature in the 20th and 21st century. Neurological manifestations most prevalent during the pandemics included delirium, encephalitis, ocular abnormalities, amyotrophy, myelopathy, radiculopathy, ataxia and seizures. Very little parkinsonism was reported with the exception of the 1917 cases originally described by von Economo. Conclusions To date there have been surprisingly few cases of neurological issues inclusive of parkinsonism associated with influenza pandemics. Given the recent animal model of H5N1 influenza associated parkinsonism, the medical establishment should be prepared to evaluate for the re-emergence of parkinsonism during future outbreaks. PMID:20650672

  15. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    as with NSAIDs also represent newer technological developments of the 21st century. What started out as drugs to control inflammation, pain and fever in the last two centuries now has exploded to reveal an enormous range and type of anti-inflammatory agents and discovery of new therapeutic targets to treat a whole range of conditions that were never hitherto envisaged.

  16. The Impact Of Climate Change On Production Of Multiple Food Crops In The 21st Century- An Analysis Based On Two Land Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Lawrence, P.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change presents potential risks to global food supply. To date, understanding of climate change effects on crop production remains uncertain due to (1) uncertainties in projected climate change trends and their spatial and temporal variability; (2) uncertainties in the physiological, genetic and molecular basis of crop adaptation to climate change and adaptive management practices and (3) uncertainties in current land surface models to estimate crop adaptation to climate change. We apply the process-based land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment model (ISAM), to assess the impact of climate change on the production of row crops (corn, soybean, rice, cotton, sugarcane and wheat) at global and regional scales. The results are compared to the corresponding simulations performed with the crop model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Three questions are addressed: (1) what is the impact of different climate change projections on global crop production; (2) what is the effect of crop adaptation and adaptive management practices on projected crop production; and (3) how do model differences in ISAM and CLM4.5 impact projected global crop production and adaptive management practices over the 21st century. ISAM and CLM4.5 have been included in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). Both models consider the effects of temperature, light and soil water and nitrogen availability on crop photosynthesis and temperature control on crop phenology and carbon allocation. ISAM also considers the adaptation of crop phenology, carbon allocation and structures growth to drought, light stress and N stress. The effects of model differences on projected crop production are evaluated by performing the following experiments. Each model is driven with historical atmospheric forcing data (1901-2005) and projected atmospheric forcing data (2006-2100) under RCP 4.5 or RCP 8.5 from CESM CMIP5 simulations to estimate the effects of different

  17. High-resolution Near-surface Permafrost Modeling for the 21st Century, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost within most part of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is discontinuous and warm i.e. within a few degrees of thawing. It is the physical foundation on which the ecosystems in the park rest. Thawing of permafrost alters this foundation, and can alter ecosystems and landscapes. Nonetheless, the data on permafrost condition and extent within WRST is limited. The current and future permafrost distribution and thickness of active layer can be modeled, given sufficient data about ground properties, vegetation, topography, and climate. We used GIPL 1.0 (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska) model; and downscaled climate forcing from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCM) that work best for Alaska and high-resolution soil landscape and ecotype maps from National Park Service (NPS) as model inputs to develop high-resolution permafrost maps for the recent past (2001-10) and the future decades (2050s and 2090s). The soil landscape and ecotype maps were derived from Landsat TM scenes (Jorgenson et al. 2008). The modeling effort resulted in recent and future permafrost maps of WRST at a spatial resolution of 28.5 m, the best resolution permafrost maps available for any part of Alaska. The model mapped 80% of WRST as underlain by near-surface permafrost during the decade of 2001-10 (Fig. 1) and predicted 50% decrease in the near-surface permafrost extent by 2050s owing to a 2 °C increase in the mean decadal air temperature and slightly higher precipitation. According to the 5 GCM projections, the decadal air temperature will increase by another 2 °C between 2050s and 2090s which will likely cause further increase in the ground temperature and decrease in the permafrost extent. The model predicts a meager 15% of WRST would still remain underlain by near-surface permafrost toward the end of the 21st century. Comparison of the modeled permafrost distribution with in situ observation of permafrost presence/absence at 430 sites

  18. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  19. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  20. Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

    2007-08-04

    The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

  1. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  2. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  3. The hateful patient revisited: Relevance for 21st century medicine.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Ulman, Anne-Marie; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    While the practice of medicine has changed over the years, including technological advances, access to medical information, and the narrowing of socio-economic and educational gaps between the clinician and his/her patients, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship has not diminished over time. This can be a very rewarding interaction. However, many physicians experience a great deal of anger, inadequacy and frustration, and much of the actual practice of medicine may become a burden rather than a source of satisfaction. Physicians may encounter a subset of patients who engender strong negative feelings, despair and even downright malice. An understanding of the "hateful patient" can therefore be very informative to the physician. Several categories of such patients may be described, and sensitivity to the phenomenon will lead to improved physician well-being, less self-destructive patient behavior and a lower risk of litigation. Several factors may assist the 21st century physician in managing the "hateful patient" in an empathic manner and in making some sense of why the patient has resorted to negative response patterns. Ultimately, a failure to consider these issues will result in poorer medical care and, no less important, reduced satisfaction of both patients and doctors. The intention of this article is to revisit the concept and to place it in the context of contemporary medical practice.

  4. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    PubMed

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  5. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Erika; Korom, Irma; Raskó, Zoltán; Kis, Erika; Varga, János; Oláh, Judit; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect. PMID:21151693

  6. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  7. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  8. Optics education: a blueprint for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines Walker, Janice M.; Biggs, Jason; Gibbons, Aimee; Putnam, Gloria G.; Nally, T. L.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2002-05-01

    In latter 2001, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering and the Optical Society of America (OSA) will hold a series of three workshops to develop a long-range plan for impacting formal science education in optics in the U.S. The National Science Foundation, with matching support from the societies and industry participants, is funding these workshops. This paper will report out on the workshop results. The stated goal of the workshops is the creation of A Blueprint for the 21st Century. This Blueprint will include an analysis of short and long-term needs in optics education, an assessment of resources and capacities of the optics community to meet these needs, and development of an action plan for a more visible and viable national optics education program. The workshops will be held between July and November 2001 in varying locations around the U.S. Participants in the workshops will include members of OSA and SPIE, and a variety of experts in informal, youth, and minority science education. The workshops will be independently evaluated for their effectiveness in meeting the stated goals of the workshops.

