Science.gov

Sample records for 21st century technology

  1. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  2. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  3. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  4. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  5. Technology in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the rapid growth of Internet use and how Internet technology and the World Wide Web can make learning more accessible for gifted students. It outlines how technology can promote improved learning and how educators can integrate technology into gifted education. The need for teachers to be trained in Internet use is…

  6. Emerging 21st Century Medical Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Although several medical technologies have been around since decades and are in the continuous process of development, some latest technologies are changing the way medicine would be practiced in the future. These technologies would allow medical practice from anywhere, any time and from any device. These include smart phones, Tablet PCs, Touch screens, digital ink, voice recognition, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), Health Information Exchange (HIE), Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN), Personal Health Records (PHRs), patient portals, Nanomedicine, genome-based personalized medicine, Geographical Positioning System (GPS), Radiofrequency Identification (RFID), Telemedicine, clinical decision support (CDS), mobile home healthcare, cloud computing, and social media, to name a few significant. PMID:24948997

  7. Technology Manners for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses etiquette for today's technology, including paper copiers; desktop or laptop computers; fax machines; answering machines and voice mail; printers; cellular phones, pagers, and beepers; telephones; videotapes, videodisks, and CD-ROMs; paper shredders; Internet use; and magnetic boards. (LRW)

  8. Space power technology into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The space power systems of the early 21st century are discussed. The capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state of the art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century are emphasized. The power system technologies considered include: solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include: nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state of the art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned Earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and Earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies which are anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  9. Space power technology into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Faymon, K.A.; Fordyce, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the space power systems of the early 21st century. The focus is on those capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state-of-the-art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century. The power system technologies considered include solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state-of-the-art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  10. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  11. Integrative Technology: 21st Century Technology for 21st Century Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemagno, Ph. D.

    2004-03-01

    Integrative technology, the merging of nanotechnology, biotechnology and informatics offers an opportunity for realizing true advances in the manner in which technology interacts with humanity. Using the power of nanotechnology to manipulate matter, that is the placing of molecules where we want, when we want, to perform functions that we want. Using the inspiration of biotechnology both to co-opt the tools of molecular manufacturing and to provide a baseline understanding of the way nature manipulates matter and information. And finally, using Informatics to create a robust framework for transforming the information implicit in molecular and larger scale interactions to engineer Complex Adaptive Systems that exhibit embedded higher-order behavior. Collectively these technologies established the basis for Integrative Technology, a new IT. The first examples of the implementation of Integrated Technology are manifested in the synthesis of a new class of smart materials. These materials have the potential to emulate much of the functionality associated with living systems such as the active transport and transformation of matter and information and, the transduction of energy into different forms. We will present the details of the technological demands and the results of efforts associated with the production of these new functional materials. Elements of the discussion will include the genetic engineering of active biological molecules into engineering building blocks, the precision assembly of these molecules into a stable, "active" material and, the promise of embedding intelligent behavior into the matrix of the assembled matter.

  12. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  13. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  14. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  15. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  16. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht);…

  17. Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Science and Technology in Global 21st Century Societies

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, George H.

    2008-10-08

    Many of the most significant geopolitical policy and security issues facing both developed and developing nations in the increasingly global societies of the 21st century are directly connected with the remarkably rapid and profound scientific achievements of our time. The urgency of addressing immediate needs must be balanced with the patience to accurately identify and incorporate those emerging and 'at-the-horizon' S and T advances into longer-term governmental planning, not only in the formulation of policy, but as critically, in its implementation. The fostering of safe, secure, and prosperous 'knowledge-based societies' is increasingly related directly to the success a government has in meeting these responsibilities. By launching the new Institute on Science for Global Policy (ISGP) at the University of California, an effort is underway to significantly expand opportunities that foster continuous dialogue, critical debates and even constructive disagreement (without attribution) concerning S and T-related policy decisions between international government officials and distinguished members of the global S and T community. Governmental, civil society, and selected private sector organizations worldwide are participating and supporting the ISGP programs.

  19. Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Technology Integration as Prescribed by 21st Century Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane Killough

    2012-01-01

    Technology is a learning and teaching tool that enhances students' communication, innovation, and critical thinking skills, also known as 21st century learning goals. Successfully using technology in the classroom to promote these learning goals, however, has presented some challenges for teachers. While research has identified a variety of…

  20. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  1. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    aspects of national security. With guidance from the President and Congress, strategic direction and investment priorities for national security science ...interconnected, fast- evolving science and technology landscape that presents new threats and opportunities, the policy directions called for in this...A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE , TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR AMERICA’S NATIONAL SECURITY PRODUCT OF THE Committee on Homeland and National

  2. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  3. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  4. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  5. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  6. Evolving Technologies Require Educational Policy Change: Music Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Renee

    2013-01-01

    There is growing discussion among education and government authorities on rethinking education in the 21st century. This increasing area of interest has come in response to the evolution of technology and its effect on the future needs and requirements of society. Online applications and social networking capabilities have accelerated in…

  7. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  8. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; Malinowski, John; Malinowski, Robert; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications (OSC) is tasked by NASA to conduct a planning process to meet NASA's science mission and other communications and data processing requirements. A set of technology trend studies was undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for OSC to identify quantitative data that can be used to predict performance of electronic equipment in the future to assist in the planning process. Only commercially available, off-the-shelf technology was included. For each technology area considered, the current state of the technology is discussed, future applications that could benefit from use of the technology are identified, and likely future developments of the technology are described. The impact of each technology area on NASA operations is presented together with a discussion of the feasibility and risk associated with its development. An approximate timeline is given for the next 15 to 25 years to indicate the anticipated evolution of capabilities within each of the technology areas considered. This volume contains four chapters: one each on technology trends for database systems, computer software, neural and fuzzy systems, and artificial intelligence. The principal study results are summarized at the beginning of each chapter.

  9. Technology and Transition in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan O.; Grigal, Meg; Unger, Darlene D.; Simmons, Thomas J.; Bauder, Debra; Williams, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Devices like smartphones, tablets, and MP3 players are becoming everyday tools for the majority of the population. Technology can assist students with disabilities in many self-determination activities, such as choice making, decision making, and self-management. In addition, technology tools can support them in a wide range of transition-related…

  10. Latinos and Information Technology. Perspectives for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Tony; Rood, Justin, E.

    Data from the Current Population Surveys of the U.S. Census were used to construct this report on the access to and use of computers and information technology by the Hispanic population of the United States. The report explores four main issues, each of which is being transformed by innovations in information technology. The first issue…

  11. Energy End-Use Technologies for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S; Haegermark, H; Larsen, H; Morishita, M; Nakicenovic, N; Schock, R N; Suntola, T

    2005-04-13

    The World Energy Council's recent study examined the potential of energy end-use technologies and of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) into these technologies on a global scale. Surprises are likely, but nevertheless, current research and development offer a picture of what might happen in the future as new technologies face the competition of the marketplace. Given the breadth of energy end-use technologies and the differences between regions and economic conditions, the study focused on technologies that appear most important from today's vantage point. Globally, robust research and development followed by demonstrations of new end-use technologies can potentially save at least 110 EJ/year by 2020 and over 300 EJ/year by 2050. If achieved, this translates to worldwide energy savings of as much as 25% by 2020 and over 40% by 2050, over what may be required without these technologies. It is almost certain that no single technology, or even a small set of technologies, will dominate in meeting the needs of the globe in any foreseeable timeframe. Absent a significant joint government-industry effort on end-use technology RD&D, the technologies needed will not be ready for the marketplace in the timeframes required with even the most pessimistic scenarios. Based on previous detailed analyses for the United States, an international expenditure of $4 billion per year seems more than justified. The success of new energy end-use technologies depends on new RD&D investments and policy decisions made today. Governments, in close cooperation with industry, must carefully consider RD&D incentives that can help get technologies from the laboratory or test-bed to market. Any short-term impact areas are likely to benefit from focused RD&D. These include electricity transmission and distribution, distributed electricity production, transportation, the production of paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminum, cement and chemicals, and information and communication

  12. NASA rotorcraft technology for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Current and planned rotorcraft technology-related research at NASA's Ames, Lewis, and Langley research centers is discussed with a view to the fruits of these efforts beyond the year 2000. Examples of promising technologies are higher-harmonic and dynamic rotor controls, advanced structural composites, aerodynamics and acoustics simulation models for design predictions, automated flight controls, and high-reliability rotor drivetrains. The overall payoff from an integration of these technologies will allow safe automated flying in all weather conditions, as well as precision-hover and exceptionally low noise and vibration levels.

  13. Aircraft technology opportunities for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1988-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities, and at the same time provide greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. Both current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers are addressed. The complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts is considered including rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies for current aircraft will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility. Research and technology promises to enable development of new vehicles that will revolutionize or greatly change the transportation system. These vehicles will provide new capabilities which will lead to enormous market opportunities and economic growth, as well as improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  14. Technology Directions for the 21st Century, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; McIntosh, William; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, semiconductor device density and performance have been doubling about every 18 months (Moore's Law). With present photolithography techniques, this rate can continue for only about another 10 years. Continued improvement will need to rely on newer technologies. Transition from the current micron range for transistor size to the nanometer range will permit Moore's Law to operate well beyond 10 years. The technologies that will enable this extension include: single-electron transistors; quantum well devices; spin transistors; and nanotechnology and molecular engineering. Continuation of Moore's Law will rely on huge capital investments for manufacture as well as on new technologies. Much will depend on the fortunes of Intel, the premier chip manufacturer, which, in turn, depend on the development of mass-market applications and volume sales for chips of higher and higher density. The technology drivers are seen by different forecasters to include video/multimedia applications, digital signal processing, and business automation. Moore's Law will affect NASA in the areas of communications and space technology by reducing size and power requirements for data processing and data fusion functions to be performed onboard spacecraft. In addition, NASA will have the opportunity to be a pioneering contributor to nanotechnology research without incurring huge expenses.

  15. Space Station Freedom - Technology R&D and test facility for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Development of the SSF is considered in terms of a primary stimulus for technology research and development activities in the early 21st century. The utilization and operations management organization, the ground facilities, and the associated international agreements will form the basis for all future major space projects, including lunar and Mars missions and outposts. Problems discussed include SSF technology R&D accommodations, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D opportunities, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D candidates, and space infrastructure cooperative projects.

  16. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  17. Fostering 21st Century Learning with Geospatial Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita A.

    2011-01-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) receivers and other geospatial tools can help teachers create engaging, hands-on activities in all content areas. This article provides a rationale for using geospatial technologies in the middle grades and describes classroom-tested activities in English language arts, science, mathematics, and social studies.…

  18. A Cultural Heritage Exhibit with 21st-Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Lakeview Schools and the Art Center of Battle Creek, both located in Michigan, have worked together on several beneficial projects. This partnership has resulted in the sharing of valuable material and human resources. In addition, the use of innovative technology has provided a meaningful learning experience for the entire community. As the…

  19. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo; Ramu Chandra

    2010-02-19

    Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.

