Science.gov

Sample records for 21st century technological

  1. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  2. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  3. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  4. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  5. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  6. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  7. Technology in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the rapid growth of Internet use and how Internet technology and the World Wide Web can make learning more accessible for gifted students. It outlines how technology can promote improved learning and how educators can integrate technology into gifted education. The need for teachers to be trained in Internet use is…

  8. Emerging 21st Century Medical Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Although several medical technologies have been around since decades and are in the continuous process of development, some latest technologies are changing the way medicine would be practiced in the future. These technologies would allow medical practice from anywhere, any time and from any device. These include smart phones, Tablet PCs, Touch screens, digital ink, voice recognition, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Exchange (HIE), Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN), Personal Health Records (PHRs), patient portals, Nanomedicine, genome-based personalized medicine, Geographical Positioning System (GPS), Radiofrequency Identification (RFID), Telemedicine, clinical decision support (CDS), mobile home healthcare, cloud computing, and social media, to name a few significant. PMID:24948997

  9. Technology Manners for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses etiquette for today's technology, including paper copiers; desktop or laptop computers; fax machines; answering machines and voice mail; printers; cellular phones, pagers, and beepers; telephones; videotapes, videodisks, and CD-ROMs; paper shredders; Internet use; and magnetic boards. (LRW)

  10. Space power technology into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The space power systems of the early 21st century are discussed. The capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state of the art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century are emphasized. The power system technologies considered include: solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include: nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state of the art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned Earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and Earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies which are anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  11. Space power technology into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Faymon, K.A.; Fordyce, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the space power systems of the early 21st century. The focus is on those capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state-of-the-art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century. The power system technologies considered include solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state-of-the-art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  12. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  13. Integrative Technology: 21st Century Technology for 21st Century Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemagno, Ph. D.

    2004-03-01

    Integrative technology, the merging of nanotechnology, biotechnology and informatics offers an opportunity for realizing true advances in the manner in which technology interacts with humanity. Using the power of nanotechnology to manipulate matter, that is the placing of molecules where we want, when we want, to perform functions that we want. Using the inspiration of biotechnology both to co-opt the tools of molecular manufacturing and to provide a baseline understanding of the way nature manipulates matter and information. And finally, using Informatics to create a robust framework for transforming the information implicit in molecular and larger scale interactions to engineer Complex Adaptive Systems that exhibit embedded higher-order behavior. Collectively these technologies established the basis for Integrative Technology, a new IT. The first examples of the implementation of Integrated Technology are manifested in the synthesis of a new class of smart materials. These materials have the potential to emulate much of the functionality associated with living systems such as the active transport and transformation of matter and information and, the transduction of energy into different forms. We will present the details of the technological demands and the results of efforts associated with the production of these new functional materials. Elements of the discussion will include the genetic engineering of active biological molecules into engineering building blocks, the precision assembly of these molecules into a stable, "active" material and, the promise of embedding intelligent behavior into the matrix of the assembled matter.

  14. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  15. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  16. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  17. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  18. Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Science and Technology in Global 21st Century Societies

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, George H.

    2008-10-08

    Many of the most significant geopolitical policy and security issues facing both developed and developing nations in the increasingly global societies of the 21st century are directly connected with the remarkably rapid and profound scientific achievements of our time. The urgency of addressing immediate needs must be balanced with the patience to accurately identify and incorporate those emerging and 'at-the-horizon' S and T advances into longer-term governmental planning, not only in the formulation of policy, but as critically, in its implementation. The fostering of safe, secure, and prosperous 'knowledge-based societies' is increasingly related directly to the success a government has in meeting these responsibilities. By launching the new Institute on Science for Global Policy (ISGP) at the University of California, an effort is underway to significantly expand opportunities that foster continuous dialogue, critical debates and even constructive disagreement (without attribution) concerning S and T-related policy decisions between international government officials and distinguished members of the global S and T community. Governmental, civil society, and selected private sector organizations worldwide are participating and supporting the ISGP programs.

  20. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  1. A Case Study Exploring Technology Integration and Incorporation of 21st Century Skills in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Rebekah C.

    2012-01-01

    As the abundance and importance of technology continues to increase, schools are attempting to stay current by utilizing technology educationally. While the technology at many schools is plentiful, few teachers are able to effectively integrate technology in their daily lessons in a meaningful way, equipping students with the 21st century skills…

  2. An Analysis of Directors' Views on Educational Technology Professional Development in 21st Century Community Learning Center Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, L. Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine directors' views on the current state and needs of 2009-2010 North Carolina 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) afterschool educational technology professional development (ETPD). The population for this study involved the 2009-2010 North Carolina 21st CCLC directors. In a mixed methods study…

  3. Preparing Preservice Teachers for 21st Century Classrooms: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors about Innovative Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mia Kim; Foulger, Teresa S.; Wetzel, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Keeping-up with progressing technology tools has been a troublesome issue for educational technology instructors for over ten years as they endeavor to prepare beginning teachers to integrate technology in their future classrooms. This paper promotes instructors' ideas about behaviors of 21st century teachers, and explores efforts to support their…

  4. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  5. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  6. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  7. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  8. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  9. Evolving Technologies Require Educational Policy Change: Music Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Renee

    2013-01-01

    There is growing discussion among education and government authorities on rethinking education in the 21st century. This increasing area of interest has come in response to the evolution of technology and its effect on the future needs and requirements of society. Online applications and social networking capabilities have accelerated in…

  10. The Connection to the 21st Century Workforce: Technology and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building a competitive workforce for the 21st Century requires the careful alignment of K-12 and university curricula with the skill needs of business and industry. In addition to making students better problem solvers, critical thinkers, and users of technology, academic preparation must instill in them the desire to become lifelong learners,…

  11. Information and Communications Technologies Support for 21st-Century Teaching: An International Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Sparks, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, national educational policies around the world have mandated massive investments in information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform teaching and learning in ways appropriate for developing "21st-century skills." Recent research indicates significant success in bringing teachers and students into contact with…

  12. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  13. Fueling the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sheindlin, A.E. ); Zaleski, P. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses fueling of the 21st century. Topics include: Basic World Energy Problems at the Turn of the 21st Century, Natural Gas at the Present Stage of Development of Power Engineering, and Biomass-Powered Ice- Making Machine.

  14. The Availability and Use of 21st Century Technology Tools in South Carolina Secondary Public School Library Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Kathleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of South Carolina secondary school library media specialists to prepare students to meet the "AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner" (American Association of School Librarians, 2009b) by investigating the availability of 21st century technology tools, the confidence level of media…

  15. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; Malinowski, John; Malinowski, Robert; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications (OSC) is tasked by NASA to conduct a planning process to meet NASA's science mission and other communications and data processing requirements. A set of technology trend studies was undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for OSC to identify quantitative data that can be used to predict performance of electronic equipment in the future to assist in the planning process. Only commercially available, off-the-shelf technology was included. For each technology area considered, the current state of the technology is discussed, future applications that could benefit from use of the technology are identified, and likely future developments of the technology are described. The impact of each technology area on NASA operations is presented together with a discussion of the feasibility and risk associated with its development. An approximate timeline is given for the next 15 to 25 years to indicate the anticipated evolution of capabilities within each of the technology areas considered. This volume contains four chapters: one each on technology trends for database systems, computer software, neural and fuzzy systems, and artificial intelligence. The principal study results are summarized at the beginning of each chapter.

  16. Technology and Transition in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Grigal, Meg; Unger, Darlene D.; Simmons, Thomas J.; Bauder, Debra; Williams, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Devices like smartphones, tablets, and MP3 players are becoming everyday tools for the majority of the population. Technology can assist students with disabilities in many self-determination activities, such as choice making, decision making, and self-management. In addition, technology tools can support them in a wide range of transition-related…

  17. Space Station Freedom - Technology R&D and test facility for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Development of the SSF is considered in terms of a primary stimulus for technology research and development activities in the early 21st century. The utilization and operations management organization, the ground facilities, and the associated international agreements will form the basis for all future major space projects, including lunar and Mars missions and outposts. Problems discussed include SSF technology R&D accommodations, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D opportunities, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D candidates, and space infrastructure cooperative projects.

  18. Aircraft technology opportunities for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1988-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities, and at the same time provide greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. Both current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers are addressed. The complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts is considered including rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies for current aircraft will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility. Research and technology promises to enable development of new vehicles that will revolutionize or greatly change the transportation system. These vehicles will provide new capabilities which will lead to enormous market opportunities and economic growth, as well as improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  19. Technology Directions for the 21st Century, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; McIntosh, William; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, semiconductor device density and performance have been doubling about every 18 months (Moore's Law). With present photolithography techniques, this rate can continue for only about another 10 years. Continued improvement will need to rely on newer technologies. Transition from the current micron range for transistor size to the nanometer range will permit Moore's Law to operate well beyond 10 years. The technologies that will enable this extension include: single-electron transistors; quantum well devices; spin transistors; and nanotechnology and molecular engineering. Continuation of Moore's Law will rely on huge capital investments for manufacture as well as on new technologies. Much will depend on the fortunes of Intel, the premier chip manufacturer, which, in turn, depend on the development of mass-market applications and volume sales for chips of higher and higher density. The technology drivers are seen by different forecasters to include video/multimedia applications, digital signal processing, and business automation. Moore's Law will affect NASA in the areas of communications and space technology by reducing size and power requirements for data processing and data fusion functions to be performed onboard spacecraft. In addition, NASA will have the opportunity to be a pioneering contributor to nanotechnology research without incurring huge expenses.

  20. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  1. Technology needs of planetary missions of the 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, R.

    This paper presents the findings of a series of planetary mission studies supporting development and update of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan. The studies evaluate feasibility, science return, cost, and benefits of advanced technology for missions that are candidates for inclusion in the strategic plan. Emphasis (to date) has been on nine target missions identified in the plan for launch after 2004. Mission concepts have been defined for each target, and the enabling and enhancing technologies developments have been identified. It was found that the current trend toward miniaturization of avionics will benefit all missions. Several missions were found to be enabled or strongly enhanced by advances in low thrust propulsion, either solar electric or solar sail. Another critical area is in-situ technologies, including precision approach; landing; surface mobility; sample collection, analyses and packaging; and sample return to Earth.

  2. New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the “understanding of plant growth” as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed “new biology.” The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon. PMID:22366161

  3. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Ramu Chandra

    2010-02-19

    Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.

  4. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  5. A Cultural Heritage Exhibit with 21st-Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Lakeview Schools and the Art Center of Battle Creek, both located in Michigan, have worked together on several beneficial projects. This partnership has resulted in the sharing of valuable material and human resources. In addition, the use of innovative technology has provided a meaningful learning experience for the entire community. As the…

  6. Fostering 21st Century Learning with Geospatial Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita A.

    2011-01-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) receivers and other geospatial tools can help teachers create engaging, hands-on activities in all content areas. This article provides a rationale for using geospatial technologies in the middle grades and describes classroom-tested activities in English language arts, science, mathematics, and social studies.…

  7. How Information Technology Can Enable 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolderie, Ted; McDonald; Tim

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the information technology (IT) revolution has transformed American industry--leading to new types of work processes and business organizations, and increased productivity and consumer innovations--but by and large, this game-changer has bypassed America's schools. Virtually all K-12 schools in the country are connected to the…

  8. 21st-Century Diabetes: Technology Leads the Way.

    PubMed

    Brown, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Advances in technology continue to improve quality of life for people with diabetes and enhance their ability to perform diabetes self-management activities. Both insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) are increasingly more popular among students with diabetes. This article will provide school nurses an overview of how insulin pumps and CGMs operate and the implications of their use in the school setting. PMID:27481481

  9. Industrial Wireless Technology for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    In July 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program sponsored the Industrial Wireless Workshop as a forum for articulating some long-term goals that may help guide the development of industrial wireless sensor systems. Over 30 individuals, representing manufacturers and suppliers, end users, universities, and national laboratories, attended the workshop in San Francisco and participated in a series of facilitated sessions. The workshop participants cooperatively developed a unified vision for the future and defined specific goals and challenges. This document presents the results of the workshop as well as some context for non-experts.

  10. Advanced solar thermal technologies for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, L. L.; Perez-Davis, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper considers the present status of solar thermal dynamic space power technologies and projects the various attributes of these systems into the future, to the years 2000 and 2010. By the year 2000, collector weights should decrease from 1.25 kg/sq m (1985 value) to about 1.0 kg/sq m. The specific weight is also expected to decrease from 6.0 kg/kw. By the year 2010, slight improvements in the free piston Stirling energy conversion system are postulated with efficiencies reaching 32 percent. In addition, advanced concentrator concepts should be operational.

  11. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  12. Telepsychiatry in the 21(st) century: transforming healthcare with technology.

    PubMed

    Deslich, Stacie; Stec, Bruce; Tomblin, Shane; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and constraints of telemedicine, focusing primarily on the field of psychiatry in the United States with the current system of healthcare. Telepsychiatry is believed to provide better access and higher-quality care to patients who need psychiatric care and cost savings to providers of such care. Telemedicine has been successfully integrated into psychiatric facilities reaching rural areas, prisons, and urban facilities. It has increased the volume of patients that physicians can reach and diagnose, as well as allowing them to treat patients with limitations in mobility. While telepsychiatry has been shown to be beneficial, this technology does have some limitations. Concerns about reimbursement, licensure, privacy, security, patient safety, and interoperability have been identified and present current challenges that providers using telepsychiatry must overcome in order to provide the most effective patient care. As more insurance companies start to reimburse for telepsychiatry treatments at the same rate as for face-to-face visits, this evolving medical field has the potential to grow exponentially. PMID:23861676

  13. Telepsychiatry in the 21st Century: Transforming Healthcare with Technology

    PubMed Central

    Deslich, Stacie; Stec, Bruce; Tomblin, Shane; Coustasse, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and constraints of telemedicine, focusing primarily on the field of psychiatry in the United States with the current system of healthcare. Telepsychiatry is believed to provide better access and higher-quality care to patients who need psychiatric care and cost savings to providers of such care. Telemedicine has been successfully integrated into psychiatric facilities reaching rural areas, prisons, and urban facilities. It has increased the volume of patients that physicians can reach and diagnose, as well as allowing them to treat patients with limitations in mobility. While telepsychiatry has been shown to be beneficial, this technology does have some limitations. Concerns about reimbursement, licensure, privacy, security, patient safety, and interoperability have been identified and present current challenges that providers using telepsychiatry must overcome in order to provide the most effective patient care. As more insurance companies start to reimburse for telepsychiatry treatments at the same rate as for face-to-face visits, this evolving medical field has the potential to grow exponentially. PMID:23861676

  14. Classroom Technology Integration: A Comparative Study of Participants and Non-Participants in the 21st Century Model Classroom Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Darrell Grady

    2013-01-01

    This study provided a unique opportunity to examine how two groups of teachers experienced the integration of technology in a K-12 school system in the southeastern United States. The total number of respondents (n = 338) included 21st Century Model Classroom (CMC) program teachers (n = 27) and non-participants (n = 311). Teachers in the 21st CMC…

  15. 21st Century Skills Development: Learning in Digital Communities--Technology and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of student performance in the 21 st century skills of Information and Communication (ICT) Literacy and collaboration. In this project, extant data from the Assessment and Teaching for 21st Century Skills project (ATC21S) will be examined. ATC21S is a collaborative effort among educational agencies in six countries,…

  16. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  17. Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Small, Dorothy; Walker, Leanne; Wilson, Richard L.; Wintle, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. In part this is because, as a nation,…

  18. Engine technology challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Gilkey, Samuel; Hines, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing NASA-funded studies by Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, General Electric, and Pratt & Whitney indicate that an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become a major part of the international air transportation system. However, before industry will consider an HSCT product launch and an investment estimated to be over $15 billion for design and certification, major technology advances must be made. An overview of the propulsion-specific technology advances that must be in hand before an HSCT product launch could be considered is presented.