  9. Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Asakura, Shoji; Daneshian, Mardas; Hofman-Huether, Hana; Leist, Marcel; Meunier, Leo; Reif, David; Rossi, Anna; Schmutz, Markus; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - A Vision and a Strategy, many initiatives started to foster a major paradigm shift for toxicity testing - from apical endpoints in animal-based tests to mechanistic endpoints through delineation of pathways of toxicity (PoT) in human cell based systems. The US EPA has funded an important project to develop new high throughput technologies based on human cell based in vitro technologies. These methods are currently being incorporated into the chemical risk assessment process. In the pharmaceutical industry, the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs are evaluated during preclinical investigations that include drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety toxicology studies. The results of these studies are analyzed and extrapolated to predict efficacy and potential adverse effects in humans. However, due to the high failure rate of drugs during the clinical phases, a new approach for a more predictive assessment of drugs both in terms of efficacy and adverse effects is getting urgent. The food industry faces the challenge of assessing novel foods and food ingredients for the general population, while using animal safety testing for extrapolation purposes is often of limited relevance. The question is whether the latest paradigm shift proposed by the Tox21c report for chemicals may provide a useful tool to improve the risk assessment approach also for drugs and food ingredients.

  10. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  11. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  13. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives. PMID:21612722

  14. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  15. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  16. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  17. Stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century: The chlorofluorocarbon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) exists in a dynamic equilibrium in the stratosphere, balanced between formation by solar ultraviolet photolysis ({lambda} < 242 nm) of molecular O{sub 2} (O + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3}) and destruction by various chemical processes including several chain reaction sequences triggered by HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and ClO{sub x} radicals. The ozone dissipates over Antarctica by November through northward mixing, only to begin reappearing in late August of the following year. Substantial ozone losses have also appeared, although not as spectacularly as over Antarctica, in the Northern Hemisphere's temperate and polar regions. The primary cause for the Antarctic ozone loss, and the probable cause for the northern losses, is the increasing concentration in the stratosphere of anthropogenic chlorine, especially chlorine released by solar UV photolysis from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds such as CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12), CCl{sub 3}F (CFC-11) and CCl{sub 2}FCClF{sub 2} (CFC-113). Because these molecules have average atmospheric lifetimes of many decades, excess anthropogenic chlorine will persist in the stratosphere for comparable time periods, and the Antarctic ozone hole will be an important atmospheric phenomenon throughout the 21st century.

  18. Propulsion and power for 21st century aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Whitlow, Woodrow

    2004-05-01

    Air transportation in the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meet public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st century aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, highly efficient, virtually inaudible (outside airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO 2 and NO x). This vision includes intelligent engines capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish missions with either minimal or no human intervention. Distributed vectored propulsion will replace current two to four wing mounted and fuselage mounted engine configurations with a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. Other innovative concepts, such as the pulse detonation engine (PDE), which potentially can replace conventional gas turbine engines, also are reviewed. It is envisioned that a hydrogen economy will drive the propulsion system revolution towards the ultimate goal of silent aircrafts with zero harmful emissions. Finally, it is envisioned that electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  19. Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix.

    PubMed

    Embry, Michelle R; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doerrer, Nancy G; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Doe, John E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The RISK21 integrated evaluation strategy is a problem formulation-based exposure-driven risk assessment roadmap that takes advantage of existing information to graphically represent the intersection of exposure and toxicity data on a highly visual matrix. This paper describes in detail the process for using the roadmap and matrix. The purpose of this methodology is to optimize the use of prior information and testing resources (animals, time, facilities, and personnel) to efficiently and transparently reach a risk and/or safety determination. Based on the particular problem, exposure and toxicity data should have sufficient precision to make such a decision. Estimates of exposure and toxicity, bounded by variability and/or uncertainty, are plotted on the X- and Y-axes of the RISK21 matrix, respectively. The resulting intersection is a highly visual representation of estimated risk. Decisions can then be made to increase precision in the exposure or toxicity estimates or declare that the available information is sufficient. RISK21 represents a step forward in the goal to introduce new methodologies into 21st century risk assessment. Indeed, because of its transparent and visual process, RISK21 has the potential to widen the scope of risk communication beyond those with technical expertise.

  20. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  1. Projections of extreme rainfall in Hong Kong in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tsz-Cheung; Chan, Kin-Yu; Chan, Ho-Sun; Kok, Mang-Hin

    2011-12-01

    The possible changes in the frequency of extreme rainfall events in Hong Kong in the 21st century were investigated by statistically downscaling 30 sets of the daily global climate model projections (involving a combination of 12 models and 3 greenhouse gas emission scenarios, namely, A2, A1B, and B1) of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To cater for the intermittent and skewed character of the daily rainfall, multiple stepwise logistic regression and multiple stepwise linear regression were employed to develop the downscaling models for predicting rainfall occurrence and rainfall amount, respectively. Verification of the simulation of the 1971-2000 climate reveals that the models in general have an acceptable skill in reproducing past statistics of extreme rainfall events in Hong Kong. The projection results suggest that, in the 21st century, the annual number of rain days in Hong Kong is expected to decrease while the daily rainfall intensity will increase, concurrent with the expected increase in annual rainfall. Based on the multi-model scenario ensemble mean, the annual number of rain day is expected to drop from 104 days in 1980-1999 to about 77 days in 2090-2099. For extreme rainfall events, about 90% of the model-scenario combinations indicate an increase in the annual number of days with daily rainfall ≥ 100 mm (R100) towards the end of the 21st century. The mean number of R100 is expected to increase from 3.5 days in 1980-1999 to about 5.3 days in 2090-2099. The projected changes in other extreme rainfall indices also suggest that the rainfall in Hong Kong in the 21st century may also become more extreme with more uneven distributions of wet and dry periods. While most of the model-emission scenarios in general project consistent trends in the change of rainfall extremes in the 21st century, there is a large divergence in the projections among different model/emission scenarios. This reflects that there are