  20. New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the “understanding of plant growth” as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed “new biology.” The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon. PMID:22366161

  1. Romantic Poetry Meets 21st-Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2005-01-01

    In the past year, more and more professors have started talking about wikis, which are, in essence, communal Web sites that can be edited by anyone who visits them, and some wikis keep logs of past changes. Once the domain of technology enthusiasts, especially advocates of "open source" software that is jointly created by volunteers,…

  2. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  3. Affordable Environmental Technology: Preparing for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-20

    Research Journal . In addition, a full scale unit is planned together with an industrial company in Israel. This technology may be effective in specific...design and operation of a mobile laboratory may be proposed, in order to provide support for field research . 3. Environmental archaeometry . The aim...10196 Approved for public release; dlstudW;buu’ ,",ited. Office of Naval Research European Office TABLE OF CONTENTS IN T R O D U C T IO N

  4. Industrial Wireless Technology for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-01

    In July 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program sponsored the Industrial Wireless Workshop as a forum for articulating some long-term goals that may help guide the development of industrial wireless sensor systems. Over 30 individuals, representing manufacturers and suppliers, end users, universities, and national laboratories, attended the workshop in San Francisco and participated in a series of facilitated sessions. The workshop participants cooperatively developed a unified vision for the future and defined specific goals and challenges. This document presents the results of the workshop as well as some context for non-experts.

  5. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  6. Classroom Technology Integration: A Comparative Study of Participants and Non-Participants in the 21st Century Model Classroom Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Darrell Grady

    2013-01-01

    This study provided a unique opportunity to examine how two groups of teachers experienced the integration of technology in a K-12 school system in the southeastern United States. The total number of respondents (n = 338) included 21st Century Model Classroom (CMC) program teachers (n = 27) and non-participants (n = 311). Teachers in the 21st CMC…

  7. 21st Century Skills Development: Learning in Digital Communities--Technology and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of student performance in the 21 st century skills of Information and Communication (ICT) Literacy and collaboration. In this project, extant data from the Assessment and Teaching for 21st Century Skills project (ATC21S) will be examined. ATC21S is a collaborative effort among educational agencies in six countries,…

  8. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  9. Engine technology challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Gilkey, Samuel; Hines, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing NASA-funded studies by Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, General Electric, and Pratt & Whitney indicate that an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become a major part of the international air transportation system. However, before industry will consider an HSCT product launch and an investment estimated to be over $15 billion for design and certification, major technology advances must be made. An overview of the propulsion-specific technology advances that must be in hand before an HSCT product launch could be considered is presented.

  10. Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Small, Dorothy; Walker, Leanne; Wilson, Richard L.; Wintle, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. In part this is because, as a nation,…

  11. Engine technology challenges for a 21st century high speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent NASA funded studies by Boeing and Douglas suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and to provide a technology base to allow U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing the HSCT are discussed.

  12. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  13. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

  14. 21st Century Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Nadene; Stone, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Education has changed, and at no time is this more evident than when working with students who are tethered to the Internet, are fully engaged in technology-based social networking, create blogs and wikis, and expect instantaneous responses as they twitter with their peers around the world. Some of the knowledge and skills that millennial students…

  15. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  16. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  17. Log On or Lose Out: Technology in 21st Century Teacher Education. AACTE Conference Proceedings (Cupertino, California, November 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    These conference papers highlight technology within 21st century teacher education. Part 1, "The Power, Ethical, and Social Issues Related to Technology in Education," includes topics like developing learning communities and ensuring equal access for all students. Part 2, "The Impact of Technology in Changing Our Perceptions of What…

  18. Implementation of Information Technologies in the Teaching of "Science for the 21st Century"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, S.; Goldberg, M.; Lipson, E.; Middleton, A.; Vidali, G.

    We illustrate the use of World Wide Web technologies for the teaching of general science topics to undergraduate non-science majors. The newly developed course, Science for the 21st Century, consists of modules each presenting scientific topics of current interest and broad appeal. Network- and computer-based tools are used by instructors to: 1) present multimedia material in lectures; 2) produce and store Web-based modules; 3) communicate notices about the course. Students use computers to: 1) access and review lecture material; 2) explore information sources (located on our server or elsewhere) for term projects and homework assignments; 3) obtain information about the course and communicate with instructors. We describe our experiences with this course and formulate some general conclusions which might be of interest to others wishing to use network-based resources for teaching.

  19. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across…

  20. Reform of School Science Curriculum for the 21st Century: Science-Technology-Society Theme in Japanese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Genzo

    Today, on the eve of the 21st century, Japan is becoming an internationalized, information centered civilization. The sophistication of modern science and technology will create a demand for people who are highly productive in handling knowledge and sensitive in their manipulation of it. This advance of science and technology will also require an…

  1. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to…

  2. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  3. Use of Technology in the Classroom as Perceived by Public School Teachers in Milwaukee during Early 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Sharon F.

    2013-01-01

    This project utilized descriptive methodology to examine the research question, how is technology being used in the classroom, as perceived by public school teachers in Milwaukee during early 21st century? In order to fully analyze this question, both quantitative and qualitative data were utilized. The researcher developed a survey for the…

  4. Energy Technologies for the 21st Century-The Roles of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R N

    2005-07-29

    Renewable energy sources, originating for the most part from the sun's radiant energy, are ubiquitous, long-lived, essentially free of carbon emissions, and have the potential to contribute significantly to mounting energy needs of the globe. In terms of percentage increase in installed capacity, renewable energy collectively is the fastest growing energy source. Even assuming that the developing world raises its standard of living considerably, the technical potential of renewable energies is more than enough to meet annual global needs several times over a century from now. Realizing even some of this potential involves overcoming obstacles in generation costs, proximity to markets, and in many cases intermittency, as well as others. From the perspective of work on a wide range of energy technologies by both the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the potential, timing, and investment costs for renewable energy technologies in the 21st century have become clearer. The marketplace, based on cost and performance, will determine which technologies are commercialized along with government policies that at a minimum do not hinder their introduction, and--at a maximum--may encourage more rapid and successful introduction. A wide range of possible scenarios (34) based on factors that include energy availability, demographics, economic development, competition, environmental constraints, and most importantly technical learning, place some constraints on the range of possible energy requirements. Most scenarios indicate that renewable energy in total is likely to be as much as half the world's supply in 100 years, but most of that growth is expected in the period 50 to 100 years from now--if critical advancements and investments are made over the next 50 years.

  5. Rural Ugandan women and the technological race to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, I W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the needs in developing countries for simple and inexpensive technological devices to improve communications and transportation and to reduce time and energy spent on housework. Manufacturers in the developed world continue to export expensive technological products that ignore the lack of access to electricity among a large consumer population. Individuals and organizations can help developing country women by engaging in conversations with their counterparts and determining the nature and extent of assistance that is needed. Products, such as old computers, spare parts, and computer books, can be donated to organizations, such as the YWCA, which provide training to girls and women. Industry can produce and market technologically appropriate implements and appliances. Individuals and women's groups can lobby industrialists and manufacturers for initiatives that improve living conditions for millions in developing countries. Groups can mobilize financial resources for local and international projects. Partnerships can be formed between cities, local universities, nonprofit organizations, individual school classes, or individuals. Governments need to ensure that the educational system is producing skilled workers and to modify imported technologies for local development. In the race to the 21st century, there is a need for deliberate social action to make technology accessible to women, men, and children in remote rural communities in developing countries. The gain for women in developing countries would be substantially reduced time and energy expended in daily chores. In developing countries, most of the agricultural and domestic work is carried out by women. These women are not even at the starting gate, while women in developed countries are way ahead in the race for modernization and technological development.

  6. High energy astrophysics 21st century workshop 'Space Capabilities in the 21st Century'. [NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhome, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of 20th-century NASA accomplishments and of the infrastructure and technology that NASA plans to have in place in the 21st century is presented. Attention is given to the Great Observatories Program, AXAF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Small Explorers Program, the Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors, and the X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer. Also discussed are earth-to-orbit communication links, transportation in the 1990s, the evolution of the space infrastructure, and the Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the possibilities of the 21st-century infrastructure, with emphasis on exploration on Mars and the moon. Topics addressed include telecommunications, navigation, information management, and 21st-century space science.

  7. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Science and Technology Base for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Reference directed that the Task Force make recommendations on these issues: - The proper funding level for the Science and Technology program - The...REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON DEFENSE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY June 1998 OFFICE OF THE UNDER...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUN 1998 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Report of the Defense Science Board Task

  8. Perspectives on scientific and technological literacy in Tonga: Moving forward in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palefau, Tevita Hala

    Tonga has undergone complex changes in the last three decades. Disturbing numbers of young Tongans have inadequate knowledge in traditional science and technology, ill equipped to work in, contribute to and profit from our society. In short, they lack sufficient background knowledge to acquire the training, skills and understanding that are needed in the 21st Century. The purpose of this research is to assist the formulation of national science and technology curriculum. Hence, views of life in Tonga and opinions about Tonga's needs held by three stakeholder groups (traditional, workplaces, public) were paramount in this study. How these stakeholders see Tonga in terms of science and technology needs will contribute substantially to the Ministry of Education's decisions for this century. Based on critical evaluation of international literature and how scientific and technological literacy (STL) is crucial to Tongan society, a model 'TAP-STL' is established as study framework: 'TAP' for ṯraditional, a&barbelow;cademic and p&barbelow;ublic STL, to promote national development. This qualitative case study employs an interview method to collect data from twelve knowledgeable participants selected by reputational sampling from across the kingdom. By exploring their understanding of STL requirements, the study sought to identify any shortfall between the science and technology provided in school and that needed for maintenance of traditional culture, effective participation in Tonga's workplaces and public understanding. The study produced findings under these categories: understanding of traditional knowledge and skills needed to preserve Tongan cultural identity; understanding needed for fishing, handicrafts and everyday maintenance, together with essential health knowledge and skills; and required understanding of public information campaigns related to health, domestic goods, drugs and environment that contribute to responsible citizenship. The study identified

  9. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  10. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  11. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  12. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  14. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  16. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: 2003 Annual Technical Status Report DOE/AL68284-TSR03

    SciTech Connect

    Lembit Salasoo

    2004-01-09

    The 21st Century Locomotive program objective is to develop 25% more efficient freight locomotives by 2010. Diesel engine-related research addresses advanced fuel injection, electric turbocharger and abradable seals. Assembly of a common rail fuel injection test system is underway, and a CFD combustion model has been validated. An electrically assisted turbocharger has been constructed and operated, meeting the generator mode design rating. System characterization and optimization is ongoing. Candidate abradable seal materials have been identified and test coupons prepared. Locomotive system-related research addresses capturing, storing and utilizing regenerative braking energy in a hybrid locomotive, and fuel optimization control. Hybrid locomotive energy storage requirements have been identified and studies on specific energy storage solutions are in progress. Energy management controls have been defined and testing initiated. Train and track parameter identification necessary for fuel optimization has been demonstrated.

  17. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-09

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  18. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  19. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This publication is one in series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for those who plan to design and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This case study describes the Science and Technology Facility, a new laboratory at NREL that incorporated energy-efficient and sustainable design features including underfloor air distribution in offices, daylighting, and process cooling.

  20. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  1. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  2. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  3. The 21st Century Community College: Technology and the New Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.; Lobello, Sharon T., Ed.