  19. Energy technologies for the 21st century: Substitutes for fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtak, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    In the 21st Century, energy availability will be a world-wide concern. The economic health of any nation depends on an ample supply of low-cost energy to meet its electrical power, industrial, agricultural, and transportation needs. The determining forces at work in the energy dependence field are: growth, demographic patterns, economic incentives, electricity rate structure, mobility, energy production/consumption ratios, land use regulations, and air pollution rules and regulations. Renewable energy resources are becoming more viable based not only on ongoing improvements in technology, but from higher costs and greater depletion of nonrenewable resources.

  20. 21st Century Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Nadene; Stone, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Education has changed, and at no time is this more evident than when working with students who are tethered to the Internet, are fully engaged in technology-based social networking, create blogs and wikis, and expect instantaneous responses as they twitter with their peers around the world. Some of the knowledge and skills that millennial students…

  1. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  2. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  3. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  4. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  5. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  6. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  7. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  8. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across geographical borders…

  9. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  10. Whole System Integration and Modeling Essential to Agricultural Science and Technology for the 21st Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 21st century, agricultural research has more difficult and complex problems to solve. The continued increase in population in the developing countries requires continued increases in agricultural production. However, the increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and water required for the new...

  11. Use of Technology in the Classroom as Perceived by Public School Teachers in Milwaukee during Early 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Sharon F.

    2013-01-01

    This project utilized descriptive methodology to examine the research question, how is technology being used in the classroom, as perceived by public school teachers in Milwaukee during early 21st century? In order to fully analyze this question, both quantitative and qualitative data were utilized. The researcher developed a survey for the…

  12. Emerging Technologies for the Detection of Rabies Virus: Challenges and Hopes in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Anthony R.; Johnson, Nicholas; Freuling, Conrad M.; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Marston, Denise A.; Dastjerdi, Akbar; Wright, Edward; Weiss, Robin A.; Müller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem testing for human

  13. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  14. NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  15. Energy Technologies for the 21st Century-The Roles of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R N

    2005-07-29

    Renewable energy sources, originating for the most part from the sun's radiant energy, are ubiquitous, long-lived, essentially free of carbon emissions, and have the potential to contribute significantly to mounting energy needs of the globe. In terms of percentage increase in installed capacity, renewable energy collectively is the fastest growing energy source. Even assuming that the developing world raises its standard of living considerably, the technical potential of renewable energies is more than enough to meet annual global needs several times over a century from now. Realizing even some of this potential involves overcoming obstacles in generation costs, proximity to markets, and in many cases intermittency, as well as others. From the perspective of work on a wide range of energy technologies by both the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the potential, timing, and investment costs for renewable energy technologies in the 21st century have become clearer. The marketplace, based on cost and performance, will determine which technologies are commercialized along with government policies that at a minimum do not hinder their introduction, and--at a maximum--may encourage more rapid and successful introduction. A wide range of possible scenarios (34) based on factors that include energy availability, demographics, economic development, competition, environmental constraints, and most importantly technical learning, place some constraints on the range of possible energy requirements. Most scenarios indicate that renewable energy in total is likely to be as much as half the world's supply in 100 years, but most of that growth is expected in the period 50 to 100 years from now--if critical advancements and investments are made over the next 50 years.

  16. A Study of 21st Century Classroom Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Training and Use of Technology in K-12 Public Schools in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary B.

    In October 1990, the Tennessee State Department of Education began a project to establish a plan for educational technology which will move the state into the 21st Century; from that plan a vision for the 21st Century Classroom and an implementation plan for the Tennessee Education Network have been developed. The purpose of this study was to…

  17. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  18. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  19. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  20. Perspectives on scientific and technological literacy in Tonga: Moving forward in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palefau, Tevita Hala

    Tonga has undergone complex changes in the last three decades. Disturbing numbers of young Tongans have inadequate knowledge in traditional science and technology, ill equipped to work in, contribute to and profit from our society. In short, they lack sufficient background knowledge to acquire the training, skills and understanding that are needed in the 21st Century. The purpose of this research is to assist the formulation of national science and technology curriculum. Hence, views of life in Tonga and opinions about Tonga's needs held by three stakeholder groups (traditional, workplaces, public) were paramount in this study. How these stakeholders see Tonga in terms of science and technology needs will contribute substantially to the Ministry of Education's decisions for this century. Based on critical evaluation of international literature and how scientific and technological literacy (STL) is crucial to Tongan society, a model 'TAP-STL' is established as study framework: 'TAP' for ṯraditional, a&barbelow;cademic and p&barbelow;ublic STL, to promote national development. This qualitative case study employs an interview method to collect data from twelve knowledgeable participants selected by reputational sampling from across the kingdom. By exploring their understanding of STL requirements, the study sought to identify any shortfall between the science and technology provided in school and that needed for maintenance of traditional culture, effective participation in Tonga's workplaces and public understanding. The study produced findings under these categories: understanding of traditional knowledge and skills needed to preserve Tongan cultural identity; understanding needed for fishing, handicrafts and everyday maintenance, together with essential health knowledge and skills; and required understanding of public information campaigns related to health, domestic goods, drugs and environment that contribute to responsible citizenship. The study identified

  1. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  2. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  5. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  6. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  8. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  9. Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2002. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-02-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The winter issue contains information on energy efficient health care design, solid state lighting, Brookhaven National Laboratory, school design guidelines, E-News, Energy Star, DOE energy awards, and upcoming events and meetings.

  10. Urbanization in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Altarejos, R G

    1990-01-01

    Due to a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of rural-urban migration, overcrowding will be common in many cities around the world in the 21st century. Currently at 5.3 billion, the global population is expected to increase to 6 billion by the year 2000, and to 9 billion by 2025. Experts predict that urban centers will bear the brunt of the population growth. Rural areas have seen declines in the standard of living, partly due to natural disasters, civil war, and economic policies favoring urban centers. In search of jobs, better access to education, and health services, rural populations will flock to cities. But the rapid growth of cities will inevitably lead to the creation of slums, which will hamper urban development. Urban demographers predict that by the end of the century, 1/2 of the world's population will be urban, and 1/5 of these people will be concentrated in "mega cities," populations of 4 million or more. International migration will play a significant role, as people cross borders in search of opportunity. But contrary to the traditional model of urban growth, much of it will take place in developing countries. According to a 1985 study, developed nations had an urbanization level of 71%, compared to 31% in developing countries. However, experts calculate that by 2025, these levels will practically even out, with an urbanization level of 74% for developing countries and 77% for developed countries. By 2025, 25 cities will have populations of over 9 million, including Mexico City (25.8), Sao Paulo (24.0), Tokyo (20.2), Calcutta (16.5), Greater Bombay (16.0), and New York (15.8). PMID:12343167

  11. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: 2003 Annual Technical Status Report DOE/AL68284-TSR03

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo

    2004-01-09

    The 21st Century Locomotive program objective is to develop 25% more efficient freight locomotives by 2010. Diesel engine-related research addresses advanced fuel injection, electric turbocharger and abradable seals. Assembly of a common rail fuel injection test system is underway, and a CFD combustion model has been validated. An electrically assisted turbocharger has been constructed and operated, meeting the generator mode design rating. System characterization and optimization is ongoing. Candidate abradable seal materials have been identified and test coupons prepared. Locomotive system-related research addresses capturing, storing and utilizing regenerative braking energy in a hybrid locomotive, and fuel optimization control. Hybrid locomotive energy storage requirements have been identified and studies on specific energy storage solutions are in progress. Energy management controls have been defined and testing initiated. Train and track parameter identification necessary for fuel optimization has been demonstrated.

  12. Space freighters for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1990-10-01

    The present account of the characteristics of a space freighter concept which can transport either 300 metric tons to LEO or 100 metric tons to GEO or lunar orbits gives attention to its performance requirements, operations and schedules criteria, and costs. It is established that technology is not the limiting factor for rapid development of the 'Neptune' three-stage vehicle presently discussed, which uses derivatives of the SSMEs and will be of 6000-metric-ton takeoff mass. The Neptune space freighter could become available in the first decade of the 21st century, when it would be complemented by a second-generation Space Shuttle for passenger transport to LEO.

  13. Buildings for the 21st Century, Summer 2001. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    Burgert, S.

    2001-07-11

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The summer issue includes information on technology roadmap initiatives, new energy computer simulation software, an educational CD with energy lessons for teachers, a CD with energy-saving tips, a study on the efficiency of clothes washers, a loan program in New York, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This publication is one in series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This case study describes the Science and Technology Facility, a new laboratory at NREL that incorporated energy-efficient and sustainable design features including underfloor air distribution in offices, daylighting, and process cooling.

  15. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  16. 21st century advanced hydropower turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

    1995-11-01

    While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

  17. Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

  18. The 21st-Century Urban Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Like schools in the early twentieth century, urban schools in the early 21st century pose challenges to educators at all levels. Large and growing numbers of students whose first language is not English, students with special needs, students of color and students from low-income homes demand new approaches for which many educators might not have…

  19. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  20. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  1. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  2. Weaving the Fabric of Professional Development in the 21st Century Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Patricia; Boxler, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Network learning supported by 21-century technology is reweaving the fabric of how educators acquire and create new knowledge. At the Alaska Educational Innovations Network (AEIN), educators believe this has the potential to change how a profession looks at professional development. They have learned that using technology to support networks…

  3. The 21st Century Community College: Technology and the New Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.; Lobello, Sharon T., Ed.

    Resulting from a forum for community college leaders exploring the effects of technological change on education, this three-part monograph discusses the role of technology in community colleges and reviews strategies for responding to changes. The first part addresses the vision and leadership needed to bring the colleges into the next century and…

  4. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  5. A perspective on space exploration technology catalysis: A rationale for initiating 21st Century expansion of human civilization into outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale for human exploration of space is examined. Observations of the technocatalytic potential are presented. Transferability to the terrestrial environment of 21st Century Earth is discussed. The many threats to future survival of this planet's sensitive ecosystem are also discussed in relation to the technoecological harmony that might be achievable due to the extreme demands that are naturally imposed on the development of (civilian/human) space technology. The human attempt to inhabit the inner solar system (the Moon, Mars, etc.) is proposed as the ultimate and most appropriate technology driver for the myriad of socioeconomic, ecological, and technological needs that will accompany 21st Century Earth societies.

  6. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  7. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  8. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  9. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  10. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  11. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  12. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  13. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  14. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  15. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  16. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  17. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  18. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  19. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  20. Oceanography for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    Textbooks and most oceanography courses are organized around the 19th century concepts of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. This approach fails to involve students in the interesting problems of the 21st century: the role of the ocean in climate and weather, fisheries, and coastal problems, all of which involve a complex interplay of chemical, biological, and physical systems plus policy issues. To make my oceanography and environmental geosciences courses more relevant, I organize them around case studies such as coastal pollution or climate change. After using this approach for two years, I find students are much more interested in the ocean, and they understand the relevance of the ocean to their daily lives. Because no textbook is very useful for teaching these case studies, I have begun to write a new open-source book: Oceanography for the 21st Century: An Ocean Planet.

  1. Teaching the New Writing: Technology, Change, and Assessment in the 21st-Century Classroom. Language & Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Anne; Hodgson, Kevin; Moran, Charles

    2009-01-01

    How has the teaching of writing changed in the 21st century? In this innovative guide, real teachers share their stories, successful practices, and vivid examples of their students' creative and expository writing from online and multimedia projects, such as blogs, wikis, podcasts, electronic poetry, and more. The book also addresses assessment:…

  2. A Profile of Early 21st Century Teachers of Northwest Ohio: The Relationship between Teachers' Technology Integration and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathsack, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, encapsulated the national concern and immediate need for educational change in order to prepare our students for the 21st century by stating, "The urgency to improve our children's schools has never been greater." Therefore, in order to develop students with the skills and knowledge needed to…

  3. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.

    2010-04-01

    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  4. Your 21st Century Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how several institutions are turning to popular technologies to streamline and facilitate fundraising efforts. These popular solutions include social networking websites and other Web 2.0 tools, e-mail marketing products, and a new look at enterprise-level solutions. At Monmouth College, web professionals…

  5. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  6. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  7. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  8. Evidence-Based Strategies for Leading 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    How can a school best use technology for teaching and learning? This inspiring book profiles eight visionary schools that are achievers in how they approach technology. In this companion to "Leading 21st Century Schools," Lynne Schrum and Barbara Levin offer insights direct from principals, teachers, superintendents, and others involved in…

  9. NASA Hypersonic X-Plane Flight Development of Technologies and Capabilities for the 21st Century Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Trippensee, Gary

    1997-01-01

    A new family of NASA experimental aircraft (X-planes) is being developed to uniquely, yet synergistically tackle a wide class of technologies to advance low-cost, efficient access to space for a range of payload classes. This family includes two non-air-breathing rocket-powered concepts, the X-33 and the X-34 aircraft, and two air-breathing vehicle concepts, the scramjet-powered Hyper-X and the rocket-based combined cycle flight vehicle. This report describes the NASA vision for reliable, reusable, fly-to-orbit spacecraft in relation to the current space shuttle capability. These hypersonic X-plane programs, their objectives, and their status are discussed. The respective technology sets and flight program approaches are compared and contrasted. Additionally, the synergy between these programs to advance the entire technology front in a uniform way is discussed. NASA's view of the value of in-flight hypersonic experimentation and technology development to act as the ultimate crucible for proving and accelerating technology readiness is provided. Finally, an opinion on end technology products and space access capabilities for the 21st century is offered.

  10. Technology-Based Assessments for 21st Century Skills: Theoretical and Practical Implications from Modern Research. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrath, Michael C., Ed.; Clarke-Midura, Jody, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.; Schraw, Gregory, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Creative problem solving, collaboration, and technology fluency are core skills requisite of any nation's workforce that strives to be competitive in the 21st Century. Teaching these types of skills is an economic imperative, and assessment is a fundamental component of any pedagogical program. Yet, measurement of these skills is complex due to…

  11. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  12. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  13. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  14. Enhancing student engagement through the affordances of mobile technology: a 21st century learning perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Aibhín; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Several recent curriculum reforms aim to address the shortfalls traditionally associated with mathematics education through increased emphasis on higher-order-thinking and collaborative skills. Some stakeholders, such as the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the UK Joint Mathematical Council, advocate harnessing the affordances of digital technology in conjunction with social constructivist pedagogies, contextual scenarios, and/or approaches aligned with Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). However, it can be difficult to create technology-mediated, collaborative and contextual activities within a conventional classroom setting. This paper explores how a combination of a transformative, mobile technology-mediated approach, RME, and a particular model of 21st century learning facilitates the development of mathematics learning activities with the potential to increase student engagement and confidence. An explanatory case study with multiple embedded units and a pre-experimental design was conducted with a total of 54 students in 3 schools over 25 hours of class time. Results from student interviews, along with pre-test/post-test analysis of questionnaires, suggest that the approach has the potential to increase student engagement with, and confidence in, mathematics. This paper expands on these results, proposing connections between aspects of the activity design and their impact on student attitudes and behaviours.