  2. Importance of Nitrogen Availability on Land Carbon Sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Lu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and the application of nitrogen fertilizers provide subsidies to land ecosystems that can increase nitrogen availability for vegetation production and thereby influence land carbon dynamics. In addition, enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) from warming soils and permafrost degradation may also increase nitrogen availability in Northern Eurasia. Here, we examine how changes in nitrogen availability may influence land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario (the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways or RCP 8.5) and a stabilization scenario (RCP 4.5) between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation and soil thermal dynamics on land carbon dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In these simulations, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and fertilizer applications provide an additional 3.3 Pg N (RCP 4.5) to 3.9 Pg N (RCP 8.5) to Northern Eurasian ecosystems over the 21st century. Land ecosystems retain about 38% (RCP4.5) to 48% (RCP 8.5) of this nitrogen subsidy. Net nitrogen mineralization estimated by TEM 6.0 provide an additional 1.0 Pg N to vegetation than estimated by TEM 4.4 over the 21st century from enhanced decomposition of SOM including SOM formerly protected by permafrost. The enhanced nitrogen availability in TEM 6.0 allows Northern Eurasian ecosystems to sequester 1.8x (RCP 8.5) to 2.4x (RCP 4.5) more carbon over the 21st century than estimated by TEM 4.4. Our results indicate that consideration of nitrogen subsidies and soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia will respond to future changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry, and disturbances.

  3. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  4. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  5. Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  6. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  7. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  8. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  9. Streamlined payload processing in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Craig; Meade, Phillip

    2001-02-01

    Launching payloads into space continues to be a weekly occurrence around the world. Although it is becoming commonplace, it has not become a low-cost or low-risk, quick and simple process. Out of these conditions, concepts have been developed and efforts are underway to create a generic set of processes and tools that will advance payload processing into the 21st Century by making it more efficient and less complicated. These new approaches are developing more cost effective, shorter cycle time processes, and require fewer resources than in the past. The KSC Center of Excellence for Payload Processing, built on the last 40 years of experience in processing all types of payloads (Shuttle, Expendable, Space Station, etc.), has been addressing these areas. Development is complete and operations are underway on the high fidelity checkout system used to perform final verification of flight interfaces between the International Space Station (ISS) and its science experiments. This system is typical of what has been used in the past for verifying interfaces which include: high, medium, and low rate data communications; video, command and data handling; power; and fluids/gases. The system also contains an ISS Program equivalent ground station, which will receive and process payload telemetry and distribute that telemetry to the appropriate customers. The recently developed concepts and projects underway address the lifecycle of payload processing, integrating agency and customer needs and requirements, and support geographically distributed processing. These concepts have driven out areas of synergy and leverage which enable large improvements to be proposed for payloads headed for Space Station or flying on Shuttle. .

  10. [Prospect of chemotherapy in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Omura, S

    2000-10-01

    "Golden Era in Chemotherapy" has begun with the discovery of penicillin in the early 1940's and lasted for two decades during which many antibiotics were discovered. However, the once-believed bright prospect that every infectious disease could be eliminated on the earth by the discovery of antibiotics had to be canceled owing to the emerging of drug-resistant microbes. It was indeed a rat race. We are now at the point when we have to seek another way to combat infectious diseases: One possible way might be not to eradicate the microbes but to coexist with them so long as they do no harm to the human hosts. The first step of infection with pathogens to the host is the adherence of the microbes to the surface of host cells. Therefore, the method how to inhibit this adhesion of microbes to the host cells may provide a new tool to prevent the development of infectious diseases without elimination of microbes from the host. This is just an example of strategy by which humans and pathogens coexist at peace and should be taken into consideration for the development of new-type antibiotics or "anti-infective drugs" in the 21st century. The analysis of genome sequences has been accelerated recently for various pathogenic bacteria one by one. New targets in the pathogenic microbes for the development of new antibiotics can, therefore, be determined from the genetic point of view. The discovery of antibiotics has indeed been the history of collection of innumerable species and/or strains of bacteria from the soils to search for the biologically active anti-pathogenic agents. The current progress in the technology of molecular genetics, however, will certainly make it possible to search for active molecules by DNA technology; bacterial DNA but not whole microorganisms from the soil is to be transformed into the conventional bacteria and searched for active molecules with combat against pathogens. PMID:11109775

  11. Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Small, Dorothy; Walker, Leanne; Wilson, Richard L.; Wintle, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. In part this is because, as a nation,…

  12. Projection of extreme temperatures in Hong Kong in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tsz-Cheung; Chan, Kin-Yu; Ginn, Wing-Lui

    2011-02-01

    The possible changes in the frequency of extreme temperature events in Hong Kong in the 21st century were investigated by statistically downscaling 26 sets of the daily global climate model projections (a combination of 11 models and 3 greenhouse gas emission scenarios, namely A2, A1B, and B1) of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The models' performance in simulating the past climate during 1971-2000 has also been verified and discussed. The verification revealed that the models in general have an acceptable skill in reproducing past statistics of extreme temperature events. Moreover, the models are more skillful in simulating the past climate of the hot nights and cold days than that of the very hot days. The projection results suggested that, in the 21st century, the frequency of occurrence of extremely high temperature events in Hong Kong would increase significantly while that of the extremely low temperature events is expected to drop significantly. Based on the multi-model scenario ensemble mean, the average annual numbers of very hot days and hot nights in Hong Kong are expected to increase significantly from 9 days and 16 nights in 1980-1999 to 89 days and 137 nights respectively in 2090-2099. On the other hand, the average annual number of cold days will drop from 17 days in 1980-1999 to about 1 day in 2090-2099. About 65 percent of the model-scenario combinations indicate that there will be on average less than one cold day in 2090-2099. While all the model-emission scenarios in general have projected consistent trends in the change of temperature extremes in the 21st century, there is a large divergence in the projections between different model/emission scenarios. This reflects that there are still large uncertainties in the model simulation of the future climate of extreme temperature events.

  13. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  14. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  15. The Keepers of the Key: Development Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crease, Skid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of development education in the 21st century. Awareness of the global interconnectedness of issues of water, food, health, education, and wealth is broadening the scope of development education to include a closer look at home. (CCM)

  16. Promoting 21st Century Skills in the Classroom through the Use of Authentic Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Swann, J. L.; Manfredi, L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing students for the workforce starts well before they start college. The Mars Student Imaging Project has incorporated 21st Century Skills into their project to help the students practice and sharpen these skills. Professional development for the educational facilitators helps the teachers become familiar with these skills. By augmenting the authentic research project with these 21st Century Skills, the students are able to achieve a higher level experience that mirrors the real-world workforce.