    Resulting from a forum for community college leaders exploring the effects of technological change on education, this three-part monograph discusses the role of technology in community colleges and reviews strategies for responding to changes. The first part addresses the vision and leadership needed to bring the colleges into the next century and…

  4. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  5. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  6. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  7. A New Paradigm of Engineering Education for the 21st Century:Perspectives of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, Arthur; Stamper, Richard

    Strategic initiatives for engineering education in the next decade as planned by the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology are presented. The Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology is a private college in the United States that specializes in undergraduate engineering, mathematics and science education. The initiatives are in response to broad changes in the practice of the engineering profession in its modern global context. The initiatives comprise five strategic thrust areas and five programmatic themes. The thrust areas are: Energy and Environment; Health and Safety; Transportation; Materials; and Information, Computation, and Communication. The programmatic themes are: Excellence in Education; International Awareness; Business Awareness;Service Learning; and Life-long Learning. The objective of these initiatives is to prepare students to meet the challenges of the 21st century and to serve as leaders in society.

  8. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  9. A perspective on space exploration technology catalysis: A rationale for initiating 21st Century expansion of human civilization into outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale for human exploration of space is examined. Observations of the technocatalytic potential are presented. Transferability to the terrestrial environment of 21st Century Earth is discussed. The many threats to future survival of this planet's sensitive ecosystem are also discussed in relation to the technoecological harmony that might be achievable due to the extreme demands that are naturally imposed on the development of (civilian/human) space technology. The human attempt to inhabit the inner solar system (the Moon, Mars, etc.) is proposed as the ultimate and most appropriate technology driver for the myriad of socioeconomic, ecological, and technological needs that will accompany 21st Century Earth societies.

  10. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F; Abdussalam, M

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  11. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  12. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  13. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  14. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  15. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  16. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  17. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  18. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  19. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  20. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  1. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  2. The 21st Century American Student: An Attempted Sighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Morris T.

    1998-01-01

    Portrays 21st-century American students as being more diverse in ethnicity, age, culture, prior education, and proficiency in computer and technology use. Asserts that future learners will take the lead in managing their own learning, unlike the traditional college students of the 20th century. (VWC)

  3. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  4. Vaccines for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-06-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2-3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  5. A Profile of Early 21st Century Teachers of Northwest Ohio: The Relationship between Teachers' Technology Integration and Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathsack, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. Secretary of Education, Arne Duncan, encapsulated the national concern and immediate need for educational change in order to prepare our students for the 21st century by stating, "The urgency to improve our children's schools has never been greater." Therefore, in order to develop students with the skills and knowledge…

  6. Teaching Generation TechX with the 4Cs: Using Technology to Integrate 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    As we journey further into the 21st century, apprehensions emerge among business leaders in American markets. These concerns do not go unwarranted or unnoticed. Contemporary data portrays a despondent picture regarding new graduate preparedness for the global workforce. The findings reveal that employers feel the new entrants are deficient in the…

  7. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Geet, O.

    2010-04-01

    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  8. Your 21st Century Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how several institutions are turning to popular technologies to streamline and facilitate fundraising efforts. These popular solutions include social networking websites and other Web 2.0 tools, e-mail marketing products, and a new look at enterprise-level solutions. At Monmouth College, web professionals…

  9. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  10. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  11. A Nation of Opportunity: Building America's 21st Century Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Advances in information technology (IT) are reshaping the U.S. labor market. The demand for workers who can read and understand complex material, think analytically, and use technology efficiently will continue to increase. Congress established the 21st Century Workforce Commission to assess current and future demand for IT workers and the…

  12. Technology-Based Assessments for 21st Century Skills: Theoretical and Practical Implications from Modern Research. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayrath, Michael C., Ed.; Clarke-Midura, Jody, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.; Schraw, Gregory, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Creative problem solving, collaboration, and technology fluency are core skills requisite of any nation's workforce that strives to be competitive in the 21st Century. Teaching these types of skills is an economic imperative, and assessment is a fundamental component of any pedagogical program. Yet, measurement of these skills is complex due to…

  13. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  14. Research Center for Optical Physics: Education and Technology for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the past eleven years since its inception, RCOP has excelled in its two primary goals: 1) training of the scientists and engineers needed for the twenty-first century with special emphasis on underrepresented citizens and 2) research and technological development in areas of relevance to NASA. In the category of research training, as of May 2003, RCOP produced 36 Bachelors degrees, 25 Masters degrees, and 13 Doctoral degrees. Of these, all 36 Bachelors degrees, 16 of the Masters degrees and 9 of the Doctoral degrees were awarded to African Americans. Four of the Doctoral graduates and one of the Masters graduates are working at NASA Field Centers. RCOP has also provided research experiences to 130 undergraduate students and 22 high school students through a number of outreach programs held during the summer and the academic year. RCOP has also been crucial to the development of the Ph.D. program in physics at Hampton University by providing high quality research training and technical electives required for a Doctoral degree in physics. RCOP has also excelled in research and technological development. Since 1992, RCOP researchers have leveraged over 8 million dollars in additional research funding, published 152 papers in refereed journals and proceedings, and given 125 presentations at refereed international conferences in the United States and eight other countries. RCOP also developed numerous collaborations with other research centers, universities and industries. In recognition of this outstanding work, RCOP is the first research center in the United States invited to join the Joint Open Laboratory for Laser Crystals and Precise Laser Systems headed by Dr. Alexander Kaminiskii of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  15. Enhancing student engagement through the affordances of mobile technology: a 21st century learning perspective on Realistic Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Aibhín; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Several recent curriculum reforms aim to address the shortfalls traditionally associated with mathematics education through increased emphasis on higher-order-thinking and collaborative skills. Some stakeholders, such as the US National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the UK Joint Mathematical Council, advocate harnessing the affordances of digital technology in conjunction with social constructivist pedagogies, contextual scenarios, and/or approaches aligned with Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). However, it can be difficult to create technology-mediated, collaborative and contextual activities within a conventional classroom setting. This paper explores how a combination of a transformative, mobile technology-mediated approach, RME, and a particular model of 21st century learning facilitates the development of mathematics learning activities with the potential to increase student engagement and confidence. An explanatory case study with multiple embedded units and a pre-experimental design was conducted with a total of 54 students in 3 schools over 25 hours of class time. Results from student interviews, along with pre-test/post-test analysis of questionnaires, suggest that the approach has the potential to increase student engagement with, and confidence in, mathematics. This paper expands on these results, proposing connections between aspects of the activity design and their impact on student attitudes and behaviours.

  16. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. Parenting in the 21st Century: A Return to Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogan, Yolanda K. H.

    2004-01-01

    Parents are potentially the most influential individuals in children's lives. The 21st Century parent has to compete, however, with multiple sources of information, both human and nonhuman, (e.g. children's peers, non-familial adults, TV, technology gadgets, Internet) in shaping the minds, values, and beliefs of children. In the absence of a…

  19. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  20. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  1. Backers of "21st-Century Skills" Take Flak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "21st-century skills" is everywhere in education policy discussions these days, from faculty lounges to the highest echelons of the U.S. education system. Broadly speaking, it refers to a push for schools to teach critical-thinking, analytical, and technology skills, in addition to the "soft skills" of creativity, collaboration, and…

  2. The Symbiotic Relationship of Science and Technology in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, A. Emerson

    1999-01-01

    There are many examples in which science and technology complement each other. This is especially evident in biotechnology and genetic engineering. This symbiotic relationship is foundational to the technological culture of contemporary society. (SK)

  3. Validating the Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment Questionnaire for 21st Century Learning (TPSA C-21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring levels of technology proficiency in current and future classroom teachers are an important first step toward enhancing comfort level and confidence in integrating technology into the educational environment. The original Technology Proficiency Self-Assessment (TPSA) survey has maintained respectable psychometric properties for…

  4. Technology and Literacy: 21st Century Library Programming for Children and Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jennifer; Braafladt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Technology may not be a magic wand, but innovative technology programming can genuinely help children become adept at navigating our increasingly wired world while also helping them develop deductive reasoning, math, and other vital literacy skills. One of the simplest and most powerful tools for technology-based public library programming is…

  5. Scientific and Technological Education in Brazil: Advancements and Challenges for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Claudio; Reis, Norma Teresinha Oliveira; Bruzzi, Demerval Guillarducci

    There is a complexity of challenges related to scientific and technological education in Brazil, including literacy in basic concepts and principles by students; better pre- and in-service teacher training; sufficient supply of computers, internet and other technological resources to all Brazilian public schools; provision of teacher training on how to effectively use such tools; and promotion of public awareness of science and technology and their vital role socioeconomic development and sovereignty. Recognizing the importance of fostering usage of technologies in education and the urgency of promoting and encouraging synergic efforts in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies/programs/projects for science and technology in pre-college education, it was created in 2008, the Coordination of Educational Technologies, in the structure of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. This paper aims to: a) provide a general panorama of Brazilian education; b) discuss some current Brazilian efforts targeted to the advancement of scientific and technological education in pre-college education. As an illustration, we present the so-called “Guide of Educational Technologies,” a publication that allows educational managers to select resources that contribute to the enhancement of education in their school systems. This publication offers a wide range of educational technologies, such as in-service courses for teachers, web resources, software and programs targeted to several educational areas and demands.

  6. Digital Technology in the 21st Century: Considerations for Clinical Supervision in Rehabilitation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Andrew M.; Hartley, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovations are increasingly affecting the delivery of clinical supervision. Yet there is limited information on how supervisors can use digital technology to broaden settings in which students record client interviews, enhance evaluation of students' clinical performance, and increase accessibility for students with disabilities.…

  7. Using Assistive Technology in Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebisi, Rufus Olanrewaju; Liman, Nalado Abubakar; Longpoe, Patricia Kwalzoom

    2015-01-01

    This paper was written to expose the meaning, benefits, and answer why the use of assistive technology for children with learning disabilities. The paper discussed the various types of assistive technology devices that were designed and used to solve written language, reading, listening, memory and mathematic problems of children with learning…

  8. The Future: Science & Technology Enter the 21st Century. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezkovich, Jan, Comp.

    Innovations in communications, space, medicine, and other technologies are sure to have an impact on the world of tomorrow and the way we view that world. This guide to the literature on future technology is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set of resources that can be used to focus on…

  9. Guidelines and Standards for the Technology Infrastructure of 21st Century Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    New York State Regents directed that new guidelines and "standards" be developed for technology infrastructures in educational facilities in order to assist administrators and educators in planning technology integration during retrofits, renovations, or new construction of educational facilities. This document provides the first draft…

  10. Expanding Horizons for Students with Dyslexia in the 21st Century: Universal Design and Mobile Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin; Strnadova, Iva; Cumming, Therese

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of mobile technology in supporting people with dyslexia within the theoretical framework of Universal Design for Learning. The authors discuss how students with dyslexia can use mobile technology to address a diverse range of academic needs (such as reading, composing text, notetaking, metacognition and studying…

  11. Biotechnology Career Education: Educational Technology Imperative for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Daniel R.