  15. Gold phytomining. A review of the relevance of this technology to mineral extraction in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Corral, Victor; Anderson, Christopher W N; Rodriguez-Lopez, Mayra

    2012-11-30

    The precious metal gold can be found at high concentration in tailings dumps and waste rock piles at many mining locations around the world. Conventional technology is generally unable to economically recover this residual gold, and, as a result, the potential resource is wasted, presenting environmental risk to the wider ecosystem through particulate and dissolved metal leaching and erosion. For the past 14 years, the idea of gold phytomining to recover this gold resource has been researched by various scientific groups worldwide. A number of plant species have been tested under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions to determine their potential for use in the phytoextraction of gold. This paper presents a review of reported gold phytomining trials developed in the laboratory, the greenhouse under soil and hydroponic conditions, as well as in the field, between 1998 and 2011. A summary economic assessment for gold phytomining in Mexico is also presented. Mexico is an example of a developing country with a long history of gold mining that has a large resource of sites that might be suitable to gold phytomining. The technology remains limited by certain environmental and plant physiology factors. However, the increase in the market price for gold during the first decade of the 21st century and into 2011, and advances recorded for the gold concentration and biomass yield of a range of plant species, suggest that gold phytomining might be an economically viable technology. PMID:22940825

  16. Research Center for Optical Physics: Education and Technology for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the past eleven years since its inception, RCOP has excelled in its two primary goals: 1) training of the scientists and engineers needed for the twenty-first century with special emphasis on underrepresented citizens and 2) research and technological development in areas of relevance to NASA. In the category of research training, as of May 2003, RCOP produced 36 Bachelors degrees, 25 Masters degrees, and 13 Doctoral degrees. Of these, all 36 Bachelors degrees, 16 of the Masters degrees and 9 of the Doctoral degrees were awarded to African Americans. Four of the Doctoral graduates and one of the Masters graduates are working at NASA Field Centers. RCOP has also provided research experiences to 130 undergraduate students and 22 high school students through a number of outreach programs held during the summer and the academic year. RCOP has also been crucial to the development of the Ph.D. program in physics at Hampton University by providing high quality research training and technical electives required for a Doctoral degree in physics. RCOP has also excelled in research and technological development. Since 1992, RCOP researchers have leveraged over 8 million dollars in additional research funding, published 152 papers in refereed journals and proceedings, and given 125 presentations at refereed international conferences in the United States and eight other countries. RCOP also developed numerous collaborations with other research centers, universities and industries. In recognition of this outstanding work, RCOP is the first research center in the United States invited to join the Joint Open Laboratory for Laser Crystals and Precise Laser Systems headed by Dr. Alexander Kaminiskii of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  17. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  18. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  19. Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Kavalier, Barbara R.; Flannigan, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the 21st century, "literate" defined a person's ability to read and write, separating the educated from the uneducated. With the advent of a new millennium and the rapidity with which technology has changed society, the concept of literacy has assumed new meanings. Experts in the field suggest that the current generation of…

  20. Backers of "21st-Century Skills" Take Flak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "21st-century skills" is everywhere in education policy discussions these days, from faculty lounges to the highest echelons of the U.S. education system. Broadly speaking, it refers to a push for schools to teach critical-thinking, analytical, and technology skills, in addition to the "soft skills" of creativity, collaboration, and…

  1. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Howard

    2010-01-01

    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  2. Engineering Education for Leadership in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirasinghe, Chan

    The engineering profession and, consequently, the education process for engineers must respond to several new realities in order to be successful in the 21st century. Some aspects of the new reality that are relevant to engineering education are as follows: the globalization of commerce; the information revolution; innovations in technology; the…

  3. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  4. Business Technology Education in the Early 21st Century: The Ongoing Quest for Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriole, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The field of information technology is changing and those responsible for educating the next generation of technology professionals have responded with a new computing curriculum, which identifies five distinct technology majors: computer engineering, computer science, software engineering, information systems and information technology.…

  5. Breakthrough Sensor Technology for Space Exploration in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Breakthrough Sensors and Instrument Component Technology (BSICT) thrust area fosters the develop of breakthrough technology in the areas of detectors, sensors, lasers, coolers and electronics to enable a new set of exciting NASA missions in the new millennium.

  6. The Symbiotic Relationship of Science and Technology in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, A. Emerson

    1999-01-01

    There are many examples in which science and technology complement each other. This is especially evident in biotechnology and genetic engineering. This symbiotic relationship is foundational to the technological culture of contemporary society. (SK)

  7. Technology and Literacy: 21st Century Library Programming for Children and Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jennifer; Braafladt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Technology may not be a magic wand, but innovative technology programming can genuinely help children become adept at navigating our increasingly wired world while also helping them develop deductive reasoning, math, and other vital literacy skills. One of the simplest and most powerful tools for technology-based public library programming is…

  8. 21st century diabetes care: a marriage between humans and technology.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Helen R

    2013-05-01

    Technological advances in the management of diabetes have been described as a stepping stone in the journey towards a cure. These include continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pumps, computerised mathematical algorithms, and closed-loop artificial pancreas systems. The approaches offer the tantalising promise of near-normal glucose control to people with diabetes. However, as is often the case with human/technological interactions, we have the technology but we do not have all the answers. PMID:23375387

  9. Using Assistive Technology in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebisi, Rufus Olanrewaju; Liman, Nalado Abubakar; Longpoe, Patricia Kwalzoom

    2015-01-01

    This paper was written to expose the meaning, benefits, and answer why the use of assistive technology for children with learning disabilities. The paper discussed the various types of assistive technology devices that were designed and used to solve written language, reading, listening, memory and mathematic problems of children with learning…

  10. The Future: Science & Technology Enter the 21st Century. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.

    Innovations in communications, space, medicine, and other technologies are sure to have an impact on the world of tomorrow and the way we view that world. This guide to the literature on future technology is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set of resources that can be used to focus on…

  11. Digital Technology in the 21st Century: Considerations for Clinical Supervision in Rehabilitation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Andrew M.; Hartley, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovations are increasingly affecting the delivery of clinical supervision. Yet there is limited information on how supervisors can use digital technology to broaden settings in which students record client interviews, enhance evaluation of students' clinical performance, and increase accessibility for students with disabilities.…

  12. Expanding Horizons for Students with Dyslexia in the 21st Century: Universal Design and Mobile Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin; Strnadova, Iva; Cumming, Therese

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of mobile technology in supporting people with dyslexia within the theoretical framework of Universal Design for Learning. The authors discuss how students with dyslexia can use mobile technology to address a diverse range of academic needs (such as reading, composing text, notetaking, metacognition and studying…

  13. Using Instructional Technologies in the Preparation of Teachers for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    New teachers entering classrooms must have training and skills to merge today's technologies into learning activities and strategies that will stimulate and maintain student interest. Colleges of education must provide modeling of new and advanced technologies by professors and "hands-on" opportunities for students to become skilled in using…

  14. Guidelines and Standards for the Technology Infrastructure of 21st Century Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    New York State Regents directed that new guidelines and "standards" be developed for technology infrastructures in educational facilities in order to assist administrators and educators in planning technology integration during retrofits, renovations, or new construction of educational facilities. This document provides the first draft of these…

  15. Library Services and Technology Act. LSTA Report for 1997. Information Partners for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    In the fall of 1996, Congress passed the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Bill. The bill challenges librarians to become more collaborative, encourages resource sharing and cooperation among all types of libraries, and shifts the focus of federal funding to technology. This report describes…

  16. Lighting up Students with Technology and Progressive 21st Century Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueauff, Ronda; Wall, Tony; Essley, Ron; Hall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A child starting school today won't leave until 2023, by which point who knows what technology will be commonplace? Schooling must become more flexible and therefore more engaging and interesting. Classrooms worldwide remain largely traditional, and technology is usually prescriptive. It is clear that bold action is required to improve STEM…

  17. Workshop Proceedings: Optical Systems Technology for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayon, Juan A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A technology development program, Astrotech 21, is being proposed by NASA to enable the launching of the next generation of space astrophysical observatories during the years 1995-2015. Astrotech 21 is being planned and will ultimately be implemented jointly by the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications and the Space Directorate of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. A summary of the Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop is presented. The goal of the workshop was to identify areas of development within advanced optical systems that require technology advances in order to meet the science goals of the Astrotech 21 mission set, and to recommend a coherent development program to achieve the required capabilities.

  18. iPads: Intuitive Technology for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for using iPad technology with young students. Various inexpensive apps are described that parents and educators will find useful. (Contains 9 figures.)

  19. Air Force space power and thermal management technology - Requirements for the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ernest D.; Kuck, Inara

    Typical projections for military space power and thermal management technologies have posited requirements for high powered and highly survivable systems. Recent changes in defense needs, however, will require spacecraft that are smaller, lower powered, less survivable, and highly proliferated. Technologies will be developed to provide low cost, ultra-light, high power density, 'smart' conventional power systems. Compact nuclear power systems will also be developed to meet higher power needs.

  20. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  1. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  2. Technology-Based Biliteracy Centers for the 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercuri, Sandra; Ramos, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this reflective article is to present an alternative that incorporates the four language skills in all content areas through technology-based dual-language centers for emergent bilinguals at the elementary level. The authors propose a matrix to plan the centers and include three examples to facilitate language transfer in English…

  3. Information Technology: Unlocking the Door to Differentiation in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburg, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    Maria, Sergio, and Steven, whose stories are described in this article, are gifted students whose needs were served through technology. Tapping into the Internet, these students, as well as other learners with varying needs, can be provided with appropriately challenging work that allows them to develop and make unique contributions to the class.…

  4. Influence of Technology on the Leadership of 21st-Century Career and Technical Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Linda Maria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how the technology beliefs of New York State Career and Technical Education Board of Cooperative Education Services administrators influenced their leadership behaviors. The participants were from a purposive selection from five suburban and rural Boards of Cooperative Education Services in…

  5. Competence Visualisation: Making Sense of Data from 21st-Century Technologies in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Susan; Wasson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open learner model approach to learning analytics to combine the variety of data available from the range of applications and technologies in language learning, for visualisation of language learning competences to learners and teachers in the European language context. Specific examples are provided as illustrations…

  6. Strategies for the 21st Century: Integrating Technology into the ABLE Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingle, Mary E. H.

    Integrating technology into the Adult Basic Literacy Education (ABLE) classroom can be very helpful to students and teachers, but it requires a shift in the teacher's role. The idea of "delivering" instruction--teacher-centered classes or tutor-directed lessons--should be replaced with student-centered, self-paced learning. Although the first…

  7. Education Technology Policy for a 21st Century Learning System. Policy Brief 13-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Internet-related technology has the capacity to change the learning production system in three important ways. First, it creates the capacity to move from the existing batch processing system of teaching and learning to a much more individualized learning system capable of matching instructional style and pace to a student's needs. Second,…

  8. The Value of 20th Century Technology in the 21st

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Error, Darise

    2003-01-01

    In Fall 2000, Dallas Teleconferences approached a prominent higher education organization about producing a series of satellite teleconferences for them. The intended recipient was complimentary of Dallas' teleconferencing endeavors, but representatives suggested that teleconferencing was an old medium employing antiquated technology. They…

  9. Programmatic Knowledge Management: Technology, Literacy, and Access in 21st-Century Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Eric James

    2015-01-01

    Growing out of research in Technical Communication, Composition Studies, and Writing Program Administration, the articles in this dissertation explicitly seek to address changes in the practices and products of writing and writing studies wrought by the so-called "digital revolution" in communication technology, which has been ongoing in…

  10. Environmentally Sustainable Growth in the 21st Century: The Role of Catalytic Science in Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusumano, James A.

    1995-11-01

    Nations of the world face an unprecedented and daunting challenge. They aggressively seek to stimulate their economies, to create new jobs, to increase the accessibility of products and technologies that enhance the quality of life--at the same time they desparately pursue the reversal of a perceived global environmental crisis. Resolution of this apparent paradox can be addressed to a significant degree by new developments in catalytic science. With the recent advent of molecular design techniques, the modernized form of this broadly applicable technological tool has the potential to change the face of the four fundamental needs of humanity--health care, food supply, energy, and materials. This can be done in a way that provides a path to environmentally sustainable development for all citizens of the planet.

  11. Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and ‘Cyborg’ body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery – the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

  12. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  13. Technological developments for aluminum smeltinq as the industry enters the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grjotheim, Kai; Welch, Barry

    1989-11-01

    The capital-intensive nature of aluminum smelting, with its low productivity per unit reactor and high electrical consumption rates, has motivated the search for alternative smelting processes to replace the aging Hall-Héroult technology. Optional routes include carbothermic reduction of alumina, chlorination followed by electrolysis of aluminum chloride, and electrolytic decomposition of alumina using inert electrodes. Still in need of some fundamental innovation, the alternative techniques are limited by unsatisfactory materials performance and reactor design constraints. There have been, however, significant advances in the process efficiencies and scale of both the Bayer process and the Hall-Héroult cells. As a result, the basic Hall-Héroult technology will continue as the dominant aluminum smelting process for at least the next 50 years.

  14. Novel Methods and Technologies for 21st-Century Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray; Venuto, Charles; Venkataraman, Vinayak; Harris, Denzil A.; Kieburtz, Karl

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New technologies are rapidly reshaping health care. However, their effect on drug development to date generally has been limited. OBJECTIVES To evaluate disease modeling and simulation, alternative study design, novel objective measures, virtual research visits, and enhanced participant engagement and to examine their potential effects as methods and tools on clinical trials. EVIDENCE REVIEW We conducted a systematic search of relevant terms on PubMed (disease modeling and clinical trials; adaptive design, clinical trials, and neurology; Internet, clinical trials, and neurology; and telemedicine, clinical trials, and neurology), references of previous publications, and our files. The search encompassed articles published from January 1, 2000, through November 30, 2014, and produced 7976 articles, of which 22 were determined to be relevant and are included in this review. FINDINGS Few of these new methods and technologies have been applied to neurology clinical trials. Clinical outcomes, including cognitive and stroke outcomes, increasingly are captured remotely. Other therapeutic areas have successfully implemented many of these tools and technologies, including web-enabled clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Increased use of new tools and approaches in future clinical trials can enhance the design, improve the assessment, and engage participants in the evaluation of novel therapies for neurologic disorders. PMID:25730665

  15. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  16. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research. PMID:27371361

  17. In Vitro Cerebrovascular Modeling in the 21st Century: Current and Prospective Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Palmiotti, Christopher A.; Prasad, Shikha; Naik, Pooja; Abul, Kaisar MD; Sajja, Ravi K.; Achyuta, Anilkumar H.; Cucullo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the brain homeostasis and dynamically responds to events associated with systemic and/or rheological impairments (e.g., inflammation, ischemia) including the exposure to harmful xenobiotics. Thus, understanding the BBB physiology is crucial for the resolution of major central nervous system CNS) disorders challenging both health care providers and the pharmaceutical industry. These challenges include drug delivery to the brain, neurological disorders, toxicological studies, and biodefense. Studies aimed at advancing our understanding of CNS diseases and promoting the development of more effective therapeutics are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, there are major hindering factors inherent to in vivo studies such as cost, limited throughput and translational significance to humans. These factors promoted the development of alternative in vitro strategies for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of the BBB in relation to brain disorders as well as screening tools to aid in the development of novel CNS drugs. Herein, we provide a detailed review including pros and cons of current and prospective technologies for modelling the BBB in vitro including ex situ, cell based and computational (in silico) models. A special section is dedicated to microfluidic systems including micro-BBB, BBB-on-a-chip, Neurovascular Unit-on-a-Chip and Synthetic Microvasculature Blood-Brain Barrier. PMID:25098812

  18. In vitro cerebrovascular modeling in the 21st century: current and prospective technologies.

    PubMed

    Palmiotti, Christopher A; Prasad, Shikha; Naik, Pooja; Abul, Kaisar M D; Sajja, Ravi K; Achyuta, Anilkumar H; Cucullo, Luca

    2014-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the brain homeostasis and dynamically responds to events associated with systemic and/or rheological impairments (e.g., inflammation, ischemia) including the exposure to harmful xenobiotics. Thus, understanding the BBB physiology is crucial for the resolution of major central nervous system CNS) disorders challenging both health care providers and the pharmaceutical industry. These challenges include drug delivery to the brain, neurological disorders, toxicological studies, and biodefense. Studies aimed at advancing our understanding of CNS diseases and promoting the development of more effective therapeutics are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, there are major hindering factors inherent to in vivo studies such as cost, limited throughput and translational significance to humans. These factors promoted the development of alternative in vitro strategies for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of the BBB in relation to brain disorders as well as screening tools to aid in the development of novel CNS drugs. Herein, we provide a detailed review including pros and cons of current and prospective technologies for modelling the BBB in vitro including ex situ, cell based and computational (in silico) models. A special section is dedicated to microfluidic systems including micro-BBB, BBB-on-a-chip, Neurovascular Unit-on-a-Chip and Synthetic Microvasculature Blood-brain Barrier. PMID:25098812

  19. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  20. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  1. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  2. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  3. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  4. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  5. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  6. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  7. Investigating Projective Identity Trajectories for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of studying identity in the context of 21st century learning. Identity is an evolving trajectory that is always in-flux or changing. In a fast changing 21st century, educators are recognizing the significance of identity work, in particular projective identity, as individuals participate in…

  8. Progress Toward Meeting the Propulsion Technology Challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Koops, Leigh; Hines, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Ongoing NASA-funded and privately funded studies continue to indicate that an opportunity exists for a second generation supersonic commercial airliner, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), to become a key part of the 21st century international air transportation system. Long distance air travel is projected to increase at about 5 percent per annum over the next two decades. This projection suggests that by the year 2015, more than 600,000 passengers per day will be traveling long distances, predominantly over water. These routes would be among the most desirable for an HSCT as part of the international air transportation system. Beyond the year 2000, this portion of the air transportation market is projected to be the fastest growing segment.