  17. Monte Carlo modelling projects the loss of most land-terminating glaciers on Svalbard in the 21st century under RCP 8.5 forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Marco; Navarro, Francisco; Martín-Español, Alba

    2016-09-01

    The high Arctic archipelagos around the globe are among the most strongly glacierized landscapes on Earth apart from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Over the past decades, the mass losses from land ice in the high Arctic regions have contributed substantially to global sea level rise. Among these regions, the archipelago of Svalbard showed the smallest mass losses. However, this could change in the coming decades, as Svalbard is expected to be exposed to strong climate warming over the 21st century. Here we present extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the future ice-mass evolution of 29 individual land-terminating glaciers on the Svalbard archipelago under an RCP 8.5 climate forcing. An extrapolation of the 29 sample glaciers to all land-terminating glaciers of the archipelago suggests an almost complete deglaciation of the region by 2100. Under RCP 8.5, 98% of the land-terminating glaciers will have declined to less than one tenth of their initial size, resulting in a loss of 7392 ± 2481 km2 of ice coverage.

  18. Improving modelled impacts on the flowering of temperate fruit trees in the Iberian Peninsula of climate change projections for 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Pérez-Lopez, David; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Centeno, Ana; Dosio, Alessandro; Lopez-de-la-Franca, Noelia

    2013-04-01

    Flowering of temperate trees needs winter chilling, being the specific requirements dependent on the variety. This work studied the trend and changes of values of chilling hours for some representative agricultural locations in Spain for the last three decades and their projected changes under climate change scenarios. According to our previous results (Pérez-López et al., 2012), areas traditionally producing fruit as the Ebro (NE of Spain) or Guadalquivir (SO) valleys, Murcia (SE) and Extremadura (SO) could have a major cold reduction of chill-hours. This would drive a change of varieties or species and may enhance the use of chemicals to complete the needs of chill hours for flowering. However, these results showed high uncertainty, partly due to the bias of the climate data used, generated by Regional Climate Models. The chilling hours were calculated with different methods according to the species considered: North Carolina method (Shaltout and Unrath, 1983) was used for apples, Utah method (Richardson et al. 1974) for peach and grapevine and the approach used by De Melo-Abreu et al. (2004) for olive trees. The climate data used as inputs were the results of numerical simulations obtained from a group of regional climate models at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012). This work aims to improve the impact projections obtained in Pérez-López et al. (2012). For this purpose, variation of chill-hours between 2nd half of 20th century and 1st half of 21st century at the study locations were recalculated considering 1) a feedback in the dates in which the chilling hours are calculated, to take into account the shift of phenological dates, and 2) substituting the original ENSEMBLES data set of climate used in Pérez-López et al. (2012) by the bias corrected data set. Calculations for the 2nd half of 20th

  19. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  20. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  1. 21st century climate change in the European Alps--a review.

    PubMed

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Beniston, Martin; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500-2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities.

  2. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2010-01-01

    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  3. General Education in the 21st Century: A Report of the University of California Commission on General Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the Commission on General Education in the 21st Century--a panel of University of California faculty and administrators--issues a call for renewed attention to general education in research universities, highlighting specific reforms for University of California campuses. In addition to analyzing the historical, institutional, and…

  4. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  5. Sea water intrusion by sea-level rise: scenarios for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A; Pingel, Thomas J; Garcia, Elizabeth S

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a method to assess the contributions of 21st-century sea-level rise and groundwater extraction to sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Sea water intrusion is represented by the landward advance of the 10,000 mg/L iso-salinity line, a concentration of dissolved salts that renders groundwater unsuitable for human use. A mathematical formulation of the resolution of sea water intrusion among its causes was quantified via numerical simulation under scenarios of change in groundwater extraction and sea-level rise in the 21st century. The developed method is illustrated with simulations of sea water intrusion in the Seaside Area sub-basin near the City of Monterey, California (USA), where predictions of mean sea-level rise through the early 21st century range from 0.10 to 0.90 m due to increasing global mean surface temperature. The modeling simulation was carried out with a state-of-the-art numerical model that accounts for the effects of salinity on groundwater density and can approximate hydrostratigraphic geometry closely. Simulations of sea water intrusion corresponding to various combinations of groundwater extraction and sea-level rise established that groundwater extraction is the predominant driver of sea water intrusion in the study aquifer. The method presented in this work is applicable to coastal aquifers under a variety of other scenarios of change not considered in this work. For example, one could resolve what changes in groundwater extraction and/or sea level would cause specified levels of groundwater salinization at strategic locations and times.

  6. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Moister During the 21st Century?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A.E.; Schoberl, M. R.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Oman, L.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  7. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Wetter During the 21st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Douglass, A. R.; Oman, L.

    2014-12-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  8. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christopher P.; Balapure, Anil K.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C.; Fowle, John R.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved. PMID:26523530

  9. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century.

  10. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  11. Team Up for 21st Century Teaching and Learning: What Research and Practice Reveal about Professional Learning. Condensed Excerpts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas G., Ed.; Fulton, Kathleen, Ed.; Doerr, Hanna, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This document contains excerpts from Team Up for 21st Century Teaching & Learning. This document includes the excerpts of five articles that provide a substantial evidence-based argument for the power of collaborative communities to improve teaching and learning. These articles are: (1) Professional Communities and the Artisan Model of Teaching…

  12. Music Education for Life: The Three Artistic Processes--Paths to Lifelong 21st-Century Skills through Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The "Three Artistic Processes" provide a powerful model for organizing standards-based music teaching and assessment as well as a vision of the musically educated student. They also clarify how student-centered music education helps children master 21st-century skills necessary for future success. This article outlines why and how music teachers…

  13. The New American University: Preparation of the M.Ed. Graduate Student for the 21st Century Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    To sustain world preeminence, 21st century university and college leaders in the United States are redesigning their institutions organizationally and culturally to align with the direction of local and global societies and markets. The New American University enterprise model at Arizona State University has become one of the leading organization…

  14. Quantifying Uncertainty in Projections of Stratospheric Ozone Over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Hawkins, E.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Bodeker, G. E.; Kinnison, D. E.; Akiyoshi, H.; Frith, S. M.; Garcia, R.; Gettelman, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Nakamura, T.; Pawson, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Marchand, M.; Mancini, E.; Morgenstern, O.; Pitari, G.; Plummer, D.; Pyle, J. A.; Rozanov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an ensemble of opportunity of chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for 10 ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21 st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations 15 return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  15. Sensitivity of 21st century stratospheric ozone to greenhouse gas scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bodeker, G. E.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Frith, S. M.; Gettelman, A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Nakamura, T.; Oman, L. D.; Pawson, S.; Yamashita, Y.