    1992-01-01

    Biotechnology, the study and application of engineering and science to improve the quality of life, can be an integral part of technology education. Numerous project ideas exist to expose students to the career possibilities of this field. (SK)

  12. Workshop Proceedings: Optical Systems Technology for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayon, Juan A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A technology development program, Astrotech 21, is being proposed by NASA to enable the launching of the next generation of space astrophysical observatories during the years 1995-2015. Astrotech 21 is being planned and will ultimately be implemented jointly by the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications and the Space Directorate of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. A summary of the Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop is presented. The goal of the workshop was to identify areas of development within advanced optical systems that require technology advances in order to meet the science goals of the Astrotech 21 mission set, and to recommend a coherent development program to achieve the required capabilities.

  13. iPads: Intuitive Technology for 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rationale for using iPad technology with young students. Various inexpensive apps are described that parents and educators will find useful. (Contains 9 figures.)

  14. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...technologies, enable us to simultaneously examine effects at the cell and tissue level, while improving the efficiency, economy, and reliability of the...disrupt normal biological activity (their modes of action). The result is potentially more cost- effective , timely, and informative assessments, as

  15. Key Technologies for the Development of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2002-11-22

    As the world faces growing economic and environmental challenges, the energy mix that fuels the global economy is undergoing rapid change. Yet how this change will evolve in the future is uncertain. What will be the sources of primary energy in twenty years? In fifty years? In different regions of the globe? How will this energy be utilized? Fossil energy currently supplies about ninety percent of the world's primary energy. In Japan this number is closer to eighty percent. It is clear that fossil energy will be a major supplier of global energy for some time to come, but what is not clear is the types of fossil energy and how it will be utilized. The degree to which the abundant supplies of fossil energy, especially coal, will continue to play a major role will depend on whether technology will provide safe, clean and affordable fuel for electricity and transportation. Technology will not only assist in finding more fossil energy in varying regions of the globe but, most importantly, will play a strong role in efficient utilization and in determining the cost of delivering that energy. Several important questions will have to be answered: (1) Will cost effective technologies be found to burn coal more cleanly? Can this be done with drastically reduced or no emitted carbon? (2) Can enough oil be found outside the Middle East to ensure more adequate and secure supplies to fuel the transportation and industrial needs? (3) Will the transportation sector, so heavily dependent on oil, be fueled on another source? (4) Can enough natural gas be assured from enough secure places to ensure investment in the utilization of this lowest-carbon fossil fuel? (5) What will these options cost in research and in the price of energy? The answers to these and other questions challenge leaders and researchers in the fossil energy industry. A World Energy Council (WEC) study of those technologies that might be key sheds some light on what might happen in terms of a wide range of

  16. Competence Visualisation: Making Sense of Data from 21st-Century Technologies in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Susan; Wasson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an open learner model approach to learning analytics to combine the variety of data available from the range of applications and technologies in language learning, for visualisation of language learning competences to learners and teachers in the European language context. Specific examples are provided as illustrations…

  17. Education Technology Policy for a 21st Century Learning System. Policy Brief 13-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Internet-related technology has the capacity to change the learning production system in three important ways. First, it creates the capacity to move from the existing batch processing system of teaching and learning to a much more individualized learning system capable of matching instructional style and pace to a student's needs. Second,…

  18. Influence of Technology on the Leadership of 21st-Century Career and Technical Education Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Linda Maria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how the technology beliefs of New York State Career and Technical Education Board of Cooperative Education Services administrators influenced their leadership behaviors. The participants were from a purposive selection from five suburban and rural Boards of Cooperative Education Services in…

  19. Technology-Based Biliteracy Centers for the 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercuri, Sandra; Ramos, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this reflective article is to present an alternative that incorporates the four language skills in all content areas through technology-based dual-language centers for emergent bilinguals at the elementary level. The authors propose a matrix to plan the centers and include three examples to facilitate language transfer in English…

  20. Information Technology: Unlocking the Door to Differentiation in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburg, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    Maria, Sergio, and Steven, whose stories are described in this article, are gifted students whose needs were served through technology. Tapping into the Internet, these students, as well as other learners with varying needs, can be provided with appropriately challenging work that allows them to develop and make unique contributions to the class.…

  1. Intelligent Information and Communications Technology for Education and Training in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Velle, Linda; Nichol, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) focuses on the impact on existing educational policy; the role of electronically distributed educators and learners; and the relationship between knowledge representation as mediated by ICT and the educational environment, including cultural context and virtual learning…

  2. Programmatic Knowledge Management: Technology, Literacy, and Access in 21st-Century Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Eric James

    2015-01-01

    Growing out of research in Technical Communication, Composition Studies, and Writing Program Administration, the articles in this dissertation explicitly seek to address changes in the practices and products of writing and writing studies wrought by the so-called "digital revolution" in communication technology, which has been ongoing in…

  3. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  4. Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and ‘Cyborg’ body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery – the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

  5. Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap: Meeting 21st Century Residential Energy Needs

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-01

    On June 11-12, 2003, at Greenbelt, Maryland, key stakeholders from industry, government agencies, universities, and others involved in combined heat and power and the residential buildings industry explores solutions to technical, institutional, and market barriers facing micro-combined heat and power systems (mCHP). Participants outlined a desired future for mCHP systems, identified specific interim technology cost and performance targets, and developed actions to achieve the interim targets and vision. This document, The Micro-CHP Technologies Roadmap, is a result of their deliberations. It outlines a set of actions that can be pursued by both the government and industry to develop mCHP appliances for creating a new approach for households to meet their energy needs.

  6. Precision agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and information technologies in crop management

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Agricultural managers have for decades taken advantage of new technologies, including information technologies, that enabled better management decision making and improved economic efficiency of operations. The extent and rate of change now occurring in the development of information technologies have opened the way for significant change in crop production management and agricultural decision making. This vision is reflected in the concept of precision agriculture. Precision agriculture is a phrase that captures the imagination of many concerned with the production of food, feed, and fiber. The concepts embodied in precision agriculture offer the promise of increasing productivity while decreasing production costs and minimizing environmental impacts. Precision agriculture conjures up images of farmers overcoming the elements with computerized machinery that is precisely controlled via satellites and local sensors and using planning software that accurately predicts crop development. This image has been called the future of agriculture. Such high-tech images are engaging. Precision agriculture, however, is in early and rapidly changing phases of innovation. Techniques and practices not anticipated by the committee will likely become common in the future, and some techniques and practices thought to hold high promise today may turn out to be less desirable than anticipated. This report defines precision agriculture as a management strategy that uses information technologies to bring data from multiple sources to bear on decisions associated with crop production. Precision agriculture has three components: capture of data at an appropriate scale and frequency, interpretation and analysis of that data, and implementation of a management response at an appropriate scale and time. The most significant impact of precision agriculture is likely to be on how management decisions address spatial and temporal variability in crop production systems.

  7. Defence Technology Strategy for the Demands of the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    B2.71 Simulation is increasingly used in training. Consumer demand in the civil computer gaming industry has driven massive advance in hardware and...computing is a concept that proposes using quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform massively parallel calculations...MIDAS Military Integrated Defensive Aid System 184 Defence Technology Strategy MIMO Multiple-Input Multiple-Output MIS Maritime Industrial Strategy

  8. Novel Methods and Technologies for 21st-Century Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray; Venuto, Charles; Venkataraman, Vinayak; Harris, Denzil A.; Kieburtz, Karl

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE New technologies are rapidly reshaping health care. However, their effect on drug development to date generally has been limited. OBJECTIVES To evaluate disease modeling and simulation, alternative study design, novel objective measures, virtual research visits, and enhanced participant engagement and to examine their potential effects as methods and tools on clinical trials. EVIDENCE REVIEW We conducted a systematic search of relevant terms on PubMed (disease modeling and clinical trials; adaptive design, clinical trials, and neurology; Internet, clinical trials, and neurology; and telemedicine, clinical trials, and neurology), references of previous publications, and our files. The search encompassed articles published from January 1, 2000, through November 30, 2014, and produced 7976 articles, of which 22 were determined to be relevant and are included in this review. FINDINGS Few of these new methods and technologies have been applied to neurology clinical trials. Clinical outcomes, including cognitive and stroke outcomes, increasingly are captured remotely. Other therapeutic areas have successfully implemented many of these tools and technologies, including web-enabled clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Increased use of new tools and approaches in future clinical trials can enhance the design, improve the assessment, and engage participants in the evaluation of novel therapies for neurologic disorders. PMID:25730665

  9. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  10. Studying marriage and family therapists in the 21st century: methodological and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Northey, William F

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I present data from two waves of research on demographic characteristics and practice patterns of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) conducted in 2000 and 2002. The research focuses on the methodological and technological issues in studying this population. Specifically, an online survey with MFTs obtained lower response rates and was therefore more expensive relative to phone and mail methods. Questions about evidence-based therapies (EBTs) were asked two different ways with significantly different results based on how the questions were phrased. A discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of using different survey methodologies and consideration of issues pertinent to studying EBTs are included.

  11. In Vitro Cerebrovascular Modeling in the 21st Century: Current and Prospective Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Palmiotti, Christopher A.; Prasad, Shikha; Naik, Pooja; Abul, Kaisar MD; Sajja, Ravi K.; Achyuta, Anilkumar H.; Cucullo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains the brain homeostasis and dynamically responds to events associated with systemic and/or rheological impairments (e.g., inflammation, ischemia) including the exposure to harmful xenobiotics. Thus, understanding the BBB physiology is crucial for the resolution of major central nervous system CNS) disorders challenging both health care providers and the pharmaceutical industry. These challenges include drug delivery to the brain, neurological disorders, toxicological studies, and biodefense. Studies aimed at advancing our understanding of CNS diseases and promoting the development of more effective therapeutics are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, there are major hindering factors inherent to in vivo studies such as cost, limited throughput and translational significance to humans. These factors promoted the development of alternative in vitro strategies for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of the BBB in relation to brain disorders as well as screening tools to aid in the development of novel CNS drugs. Herein, we provide a detailed review including pros and cons of current and prospective technologies for modelling the BBB in vitro including ex situ, cell based and computational (in silico) models. A special section is dedicated to microfluidic systems including micro-BBB, BBB-on-a-chip, Neurovascular Unit-on-a-Chip and Synthetic Microvasculature Blood-Brain Barrier. PMID:25098812

  12. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research.

  13. [Building bridges toward the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M

    2000-10-01

    Just as Rome was not built in a day, there are few great inventions and discoveries that can be made overnight. There are always historical circumstances behind them. Laboratory Automation is not an exception. With the end of World War II in 1945 as a turning point, a large volume of American medicine was introduced all over Japan, and clinical laboratory testing which was imported at the same time has taken root and matured. As a result, we can now carry out prompt and fully automated laboratory testing second to none at many hospital laboratories. In this paper, I recall the development and summarize the expansion by focusing on clinical laboratory automation as it has developed in the latter half of the 20th century in Japan. I would feel amply rewarded for my efforts if this paper proved helpful to the young generation. The clinical laboratory of the 21st century rests on their shoulders.