  9. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  10. Colistin in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Colistin is a 50 year-old antibiotic that is being used increasingly as a ‘last-line’ therapy to treat infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria, when essentially no other options are available. Despite its age, or because of its age, there has been a dearth of knowledge on its pharmacological and microbiological properties. This review focuses on recent studies aimed at optimizing the clinical use of this old antibiotic. Recent findings A number of factors, including the diversity in the pharmaceutical products available, have hindered the optimal use of colistin. Recent advances in understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of colistin, and the emerging knowledge on the relationship between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, providing a solid base for optimization of dosage regimens. The potential for nephrotoxicity has been a lingering concern, but recent studies provide useful new information on the incidence, severity and reversibility of this adverse effect. Recent approaches to the use of other antibiotics in combination with colistin hold promise for increased antibacterial efficacy with less potential for emergence of resistance. Summary Because few, if any, new antibiotics with activity against MDR Gram-negative bacteria will be available within the next several years, it is essential that colistin is used in ways that maximize its antibacterial efficacy and minimize toxicity and development of resistance. Recent developments have improved use of colistin in the 21st century. PMID:19797945

  11. Large space observatories of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nein, M.; Howell, J.; Morgan, S.; de Sanctis, C.; Koch, D.

    1987-01-01

    Early in the 21st century, advanced space telescopes will be readied to continue the astronomical observations of the Great Observatories currently under development. This paper describes representative concepts from the very large UV/optical and gamma-ray telescopes under study by NASA, the scientific community, and industry. These studies demonstrate that historical approaches to improving the resolution and sensitivity of space telescopes have reached technology barriers which can only be overcome by innovative solutions to the telescope design. Some of the key technology issues which are guiding the approaches for advanced space telescopes are discussed, and arguments are presented that enabling technology development for these future systems must commence now.

  12. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  13. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  14. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  15. Buildings for the 21st Century, Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The spring issue contains information on a series of high-performance building brochures, the State Energy Program, a new modular and manufactured home, a new buildings database, solid-state ceramic lighting, weatherization, simplified Web site addresses, a Colorado home builder, and upcoming events and meetings.

  16. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  17. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  18. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  19. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  20. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  1. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  2. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  3. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  4. Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woocher, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A century ago a group of educators led an effort to transform American Jewish education to enable it to operate successfully in the 20th century. Today, with American Jews living under very different conditions, a similar effort is needed to reinvent Jewish education for the 21st century. Changes and new initiatives already taking place on the…

  5. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  6. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  7. Quo vadimus? The 21st Century and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Allan D.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is related of computer driven multimedia to the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP). Multimedia is defined here as computer integration and output of text, animation, audio, video, and graphics. Multimedia is the stage of computer based information that allows access to experience. The concepts are also drawn in of hypermedia, intermedia, interactive multimedia, hypertext, imaging, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Examples of these technology developments are given for NASA, private industry, and academia. Examples of concurrent technology developments and implementations are given to show how these technologies, along with multimedia, have put us at the threshold of the 21st century. The STI Program sees multimedia as an opportunity for revolutionizing the way STI is managed.

  8. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered.

  9. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  10. The 21st-Century Principal: A Correlational Study of Technology Leadership and Technology Integration in Texas K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Donna Marie

    2013-01-01

    Technology leadership by campus administrators is crucial for the effective integration of technology in the classroom; however, a comprehensive review of the existing research reveals a gap in this field. Scholarly research helps inform educational practice and contributes to the development of standards that ensure current and future school…

  11. Assessing the Assistive Technology Act of 1998. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (March 21, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness concerning the implementation of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and the future role of the federal government in this area. Highlights of the testimony include state assistive technology projects, provision of low-interest loans…

  12. A Vision for a Summit: CELT Recently Brought Together School Districts, Vendors and Professional Organizations for a National Summit on "Leadership, Learning and Technology for the 21st Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Priscilla; Milton, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    A lunch-time discussion among CELT (Center for Education Leadership and Technology) Corporation staff about how to positively impact the 2004 presidential campaign quickly evolved into a vision for bringing together top executive-level practitioners in education for a national summit on "Leadership, Learning and Technology for the 21st Century."…

  13. The Challenge To Be Relevant in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Full Text Documents of Papers and Demos Given at the [International Association of Technological University Libraries] IATUL Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, June 1-5, 1998), Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Technological Univ. Libraries, Gothenburg (Sweden).

    This proceedings of the 1998 conference of the International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL) contains the full text of the following papers: "A Library Ready for 21st Century Services: The Case of the University of Science and Technology (UST) Library, Kumasi, Ghana" (Helena Rebecca Asamoah-Hassan); "Libraries in…

  14. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  15. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  16. The prospect of laser fusion in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    2002-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has developed remarkably in the last 30 years. In the 21st century, we can expect fusion energy for civilian use. After the cold war era, the value of ICF has shifted from defense demands to peaceful applications. The megajoule laser systems are under construction expecting the development of spark ignition. However there are many problems to solve in science and technology. One alternative way is to use a petawatt short-pulse laser aiming for fast ignition. On the way to the final goal, we would like to contribute for various applications of high power lasers such as laboratory astrophysics, X-ray lasers, laser-induced lightning as well as laser processing.

  17. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Martin, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA MSFC's Space Propulsion Branch, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  18. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation, and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will. summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  19. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families. PMID:24654812

  20. Turning up the H.E.A.T. on Student Learning: Assessing 21st Century Skills in Classrooms Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moersch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Best practices involving 21st Century Skills have been analyzed and debated in "Educational Technology" and in other publications; yet, the fidelity of implementation in the overwhelming majority of school systems nationwide has been fragmented at best. This article proposes strategies for assessing 21st Century Skills or H.E.A.T. (Higher-order…

  1. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  2. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under Committee…

  3. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help Wanted:…

  4. Basic Selection Tools: 21st-Century Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jody K.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting materials for school libraries has always been a challenging task, but it has become much more complicated in the 21st Century. A school librarian at a junior high in the late 1990s could allot a certain portion of her budget for reference books, the general circulating collection, a few audiovisual materials, and newspapers and…

  5. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions for…

  6. Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Maniotes, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    How can students learn to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and become lifelong learners in a rapidly changing information environment? How can students learn, create, and find meaning from multiple sources of information? These are fundamental questions facing educators in designing schools for 21st-century learners.…

  7. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  8. Reading into the Future: Competence for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical contribution, our purpose is to examine the nature of reading competence as it unfolds at the present and to project that nature into the future. More specifically, we ask what it will mean to be a competent reader for the 21st century and what combination of knowledge, beliefs, abilities, and processes that competence will…

  9. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  10. Considerations for 21st-Century Disciplinary Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    While the conceiving of 21st-century schools has rightly included much discussion on curriculum and instruction, changing demands and conditions also present necessary changes in the way that student behavior is managed. A review of the literature on student discipline over the past decade reveals three particular issues that warrant attention in…

  11. Building the New Workplace for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looking Ahead, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This serial issue, which is devoted to the challenges that recent changes in the U.S. workplace pose for society and labor-management relations, contains nine papers focusing on the following aspects of building a new workplace for the 21st century: historical and current perspectives; workforce and workplace changes; education and training of the…

  12. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  13. Losing America's Memory: Historical Illiteracy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.; Martin, Jerry L.; Moses, Mashad

    The importance of a shared memory appears to have lost its foothold in higher education. As the nation moves forward into the 21st century, future leaders are graduating with an alarming ignorance of their heritage--a kind of collective amnesia--and a profound historical illiteracy that bodes ill for the future of the republic. The American…

  14. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  15. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  16. Teachers for the 21st Century: Redefining Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh T.

    1996-01-01

    In the 21st century, the redefinition of teacher professionalism will include three primary features: recognizing oneself as a learner; using that learning-centered spirit to transform schools into learning organizations; and reasserting one's own moral autonomy to provide space and time for serious, reflective thought and study. This redefinition…

  17. Educator or Bully? Managing the 21st Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Educator or Bully?" offers a comprehensive approach to classroom management for both novice and veteran teachers who are interested in examining their current classroom management performance, especially with respect to how it reflects the characteristics of the 21st century classroom. Practices presented are based on sound educational theory.…

  18. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  19. Universal Education: A Goal for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, W. Douglas

    The most important worldwide goal of the 21st century should be universal education; that is, by the year 2099, every child, no matter where, should have access to free, state-sponsored education for 12 years. In committing themselves to the 100-year goal, each nation should keep in mind these 5 important facts: (1) within a nation with sufficient…

  20. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  1. Energy: a historical perspective and 21st century forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, Amos

    2005-07-01

    Contents are: Preface; Chapter 1: introduction, brief history, and chosen approach; Chapter 2: human population and energy consumption: the future; Chapter 4: sources of energy (including a section on coal); Chapter 5: electricity: generation and consumption; and Chapter 6: energy consumption and probable energy sources during the 21st century.

  2. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  3. Reading Multimodal Texts in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    As the world told becomes the world shown, the texts of the 21st century will require teachers to adopt new skills, strategies, and pedagogical frameworks to support students' transactions with multimodal texts. This shift from a focus on monomodal, print-based texts to a focus on the skills necessary for producing and consuming multimodal texts…

  4. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  5. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  6. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  7. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  8. Preparing School Personnel for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue on teacher education and professional development of school personnel in the 21st century. Illustrates how power struggles and other obstacles within the education system can sabotage efforts to provide professional development opportunities. Asserts that the complexities of teacher education will increase in the 21st…

  9. Higher Education in International Perspective - Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G.

    This book presents a collection of essays dealing with key issues and trends facing the future of higher education on the international level as the world moves into the 21st century. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges" (Torsten Husen); "Patterns in Higher…

  10. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  11. A Parent's Guide to 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Step-by-step, schools from the elementary through high school levels are making the transition to 21st-century learning. Some have crossed the threshold almost entirely. In today's progressive classrooms, yesterday's rows of quiet listeners have given way to small groups of active learners, thoroughly engaged in discussions and explorations. And…

  12. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  13. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  14. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  15. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  16. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  17. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  18. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  19. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  20. A Guide for 21st Century School Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Education Service District, Eugene, OR. Oregon Professional Development Center.

    This guidebook was designed to help educational practitioners and community members in Oregon understand the issues regarding school-council formation and development. In 1991 the Oregon State Legislature passed the Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century, mandating a fundamental change in public education. The Act assigns school councils the…

  1. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  2. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  3. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  4. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  5. Defining Postsecondary Degrees in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kenneth I.; Guffey, James; Oliverio, Ponzio

    2016-01-01

    The competition for jobs in the 21st century is increasingly being driven by defining postsecondary learning in light of new and complex environments. To succeed, students must be prepared with knowledge to compete in these environments. Historically, higher education has defined these requirements in their own terms, often through learning…

  6. Changing Chemical Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, George E.

    2005-01-01

    A change of science program to help graduate as well as undergraduate students to choose multidisciplinary careers in 21st century is discussed. This would help serve better not only to students but the entire profession of chemical science as well as the scientific proficiency of the entire country.

  7. A "Liberating" Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This speech discusses the development of a true undergraduate liberal education for the 21st century that is also global in scope. It argues that liberal education is failing in its goal to truly educate students. The mission of every college or university should be to advance students' knowledge, skills, abilities, and values for an international…

  8. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  9. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  10. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  11. Educating for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman; And Others

    Four lectures are presented which were part of the celebration of the 100th annivarsary of the University of Illinois. Although each author addresses himself to a different question there is the common theme of examining whether the university can meet the challenge of preparing today's citizen for life in the next century. Some of the problems…

  12. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  13. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  14. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  15. Educational Planning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard H. P.; Tyler, E. Warren

    1989-01-01

    In the postindustrial era, industry's primary resource is capable people, not minerals and materials--because of the new dependence on computers, communication networks, and instantaneous information processing. Policy and program planners must make the reforms produce the intended outcomes. In twenty-first century planning, nothing in the current…

  16. "STL" Guiding the 21st Century Thinker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the technology and engineering education community have provided a clear message that (Standards for Technological Literacy) STL provides multiple opportunities to teach engineering concepts within K-12 education. This article will review recent research within technology education and the technological literacy standards…

  17. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  18. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  19. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  20. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  1. Reliability for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Wilson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The sophistication of science and teclinology is growing almost exponentially. Government and industry are relying more and more on science's advanced methods to assess reliability coupled with pcrformance, safety, surety, cost, schedule, etc. Unfortunately, policy, cost, schedule, and other constraints imposed by the real world inhibit the ability of researchers to calculate these metrics efficiently and accurately using traditional methods. Because of such constraints, reliability must undergo an evolutionary change. The first step in this evolution is to reinterpret the concepts and responsibilities of scientists responsible for reliability calculations to meet the new century's needs. The next step is to mount a multidisciplinary approach to the quantification of reliability and its associated metrics using both empirical methods and auxiliary data sources, such as expert knowledge, corporate memory, and mathematical modeling and simulation.