    2010-08-01

    To understand how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may affect future stratospheric ozone, 21st century projections from four chemistry-climate models are examined for their dependence on six different GHG scenarios. Compared to higher GHG emissions, lower emissions result in smaller increases in tropical upwelling with resultant smaller reductions in ozone in the tropical lower stratosphere and less severe stratospheric cooling with resultant smaller increases in upper stratospheric ozone globally. Increases in reactive nitrogen and hydrogen that lead to additional chemical ozone destruction mainly play a role in scenarios with higher GHG emissions. Differences among the six GHG scenarios are found to be largest over northern midlatitudes (˜20 DU by 2100) and in the Arctic (˜40 DU by 2100) with divergence mainly in the second half of the 21st century. The uncertainty in the return of stratospheric column ozone to 1980 values arising from different GHG scenarios is comparable to or less than the uncertainty that arises from model differences in the larger set of 17 CCMVal-2 SRES A1B simulations. The results suggest that effects of GHG emissions on future stratospheric ozone should be considered in climate change mitigation policy and ozone projections should be assessed under more than a single GHG scenario.

  16. Widespread Burning of Alaskan Boreal Forests Overcomes Fuel Limitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, R.; Hu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is a key determinant of the structure and function of boreal forest ecosystems. Boreal fire regimes have been climate-limited in recent decades, and future climate warming is predicted to drive a pronounced increase in fire activity, likely resulting in carbon release from the boreal biome and positive feedback to climate change. Fuel limitation could slow fire regime change by reducing the abundance of mature vegetation on the landscape, but this mechanism remains poorly quantified and is thus excluded from forecasts of future boreal burning. We developed a novel statistical model that links regional area burned to mean landscape age, a proxy for fuel limitation due to cumulative past burning. Fit to historical fire observations from interior Alaska, the model detects significant evidence of fire-vegetation feedback and provides the first quantitative estimate of its effects on regional fire regimes. These effects were subtle during the past 60 yr, but they will become increasingly influential as climate warming promotes higher fire activity. By the end of the 21st century, fuel limitation reduces predicted area burned by 40-50% relative to predictions based on climate alone, and diminishes the difference between fire regimes expected under alternate future climate scenarios. Nevertheless, annual area burned will approximately double during the coming century as fire becomes more widespread in spite of regional fuel limitation. Furthermore, changes to the fire regime and mean landscape age by the end of the century could represent a fundamental shift in the Alaskan boreal ecosystem. Our model structure facilitates linking fire regime predictions to ecosystem and Earth system models and could help reduce uncertainty in these models due to poorly constrained initial conditions. We demonstrate this approach using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, which has been calibrated extensively for applications in simulating boreal carbon dynamics. Results suggest that

  17. On Recovery of the Ozone Layer in the Northern Hemisphere in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    Time recovery of the ozone layer in the latitudinal zones of 0°-85° N, 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N in the 21st century has been evaluated. Evaluations have been made using an interactive chemical dynamical radiative two-dimensional (2-D) model of the middle atmosphere Socrates (height 0-120 km). As initial data for calculations for the first time the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0 have been used. According to the scenario RCP 4.5 a stabilization of the radiative forcing must occur before the end of the twenty-first century, and according to the scenario RCP 6.0 - in the 22nd century. It has been shown that under both scenarios, the recovery of the ozone layer in the northern hemisphere (0°-85° N) can take place in 2035, and in zones of 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N does in 2020, 2030 and 2035, respectively. It has been also shown that after recovery the ozone layer will continue to grow and by the end of the 21st century will reach the stationary level exceeding undisturbed level of 1960 at 2.7% (scenario RCP 4.5) and 3.6% (scenario RCP 6.0) in zone 0°-85° N. It seems to be not smaller ecological threat than depletion of the ozone layer at the end of the twentieth century. The results obtained are in good agreement with the known literary data (see, for example, Table 3-3 in "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010"), indicating that the model Socrates and "concentration" scenarios of IPCC can successfully be used for such calculations.

  18. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  19. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  20. Possible decline of the carbon sink in the Mongolian Plateau during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Zhou, G.; Sirin, A.; Melillo, J.; Kicklighter, D.

    2009-10-01

    The Mongolian Plateau is dominated by grassland ecosystems. It frequently experiences drought and is underlain by permafrost in the north. Its complex responses of plant carbon uptake and soil carbon release to climate change are considered to have affected the global carbon cycle during the 21st century. Here we combine spatially explicit information on vegetation, soils, topography and climate with a process-based biogeochemistry model to assess the carbon responses for the 20th and 21st centuries. We estimate the region acted as a C sink of 31 Tg C yr-1 in the 1990s, but that this sink will likely decline in both magnitude and extent under future climate conditions. This change is due to the relatively larger enhancement of soil organic matter decomposition, which releases carbon to the atmosphere, than the corresponding enhancement of plant C uptake, by rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Future plant C uptake rates are expected to become more limited due to drier soils caused by increasing evapotranspiration rates. Complex soil thermal and moisture dynamics result in large interannual and spatial variability as a consequence of the different rates of change of air temperature and precipitation in this region.

  1. Mechanisms and feedback causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2010-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantify the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model, using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either A1b or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both scenarios, upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the A1b GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the GHG-induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase because of cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and A1b simulations. The response of ozone caused by feedback from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, is also quantified using simulations with fixed-halogen concentrations.