  14. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  15. Fundamental wheat stripe rust research in the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Schwessinger, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1625 I. 1625 II. 1626 III. 1626 IV. 1626 V. 1628 VI. 1629 VII. 1629 1630 References 1630 SUMMARY: In the 21(st) century, the wheat stripe rust fungus has evolved to be the largest biotic limitation to global wheat production. New pathogen genotypes are more aggressive and able to infect previously resistant wheat varieties, leading to rapid pathogen migration across and between continents. We now know the full life cycle, microevolutionary relationships and past migration routes on a global scale. Current sequencing technologies have provided the first fungal draft genomes and simplified plant resistance gene cloning. Yet, we know nothing about the molecular and microevolutionary mechanisms that facilitate the infection process and cause new devastating pathogen races. These are the questions that need to be addressed by exploiting the synergies between novel 21(st) century biology tools and decades of dedicated pathology work.

  16. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  17. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  18. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  19. Progress Toward Meeting the Propulsion Technology Challenges for a 21st Century High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Koops, Leigh; Hines, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Ongoing NASA-funded and privately funded studies continue to indicate that an opportunity exists for a second generation supersonic commercial airliner, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), to become a key part of the 21st century international air transportation system. Long distance air travel is projected to increase at about 5 percent per annum over the next two decades. This projection suggests that by the year 2015, more than 600,000 passengers per day will be traveling long distances, predominantly over water. These routes would be among the most desirable for an HSCT as part of the international air transportation system. Beyond the year 2000, this portion of the air transportation market is projected to be the fastest growing segment.

  20. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  1. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  2. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  3. 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment 4 waveforms it radiates , techniques, or timing, within hours as what works and what does not work is...21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment JULY 2015 This page intentionally blank REPORT OF...THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD STUDY ON 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment July 2015 Office of the

  4. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  5. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  6. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  7. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Douglas Kinghorn, A

    2001-02-01

    The term pharmacognosy as a constituent scientific discipline of pharmacy has been in use for nearly 200 years, and it refers to studies on natural product drugs. During the last half of the 20th century, pharmacognosy evolved from being a descriptive botanical subject to one having a more chemical and biological focus. At the beginning of the 21st century, pharmacognosy teaching in academic pharmacy institutions has been given new relevance, as a result of the explosive growth in the use of herbal remedies (phytomedicines) in modern pharmacy practice, particularly in western Europe and North America. In turn, pharmacognosy research areas are continuing to expand, and now include aspects of cell and molecular biology in relation to natural products, ethnobotany and phytotherapy, in addition to the more traditional analytical method development and phytochemistry. Examples are provided in this review of promising bioactive compounds obtained in two multidisciplinary natural product drug discovery projects, aimed at the elucidation of new plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents and novel cancer chemopreventives, respectively. The systematic study of herbal remedies offers pharmacognosy groups an attractive new area of research, ranging from investigating the biologically active principles of phytomedicines and their mode of action and potential drug interactions, to quality control, and involvement in clinical trials.

  8. Hospital cleaning in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2011-12-01

    More evidence is emerging on the importance of the clinical environment in encouraging hospital infection. This review considers the role of cleaning as an effective means to control infection. It describes the location of pathogen reservoirs and methods for evaluating hospitals' cleanliness. Novel biocides, antimicrobial coatings and equipment are available, many of which have not been assessed against patient outcome. Cleaning practices should be tailored to clinical risk, given the wide-ranging surfaces, equipment and building design. There is confusion between nursing and domestic personnel over the allocation of cleaning responsibilities and neither may receive sufficient training and/or time to complete their duties. Since less labourious practices for dirt removal are always attractive, there is a danger that traditional cleaning methods are forgotten or ignored. Few studies have examined detergent-based regimens or modelled these against infection risk for different patient categories. Fear of infection encourages the use of powerful disinfectants for the elimination of real or imagined pathogens in hospitals. Not only do these agents offer false assurance against contamination, their disinfection potential cannot be achieved without the prior removal of organic soil. Detergent-based cleaning is cheaper than using disinfectants and much less toxic. Hospital cleaning in the 21st century deserves further investigation for routine and outbreak practices.

  9. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    PubMed

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  10. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  11. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  12. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  13. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  14. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  15. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  16. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  17. Armored Battle Groups in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL WENDELL D. KOT )STIRUMtN STATE9M A: Approved fer public releft. distribution is izulatated...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (’ Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY i Individual Study Project 6...alternative to today’s heavy division force structure - Armored Battle Groups is examined. The Armored Battle Group organization devel- oped in the paper

  18. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  19. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  20. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  1. Missing the Boat with Technology Usage in Early Childhood Settings: A 21st Century View of Developmentally Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Blum, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Technology use permeates virtually all aspects of twenty-first century society, though its integration in early childhood settings and recognition as a developmentally appropriate practice remains problematic. A position is taken that education professionals may be "missing the boat" by not embracing technology usage as a developmentally…

  2. Digital pathology: a tool for 21st century neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Miguel; Judkins, Alexander R

    2009-04-01

    Digital pathology represents an electronic environment for performing pathologic analysis and managing the information associated with this activity. The technology to create and support digital pathology has largely developed over the last decade. The use of digital pathology tools is essential to adapt and lead in the rapidly changing environment of 21st century neuropathology. The utility of digital pathology has already been demonstrated by pathologists in several areas including consensus reviews, quality assurance (Q/A), tissue microarrays (TMAs), education and proficiency testing. These utilities notwithstanding, interface issues, storage and image formatting all present challenges to the integration of digital pathology into the neuropathology work environment. With continued technologic improvements, as well as the introduction of fluorescent side scanning and multispectral detection, future developments in digital pathology offer the promise of adding powerful analytic tools to the pathology work environment. The integration of digital pathology with biorepositories offers particular promise for neuropathologists engaged in tissue banking. The utilization of these tools will be essential for neuropathologists to continue as leaders in diagnostics, translational research and basic science in the 21st century.

  3. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  4. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  5. Transforming epidemiology for 21st century medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P A; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Croyle, Robert T; Goddard, Katrina A; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Kramer, Barnet S; Lauer, Michael S; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  6. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  7. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  8. Biomedical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Russell, John H; Stahl, Philip D; Stephenson, Jason; Whelan, Alison

    2004-01-01

    The extraordinary discoveries of 20th century medicine and technology have created a scientific renaissance. This explosion of new knowledge and the tantalizing potential it holds for altering the course of human health and disease will change the practice of medicine and require the education of a new generation of translational/clinical scientists and physician-scientists as well as an accelerated evolution of the teaching paradigms for the training of physicians.

  9. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  10. Quo vadimus? The 21st Century and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Allan D.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is related of computer driven multimedia to the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP). Multimedia is defined here as computer integration and output of text, animation, audio, video, and graphics. Multimedia is the stage of computer based information that allows access to experience. The concepts are also drawn in of hypermedia, intermedia, interactive multimedia, hypertext, imaging, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Examples of these technology developments are given for NASA, private industry, and academia. Examples of concurrent technology developments and implementations are given to show how these technologies, along with multimedia, have put us at the threshold of the 21st century. The STI Program sees multimedia as an opportunity for revolutionizing the way STI is managed.

  11. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered. 8 refs.

  12. [Prolegomenon of the Czech pharmacognosy: 21st century].

    PubMed

    Opletal, Lubomír

    2013-04-01

    The paper analyzes the basic features of the development of pharmacognosy as the oldest profile subject of pharmacy primarily in Europe during the 20th century. Historical consequences of its development are declared, which should create the basis for its embedment, new content and tasks in Czech pharmacy of the 21st century, especially in education at Czech universities.

  13. Science Notebooks for the 21st Century. Going Digital Provides Opportunities to Learn "with" Technology Rather than "from" Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lori; Paek, Seungoh; Taoka, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Students of today are digital natives who for the most part come to school with experiences that may surpass those of their teachers. They use tablet computers and other devices in their personal lives and are eager to use them in the classroom. For teachers, this means they must integrate technology in ways that allow their students to learn with…

  14. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  15. Distributed collaborative environments for 21st century modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuay, William K.

    2001-09-01

    Distributed collaboration is an emerging technology that will significantly change how modeling and simulation is employed in 21st century organizations. Modeling and simulation (M&S) is already an integral part of how many organizations conduct business and, in the future, will continue to spread throughout government and industry enterprises and across many domains from research and development to logistics to training to operations. This paper reviews research that is focusing on the open standards agent-based framework, product and process modeling, structural architecture, and the integration technologies - the glue to integrate the software components. A distributed collaborative environment is the underlying infrastructure that makes communication between diverse simulations and other assets possible and manages the overall flow of a simulation based experiment. The AFRL Collaborative Environment concept will foster a major cultural change in how the acquisition, training, and operational communities employ M&S.

  16. The Challenge To Be Relevant in the 21st Century: Abstracts and Full Text Documents of Papers and Demos Given at the [International Association of Technological University Libraries] IATUL Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, June 1-5, 1998), Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Technological Univ. Libraries, Gothenburg (Sweden).

    This proceedings of the 1998 conference of the International Association of Technological University Libraries (IATUL) contains the full text of the following papers: "A Library Ready for 21st Century Services: The Case of the University of Science and Technology (UST) Library, Kumasi, Ghana" (Helena Rebecca Asamoah-Hassan);…

  17. Assessing the Assistive Technology Act of 1998. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (March 21, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness concerning the implementation of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and the future role of the federal government in this area. Highlights of the testimony include state assistive technology projects, provision of low-interest loans…

  18. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Burke, Thomas A; Jones, James J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the "Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments" workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered.

  19. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  20. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  1. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation, and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will. summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  2. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Martin, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA MSFC's Space Propulsion Branch, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  3. Training Ranges in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    warfighting tactical principles established during the early 19th Century. In making training as real as possible, in the spirit of “Train As We Fight...few use restrictions. Early on, installations were established in rural areas, but, during the last century, the population exploded, and some...CMTC), Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ), Germany; and the Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana. o MCTCs focus on brigade task force

  4. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under…

  5. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  6. Geography: The "Essential" Skill for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2008-01-01

    As people head further into the 21st Century, they are living in a constantly changing and interdependent world. As such, students need a global awareness that includes familiarity with different cultures, beliefs, and lifestyles in order to understand and address global issues. Geography can help students understand these issues. In this article,…

  7. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  8. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions…

  9. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  10. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  11. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  12. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  13. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help…

  14. Army Recruiting Challenges in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    on top of the normal daily challenges recruiters routinely face, it is time to revisit Army recruiting and make it more relevant in the 21st Century...prescription medication and other behavior altering drugs, such as Ritalin , makes Generation Yers the most medicated generation in history

  15. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  16. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  17. The Role of Educators in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Lynn; Bayer, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    This brief article reports on selective presentations from the January, 2004, conference, "Poverty, Partnerships and Peace: The Role of Educators in the 21st Century," sponsored by the Committee on Teaching about the United Nations. Topics covered include the importance of teaching girls in Afghanistan and the connection between poverty…

  18. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  19. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  20. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  1. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their…

  2. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  3. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  4. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  5. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The new "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner IN ACTION", presented like a colorful flowchart, was previewed without fanfare at the annual Midwinter meeting of the American Library Association in Denver, Colorado, in January (American Library Association 2009). This new publication does a good job in further defining the student…

  6. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  7. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  8. Special Focus: Preparing Students for the 21st Century Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadourakis, Giorgos M.