  2. Tropical medicine for the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Lucas, S. B.; Mabey, D.; Parry, E.

    1995-01-01

    The specialty of tropical medicine originated from the needs of the colonial era and is removed from many of the health care requirements of tropical countries today. Tropical medicine concentrates on parasitic diseases of warm climates, although other infections and diseases related to poverty rather than climate dominate medicine in developing countries challenged by population pressure, civil strife, and migration. In the new century, tropical medicine would best be absorbed into the specialty of infectious diseases, which should incorporate parasitic diseases, travel medicine, and sexually transmitted diseases. Pressing questions for health care and research in developing countries concern the provision of appropriate services for problems such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries. The question of how to provide appropriate clinical care in resource poor settings for the major causes of morbidity and premature mortality has been neglected by donors, academic institutions, and traditional tropical medicine. Images p861-a PMID:7580497

  3. Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a scenario for family life in the year 2001. This highly technological vision of the future includes expanded telecommunication networks, sophisticated information processing systems, new industrial and farming methods, transportation, and medical advances. (AM)

  4. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  5. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    PubMed Central

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  6. Teaching in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    It has been over a decade since the computer moved from being primarily a computational and record keeping device to its present state as a communications hub. Some, including this author, have called the application of computing technology to classroom instruction revolutionary. Is this claim justified? More importantly, how will social…

  7. The 21st Century School Business Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Marc; McMahon, Stephen; Minnesang, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Technological advancements are helping school business officials at the Fountain Valley (California) School District effectively manage district assets, thanks to developments in budget and finance software, videoconferencing, online purchasing and fund raising, inventory bar codes and portable scanners, paperless forms and applications, writable…

  8. The LSAT for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Shirley S.

    1984-01-01

    Legal education is in a mid-life crisis, with prosperity in the past, doubt in the present, and problems ahead: economic hard times, a declining student pool, dissatisfaction with traditional legal education, and economic and technological changes in the practice. It is time to reconsider what lies ahead in admissions. (MSE)

  9. STEM: The 21st Century Sputnik

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The author of this article argues that, just as Americans were shocked into action, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, by strengthening STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) in the educational curriculum, Americans must be shocked again. The nation must address the failure of its leaders to provide adequate funding…

  10. Rhetorical Theory in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Bernard L.

    Kenneth Burke, in his book "Permanence and Change" (1935) predicted that, as a result of the dehumanizing and alienation of people by technology, the 300-year reign of science that supplanted the age of religion and still prevails today would be replaced by poetic humanism as the new orientation. Current changes within rhetorical theory as a…

  11. 21st Century Steam for Asteroid Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D S

    2004-03-10

    The systematic requirements to divert an object on an earth-impacting course are developed relating the minimum velocity perturbation (both magnitude and direction) to the time available before impact. This, coupled with the accuracy to which orbits can be determined, restricts the time available for any mitigation technology to operate. Because nuclear energy densities are nearly a million times higher than those possible with chemical bonds, it is the most mass efficient means for storing delivering energy with today's technology. The question is how to most effectively apply that energy. This paper will examine the simple case of shattering the body, as well as a more controlled approach in which one or more small velocity increments divert a body. The optimal approach depends on the detailed circumstances, but in either case, already developed technology permits a successful diversion with a few years to decades of notice. The success of nuclear options on relatively short timescales permits consideration of other technologies that while not so well developed might be sufficiently improved to divert small (100 meter) bodies.

  12. Inquiry and 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last eight years, the primary focus in schools has been on passing standardized tests based on a core curriculum. The emphasis on learning content is in direct contrast to the world outside the school walls where the technological capability to provide access to content, i.e., information at lightning speed, already exists. In fact,…

  13. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  14. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  15. Space Optics for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade in metrology, fabrication techniques and materials have made a significant impact on spacebased astronomy and together with advances in adaptive optics offer the opportunity for even more radical changes in the future. The Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror is 2.4 meters in diameter and weighs on the order of 150 kilograms per square meter. The technology demonstration mirrors developed for the James Webb Telescope had an order of magnitude less in area density and developments in membrane optics offer the opportunity to achieve another order of magnitude decrease. Similar advances in mirrors for x-ray astronomy means that across the spectrum future space based telescopes will have greater and greater collecting areas with ever increasing resolution.

  16. [NASA] in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the NASA programs in support of Aeronautical and Space research. This research involves imagining the future of air travel. There are three major Aeronautics technology programs: (1) Fundamental Aeronautics, (2) Aviation Safety and (3) Airspace Systems. The aim of exploring the depths of the universe through earth based and space based assets. Other Space programs include the plans for exploration of the moon and Mars.

  17. Digital stereoscopic cinema: the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2008-02-01

    Over 1000 theaters in more than a dozen countries have been outfitted with digital projectors using the Texas Instruments DLP engine equipped to show field-sequential 3-D movies using the polarized method of image selection. Shuttering eyewear and advanced anaglyph products are also being deployed for image selection. Many studios are in production with stereoscopic films, and some have committed to producing their entire output of animated features in 3-D. This is a time of technology change for the motion picture industry.

  18. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  19. 21st century workflow: A proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is rapidly developing, but early systems have been slow to gain traction outside of niche applications such as: Second-opinion telepathology, immunostain interpretation, and intraoperative telepathology. Pathologists have not yet developed a well-articulated plan for effectively utilizing digital imaging technology in their work. This paper outlines a proposal that is intended to begin meaningful progress toward achieving helpful computer-assisted pathology sign-out systems, such as pathologists’ computer-assisted diagnosis (pCAD). pCAD is presented as a hypothetical intelligent computer system that would integrate advanced image analysis and better utilization of existing digital pathology data from lab information systems. A detailed example of automated digital pathology is presented, as an automated breast cancer lymph node sign-out. This proposal provides stakeholders with a conceptual framework that can be used to facilitate development work, communication, and identification of new automation strategies. PMID:25535592

  20. Connected Audiological Rehabilitation: 21st Century Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Chisolm, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology provides a means to offer audiologic rehabilitation (AR) in a cost-, resource-, and time-effective manner. If designed appropriately, it also has the capability of personalizing rehabilitation to the user in terms of content, depth of detail, etc., thus permitting selection of the best content for a particular individual. Synchronous/real-time data collection, store and forward telehealth, remote monitoring and mobile health using smartphone applications have each been applied to components of audiologic rehabilitation intervention (sensory management, instruction in the use of technology and control of the listening environment, perceptual and communication strategies training, and counseling). In this article, the current state of tele-audiological rehabilitation interventions are described and discussed. Results The provision of AR via tele-audiology potentially provides a cost-effective mechanism for addressing barriers to the routine provision of AR beyond provisions of hearing technology. Furthermore, if designed appropriately, it has the capability of personalizing rehabilitation to the user in terms of content, depth of detail, etc., thus permitting selection of the best content for a particular individual. However, effective widespread implementation of tele-audiology will be dependent on good education of patients and clinician alike, and researchers must continue to examine the effectiveness of these new approaches to AR in order to ensure clinicians provide effective evidence-based rehabilitation to their patients. Conclusions While several barriers to the widespread use of tele-audiology for audiologic rehabilitation currently exist, it is concluded that through education of patients and clinicians alike, it will gain greater support from practitioners and patients over time and will become successfully and widely implemented. PMID:26415970

  1. Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century. A Report from the Regional Colloquium on Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, February 11-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Kevin C., Ed.

    This colloquium was held with the purposes of promoting cooperation and collaboration among engineering education institutions in the Mekong subregion and establishing the linkage with engineering institutions in France; to promote university-industry collaboration in the field of engineering and technology education; to establish a network of…

  2. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  3. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  4. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  5. 78 FR 4860 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps...

  6. 77 FR 22798 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES.... App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold...

  7. 77 FR 47432 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation...

  8. 77 FR 14561 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  9. 78 FR 33436 - Notice of 2013 Meeting Schedule for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of 2013 Meeting Schedule for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee... Park Service, Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will meet on June 28, 2013, at Sandy Hook... April 15, 2013, Federal Register. DATES: The Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will meet...

  10. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  11. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  13. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  14. The Library Profession in the 21st Century: Transformation for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Mary L.

    The approaching information age will encompass a different societal system in the 21st century due to the impact of the information revolution resulting from developments in computer and communications technology. In light of these changes, libraries need to evolve with the new technology by preparing now to become part of the electronic…

  15. Distance Learning in the 21st Century University: Key Issues for Leaders and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2012-01-01

    The changes precipitated by today's computer-based technologies are perhaps no more keenly felt than in the field of education, where technological innovation signals fundamental transformations in the manner in which educational programs will be delivered to 21st century students. Online learning is providing higher education institutions with an…

  16. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  17. Earthworm in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, Paul; Lisowski, Stefan; Dricker, Ilya; Hellman, Sidney

    2010-05-01

    Earthworm (Johnson et al., 1995) is a fully open-source earthquake data acquisition and processing package that is in widespread use through out the world. Earthworm includes basic seismic data acquistion for the majority of the dataloggers currently available and provides network transport mechanisms and common formats as output for data transferral. In addition, it comes with network seismology tools to compute network detections, perform automated arrival picking, and automated hypocentral and magnitude estimations. More importantly it is an open and free framework in the C-programming language that can be used to create new modules that process waveform and earthquake data in near real time. The number of Earthworm installations is growing annually as are the number of contributions to the system. Furthermore its growth into other areas of waveform data acquistion (namely Geomagnetic observatories and Infrasound arrays) show its adaptability to other waveform technologies and processing strategies. In this presentation we discuss the coming challenges to growing Earthworm and new developments in its use; namely the open source add-ons that have become interfaces to Earthworm's core. These add-ons include GlowWorm, MagWorm, Hydra, SWARM, Winston, EarlyBird, Iworm, and most importantly, AQMS (formerly known as CHEETAH). The AQMS, ANSS Quake Monitoring System, is the Earthworm system created in California which has now been installed in the majority of Regional Seismic Networks (RSNs) in the United States. AQMS allows additional real-time and post-processing of Earthworm generated data to be stored and manipulated in a database using numerous database oriented tools. The use of a relational database for persistence provides users with the ability to implement configuration control and research capabilities not available in earlier Earthworm add-ons. By centralizing on AQMS, the RSNs will be able to leverage new developments by easily sharing Earthworm and AQMS

  18. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  19. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  1. Geriatric Dentistry in the 21st Century: Environment and Opportunity.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The aging of the baby boomers in the 21st century is creating unprecedented numbers of vulnerable older adults. The increase in people keeping their teeth and their increasingly complex conditions all point to more people with more complex needs. Although these demographic shifts are providing unparalleled challenges for our health care system, they also bring new opportunities to develop and implement innovative systems for reaching and maintaining the oral health of older Americans. PMID:26819998

  2. National Educational Technology Trends: 2011. Transforming Education to Ensure All Students Are Successful in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel; Fox, Christine; Levin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA)--the principal association representing the technology leadership in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs--presents its eighth annual report on select, national, educational technology activities. This…

  3. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  4. Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Asakura, Shoji; Daneshian, Mardas; Hofman-Huether, Hana; Leist, Marcel; Meunier, Leo; Reif, David; Rossi, Anna; Schmutz, Markus; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - A Vision and a Strategy, many initiatives started to foster a major paradigm shift for toxicity testing - from apical endpoints in animal-based tests to mechanistic endpoints through delineation of pathways of toxicity (PoT) in human cell based systems. The US EPA has funded an important project to develop new high throughput technologies based on human cell based in vitro technologies. These methods are currently being incorporated into the chemical risk assessment process. In the pharmaceutical industry, the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs are evaluated during preclinical investigations that include drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety toxicology studies. The results of these studies are analyzed and extrapolated to predict efficacy and potential adverse effects in humans. However, due to the high failure rate of drugs during the clinical phases, a new approach for a more predictive assessment of drugs both in terms of efficacy and adverse effects is getting urgent. The food industry faces the challenge of assessing novel foods and food ingredients for the general population, while using animal safety testing for extrapolation purposes is often of limited relevance. The question is whether the latest paradigm shift proposed by the Tox21c report for chemicals may provide a useful tool to improve the risk assessment approach also for drugs and food ingredients. PMID:26168280

  5. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  6. Learning Organisations for a Knowledge Economy: The Role of National Technological Institutes of Higher Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold J. S.

    International civilization is undergoing fundamental changes enabled by the revolution in information and communication technology. National institutions and education systems are challenged to mediate the changes' impact. National institutes of technology (NITs) of higher education can help nation states reposition in the global economy, if they…

  7. Teachers' Tools for the 21st Century: A Report on Teachers' Use of Technology. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerdon, Becky; Cronen, Stephanie; Lanahan, Lawrence; Anderson, Jennifer; Iannotti, Nicholas; Angeles, January

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) administered a short survey of public school teachers in 1999 that included items on teachers' use of computers and the Internet. This report draws on that survey to describe teachers' use of education technology in their classrooms and schools, availability of this technology, their training and…

  8. Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2000 Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-02-24

    A quarterly update published by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs on new policies and procedures; upcoming events, highlighted research and success stories, and new partnership projects within the buildings programs at DOE/EERE and its contracting laboratories.

  9. Work Addiction and 21st Century Information Technologies in Traditional and Virtual Work Spaces in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed to understand whether or not work addiction or work addiction intensity could be predicted from mobile technology use. The study further investigated whether or not gender, workspace, income, or education level would moderate the relationship. The sample used was drawn from service industry employees who are not in the…

  10. Changing English? The Impact of Technology and Policy on a School Subject in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey; Bezemer, Jeff; Jones, Ken; Kress, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a historically comparative picture of the latest waves of policy and technological changes that have occurred between 2000-2006 and discusses their impact on the practices of secondary school English in the UK. It draws on data from two previous research projects to explore significant moments of micro-interaction in a classroom…

  11. Education and Technology in the 21st Century Experiences of Adult Online Learners Using Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based and technology-driven economy has prompted adults to seek additional knowledge and skills that will enable them to participate effectively in society. The rapid growth and popularity of the internet tools such as Web 2.0 tools have revolutionized adult learning. Through the rich support of Web 2.0 tools, adult…

  12. A physician workforce for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1995-11-01

    Medicine is entering an unprecedented era of provider abundance, including both physician and nonphysician providers. Over the next several decades, the projected number of primary care physicians will be more than adequate to meet national needs, although there is no assurance that any number of physicians will create an equitable distribution. At the same time, a growing surplus of specialists is projected. A balanced abundance in both primary care and specialty medicine will continue if approximately 33% of first-year residents ultimately practice primary care and 67% become specialists. In contrast, a shift to 50:50, as has been proposed by the Committee on Graduate Medical Education and others, will lead to a superabundance in primary care and a potential deficiency in specialty medicine later in the 21st century. Under either scenario, maintaining balance will be aided by those physicians with sufficient generalist skills to enable them to practice at the interface of primary care and specialty medicine, the domain of "middle care." The nation will be well served by educational policy that imparts such generalist expertise to medical students and that creates a workforce of highly skilled physicians capable of caring for patients in the technologically advanced clinical environment of the future. PMID:8526684

  13. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  14. The Role of Advanced Information System Technology in Remote Sensing for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, Glenn; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The strategy will be to network these instrument-laden satellites into a web-like array of sensors to facilitate the collection, processing, transmission, storage, and distribution of data and data products - the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology." Many of these Information Technologies will enable the satellite and ground information systems to function effectively in real-time, providing scientists with the capability of customizing data collection activities on a satellite or group of satellites directly from the ground. In future systems, extremely large quantities of data collected by scientific instruments will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. Autonomous systems will control all essential processes and play a key role in coordinating the data flow through space-based communication networks. In this paper, we will discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and data products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.

  15. Management tools for the 21st century environmental office: The role of office automation and information technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fittipaldi, J.J.; Sliwinski, B.J.