  2. Climate change and malaria risk in the European part of Russia in 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shartova, N.; Malkhazova, S.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for European part of Russia (EPR) in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "A2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; creating of maps of malaria risk; analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia (particularly for EPR) the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets for EPR are presented in the grid 2x2. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift

  3. Climate change and malaria risk in Russia in 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkhazova, S.; Shartova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for Russia in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "А2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: - define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; - creating of maps of malaria risk; - analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets are presented in the grid 2х20. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift of the beginning of malaria transmission

  4. Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

  5. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  6. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Meko, David M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Stahle, Dave W.; Cook, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900–1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future. PMID:21149683

  7. Remembering Florence Nightingale's panorama: 21st-century nursing--at a critical crossroads.

    PubMed

    Beck, Deva-Marie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale lived and worked in response to her times--yet also ahead of her time. She insisted on pursuing a career even though her wealthy family could have provided her with a lifetime of leisure. Because she was a woman, this choice to work outside her home was all the more unusual. Nightingale was also a vanguard woman because she chose nursing, a role that was considered the work of desperate, impoverished women who lived on the street like prostitutes. In addition to these unusual choices, Nightingale's career was unique beyond anyone in her time. She was one of the most prolific authors of the 19th century. In addition to being an early role model for nursing, Nightingale was also a leader in several other fields emerging in her time, including social work, statistical analysis, and print journalism. As a global thinker, Nightingale would have loved 21st century. She noted cultural, social, and economic concerns, particularly in relation to health and to the discipline of nursing. She urged nurses to progress in their practice and to think outside their official domains. She responded to the culture of the 19th century by envisioning what could be changed. Working with her talents and available resources, she evolved the health care culture of the 20th century and beyond. She called all of this work "Health-Nursing." As we remember and further study the extraordinary panorama that is our Nightingale legacy, we are creating and shaping our relevant, emerging 21st century nursing practice.

  8. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  9. Remembering Florence Nightingale's panorama: 21st-century nursing--at a critical crossroads.

    PubMed

    Beck, Deva-Marie

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale lived and worked in response to her times--yet also ahead of her time. She insisted on pursuing a career even though her wealthy family could have provided her with a lifetime of leisure. Because she was a woman, this choice to work outside her home was all the more unusual. Nightingale was also a vanguard woman because she chose nursing, a role that was considered the work of desperate, impoverished women who lived on the street like prostitutes. In addition to these unusual choices, Nightingale's career was unique beyond anyone in her time. She was one of the most prolific authors of the 19th century. In addition to being an early role model for nursing, Nightingale was also a leader in several other fields emerging in her time, including social work, statistical analysis, and print journalism. As a global thinker, Nightingale would have loved 21st century. She noted cultural, social, and economic concerns, particularly in relation to health and to the discipline of nursing. She urged nurses to progress in their practice and to think outside their official domains. She responded to the culture of the 19th century by envisioning what could be changed. Working with her talents and available resources, she evolved the health care culture of the 20th century and beyond. She called all of this work "Health-Nursing." As we remember and further study the extraordinary panorama that is our Nightingale legacy, we are creating and shaping our relevant, emerging 21st century nursing practice. PMID:20664022

  10. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  11. CESM-simulated 21st Century Changes in Large Scale Crop Water Requirements and Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, S.; Badger, A.; Drewniak, B. A.; O'Neill, B. C.; Ren, X.

    2014-12-01

    We assess potential changes in crop water requirements and corresponding yields relative to the late 20th century in major crop producing regions of the world by using the Community Land Model (CLM) driven with 21st century meteorology from RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The RCP4.5 simulation allows us to explore the potential for averted societal impacts when compared to the RCP8.5 simulation. We consider the possibility for increased yields and improved water use efficiency under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 due to the CO2 fertilization effect (also known as concentration-carbon feedback). We address uncertainty in the current understanding of plant CO2 fertilization by repeating the simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect. Simulations without CO2 fertilization represent the radiative effect of elevated CO2 (i.e., warming) without representing the physiological effect of elevated CO2 (enhanced carbon uptake and increased water use efficiency by plants during photosynthesis). Preliminary results suggest that some plants may suffer from increasing heat and drought in much of the world without the CO2 fertilization effect. On the other hand plants (especially C3) tend to grow more with less water when models include the CO2 fertilization effect. Performing 21st century simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect brackets the potential range of outcomes. In this work we use the CLM crop model, which includes specific crop types that differ from the model's default plant functional types in that the crops get planted, harvested, and potentially fertilized and irrigated according to algorithms that attempt to capture human management decisions. We use an updated version of the CLM4.5 that includes cotton, rice, and sugarcane, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring rye, as well as temperate and tropical maize and soybean.

  12. Forcing and response in simulated 20th and 21st century surface energy and precipitation trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Timothy

    2009-09-01

    A simple methodology is applied to a transient integration of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version1 (UKMO-HadGEM1) fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model in order to separate forcing from climate response in simulated 20th century and future global mean surface energy and precipitation trends. Forcings include any fast responses that are caused by the forcing agent and that are independent of global temperature change. Results reveal that surface radiative forcing is dominated by shortwave forcing over the 20th and 21st centuries, which is strongly negative. However, when fast responses of surface turbulent heat fluxes are separated from climate feedbacks, and included in the forcing, net surface forcing becomes positive. The nonradiative forcings are the result of rapid surface and tropospheric adjustments and impact 20th century, as well as future, evaporation and precipitation trends. A comparison of energy balance changes in eight different climate models finds that all models exhibit a positive surface energy imbalance by the late 20th century. However, there is considerable disagreement in how this imbalance is partitioned between the longwave, shortwave, latent heat and sensible heat fluxes. In particular, all models show reductions in shortwave radiation absorbed at the surface by the late 20th century compared to the pre-industrial control state, but the spread of this reduction leads to differences in the sign of their latent heat flux changes and thus in the sign of their hydrological responses.

  13. Childbirth Education in the 21st Century: An Immodest Proposal

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Charlotte A.; De Vries, Raymond G.

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth education was an important social movement in the 20th century but has lost its way in recent years. We describe the reasons for the dwindling importance of childbirth education and offer a proposal for reform that will align childbirth education with the needs of today's birthing mothers. Our plan will create “Centers for the Childbearing Year” (CCBYs) and a new model of childbirth educator, which we call the “birth coach.” The CCBY is the place for women to go to for information and support related to fertility, pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care; the birth coach combines the role of childbirth educator, doula, and postpartum caregiver. In creating a fresh model of childbirth education, we not only honor our pioneers but also rediscover the wisdom in community and relationship that childbirth offers us, and we learn in new ways to journey alongside each other to create new possibilities for birthing families. PMID:18769525

  14. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, Anthony David; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