    2016-01-01

    The Special Focus in this issue of "Industry and Higher Education" comprises three papers that address practical approaches to the critical challenge of preparing students adequately for employment and career development in the 21st century workplace. The papers, refereed, extended and revised for publication in the journal originate…

  9. A Parent's Guide to 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Step-by-step, schools from the elementary through high school levels are making the transition to 21st-century learning. Some have crossed the threshold almost entirely. In today's progressive classrooms, yesterday's rows of quiet listeners have given way to small groups of active learners, thoroughly engaged in discussions and explorations. And…

  10. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  11. Curriculum Development: Producing "Geographers" for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, W. Brian; Saunders, Angharad; Lewis, Robin A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Sutton, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    We take a fresh look at geography curricula and their appropriateness to the demands of the 21st century. We reflect on the purpose, content and relevance of undergraduate geography curricula in an age of "supercomplexity". Geography curricula, by their nature, are varied and multiple, with different countries often privileging different…

  12. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  13. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  14. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  15. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  16. Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Maniotes, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    How can students learn to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and become lifelong learners in a rapidly changing information environment? How can students learn, create, and find meaning from multiple sources of information? These are fundamental questions facing educators in designing schools for 21st-century learners.…

  17. Defining Postsecondary Degrees in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kenneth I.; Guffey, James; Oliverio, Ponzio

    2016-01-01

    The competition for jobs in the 21st century is increasingly being driven by defining postsecondary learning in light of new and complex environments. To succeed, students must be prepared with knowledge to compete in these environments. Historically, higher education has defined these requirements in their own terms, often through learning…

  18. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  19. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  20. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  1. Turning up the H.E.A.T. on Student Learning: Assessing 21st Century Skills in Classrooms Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moersch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Best practices involving 21st Century Skills have been analyzed and debated in "Educational Technology" and in other publications; yet, the fidelity of implementation in the overwhelming majority of school systems nationwide has been fragmented at best. This article proposes strategies for assessing 21st Century Skills or H.E.A.T. (Higher-order…

  2. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  3. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  4. Business Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    Each year, the Policies Commission for Business and Economic Education develops statements regarding business education. The following are among the commission's guidelines regarding planning the business education curriculum for the new century: (1) making business education an integral and equal partner within schools' educational communities…

  5. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  6. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  7. Creating 21st Century Classrooms: What District Level Instructional Leaders Know about Leading 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Jeff Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Common Core standards and 21st century instruction are topics at the forefront of current educational literature (Greenstein, 2012; Long, 2012; Sheninger & Larkin, 2012; Wilson, 2006). Though Common Core standards may provide a foundation for the literacy and numeracy that has been identified in preparation for college and career, even Common…

  8. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  9. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  10. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  11. Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a scenario for family life in the year 2001. This highly technological vision of the future includes expanded telecommunication networks, sophisticated information processing systems, new industrial and farming methods, transportation, and medical advances. (AM)

  12. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  13. How a Small District Is Moving Into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severino, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Reviews an educational system's technological approach to preparing staff and students for the 21st century. Explains student programs that incorporate technological advances as computer-assisted and computer-managed instruction and materials and electronic blackboards. A masters degree program for teachers in educational technology is also…

  14. 21st Century Recruiting: Automated, Digital, Electronic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which technology is changing staffing office practices. Discusses features of the worldwide web, some of the potential problems in establishing a web site, and the importance of carefully planning a web site. Looks at digital resume warehouses and the increased power such warehouses offers recruiters. (RJM)

  15. Pharmacy Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Pharmaceutical education of the future should focus on (1) liberal education to give pharmacists versatility in the face of advancing technology and research; (2) problem-solving skills in the profession; (3) mental disease and wellness as major health care issues; (4) maintenance of competent teaching and research faculty. (MSE)

  16. 21st Century Steam for Asteroid Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D S

    2004-03-10

    The systematic requirements to divert an object on an earth-impacting course are developed relating the minimum velocity perturbation (both magnitude and direction) to the time available before impact. This, coupled with the accuracy to which orbits can be determined, restricts the time available for any mitigation technology to operate. Because nuclear energy densities are nearly a million times higher than those possible with chemical bonds, it is the most mass efficient means for storing delivering energy with today's technology. The question is how to most effectively apply that energy. This paper will examine the simple case of shattering the body, as well as a more controlled approach in which one or more small velocity increments divert a body. The optimal approach depends on the detailed circumstances, but in either case, already developed technology permits a successful diversion with a few years to decades of notice. The success of nuclear options on relatively short timescales permits consideration of other technologies that while not so well developed might be sufficiently improved to divert small (100 meter) bodies.

  17. Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Rapid technological development, the information era, and demographic shifts are three current trends that will influence the educational programs of the future. Schools will need to help students develop skills of reading, writing, and computing and to help students assume responsibility for their own learning throughout their lives. (MLF)

  18. Inquiry and 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last eight years, the primary focus in schools has been on passing standardized tests based on a core curriculum. The emphasis on learning content is in direct contrast to the world outside the school walls where the technological capability to provide access to content, i.e., information at lightning speed, already exists. In fact,…

  19. Redefining Literacy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry

    Each of the four distinct ideological positions concerning the literacy problem is deficient. "Technological utopianism," the position arguing that traditional literacy standards are obsolete in the world of mass media, not only presents major conceptual and research difficulties but also suffers from the fact that its proponents, most…

  20. STEM: The 21st Century Sputnik

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The author of this article argues that, just as Americans were shocked into action, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, by strengthening STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) in the educational curriculum, Americans must be shocked again. The nation must address the failure of its leaders to provide adequate funding…

  1. The LSAT for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Shirley S.

    1984-01-01

    Legal education is in a mid-life crisis, with prosperity in the past, doubt in the present, and problems ahead: economic hard times, a declining student pool, dissatisfaction with traditional legal education, and economic and technological changes in the practice. It is time to reconsider what lies ahead in admissions. (MSE)

  2. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    PubMed Central

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  3. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  4. Intensity Interferometry for the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, E. P.; van Belle, G.; Genet, R. M.; Holenstein, B. D.

    Advances in detector technology and electronic timing capabilities in recent years have resulted in a new opportunity for ultra-high resolution in astronomy using intensity interferometry. We have been working with this technology and describe here the potential as we see it. Two separate opportunities exist at present: the use of Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) detectors with existing research-grade telescopes and photomultipliers coupled with light bucket telescopes. In the future, there may also be potential for space-based intensity interferometry. While intensity interferometry is not likely to replace amplitude-based interferometry, it does have certain advantages in terms of portability, use of large baselines, narrow-band imaging, and imaging in the blue. We see a new possibility for its use particularly in stellar astrophysics for these reasons.

  5. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  6. Astrobiology for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C.

    2008-02-01

    We live in a scientific world. Science is all around us. We take scientific principles for granted every time we use a piece of technological apparatus, such as a car, a computer, or a cellphone. In today's world, citizens frequently have to make decisions that require them to have some basic scientific knowledge. To be a contributing citizen in a modern democracy, a person needs to understand the general principles of science.

  7. [NASA] in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the NASA programs in support of Aeronautical and Space research. This research involves imagining the future of air travel. There are three major Aeronautics technology programs: (1) Fundamental Aeronautics, (2) Aviation Safety and (3) Airspace Systems. The aim of exploring the depths of the universe through earth based and space based assets. Other Space programs include the plans for exploration of the moon and Mars.

  8. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  9. Digital stereoscopic cinema: the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2008-02-01

    Over 1000 theaters in more than a dozen countries have been outfitted with digital projectors using the Texas Instruments DLP engine equipped to show field-sequential 3-D movies using the polarized method of image selection. Shuttering eyewear and advanced anaglyph products are also being deployed for image selection. Many studios are in production with stereoscopic films, and some have committed to producing their entire output of animated features in 3-D. This is a time of technology change for the motion picture industry.

  10. Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century. A Report from the Regional Colloquium on Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, February 11-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Kevin C., Ed.

    This colloquium was held with the purposes of promoting cooperation and collaboration among engineering education institutions in the Mekong subregion and establishing the linkage with engineering institutions in France; to promote university-industry collaboration in the field of engineering and technology education; to establish a network of…

  11. 21st century workflow: A proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is rapidly developing, but early systems have been slow to gain traction outside of niche applications such as: Second-opinion telepathology, immunostain interpretation, and intraoperative telepathology. Pathologists have not yet developed a well-articulated plan for effectively utilizing digital imaging technology in their work. This paper outlines a proposal that is intended to begin meaningful progress toward achieving helpful computer-assisted pathology sign-out systems, such as pathologists’ computer-assisted diagnosis (pCAD). pCAD is presented as a hypothetical intelligent computer system that would integrate advanced image analysis and better utilization of existing digital pathology data from lab information systems. A detailed example of automated digital pathology is presented, as an automated breast cancer lymph node sign-out. This proposal provides stakeholders with a conceptual framework that can be used to facilitate development work, communication, and identification of new automation strategies. PMID:25535592

  12. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  13. National Educational Technology Trends: 2011. Transforming Education to Ensure All Students Are Successful in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel; Fox, Christine; Levin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA)--the principal association representing the technology leadership in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs--presents its eighth annual report on select, national, educational technology activities. This…

  14. Earthworm in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, Paul; Lisowski, Stefan; Dricker, Ilya; Hellman, Sidney

    2010-05-01

    Earthworm (Johnson et al., 1995) is a fully open-source earthquake data acquisition and processing package that is in widespread use through out the world. Earthworm includes basic seismic data acquistion for the majority of the dataloggers currently available and provides network transport mechanisms and common formats as output for data transferral. In addition, it comes with network seismology tools to compute network detections, perform automated arrival picking, and automated hypocentral and magnitude estimations. More importantly it is an open and free framework in the C-programming language that can be used to create new modules that process waveform and earthquake data in near real time. The number of Earthworm installations is growing annually as are the number of contributions to the system. Furthermore its growth into other areas of waveform data acquistion (namely Geomagnetic observatories and Infrasound arrays) show its adaptability to other waveform technologies and processing strategies. In this presentation we discuss the coming challenges to growing Earthworm and new developments in its use; namely the open source add-ons that have become interfaces to Earthworm's core. These add-ons include GlowWorm, MagWorm, Hydra, SWARM, Winston, EarlyBird, Iworm, and most importantly, AQMS (formerly known as CHEETAH). The AQMS, ANSS Quake Monitoring System, is the Earthworm system created in California which has now been installed in the majority of Regional Seismic Networks (RSNs) in the United States. AQMS allows additional real-time and post-processing of Earthworm generated data to be stored and manipulated in a database using numerous database oriented tools. The use of a relational database for persistence provides users with the ability to implement configuration control and research capabilities not available in earlier Earthworm add-ons. By centralizing on AQMS, the RSNs will be able to leverage new developments by easily sharing Earthworm and AQMS

  15. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  16. 76 FR 62869 - Request for Information: Building A 21st Century Bioeconomy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Information: Building A 21st Century Bioeconomy ACTION: Notice of Request for... challenges in health, food, energy, and the environment while creating high-wage, high-skill jobs. The public input provided through this Notice will inform the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) as...

  17. Investigating the Key Attributes to Enhance Students' Learning Experience in 21st Century Class Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Fui-Theng; Neo, Mai; Hew, Soon Hin

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century marks the beginning of digital age with the extensive use of digital media, mobile devices, and Internet resources. Recent studies found that this digital era has expanded the landscape of student experiences, and educational technologies as well as increased the educator's awareness on embracing technologies to promote effective…

  18. The Library Profession in the 21st Century: Transformation for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Mary L.