    1991-06-01

    Army environmental planning and compliance activities continue to grow in magnitude and complexity, straining the resources of installation environmental offices. New efficiencies must be found to meet the increasing demands of planning and compliance imperatives. This study examined how office automation/information technology (OA/IT) may boost productivity in U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) installation environmental offices between now and the year 2000. A survey of four TRADOC installation environmental offices revealed that the workload often exceeds the capacity of staff. Computer literacy among personnel varies widely, limiting the benefits available from OA/IT now in use. Since environmental personnel are primarily gatherers and processors of information, better implementation of OA/IT could substantially improve work quality and productivity. Advanced technologies expected to reach the consumer market during the 1990s will dramatically increase the potential productivity of environmental office personnel. Multitasking operating environments will allow simultaneous automation of communications, document processing, and engineering software. Increased processor power and parallel processing techniques will spur simplification of the user interface and greater software capabilities in general. The authors conclude that full implementation of this report's OA/IT recommendations could double TRADOC environmental office productivity by the year 2000.

  16. Eastman Kodak Company: 21st Century Learning Challenge. Volunteer Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Wanda M.; And Others

    The Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge is a companywide, 10-year corporate commitment to improve mathematics, science, and technology achievement for all students in the communities around Kodak's manufacturing plants. The Rochester (New York) initiative for which this training manual is presented is a partnership among Kodak, the Rochester…

  17. Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Volume 1: News You Can Use

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Eber, K.; Jones, J.

    1999-06-04

    This is the first edition of the Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter which is designed for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy stakeholders with interest in the Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS).

  18. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  19. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  20. Wiki Use in the 21st-Century Literacy Classroom: A Framework for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanden, Sherry; Darragh, Janine

    2011-01-01

    In today's Web 2.0 world, teachers are perpetually struggling with how to incorporate technology into the classroom effectively in order to meet the diverse literacy needs of 21st-century learners. Utilizing the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2008) Position Statement addressing these needs, the theoretical framework of Lankshear…

  1. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  2. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  3. Reading and Responding in the 21st Century: Digital Literacies and the NYSRA Charlotte Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pegeen; Paige, Christine; Sweredoski, Dawn; Yanoff, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading projects that integrate technology engage today's students and prepare them to be literate in the 21st century. In this article, we describe in detail successful podcasting and wiki projects conducted with NYSRA Charlotte Award nominated books. We also explore additional digital literacy projects that teachers can use in their literature…

  4. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports cite the need to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education in order to attract and train a diverse pool of talented students prepared to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 21st century. A growing body of research reveals that the nature and quality of science instruction in introductory college…

  5. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  6. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  7. An artist's rendering of the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle, sometimes nicknamed the Morphing Airpla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's rendering shows advanced concepts NASA envisions for an aircraft of the future. Called the 21st Century Aerospace Vehicle, and sometimes nicknamed the Morphing Airplane, the concept includes a variety of smart technologies that could enable inflight configuration changes for optimum flight characteristics.

  8. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  9. Using the Digital Transmedia Magazine Project to Support Students with 21st-Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…

  10. 21st Century Teaching and Learning: An Assessment of Student Website Evaluation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkham, Caroline; Wintle, Sarah E.; Silvernail, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the amount of information available to students via the Internet has increased dramatically. Access for students to technological resources used to locate information on the Internet has likewise increased. As a result, teachers are now being asked to teach students important 21st Century Skills, including the ability to…

  11. International Curriculum of White Education through Teacher's Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to white education for international curriculum through teacher's education for 21st century. The theory of "White Education" will be a message for development of globalization, information technology, based on knowledge, human rights education, environmental education,…

  12. English-Language Learners, Fan Communities, and 21st-Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws from literature on language, literacy studies, and 21st century skills to explore how English-language learning (ELL) youths, through their engagement with digital technologies and popular media, are developing the sort of proficiencies that have been identified as crucial to effective participation in an increasingly globalized…

  13. Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.

    This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

  14. Technologies of the 21st Century for ground-based Ionospheric Sounding, in Support of Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. W.; Zabotin, N. A.; Bullett, T.; Livingston, R. C.

    Modern digital systems technology is transforming the familiar ionosonde from its former role (to "make ionograms"), into a versatile instrument for precision measurement. The excellent Signal/Noise capability of plasma total reflection is combined with a complete characterization of ionospheric echoes in radio-frequency, time and localization, using multiple and identical digital receivers. High standards of RF emission minimize interference to other systems while yielding unprecedented resolution and stability for echo phase and amplitude. In turn, this information is rapidly digested to produce 3-dimensional local plasma density distributions, vector velocities, and irregularity spectral parameters; in most cases these are complete with error estimations. Results appear in real time, as at the prototype Web Application, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/IONO/Dynasonde/. At this site, older hardware manages to approximate the performance standards of the new Dynasonde instrument now in development at Scion Associates, while serving to design and validate innovations in diagnostic capabilities and data access. The "all-sky" and continuous observations that characterize modern ionosonde methods offer strong ground-based support to spacecraft including C/NOFS, DMSP, COSMIC, etc., as well as to assimilative modeling programs such as GAIM.

  15. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  16. [Prospect of chemotherapy in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Omura, S

    2000-10-01

    "Golden Era in Chemotherapy" has begun with the discovery of penicillin in the early 1940's and lasted for two decades during which many antibiotics were discovered. However, the once-believed bright prospect that every infectious disease could be eliminated on the earth by the discovery of antibiotics had to be canceled owing to the emerging of drug-resistant microbes. It was indeed a rat race. We are now at the point when we have to seek another way to combat infectious diseases: One possible way might be not to eradicate the microbes but to coexist with them so long as they do no harm to the human hosts. The first step of infection with pathogens to the host is the adherence of the microbes to the surface of host cells. Therefore, the method how to inhibit this adhesion of microbes to the host cells may provide a new tool to prevent the development of infectious diseases without elimination of microbes from the host. This is just an example of strategy by which humans and pathogens coexist at peace and should be taken into consideration for the development of new-type antibiotics or "anti-infective drugs" in the 21st century. The analysis of genome sequences has been accelerated recently for various pathogenic bacteria one by one. New targets in the pathogenic microbes for the development of new antibiotics can, therefore, be determined from the genetic point of view. The discovery of antibiotics has indeed been the history of collection of innumerable species and/or strains of bacteria from the soils to search for the biologically active anti-pathogenic agents. The current progress in the technology of molecular genetics, however, will certainly make it possible to search for active molecules by DNA technology; bacterial DNA but not whole microorganisms from the soil is to be transformed into the conventional bacteria and searched for active molecules with combat against pathogens. PMID:11109775

  17. Nursing and the 21st century: what's happened to leadership?

    PubMed

    Borbasi, Sally; Gaston, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This paper has stemmed from several conversations between the authors over recent times about the current state of leadership in nursing. The authors believe a lack of effective leadership has much to do with the times in which we live. As a result, this paper explores leadership against a backdrop of social and political change and seeks to revise the concept in light of 21st century developments. The demise of leadership is discussed and ideas about the emergence of new leadership brought to light. Finally the need for nurses and nursing to shake off the depressive effects of economic rationalism, join forces and unite for a cause is recommended. PMID:11893115

  18. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  19. Standoff jamming in the 21st century - The EC multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Lance; Black, Al

    1987-02-01

    Consideration is given to a jamming aircraft screening friendly aircraft in the presence of threat radars such as missile-associated radars and radars employed in guiding interceptor aircraft. In these ranks are early warning (EW), acquisition, target tracking, and ground and air controlled intercept radars. A 21st century standoff jamming (SOJ) system block diagram is given. Transmitters, electronic support measures, and EW command and control are discussed as well as reliability, maintainability, and cost. It is concluded that several megawatts of EW ERP (effective radiated power) will be required to enable each SOJ platform to effectively counter multiple radars from the protection afforded by long standoff range.

  20. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  1. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  2. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  3. Formative Report on the District of Columbia 21st Century Community Learning Center Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Chaplin, Duncan

    This report describes the implementation of the DC 21st Century Learning Centers (DC 21st CCLC) Summer 2000 program, which enrolled about 1,000 children attending 9 middle and junior high schools. The report is designed to provide feedback to managers of the DC 21st CCLC program and to inform Children and Youth Investment Partnership, of which DC…

  4. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW) memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs). The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification. PMID:20226073

  5. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Meinshausen, Malte; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Joos, Fortunat; Strassmann, Kuno M.; Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Den Elzen, Michel; Fujino, Junicho; Kejun, Jiang; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2008-10-06

    Estimates on 21st century global mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multi-gas mitigation scenarios now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. By combing emission pathway results from multiple energy-economic models, we show that these mitigation scenarios result in a range of 21st century temperature increase of 0.5 to 4.2°C over 1990 levels as compared to 1.3-7.3 °C for the no-policy cases. About half the range is due to differences in the assumed stringency of the global climate policy and half is due to uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system, specifically, the carbon cycle and climate sensitivity. A minimum warming of about 0.5-2.7°C (avg. 1.3oC) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here - highlighting the need for both emission mitigation and adaptation policies.

  6. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  7. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  8. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society.

  9. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  10. 77 FR 33479 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  11. [Environmental primary care for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Primary environmental care combines the original strategy proclaimed at Alma-Ata as primary health care and the conception of integral rural development that emerged from the agrarian policies of Third World countries during the seventies. Within the renewed goal of health for all in the 21st century, the primary environmental care strategy may be considered as all those actions necessary to improve and protect the local surroundings through foresight and prevention of possible problems, with tasks institutionalized at the local level. Analysis and practice of this strategy are based on a model focused on the promotion of human beings, the environment, and social development. Furthermore, it is founded on critical theory and has a holistic perspective. This operational frame encourages participation and action, thus endowing individuals, communities, and societies with the power to make decisions. In this way, leadership is created for the sustainable development of nations. PMID:9924511

  12. Novel Propulsion and Power Concepts for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA s vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and NO(x)). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. And the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions.

  13. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  14. Adapting human lifestyles for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Howard, G S

    2000-05-01

    A number of ecological problems (e.g., global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, acid rain) have been identified, which threaten to reduce the quality of human life in the 21st century. These problems are human produced, resulting primarily from over-population and over-consumption. Alterations in people's awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors may stimulate changes in their political and economic systems, which in turn might foster the kind of lifestyle changes that could mitigate these ecological problems. Psychologists can play a role in helping individuals and systems advance toward the goal of becoming a sustainable society: one that satisfies its current needs without jeopardizing the prospects of future generations. PMID:10842431

  15. Environmental crises of the 21st century: Response and responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, E.L. )

    1994-08-01

    This editorial examines the environmental awareness of society today of problems such as ozone depletion, global climate change, oil spills, acid rain, etc.. First Schrader discusses the three major components of environmental problems: physical, biological or chemical manifestation of a crisis; who, what caused it; and what is the response to it. Responsibility and response are discussed in greater detail. The author concludes that it will be incumbent on those living in the 21st century to react to their environmental inheritance, and there must be a committment to the purpose that the ethical and quantitative wisdom necessary to meet these chanlenges are a basic component of undergraduate curriculum in all colleges and universities.

  16. The 21st century cures act: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, A; Kesselheim, A S

    2015-12-01

    On July 10, 2015, the U.S. House of Representatives overwhelmingly voted (344-77) to approve the 21st Century Cures Act, setting the stage for the Senate to consider its own version of the bill this fall. Such strong bipartisan support, rare in an age of congressional gridlock, might logically be interpreted as a sign of the Act's promise to foster innovative drug and device development. However, careful inspection reveals that while the Act contains some positive features, it represents a poor deal for Americans on balance that could result in the entry of more dangerous and ineffective drugs and devices onto the market and erode trust in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:26264909

  17. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented. PMID:11167577

  18. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  19. The Death of Rocket Science in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Webb, Darryl W.

    As we enter the 21st century, the lack of a space propulsion science discipline - involving the development of new emerging physical theories and models - within the bounds of Rocket Science forbids any rapid development of ideas and concepts toward new frontiers in spaceflight and implies a stagnate death in the advancement of Rocket Science as a whole. Specifically, the conventional disciplines in Rocket Science lacks foresight into the physics of acceleration to include the nature of gravity and inertia, which is foremost needed for the progression of spaceflight. In this paper is discussed various topics toward the understanding that space propulsion science is not a major player in Rocket Science, but must become so, if Rocket Science is to evolve the necessary new frontiers needed for future space exploration.

  20. 21st-century evolution of Greenland outlet glacier velocities.

    PubMed

    Moon, T; Joughin, I; Smith, B; Howat, I

    2012-05-01

    Earlier observations on several of Greenland's outlet glaciers, starting near the turn of the 21st century, indicated rapid (annual-scale) and large (>100%) increases in glacier velocity. Combining data from several satellites, we produce a decade-long (2000 to 2010) record documenting the ongoing velocity evolution of nearly all (200+) of Greenland's major outlet glaciers, revealing complex spatial and temporal patterns. Changes on fast-flow marine-terminating glaciers contrast with steady velocities on ice-shelf-terminating glaciers and slow speeds on land-terminating glaciers. Regionally, glaciers in the northwest accelerated steadily, with more variability in the southeast and relatively steady flow elsewhere. Intraregional variability shows a complex response to regional and local forcing. Observed acceleration indicates that sea level rise from Greenland may fall well below proposed upper bounds. PMID:22556249

  1. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  2. East Tennessee`s 21st century jobs initiative: Creating wealth for a sustainable economy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.V.; Jarrett, J.E.; Kozmetsky, G.; Seline, R.

    1996-03-01

    East Tennessee was given a {open_quotes}wake-up call{close_quotes} with regards to its current economic situation and its future employment opportunities in the report, East Tennessee`s 21st Century Jobs Initiatives: Building the Foundations for a 21st Century Economy, by DRI/McGraw-Hill and IC{sup 2} Institute. The foundations of the East Tennessee economy were analyzed and measured to raise awareness of immediate and future challenges for the region`s policy makers and business leaders. The region is technology rich with a nationally and internationally competitive knowledge base. The challenge is to develop this capacity and to exploit existing and new-to-the-world technologies for commercial purposes. How the region organizes itself to incubate, fund, and build an economic infrastructure around emerging technologies will reflect its commitment to shift from a public-sector-driven economy to a private-sector-driven economy. While the region has survived and thrived on federally funded, large-scale programs and projects, this report - East Tennessee`s 21st Century Jobs Initiative: Creating Wealth for a Sustainable Economy - suggests that incremental steps within the region are necessary to enhance the quality of the region`s education, infrastructure, business support and finance; maintain the region`s natural assets and quality of life; and overcome independence and competitiveness challenges. The proposed course is focused and measurable. It takes into account the three elements of technology-based regional economic development discussed throughout the 21st Century Jobs Initiative: (1) industry retention, relocation, and expansion; (2) entrepreneurship; and (3) alliance building for leveraged economic development This report provides an overview of regional research capabilities and technology development activities and suggests a scorecard on which progress can be measured in the transition from a public to a private sector-driven economy.

  3. Portable bedside ultrasound: the visual stethoscope of the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade technological advances in the realm of ultrasound have allowed what was once a cumbersome and large machine to become essentially hand-held. This coupled with a greater understanding of lung sonography has revolutionized our bedside assessment of patients. Using ultrasound not as a diagnostic test, but instead as a component of the physical exam, may allow it to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. PMID:22400903

  4. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  5. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  6. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century. PMID:19999594

  7. Theme: Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Susan S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Educating Leaders" (Townsend); "To Be or Not to Be" (Peasley); "That Was Then, This Is Now" (Knight); "Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?" (Hotaling); "Do We Need Teacher Education in the 21st Century?" (Conroy); "Who Is Going to Do What?" (Neason, Kotrlik); "Is There a Place for Teacher Education in the 21st…

  8. "21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

  9. 78 FR 39251 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Partnership Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...The 21st Century Conservation Service Corps (21CSC) National Council is requesting letters of interest from all conservation and youth corps programs that would like to be identified as a 21CSC member organization. We are initiating this outreach in order to catalyze the establishment of a 21st Century Conservation Service Corps (21CSC) to engage young Americans and returning veterans in......