  15. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Larry D.; de A. Umbuzeiro, Gisela; DeMarini, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-First Century, modern methods (e.g., “omics,” in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay has been central to the field of genetic toxicology since the 1970s. Here we document the paradigm shifts engendered by the assay, the validation and applications of the assay, and how the assay is a model for future in vitro toxicology assays. Data sources We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge using key words relevant to the Salmonella assay and additional genotoxicity assays. Data extraction We merged the citations, removing duplicates, and categorized the papers by year and topic. Data synthesis The Salmonella assay led to two paradigm shifts: that some carcinogens were mutagens and that some environmental samples (e.g., air, water, soil, food, combustion emissions) were mutagenic. Although there are > 10,000 publications on the Salmonella assay, covering tens of thousands of agents, data on even more agents probably exist in unpublished form, largely as proprietary studies by industry. The Salmonella assay is a model for the development of 21st century in vitro toxicology assays in terms of the establishment of standard procedures, ability to test various agents, transferability across laboratories, validation and testing, and structure–activity analysis. Conclusions Similar to a stethoscope as a first-line, inexpensive tool in medicine, the Salmonella assay can serve a similar, indispensable role in the foreseeable future of 21st century toxicology. PMID:20682480

  16. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  17. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  18. Our practice is our passion: development and delivery of a 21st-century doctor of public health program.

    PubMed

    DeBate, Rita D; Petersen, Donna J; Wathington, Deanna; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-first century advances have significantly altered the functions of public health professionals, resulting in a need for advanced level training in community health leadership and practice-oriented research without interruption of professional careers. We present an example of an innovative Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) program developed at the University of South Florida College of Public Health. This program incorporates 21st century public health competencies within a competency-based curricular model, delivered in a hybrid format (fall or spring online delivery and a 1-week face-to-face summer institute) in collaboration between academic and practice-based public health professionals at local and national levels. This revised competency-based program is an example of how to meet the needs of the 21st century public health practitioners while maintaining their connections to the practice world. PMID:25706012

  19. Our practice is our passion: development and delivery of a 21st-century doctor of public health program.

    PubMed

    DeBate, Rita D; Petersen, Donna J; Wathington, Deanna; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-first century advances have significantly altered the functions of public health professionals, resulting in a need for advanced level training in community health leadership and practice-oriented research without interruption of professional careers. We present an example of an innovative Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) program developed at the University of South Florida College of Public Health. This program incorporates 21st century public health competencies within a competency-based curricular model, delivered in a hybrid format (fall or spring online delivery and a 1-week face-to-face summer institute) in collaboration between academic and practice-based public health professionals at local and national levels. This revised competency-based program is an example of how to meet the needs of the 21st century public health practitioners while maintaining their connections to the practice world.

  20. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands. PMID:24351806

  1. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  2. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  3. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  4. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katitia, David Melita Ole

    2015-01-01

    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  5. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  6. "What Have the Humanities to Offer 21st-Century Europe?": Reflections of a Note Taker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Humanities have much to offer 21st-century Europe, in terms of both method and issues which may complement and correct those of Science and Social Science. These include, for instance, humanities' generation of plural narratives and plural explanations, of attention to singularity and complexity, and to others' sensibilities and ways of…

  7. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  8. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  9. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  10. Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Volume 1: News You Can Use

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Eber, K.; Jones, J.

    1999-06-04

    This is the first edition of the Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter which is designed for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy stakeholders with interest in the Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS).

  11. Critical Characteristics of Successful After-School Programs: An Evaluation of the 21st Century Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Nancy P.

    With the recent U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Initiative there has been a proliferation of after-school programs emerging in rural, suburban, and urban school communities across the country. Although these programs are financially supported through the federal government, the grants are only funded for a 3-year period. Given the…

  12. Show Me the Money Resources: Financial Literacy for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Some economists have called the current U.S. economic environment the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Many educators and parents believe it is more important than ever for students to master financial literacy skills. To become successful and responsible 21st century citizens, students need to graduate globally competitive for…

  13. A Global Imperative: The Report of the 21st Century Literacy Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Media Consortium, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This monograph, the report of the 21st Century Literacy Summit held in April 2005, presents a working definition for this emerging field, and details strategic priorities and recommendations that were the summit's major outcomes. The five strategic priorities--(1) Develop a Strategic Research Agenda; (2) Raise Awareness and Visibility of the…

  14. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  15. Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

  16. Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century: What Role for High School Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    2005-01-01

    As part of the broader policy debate on how to reform K-12 education, particularly high schools, basic questions about career and technical education are on the table. "Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century" begins with a summary of what researchers know--and do not know--about the value of high school career-focused…

  17. Meeting the Tests of Time: Small States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The analytic category of "small states" remains problematic in the 21st century. Its legitimacy as a rigorous conceptual category continues to be debated; even as small states assume a strident visibility on the world stage because of climate change negotiations. This paper reviews the scepticism that hovers around the small state concept, and…

  18. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  19. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  20. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  1. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  2. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  3. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  4. Information Literacy in the General Education: A New Requirement for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of information literacy as it applies to general education, arguing that information literacy will be an integral part of culture and a cultural change agent in the 21st century. Suggests the incorporation of the visual and aural into the idea of text changes the static nature of texts, leading to the need for multimedia…

  5. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  6. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher…

  7. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  8. Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century: Implications for the Profession and Administrator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Joanne; And Others

    In 1991, the Oregon Legislature passed a landmark educational reform bill, the "Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century," providing for an extended school year, instructional accountability, establishment of state-funded, alternative learning centers, and a restructured high school program issuing certificates of mastery. High school as it is…

  9. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Quality Afterschool Learning Opportunities for America's Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kanter, Adriana; Williams, Rebecca; Cohen, Gillian; Stonehill, Robert

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, implemented through a public-private partnership between the U.S. Department of Education and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, provides grants to communities to fund public schools as community education centers. The community education centers are intended to allow students after-school…

  10. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  11. Cultural Narratives of Academic Leadership at the Dawn of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langland, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on what's being written about "leadership" at this moment--from the late 90s through the first decade of the 21st century. These narratives have a short shelf life, an appropriate metaphor because, like goods in a produce market, they spoil relatively quickly. And each appears to offer a definitive assessment of…

  12. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  13. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  14. Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.