    The approaching information age will encompass a different societal system in the 21st century due to the impact of the information revolution resulting from developments in computer and communications technology. In light of these changes, libraries need to evolve with the new technology by preparing now to become part of the electronic…

  19. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  20. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner: Comparisons with NETS and State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) have both recently launched new standards. These are known as the "AASL Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "The National Educational Technology Standards for Students: The Next Generation" (NETS). The standards from each…

  1. Distance Learning in the 21st Century University: Key Issues for Leaders and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2012-01-01

    The changes precipitated by today's computer-based technologies are perhaps no more keenly felt than in the field of education, where technological innovation signals fundamental transformations in the manner in which educational programs will be delivered to 21st century students. Online learning is providing higher education institutions with an…

  2. Developing Strategic Leaders for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    globally. Clearly the attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent conflicts in both Iraq and Afghanistan changed forever how Americans think...11), were a watershed in American history. The scope and focus of American national security policy changed forever in a few hours. America fought...economic, as well as military. These events of the first decade of the 21st century have changed how Americans must think about viii “national

  3. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  4. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  5. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  6. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-03-18

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  7. The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    transition were managed more effectively, and an overall science and technology strategy tied to direct control of resources was the norm. An ideal approach...recommends stronger involvement from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in providing direction for long-term science and technology initiatives. Such...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1999 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer

  8. 77 FR 47432 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation...

  9. 78 FR 4860 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps...

  10. 77 FR 22798 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES.... App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold...

  11. 77 FR 14561 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  12. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  13. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  14. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  15. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  16. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  17. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  18. Family planning in the 21st century: perspective of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, I

    1997-07-01

    Many women still die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth and yet there are an increasing number of women who wish to regulate their fertility and space or limit their child-bearing. This paper, outlining some success stories, elucidates the family planning challenges and identifies key messages to indicate the role that IPPF can play in the 21st century. Issues such as advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights, increased male participation, serving the interests of marginalized groups, appropriate technology, quality of care and cooperation between various partners, all need to be addressed to improve sexual and reproductive health including family planning in the 21st century.

  19. Work Addiction and 21st Century Information Technologies in Traditional and Virtual Work Spaces in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed to understand whether or not work addiction or work addiction intensity could be predicted from mobile technology use. The study further investigated whether or not gender, workspace, income, or education level would moderate the relationship. The sample used was drawn from service industry employees who are not in the…

  20. First-Year College Students' Attitudes toward Communication Technologies and Their Perceptions of Communication Competence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Sherwyn; Staley, Constance; Stavrositu, Carmen; Krakowiak, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand new college students' attitudes toward and perceptions of communication media and technology and themselves as communicators in the context of communication competence. Building on the results of a previous qualitative study, the researchers developed a survey focused on communication competence in…

  1. Education and Technology in the 21st Century Experiences of Adult Online Learners Using Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based and technology-driven economy has prompted adults to seek additional knowledge and skills that will enable them to participate effectively in society. The rapid growth and popularity of the internet tools such as Web 2.0 tools have revolutionized adult learning. Through the rich support of Web 2.0 tools, adult…

  2. Information Communication Technology, State building, and Globalization in the 21st Century: Regional Frameworks for Emerging State Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    studies of Myanmar and Malaysia . Building from these case studies a regional approach to state building is outlined as offering a way beyond the current...SUBJECT TERMS Information Communication Technology (ICT), State building, Globalization, Political stability, Regionalism, Myanmar, Malaysia 16. PRICE... Malaysia . Building from these case studies a regional approach to state building is outlined as offering a way beyond the current impasse in the theory

  3. The Role of Advanced Information System Technology in Remote Sensing for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, Glenn; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The strategy will be to network these instrument-laden satellites into a web-like array of sensors to facilitate the collection, processing, transmission, storage, and distribution of data and data products - the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology." Many of these Information Technologies will enable the satellite and ground information systems to function effectively in real-time, providing scientists with the capability of customizing data collection activities on a satellite or group of satellites directly from the ground. In future systems, extremely large quantities of data collected by scientific instruments will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. Autonomous systems will control all essential processes and play a key role in coordinating the data flow through space-based communication networks. In this paper, we will discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and data products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.

  4. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Wiertelak, Eric P.; Ramirez, Julio J.

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21st century. PMID:23493318

  5. A 21st Century Update on Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1998, EPA published Guidelines for Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment as the basis for interpreting neurotoxicity results. At that time, the focus was on traditional toxicity testing and human clinical /epidemiological data. More recently, a change in approach to toxicity testing was proposed in “A 21st Century Update on Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment “ (NRC, 2007), stating that traditional toxicity testing was too slow and expensive to develop information on the potential toxicity of the large number of untested chemicals already used in commerce. In addition, new technologies have compounded the problem as new materials, such as engineered nanomaterials, are introduced at a rate exceeding traditional testing capacity. There is currently much effort to develop higher throughput neurotoxicity testing capabilities, especially for developmental neurotoxicity, but there is no general consensus regarding how alternative testing data should be interpreted for neurotoxicity risk assessment. The dependence of critical functions, such as learning, memory or sensory perception, on the operation of integrated neural systems makes the interpretation of data from simple test assays particularly difficult. The concept of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP), in which molecular initiating events (MIE) trigger a sequence of steps leading to an adverse outcome, may provide a conceptual framework in which simple alternative testing data indicative of MIEs can be used to predict neur

  6. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  7. Apprenticeship 2000: Ontario Community Colleges' Vision for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    In response to the Ministry of Education and Training Discussion Paper on Apprenticeship Reform, the Council of Presidents of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario presented a new vision for apprenticeship in Ontario. The 21st century apprenticeship system aims to remove barriers and enable workers to successfully adjust and cope…

  8. Toward the 21st Century: A Rural Education Anthology. Rural School Development Outreach Project. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karim, Gordon P., Ed.; Weate, Nathan James, Ed.

    This anthology focuses on rural education improvement that will prepare students for the 21st century. Articles address issues related to school funding, educational technology, curriculum offerings, state and federal policies, the role of rural teachers and administrators in school reform, cultural diversity, and changing socioeconomic factors in…

  9. Reading and Responding in the 21st Century: Digital Literacies and the NYSRA Charlotte Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pegeen; Paige, Christine; Sweredoski, Dawn; Yanoff, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Reading projects that integrate technology engage today's students and prepare them to be literate in the 21st century. In this article, we describe in detail successful podcasting and wiki projects conducted with NYSRA Charlotte Award nominated books. We also explore additional digital literacy projects that teachers can use in their literature…

  10. International Curriculum of White Education through Teacher's Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to white education for international curriculum through teacher's education for 21st century. The theory of "White Education" will be a message for development of globalization, information technology, based on knowledge, human rights education, environmental education,…

  11. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  12. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  13. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Science for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous reports cite the need to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education in order to attract and train a diverse pool of talented students prepared to meet the scientific and technological challenges of the 21st century. A growing body of research reveals that the nature and quality of science instruction in introductory college…

  14. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  15. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…

  16. English-Language Learners, Fan Communities, and 21st-Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws from literature on language, literacy studies, and 21st century skills to explore how English-language learning (ELL) youths, through their engagement with digital technologies and popular media, are developing the sort of proficiencies that have been identified as crucial to effective participation in an increasingly globalized…

  17. Using the Digital Transmedia Magazine Project to Support Students with 21st-Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner-Zachocki, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have had a significant impact on how educators have come to understand and define literacy, and on the types of literacies and literacy practices that are required in the 21st century. In response, organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have designed frameworks that attempt to articulate…

  18. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  19. School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This document presents findings of a General Accounting Office study that examined the extent to which America's schools have the physical capacity to support learning into the 21st century. Specifically, it looked at facilities requirements, environmental conditions, educational technologies, and facility infrastructure. Data were collected…

  20. Enhancing 21st Century Skills with AR: Using the Gradual Immersion Method to Develop Collaborative Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Jorge C.; Arámburo-Lizárraga, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    As 21st century skills (e.g., creativity and collaboration) are informally developed by tech-savvy learners in the Digital Age, technology-based strategies to develop such skills in non-formal and formal contexts are necessary to reduce the gap between academic and business organizations on the one hand, and the revolutionary wave of self-taught…

  1. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  2. Risk Assessment in the 21st Century - Conference Abstract ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Originally sound and effective, with increasing dependence on chemical tools and the number of chemicals in commerce, this traditional approach is no longer sufficient. This presentation provides an update on current progress in achieving the goals outlined in the NAS reports: “Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century”, “Exposure Science in the 21st Century”, and most recently, “Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations.” The presentation highlights many of the advances lead by the EPA. Topics covered include the evolution of the mode of action concept into the chemically agnostic, adverse outcome pathway (AOP), a systems-based data framework that facilitates integration of modifiable factors (e.g., genetic variation, life stages), and an understanding of networks, and mixtures. Further, the EDSP pivot is used to illustrate how AOPs drive development of predictive models for risk assessment based on assembly of high throughput assays representing AOP key elements. The birth of computational exposure science, capable of large-scale predictive exposure models, is reviewed. Although still in its infancy, development of non-targeted analysis to begin addressing the exposome is presented, as is the systems-based AEP that integrates exposure, toxicokinetics and AOPs into a comprehensive framework

  3. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Laura C.; Stephenson, David B.; Lockwood, Julia F.; Maisey, Paul E.

    2016-08-01

    A decline in damaging European windstorms has led to a reduction in insured losses in the 21st century. This decline is explored by identifying a damaging windstorm characteristic and investigating how and why this characteristic has changed in recent years. This novel exploration is based on 6103 high-resolution model-generated historical footprints (1979-2014), representing the whole European domain. The footprint of a windstorm is defined as the maximum wind gust speed to occur at a set of spatial locations over the duration of the storm. The area of the footprint exceeding 20 ms-1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms-1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms-1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715) exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  4. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  5. Trauma, change, and psychological health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas W

    2007-11-01

    The impact of stressful life events on health has been the object of inquiry for decades. Health care professionals have studied how stressful life events may precipitate or contribute to the onset of illness. Traumatic events and experiences can profoundly affect physical and psychological well-being, which in turn may predispose an individual to greater resilience or greater vulnerability to life stresses. Examined herein is the relationship between life stresses--including social stressors, political stressors, and environmental stressors--and the critical health related issues that psychologists need to prepare for in both the science and the practice of psychology over the next decade and during the 21st century.

  6. Understanding NETCOM and Its Role in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    information dominance goals that directly support transformation efforts. This project examines the reasons why NETCOM/9th ASC was created, reviews its unique organizational structure and mission, and outlines its role in the Army’s overarching transformation in the 21st century. Although the research reveals that NETCOM/9th ASC’s strategic plans and objectives are nested to support the Army’s transformation efforts, the lack of Army senior leader familiarity with this organization could put at risk some of the programs that support the implementation of its

  7. China’s Air Force Enters the 21st Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    CHINA’S AIR FORCE ENTERS TH E 21ST CENTURY KENNETH W ALLEN GLENN KRÜMEL JONATHAN D. POLLACK P»T«BTOON~ STATEMENT X | ÄBpicrce< i ioi...references. ISBN 0-8330-1648-2 (all;, paper) 1. China. Chung-kuo jen min chieh fang chiin. K’ungchiin. 2. Air power—China. I ...Accesion For NTIS CRA& I DTIC TAB Unannounced Justification By Distribution / i D D Availability Codes Dist M Avail and/or Special

  8. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  9. Dental Education: Trends and Assumptions for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.