  10. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  11. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  12. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  13. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  14. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  15. Worldwide Perspectives on the Educated Teen for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Fred

    This study examined abilities and conditions necessary to educate teens for the 21st century, surveying teachers worldwide on: characteristics necessary to meet 21st century challenges; opportunities and challenges to realizing those characteristics; beliefs about teaching practice and curriculum design; visions of an educated teen; and beliefs…

  16. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  17. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to...

  18. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6,...

  19. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The...

  20. California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

  1. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  2. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  3. Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Research in Management Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Charles, Ed.; DeFillippi, Robert, Ed.

    This book series focuses on trends in theory and practice likely to influence 21st century management education. This first volume examines a series of innovative and distinctive approaches to rethinking management education for the 21st century. Part 1 of the collection, "Rethinking What We Teach," contains: (1) "Development of Political Skill"…

  4. Inquiring into Professional Development in a Newly Designed 21st Century School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkenhauer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent new paradigms are emphasizing the need for more powerful learning opportunities that meet the needs of 21st century learners. One way to change education to better meet the needs of the 21st century is to reimagine school architecture. The purpose of this research was to study the ways practitioner inquiry can serve as a mechanism for…

  5. When 21st-Century Schooling Just Isn't Good Enough: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2009-01-01

    Quite a few school district administrators, and even more people who are not educators but are kind enough to offer their advice about how the field can be improved, have emphasized the need for "21st-century schools" that teach "21st-century skills." However, this is not enough, particularly now that some adversaries (in other words, people who…

  6. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  7. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  8. 21st Century innovators. Interview by Joe Flower.

    PubMed

    Newbold, P; Linton, P

    1992-01-01

    Last spring, The Healthcare Forum and 3M together announced the 21st Century Innovator Awards. They hoped to spotlight examples of the most forward-thinking organizations in American healthcare--organizations that could demonstrate readiness for the next century through the process of rebuilding their systems and structures. THF and 3M were looking for models for success with: (1) an organizational vision for the future, (2) an integrated planning process which reflected that vision, and (3) a measurable future benefit to the communities they served. The call elicited responses from more than 40 organizations across the country. THF and 3M were overwhelmed by both their range and quality. Choosing was difficult. But last September two winners were unveiled at the THF-3M Visionary Leadership conference in Hilton Head, South Carolina. Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Indiana, took the large, urban, regional, and national award for its progress in the long, tough process of revisioning itself according to a strategic concept CEO Phil Newbold calls "Quality Through People." The small, rural, and suburban prize went to Yavapai Regional Medical Center in Prescott, Arizona, where CEO Pat Linton is attempting to shape a "Total Healing Environment." We asked Joe Flower to visit both sites and send back an eyewitness report on what makes these two progressive organizations models for healthcare in the '90s and beyond. PMID:10117133

  9. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  10. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  11. Stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century: The chlorofluorocarbon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) exists in a dynamic equilibrium in the stratosphere, balanced between formation by solar ultraviolet photolysis ({lambda} < 242 nm) of molecular O{sub 2} (O + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3}) and destruction by various chemical processes including several chain reaction sequences triggered by HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and ClO{sub x} radicals. The ozone dissipates over Antarctica by November through northward mixing, only to begin reappearing in late August of the following year. Substantial ozone losses have also appeared, although not as spectacularly as over Antarctica, in the Northern Hemisphere's temperate and polar regions. The primary cause for the Antarctic ozone loss, and the probable cause for the northern losses, is the increasing concentration in the stratosphere of anthropogenic chlorine, especially chlorine released by solar UV photolysis from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds such as CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12), CCl{sub 3}F (CFC-11) and CCl{sub 2}FCClF{sub 2} (CFC-113). Because these molecules have average atmospheric lifetimes of many decades, excess anthropogenic chlorine will persist in the stratosphere for comparable time periods, and the Antarctic ozone hole will be an important atmospheric phenomenon throughout the 21st century.

  12. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  13. AIDS into the 21st century: some critical considerations.

    PubMed

    Pisani, E

    2000-05-01

    The story of AIDS in the 21st century is likely to be dominated by heterosexuals in Africa and injecting drug users around the world. HIV infection has persisted and grown because people do not like to recognise, much less talk about, the behaviours that spread the virus. Drug injection remains the leading cause of HIV infection in in the countries of the former Soviet Union, the northeastern states of India, the USA, Western Europe, China and parts of the Middle East. In Africa, where the overwhelming majority of infections occur during unprotected sex, a high proportion of girls are infected with HIV during their teens and before marriage. Industrialised countries responded with massive prevention campaigns, open discussion of the potential dangers of unprotected sex, and aggressive condom promotion. In the few developing countries that have taken similar action to contain the epidemic--Thailand, Uganda and Senegal--the initial leadership came from senior politicians. As HIV prevalence rises in a population, the chance of someone encountering an infected partner close to the beginning of their sexual life also rises. It is therefore crucial to reach people with appropriate preventative interventions before they first have sex. However, it is not realistic to expect political commitment to as sensitive a problem as AIDS from any government that has less than a wholehearted commitment to the basic health and welfare of its people. The first challenge in the fight against AIDS, as in the fight for development in general, is to support good government. PMID:11424269

  14. Tracking South Asian Monsoon in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Hodges, K. I.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we analyze the simulations of the Global Climate Models that are part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over the South Asian summer monsoon region for the historic (1960-2005) and the 21st century projection (2006-2100) periods. We apply two evaluation matrices namely precipitation recycling ratio analysis and monsoon depressions tracking algorithm to investigate the accuracy of the simulated processes in the GCMs that control the observed spatial and temporal distribution of South Asian summer monsoon rainfall. We sub-select the GCMs for the future period evaluations based on their ability in the simulation of different moisture sources and the accuracy of the low pressure systems tracks that transport moisture over the South Asian land during summer monsoon season in the baseline period. Further, we use selected GCMs to understand the effect of increase in greenhouse forcing on the frequency and tracks of the low-pressure systems during summer monsoon season, and on the moisture sources. These analyses will improve our understanding of the ability of CMIP5 GCMs in the simulation of South Asian summer monsoon dynamics and provide important implications for the reliability of future climate projections over this region.

  15. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Erika; Korom, Irma; Raskó, Zoltán; Kis, Erika; Varga, János; Oláh, Judit; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect. PMID:21151693

  16. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources. PMID:25070413

  17. Manganism in the 21st century: the Hanninen lecture.

    PubMed

    Racette, Brad A

    2014-12-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  18. Manganism in the 21st Century: The Hanninen Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  19. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives. PMID:21612722

  20. Propulsion and power for 21st century aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Whitlow, Woodrow

    2004-05-01

    Air transportation in the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meet public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st century aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, highly efficient, virtually inaudible (outside airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO 2 and NO x). This vision includes intelligent engines capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish missions with either minimal or no human intervention. Distributed vectored propulsion will replace current two to four wing mounted and fuselage mounted engine configurations with a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. Other innovative concepts, such as the pulse detonation engine (PDE), which potentially can replace conventional gas turbine engines, also are reviewed. It is envisioned that a hydrogen economy will drive the propulsion system revolution towards the ultimate goal of silent aircrafts with zero harmful emissions. Finally, it is envisioned that electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  1. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  2. Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix.

    PubMed

    Embry, Michelle R; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doerrer, Nancy G; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Doe, John E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The RISK21 integrated evaluation strategy is a problem formulation-based exposure-driven risk assessment roadmap that takes advantage of existing information to graphically represent the intersection of exposure and toxicity data on a highly visual matrix. This paper describes in detail the process for using the roadmap and matrix. The purpose of this methodology is to optimize the use of prior information and testing resources (animals, time, facilities, and personnel) to efficiently and transparently reach a risk and/or safety determination. Based on the particular problem, exposure and toxicity data should have sufficient precision to make such a decision. Estimates of exposure and toxicity, bounded by variability and/or uncertainty, are plotted on the X- and Y-axes of the RISK21 matrix, respectively. The resulting intersection is a highly visual representation of estimated risk. Decisions can then be made to increase precision in the exposure or toxicity estimates or declare that the available information is sufficient. RISK21 represents a step forward in the goal to introduce new methodologies into 21st century risk assessment. Indeed, because of its transparent and visual process, RISK21 has the potential to widen the scope of risk communication beyond those with technical expertise. PMID:25070414

  3. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  4. Workshop Proceedings: Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Barbara A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications initiated the planning of a technology development program, Astrotech 21, to develop the technological base for the Astrophysics missions developed in the period 1995 to 2015. The Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century Workshop was one of three Integrated Technology Planning workshops. Its objectives were to develop an understanding of the future comprehensive development program to achieve the required capabilities. Program plans and recommendations were prepared in four areas: x ray and gamma ray sensors, ultraviolet and visible sensors, direct infrared sensors, and heterodyne submillimeter wave sensors.

  5. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  6. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  7. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  8. Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  9. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  10. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180.

    Bioavailability and rates...

  12. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  13. 78 FR 114 - Notice of January 23 and 24, 2013 Meeting for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of January 23 and 24, 2013 Meeting for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory... the date of the first meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee. DATES: The public meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will be held on January 23 and 24, 2013, at...

  14. The Seven Trans-Disciplinary Habits of Mind: Extending the TPACK Framework towards 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Koehler, Matthew J.; Henriksen, Danah

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the concept of transformative learning, with a focus on the importance of trans-disciplinary thinking (cognitive skills that cross disciplines) and new technologies in creating 21st century learning and transformative teaching. The article introduces the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework as a way…

  15. "Educating 21st Century Students: A Close-Up Look at a Successful Career and Technical Center"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fala, John; Kathryn, Strouse; Tully, Christopher; Viviano, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Through this paper we try to convey the necessity to provide the workforce with a labor force that is academically and technologically ready to meet the 21st century global demands. We feel this is accomplished by providing the students at MBIT [Middle Bucks Institute of Technology] with industry-standard equipment, academic and technology…

  16. Making 21st Century Schools: Creating Learner-Centered Schoolplaces/Workplaces for a New Culture of Students at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Learner-Centered, Information-Age schools have been proposed in "Educational Technology" and in other publications. This article reviews the experience of the New Technology Foundation, a school-development organization, working since 2001 to support 51 communities in 10 states to launch and implement 21st Century High Schools, based on the model…

  17. Lunar Processing Cabinet 2.0: Retrofitting Gloveboxes into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Apollo 16 Lunar Processing Glovebox (cabinet 38) in the Lunar Curation Laboratory at NASA JSC received an upgrade including new technology interfaces. A Jacobs - Technology Innovation Project provided the primary resources to retrofit this glovebox into the 21st century. NASA Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office continues the over 40 year heritage of preserving lunar materials for future scientific studies in state-of-the-art facilities. This enhancement has not only modernized the contamination controls, but provides new innovative tools for processing and characterizing lunar samples as well as supports real-time exchange of sample images and information with the scientific community throughout the world.

  18. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century. PMID:9505707

  19. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  20. Preparing for the 21st century: introducing a service approach.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    While China's strong population policy remains unchanged, the State Family Planning (FP) Commission is experimenting with innovations designed to improve service delivery and promote gender equity. China entered demographic transition with a large population base which obviated the luxury of achieving the transition gradually over time. Because mortality rates have dropped dramatically and there is a large cohort of people of reproductive age, China adds 14-15 million people to its population each year. Were it not for the FP program, China's current population of 1.2 billion would be about 300 million higher. Economic reform has meant that most Chinese people have their basic needs met and can strive to improve the quality of their lives. These same reforms have weakened the collective systems of financing reproductive health systems, however, and new systems of local support must be found. China's Agenda 21, which sets goals for the 21st century, cites the education of girls and women as a key step to achieving a sustainable population size. In addition to an emphasis on reproductive health, China is initiating programs in adolescent health, sex education, and AIDS prevention. China's National FP Program for 1995-2000 emphasizes these changes and identifies a strong information, education, and communication component as a priority. Innovations, such as a participatory approach to training grassroots workers in interpersonal skills and counseling, are being field tested as a preliminary step toward full implementation. Training workshops are also being held to prepare FP leaders to uphold FP laws and protest the rights of the public. PMID:12290269

  1. Streamlined payload processing in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Craig; Meade, Phillip

    2001-02-01

    Launching payloads into space continues to be a weekly occurrence around the world. Although it is becoming commonplace, it has not become a low-cost or low-risk, quick and simple process. Out of these conditions, concepts have been developed and efforts are underway to create a generic set of processes and tools that will advance payload processing into the 21st Century by making it more efficient and less complicated. These new approaches are developing more cost effective, shorter cycle time processes, and require fewer resources than in the past. The KSC Center of Excellence for Payload Processing, built on the last 40 years of experience in processing all types of payloads (Shuttle, Expendable, Space Station, etc.), has been addressing these areas. Development is complete and operations are underway on the high fidelity checkout system used to perform final verification of flight interfaces between the International Space Station (ISS) and its science experiments. This system is typical of what has been used in the past for verifying interfaces which include: high, medium, and low rate data communications; video, command and data handling; power; and fluids/gases. The system also contains an ISS Program equivalent ground station, which will receive and process payload telemetry and distribute that telemetry to the appropriate customers. The recently developed concepts and projects underway address the lifecycle of payload processing, integrating agency and customer needs and requirements, and support geographically distributed processing. These concepts have driven out areas of synergy and leverage which enable large improvements to be proposed for payloads headed for Space Station or flying on Shuttle. .

  2. Elevation Gradients of 21st Century European Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, S.; Lüthi, D.; Pall, P.; Schär, C.

    2010-09-01

    Given the importance of mountain regions for large-scale water supply and a high vulnerability of alpine ecosystems, elevation gradients of future climate change and possible modifications of large-scale climate change signals in mountain regions are of high interest for climate impact assessment. In this study, a transient climate scenario of the CLM regional climate model is evaluated with respect to the elevation dependency of surface climate change (near-surface air temperature, precipitation, snow cover) in Europe. The RCM experiment was carried out for the period 1950-2099 at a spatial resolution of 25 km and using a HadCM3 simulation as lateral driving data. For near-surface air temperature, the analysis reveals that in many regions climate change signals are subject to an elevation dependency. High altitudes typically experience a stronger warming which can in many cases be related to a decrease in snow cover and a corresponding decrease of surface albedo. Often, differences in the warming signal become more pronounced towards the end of the 21st century. Despite larger warming rates at high altitudes, we cannot identify a clear potential of high-altitude warming as an early detection tool for larger-scale warming. Also precipitation changes vary with altitude, especially during the summer season. Over most parts of Europe the relative change in summer precipitation is larger at low elevations. The reasons for the simulated elevation gradients of surface climate change are manifold and vary from region to region, in particular for precipitation. Our analysis will put a special focus on the Alps, where elevation gradients are most pronounced and where high altitudes cover a considerable fraction of the total surface area.

  3. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  4. Military medical modeling and simulation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Moses, G; Magee, J H; Bauer, J J; Leitch, R

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine". PMID:11317763

  5. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  6. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  7. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, Agricultural Research..., the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and community development groups,...

  8. The Keepers of the Key: Development Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crease, Skid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of development education in the 21st century. Awareness of the global interconnectedness of issues of water, food, health, education, and wealth is broadening the scope of development education to include a closer look at home. (CCM)

  9. New Power Sources for the 21st Century: From Batteries to Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Kathleen C.