    This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

  15. Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Sparks, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing "21st-century skills." Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with…

  16. Synopsis of the Carnegie Report on Teaching: "A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Sara

    This review of the Carnegie Report on Teaching, "A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century" presents an overview the report's goals for the future of the teaching profession. Written by the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, the report goal's were to: (1) remind America of its economic challenges; (2) "assert the primacy of education…

  17. Engineering Students for the 21st Century: Student Development through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Alan; Bunting, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Through support of the National Science Foundation's Department Level Reform program, "Engineering Students for the 21st Century" (ES21C) has implemented a ten-course sequence designed to help students develop into engineers. Spread across the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) curriculum at Oklahoma State University, these…

  18. A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; West, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that at a time when disappointing student performance, stark achievement gaps, and an ever-"flattening" world call for retooling American schools for the 21st century, the most daunting impediments to doing so are the teacher collective bargaining agreements that regulate virtually all aspects of school district…

  19. Bibliographic Control or Chaos: An Agenda for National Bibliographic Services in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper addresses bibliographic services in the 21st century. The paper begins by reviewing achievements of the past 30 years, including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC), MARC, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The cataloging of electronic resources is…

  20. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  1. From Engagement to Ecotone: Land-Grant Universities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Pendleton-Jullian, Ann; Adler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the country's land-grant colleges and universities will celebrate their sesquicentennial. This anniversary provides a good opportunity to consider how these distinctively American institutions have evolved over the past 150 years and how well they are doing today in preparing students for the 21st century. Resilience will be a key…

  2. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  3. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the…

  4. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  5. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  6. "Holding Environments": Creating Spaces to Support Children's Environmental Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2004-01-01

    For many children across the globe, whether in low or high income nations, growing up in the 21st century will mean living in overcrowded, unsafe and polluted environments which provide limited opportunity for natural play and environmental learning. Yet Agenda 21, the Habitat Agenda and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  7. Themes in Counseling Journals: A Decade of Changes Affecting 21st Century Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James M.

    2007-01-01

    A content analysis of 1799 articles published during the period of 1996-2006 in four counseling journals confirmed three major themes and four emerging themes that are likely to become trends in 21st century counseling. The major themes included Research, Multiculturalism, and Pedagogy. Research represents the top-ranked stable theme in the…

  8. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  9. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  10. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  11. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time.

  12. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  13. An Unfinished Symphony: 21st Century Teacher Education Using Knowledge Creating Heutagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jean; Newman, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Globalisation has changed the way most people live, work and study in the 21st century. Teachers and teacher educators, like other professionals, must embrace these changes to be effective in their jobs and one ongoing change is the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for lifelong learning. In this paper we describe how one group…

  14. 76 FR 72003 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...., Evaluation and Research Officer, Institute of Museum and Library Services, 1800 M St., NW., Washington, DC... funds made available by the Institute. Current research initiatives include analysis of grants made to educational and training programs by the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program between 2003 and...

  15. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  16. "21st-Century Skills" Focus Shifts West Virginia Teachers' Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    As West Virginia increasingly emphasizes the teaching of content in application, the shift demands a fundamental change in teachers' roles. Teachers are no longer just purveyors of facts, but also the facilitators of elaborate activities that help students exercise what are often called 21st-century skills. Business leaders and policymakers more…

  17. Challenges Facing Hispanic-Serving Institutions in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr.; Cuamea, Karina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the presidents and chancellors of Hispanic-serving institutions identified 5 challenges that their institutions will face as the end of the first decade of the 21st century approaches. Almost 8 of 10 respondents listed lack of funding as the most important challenge. The 2nd most important issue was the poor academic preparedness of…

  18. Learning the Real-World Skills of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a summer internship program at South Houston High School which utilizes an innovative curriculum to teach students 21st century skills alongside core academics. Using the Transitions career education curriculum--a comprehensive curriculum created by ASCL Educational Services to fulfill Chicago Public Schools' need for soft…

  19. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  20. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  1. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  2. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  3. International Curriculum of White Education through Teacher's Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to white education for international curriculum through teacher's education for 21st century. The theory of "White Education" will be a message for development of globalization, information technology, based on knowledge, human rights education, environmental education,…

  4. Realizing the Promise of 21st-Century Education: An Owner's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce; Calhoun, Emily

    2012-01-01

    While many futurists tout the value of teaching students 21st-century skills, bridging the concept with the practice is best accomplished by professional educators. Authors Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun know how to actualize the critical reforms that enable schools to prepare students for today's workforce. They outline a clear vision for…

  5. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  6. A Study of California Public School District Superintendents and Their Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittisriboongul, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the strategies, practices, and leadership skills utilized by California superintendents in implementing 21st-century skills in their respective districts. A mixed-methods design was used, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis. Quantitative data from 37 California superintendents were collected…

  7. Reading and Responding in the 21st Century: Digital Literacies and the NYSRA Charlotte Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pegeen; Paige, Christine; Sweredoski, Dawn; Yanoff, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading projects that integrate technology engage today's students and prepare them to be literate in the 21st century. In this article, we describe in detail successful podcasting and wiki projects conducted with NYSRA Charlotte Award nominated books. We also explore additional digital literacy projects that teachers can use in their literature…

  8. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports cite the need to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education in order to attract and train a diverse pool of talented students prepared to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 21st century. A growing body of research reveals that the nature and quality of science instruction in introductory college…

  9. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  10. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  11. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  12. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  13. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  14. Social Development of 21st Century and Reform of China's Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation. The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society. The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present…

  15. Distance Learning in the 21st Century University: Key Issues for Leaders and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2012-01-01

    The changes precipitated by today's computer-based technologies are perhaps no more keenly felt than in the field of education, where technological innovation signals fundamental transformations in the manner in which educational programs will be delivered to 21st century students. Online learning is providing higher education institutions with an…

  16. Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student. Viewing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To complement the 40-minute documentary, "Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student," the "Institute for Higher Education Policy" (IHEP) has developed a viewing guide to help facilitate thought-provoking and meaningful dialogue. This guide provides a film synopsis, suggested discussion formats, profiles of…

  17. Mindful Strengths Development: Leveraging Students' Strengths for 21st Century Learning and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanious, Christy M.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous change characterizing 21st century society has significant implications for higher education. Educators and business leaders increasingly recognize that education within and preparation for a context of change requires learning environments fostering openness, flexibility, and engagement with other ideas and people. Such…

  18. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  19. Preparing the Workforce for the 21st Century: The Nurse Educator's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This document consists of synopses of selected presentations on the nurse educator's challenge in preparing the workforce for the 21st century that were made during the 1998 meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. In her paper "Redesigning Health Care Delivery," Karlene Kerfoot described changes in health care delivery systems…

  20. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…