    1998-03-01

    Promised substantial benefits for air quality and fuel efficiency are the motivation for the application of electrochemical based power sources for transportation. General Motors' EV-1 introduced in the marketplace in 1997 is the first modern purpose-built electric vehicle. In the future we anticipate the increased emphasis industry-wide on 'electrochemical engines' for a clean environment. Advanced batteries and fuel cell systems currently under development are the enabling technologies for growing market penetration of electric and hybrid vehicles throughout the 21st century.

  10. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions. PMID:24058107

  11. Promoting 21st Century Skills in the Classroom through the Use of Authentic Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Swann, J. L.; Manfredi, L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing students for the workforce starts well before they start college. The Mars Student Imaging Project has incorporated 21st Century Skills into their project to help the students practice and sharpen these skills. Professional development for the educational facilitators helps the teachers become familiar with these skills. By augmenting the authentic research project with these 21st Century Skills, the students are able to achieve a higher level experience that mirrors the real-world workforce.

  12. Managing Information for Development in the 21st Century: Prospects for African Libraries, Challenges to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    This paper discusses the role information can play in the development of African countries in the 21st century. It stresses that development information can only be guaranteed when libraries in Africa computerize their systems, form networks for resource sharing, and take advantage of the benefits of information technology (IT), especially CD-ROM…

  13. The Implementation and Assessment of a Shared 21st Century Learning Vision: A District-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Thelma M.; Hollingsworth, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Traditional educational patterns are giving way to more innovative modes and methods of learning, primarily due to radical technological changes that have increased the availability of information and improved communication. In an attempt to address this shift toward 21st century skills and learning, a single school district began a large-scale,…

  14. Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century: A Developmental Action Inquiry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubinski, Leanne; Hentz, Brian; Davis, Katherine L.; Nicolaides, Aliki

    2012-01-01

    The rapid pace of social and technological change in the early 21st century leaves many adults scrambling to meet the complexities that characterize their daily lives. Adult learners are faced with multiple, often competing, demands from work, education, family, and leisure, which requires adult education graduate programs to carefully consider…

  15. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  16. CompSpeak 2050: How Talking Computers Will Recreate an Oral Culture by Mid-21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, William

    In the 21st century, VIVOs (voice-in/voice-out computers using visual displays but no text) will make written language obsolete. Written language is essentially a technology created 6,000 to 10,000 years ago for storing and retrieving information. VIVOs will perform this same function more easily, efficiently, and universally without requiring…

  17. Educating 21st-Century Students: An Up-Close Look at a Successful Career and Technical Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fala, John; Strouse, Kathryn; Tully, Christopher; Viviano, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As a career and technical high school, Middle Bucks Institute of Technology in Jamison, Pennsylvania, has risen to the challenge of preparing students with 21st-century skills through rigorous academics, technical knowledge, and professional development. Everyone, from the administrative director to the classroom teacher, needs to understand their…

  18. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  19. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  20. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  1. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  2. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  3. The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    McGONIGLE, Ian Vincent; Benjamin, Ruha

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University. The symposium drew upon the tools and expertise from multiple disciplines and diverse geographical regions and consisted of 24 original research presentations and an interdisciplinary roundtable. Specific attention was paid to the bioethical, material and lived dimensions of recent developments in molecular technologies, and discussions interrogated the complex ways in which the 'molecular realm' is an emerging site for constituting human identities in the 21st century. Herein we summarize some of the key findings of the conference and raise three further issues for practitioners and researchers to consider in relation to the broader impact of genetics research. Namely: transnational governance of emerging biotechnologies; representation of different interest groups in policy decisions; and rights of access to emerging technologies. PMID:27376979

  4. General Education in the 21st Century: A Report of the University of California Commission on General Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the Commission on General Education in the 21st Century--a panel of University of California faculty and administrators--issues a call for renewed attention to general education in research universities, highlighting specific reforms for University of California campuses. In addition to analyzing the historical, institutional, and…

  5. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are:

    • Creativity and Innovation
    • Communication and Collaboration
    • Research and Information Literacy
    • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
    • Digital Citizenship
    • Technology Operations and Concepts

    • Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research

      PubMed Central

      Austin, Christopher P.; Balapure, Anil K.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C.; Fowle, John R.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

      2015-01-01

      Summary Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved. PMID:26523530

    • Student Teaching Abroad: An Experience for 21st Century Teachers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Landerholm, Elizabeth; Chacko, Jacob B.

      2013-01-01

      Twenty first century teachers need to be proficient in technology, skilled as reflective practitioners, and able to reflect on diversity in a myriad of ways: learning styles, special needs, cultural differences, racial differences, developmentally appropriate differences, teaching styles, and personality differences of children, teachers, parents,…

    • Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gettys, Nancy S.

      1998-06-01

      On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

    • Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

      2014-05-01

      We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

    • Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

      2010-01-01

      The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

    • Deterrence and strategic defense in the 21st century. Study project

      SciTech Connect

      McManaway, W.F.

      1993-04-15

      The United States' experience with a deterrent security strategy is colored by more than 40 years of confrontation with the Soviet Union. Over the Cold War years, American political leadership wrestled with two foreign policy challenges: the threat of communist expansion and the danger of nuclear weapons. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, communist expansion may be a thing of the past. Nevertheless, nuclear weapons are still with us in large numbers. Of the many challenges facing American statecraft in the 21st century, few are as foreboding as the accelerating proliferation of nuclear weapons and the means for their delivery. Although intelligence professionals cannot confidently predict the 21st century international environment, several trends characterize what we might find. There will still be ideological competitors, in some cases involved in intractable regional conflicts. Furthermore, nuclear and conventional military technologies will increasingly spread, militarizing old regional battles. As new nuclear regimes emerge, their political calculations will be tempered by these longstanding animosities, possibly escalating lower order regional violence to nuclear confrontation. The United States must address the significant issues raised by growing regional nuclear potential adversaries if it expects to influence the international order required to achieve the National Security Strategy's envisioned Age of Democratic Peace.

    • Command, Control and Communications Capabilities Enabling 21st Century Missions, a Historical Perspective

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Waterman, Robert D.; Rice, Herbert D.; Waterman, Susan J.

      2010-01-01

      Command, Control and Communications (CCC) has evolved through the years from simple switches, dials, analogue hardwire networks and lights to a modern computer based digital network. However there are two closely coupled pillars upon which a CCC system is built. The first, is that technology drives the pace of advancement. The second is that a culture that fosters resistance to change can limit technological advancements in the CCC system. While technology has advanced at a tremendous rate throughout the years, the change in culture has moved slowly. This paper will attempt to show through a historical perspective where specific design decisions for early CCC systems have erroneously evolved into general requirements being imposed on later systems. Finally this paper will provide a glimpse into the future directions envisioned for CCC capabilities that will enable 21st century missions.

    • Psychiatry in 21(st) century: The road ahead.

      PubMed

      Mitra, Sayantanava; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

      2014-10-01

      In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges. PMID:25288858

    • Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Davis, Lloyd

      1999-01-01

      Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

    • Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

      2010-01-01

      Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

    • Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

      PubMed

      Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

      2010-01-01

      The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

    • Observed multivariable signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Santer, Benjamin D.; Solomon, Susan; Bonfils, Céline; Zelinka, Mark D.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Beltran, Francisco; Fyfe, John C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Mears, Carl; Ridley, David A.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wentz, Frank J.

      2015-01-01

      The relatively muted warming of the surface and lower troposphere since 1998 has attracted considerable attention. One contributory factor to this "warming hiatus" is an increase in volcanically induced cooling over the early 21st century. Here we identify the signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity in multiple observed climate variables. Volcanic signals are statistically discernible in spatial averages of tropical and near-global SST, tropospheric temperature, net clear-sky short-wave radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. Signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic eruptions are also detectable in near-global averages of rainfall. In tropical average rainfall, however, only a Pinatubo-caused drying signal is identifiable. Successful volcanic signal detection is critically dependent on removal of variability induced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

    • FutureTox: Building the Road for 21st Century Toxicology and Risk Assessment Practices

      PubMed Central

      Rowlands, J. Craig; Bus, James S.

      2014-01-01

      This article reports on the outcome of FutureTox, a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) workshop, whose goal was to address the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing 21st century technologies for toxicity testing, hazard identification, and risk assessment. One goal of the workshop was to facilitate an interactive multisector and discipline dialog. To this end, workshop invitees and participants included stakeholders from governmental and regulatory agencies, research institutes, academia, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Europe and the United States. The workshop agenda was constructed to collectively review and discuss the state-of-the-science in these fields, better define the problems and challenges, outline their collective goals for the future, and identify areas of common agreement key to advancing these technologies into practice. PMID:24204016

    • How nuclear war might start: Scenarios from the early 21st century. Interim report

      SciTech Connect

      Digby, J.; Millot, M.D.; Schwabe, W.L.

      1988-10-01

      Scenarios are a useful way to make responsible officials think hard about the future. For officials in the Department of Defense, some of these scenarios must consider the actual use of nuclear weapons, so that they will be better prepared to avoid such situations. To encourage breadth in the formulation of games for official purposes, RAND responded to a request from the Director of Net Assessment to create a number of scenarios for the early 21st century in which conflict would occur or be likely and in which due attention would be given to the political and technological conditions that might then be operational. This Note presents a wide range of such scenarios in sketch form. Several of the scenarios assume varying degrees of success for elements of the current Strategic Defense Initiative program, for new applications of stealth technology, for the National Aerospace Plane, for nonnuclear strategic weapons, and for new surveillance techniques. Applications range from battlefield uses to strategic options.

    • Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

      PubMed

      Khush, G S

      1999-08-01

      In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources. PMID:10464789

  1. Energy transitions in the early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin

    2013-01-01

    We are in the early stages of a long and complex transition from a global economy based on fossil energy to an economy based on low carbon renewable energy. However, fossil fuel resources are abundant and widely distributed, and they will remain the dominant source of primary energy for at least the next quarter century. In the United States, displacement of coal by natural gas for electric power generation has done more to reduce CO2 emissions than all new renewables combined, and this may occur globally for the next decade or two, even if the European Union does not take advantage of its large unconventional natural gas resources. Greater energy efficiency (not including the efficiencies associated with displacement of coal by gas) will also be more important than new renewables. Cost/benefit ratios are important for sustainability of the transition, and some energy efficiency technologies and displacement of coal by natural gas have lower cost/benefit ratios than wind power, solar power or biofuels. Money spent on the large scale deployment of wind, solar and especially biofuels would be better spent on research, development and demonstration of a broader suite of technologies that would support the energy transition, with a focus on improving the cost benefit ratios of already deployed technologies and developing alternatives. Advanced nuclear reactors, engineered geothermal systems, fossil fuel recovery coupled with CO2 sequestration and pre-combustion or post-combustion decarbonation of fossil fuels with geological CO2 sequestration are among the technologies that might be more cost effective than wind, solar or biofuels, and biofuels have serious adverse societal and environment consequences.

  2. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor); Alred, John W. (Editor); Bell, Larry S. (Editor); Cintala, Mark J. (Editor); Crabb, Thomas M. (Editor); Durrett, Robert H. (Editor); Finney, Ben R. (Editor); Franklin, H. Andrew (Editor); French, James R. (Editor); Greenberg, Joel S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space.

  3. Treating Parkinson’s disease in the 21st century: Can stem cell transplantation compete?

    PubMed Central

    Buttery, Philip C; Barker, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic and selective degeneration of a unique population of cells—the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons—that occurs in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has made the condition an iconic target for cell replacement therapies. Indeed, transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic cells into the DA-deficient striatum was first trialled nearly 30 years ago, at a time when other treatments for the disease were less well developed. Over recent decades standard treatments for PD have advanced, and newer biological therapies are now emerging. In the 21st century, stem cell technology will have to compete alongside other sophisticated treatments, including deep brain stimulation and gene therapies. In this review we examine how stem cell–based transplantation therapies compare with these novel and emerging treatments in the management of this common condition. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2802–2816, 2014. PMID:24610597

  4. Using Virtual Simulations in the Design of 21st Century Space Science Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Sonya L.; Alves, Jeffery R.

    1996-01-01

    Space Technology has been rapidly increasing in the past decade. This can be attributed to the future construction of the International Space Station (ISS). New innovations must constantly be engineered to make ISS the safest, quality, research facility in space. Since space science must often be gathered by crew members, more attention must be geared to the human's safety and comfort. Virtual simulations are now being used to design environments that crew members can live in for long periods of time without harmful effects to their bodies. This paper gives a few examples of the ergonomic design problems that arise on manned space flights, and design solutions that follow NASA's strategic commitment to customer satisfaction. The conclusions show that virtual simulations are a great asset to 21st century design.

  5. New approaches to providing individualized diabetes care in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Powell, Priscilla W; Corathers, Sarah D; Raymond, Jennifer; Streisand, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Building from a foundation of rapid innovation, the 21(st) century is poised to offer considerable new approaches to providing modern diabetes care. The focus of this paper is the evolving role of diabetes care providers collaboratively working with patients and families toward the goals of achieving optimal clinical and psychosocial outcomes for individuals living with diabetes. Advances in monitoring, treatment and technology have been complemented by trends toward patient-centered care with expertise from multiple health care disciplines. The evolving clinical care delivery system extends far beyond adjustment of insulin regimens. Effective integration of patient-centered strategies, such as shared-decision making, motivational interviewing techniques, shared medical appointments, and multidisciplinary team collaboration, into a dynamic model of diabetes care delivery holds promise in reaching glycemic targets and improving patients' quality of life. PMID:25901504

  6. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  7. The second conference on lunar bases and space activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles in this report.

  8. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge. PMID:21149687

  9. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  10. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  11. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  12. Looking toward the Future: Competences for 21st-Century Teacher-Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Joanne; Branch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    What are the core competences required by teacher-librarians for developing exemplary school library programs in 21st-century schools? This article reports on a study that explored the experiences and attitudes of graduates from the Teacher Librarianship by Distance Learning program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. Key findings from this…

  13. Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century: What Role for High School Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    2005-01-01

    As part of the broader policy debate on how to reform K-12 education, particularly high schools, basic questions about career and technical education are on the table. "Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century" begins with a summary of what researchers know--and do not know--about the value of high school career-focused…

  14. Rethinking the Framework for 21st-Century Education: Toward a Communitarian Conception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.; Goh, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the current frameworks for 21st-century education by critiquing the individualist view of education that underpins them. It is argued that such a view of education overemphasizes technical rationality and neglects the importance of moral values and the role of the community in shaping the individual's identity, ethics, and…

  15. Engineering Students for the 21st Century: Student Development through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Alan; Bunting, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Through support of the National Science Foundation's Department Level Reform program, "Engineering Students for the 21st Century" (ES21C) has implemented a ten-course sequence designed to help students develop into engineers. Spread across the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) curriculum at Oklahoma State University, these…

  16. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  17. Meeting the Tests of Time: Small States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The analytic category of "small states" remains problematic in the 21st century. Its legitimacy as a rigorous conceptual category continues to be debated; even as small states assume a strident visibility on the world stage because of climate change negotiations. This paper reviews the scepticism that hovers around the small state concept, and…

  18. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  19. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  20. The 21st Century Writing Program: Collaboration for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the literature on theoretical frameworks, best practices, and conceptual models for the 21st century collegiate writing program. Methods include electronic database searches for recent and historical peer-reviewed scholarly literature on collegiate writing programs. The author analyzed over 65 sources from…