    1987-01-01

    Dental educational institutions, as components of university systems, must develop strategic plans for program development, resource allocation, evaluation, and continued financial support. This dynamic process will be accomplished in a competitive academic arena where program excellence and program relevance are key issues in the game of survival. This article focuses on issues and trends that form the basis for planning assumptions and initiatives into the next decade and into the 21st century. This is our challenge, this is our mission if we are to be catalysts for change in the future. PMID:3560255

  10. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  11. No Time to Wait: Creating Contemporary School Structures for All Students Today and Tomorrow. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on the Structure of Schools: Time and Technology in 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report concludes that for the U.S. to prosper and compete in the 21st century, the education system will need to change its goals and practices so all students may succeed. That is, as information has become ubiquitous, schools need to emphasize 21st century skills such as analyzing, synthesizing, and creating along with understanding and…

  12. American Internal Medicine in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-01-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine. PMID:12950486

  13. Occupational health in the USA in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Felton, J S

    2000-09-01

    Comparable to the confusion encountered in the birth of the machine age is the perplexing reconfiguration of the United States' health care system. Paralleling the advances in medicine have been the divesting mergers and downsizing of industry, coupled with globalization, which have released millions of long-time workers. The labour contingent is changing, with the addition of great numbers of women and immigrant workers, and the manufacturing economy has become one of service and information. Serving the occupational health (OH) needs of such a force have been the professional societies of physicians, nurses, and industrial hygienists, with their members providing care in a broad variety of facilities. It is possible that a national organization, including all these disciplines, would have a greater voice in the protection of workers' health. Immediate leadership of an occupational health service (OHS) can be rotated among the disciplines, so that competition for primacy among the professionals would end. The new workforce demands culture sensitivity among OH personnel and polylingual capabilities may be demanded in the future. Management skills will be required of all in OH, and greater participation of employees in OH policy will characterize the decades ahead. Nearly neglected up to now, occupational mental health programming will be required to meet the real needs of workers, and to counter the move to outsource OH services, where little patient contact results. Behavioural safety, total quality management, and application of the rapidly developing technologies in health care will define the 21st century efforts in OH. Remaining issues, such as violence, telecommuting injuries, the inclusion of alternative medicine, and women's health, among others, will see carry-over for resolution into the year 2000.

  14. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  15. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  16. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  17. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW) memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs). The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification. PMID:20226073

  18. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: A Descriptive Evaluation for 2014-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry J.; Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Whisman, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This evaluation study provides information about the implementation and outcomes of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) program in West Virginia, from September 2014 through May 2015. The report draws on information from online surveys of 23 directors of 21st CCLC programs and from school teachers for 929 of the 11,299…

  19. Paleoanalogues of global warming in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, A. A.; Borisova, O. K.

    2011-05-01

    On the basis of landscape-climatic reconstructions for warming periods in the past, likely scenarios of future global warming have been developed for various warming levels that might be reached during the current century. The paleoanalogue of global warming by 0.7-1°C is the Holocene climatic optimum (5.5-6 ka B.P.) and that by 1.7-2°C is the last interglacial optimum (about 125 ka B.P.). The complex analysis concerning response of the principal ecosystem components to the expected warming signifies that there will not be any shifts of vegetation zones during the 21st century; reconstruction will touch only the internal structure of vegetable associations and broadening of interzonal ecotones.

  20. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  1. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team

    2017-01-01

    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  2. Novel Propulsion and Power Concepts for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA s vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and NO(x)). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. And the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions.

  3. Statistical radio astronomy of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariiskii, Yu. N.; Berlin, A. B.; Bursov, N. N.; Nizhel'skii, N. A.; Semenova, T. A.; Temirova, A. V.; Tsybulev, P. G.

    2015-06-01

    The exponential development of radio-astronomy methods (sensitivity, resolution, depth of surveys, etc) has led to the need for new methods aimed at distinguishing weak signals in the midst of numerous background signals, as has long been the case for radio astronomy at meter wavelengths. Centimeter-wavelength data accumulated with existing radio telescopes (such as the RATAN-600 reflector—the largest radio telescope in Russia) are presented, and expected problems for major new radio telescopes of the 21st century, such as the Square Kilometer Array, are discussed. The effectiveness of using certain tested methods to derive astrophysically important results through reasonable statistical processing of large datasets is shown. In experiments conducted with RATAN-600, these methods lead to an enhancement in sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared with the sensitivity of a resolving element.

  4. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. Partnership 2000: a journey to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hepner, L F; Hopkins, L G

    2000-01-01

    Building partnerships is a valuable strategy for achieving success in forming a strong foundation for nursing in the 21st century. The demands of the changing health care environment require that managers and staff change the context in which patient care delivery is accomplished. Managers must be willing to unleash the power of the human capital of staff nurses. Staff nurses must be willing to take a seat at the table and share the leadership role with their manager. Both must engage in building an environment that facilitates continued learning, establishes effective relationships with other health care team members and patients, creates an environment that attracts and retains professional nursing staff, expects professional development from one another, and realizes that collective accountability can be achieved through sharing the leadership.

  6. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  7. 77 FR 33479 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  8. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  9. 1998 Andre Allard Lecture. Aerospace medicine in the 21st century--reaching for the stars.

    PubMed

    Lim, M K

    1999-09-01

    The 21st century will be an era of unprecedented scientific achievements, one in which man will continue to overcome limits rather than be overcome by them. Aerospace medicine will continue to make significant contributions as aviation and space activities intensify, and as new technologies pose new aeromedical challenges. More than that, aerospace medicine's role will prove decisive in man's quest for his ultimate destiny in the universe.

  10. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  11. Fostering Students' 21st Century Skills through Project Oriented Problem Based Learning (POPBL) in Integrated STEM Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan Husin, Wan Nor Fadzilah; Mohamad Arsad, Nurazidawati; Othman, Oziah; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Iksan, Zanaton

    2016-01-01

    Students nowadays need to be equipped with twenty first century skills in order to ensure their competitiveness in this era of globalization, especially in the science and technology sector. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the changes of 21st century skills among students after participating in an integrated Science, Technology,…

  12. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  13. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  14. 78 FR 39251 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Partnership Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Service 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Partnership Opportunity AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The 21st Century Conservation Service Corps (21CSC) National Council is requesting letters of interest from all conservation and youth corps programs that would like to...

  15. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  16. Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Research in Management Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Charles, Ed.; DeFillippi, Robert, Ed.

    This book series focuses on trends in theory and practice likely to influence 21st century management education. This first volume examines a series of innovative and distinctive approaches to rethinking management education for the 21st century. Part 1 of the collection, "Rethinking What We Teach," contains: (1) "Development of Political Skill"…

  17. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  18. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  19. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  20. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  1. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  2. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  3. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  4. California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

  5. "21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

  6. Inquiring into Professional Development in a Newly Designed 21st Century School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkenhauer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent new paradigms are emphasizing the need for more powerful learning opportunities that meet the needs of 21st century learners. One way to change education to better meet the needs of the 21st century is to reimagine school architecture. The purpose of this research was to study the ways practitioner inquiry can serve as a mechanism for…

  7. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  8. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  9. [Evolution of surgical education through the 20th Century into the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    An abridged overview of the development of surgery and early surgical education, training and practice is presented, beginning in colonial America in the 18th century, extending throughout the 19th century, evolving rapidly during the 20th century, and progressing into the first decade of the 21st century. The metamorphosis and transformation of surgery training programs in the United States are described and discussed, together with some of the most relevant rationale and justifications for the many changes introduced, established, mandated and in progress. The current accreditation requirements, oversight, and governance of general surgery training programs; the incorporation of multiple technical and technological advances into general surgical practice; the addition of required training modules and systems to the programs; and their secondary implications, consequences, and impact upon the programs, are presented. These include financial and other resource impediments, the 80-h work week implications and constraints, the technological explosion, the demands of the required expanded general surgical curriculum and operative case experience, the continued erosion of general surgery by surgical and medical specialists, the increasing workload coupled with decreasing reimbursement for surgeons and their services; and the challenges and difficulties of amalgamating all of these confounding or conflicting factors into an effective and viable general surgery program. Finally, some of the personal insights, opinions, experiences, and philosophy of the author are incorporated into the narrative.

  10. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  11. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  12. Stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century: The chlorofluorocarbon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) exists in a dynamic equilibrium in the stratosphere, balanced between formation by solar ultraviolet photolysis ({lambda} < 242 nm) of molecular O{sub 2} (O + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3}) and destruction by various chemical processes including several chain reaction sequences triggered by HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and ClO{sub x} radicals. The ozone dissipates over Antarctica by November through northward mixing, only to begin reappearing in late August of the following year. Substantial ozone losses have also appeared, although not as spectacularly as over Antarctica, in the Northern Hemisphere's temperate and polar regions. The primary cause for the Antarctic ozone loss, and the probable cause for the northern losses, is the increasing concentration in the stratosphere of anthropogenic chlorine, especially chlorine released by solar UV photolysis from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds such as CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12), CCl{sub 3}F (CFC-11) and CCl{sub 2}FCClF{sub 2} (CFC-113). Because these molecules have average atmospheric lifetimes of many decades, excess anthropogenic chlorine will persist in the stratosphere for comparable time periods, and the Antarctic ozone hole will be an important atmospheric phenomenon throughout the 21st century.

  13. The 21st Century Cures Act: pharmacoeconomic boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to entry in healthcare markets constitute one of the overriding concerns of health economists. The recent enactment of the 21st Century Cures Act in the United States reduces statutory entry barriers to the discovery, development, testing, and licensing of drugs and medical devices. Drug and device makers also see the burdensome and time-consuming requirements of the Food and Drug Administration?s approval process as key barriers to lowering the costs of their products, considering it takes a decade of research amounting to $1 billion just to bring a single drug to the market. Along with novel opportunities for medical product innovation and faster treatment of diseases, the expedited approval process carries with it contentious challenges involving the safety, efficacy and value of drugs and devices. The ensuing trade-offs and unintended consequences of such a regulatory game-changer bring to the fore one of the most enduring debates between medicine and economics: Whether - or to what extent - cost and efficiency factors affect clinical inquiry into possible solutions to human illnesses. The practical and theoretical contributions of pharmacoeconomics should enlighten contemporary and future issues and discussions surrounding the implementation of this landmark legislation. After all, despite its undeniably good intent and far-reaching significance, no law can ever be perfect.

  14. Propulsion and power for 21st century aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Whitlow, Woodrow

    2004-05-01

    Air transportation in the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meet public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st century aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, highly efficient, virtually inaudible (outside airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO 2 and NO x). This vision includes intelligent engines capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish missions with either minimal or no human intervention. Distributed vectored propulsion will replace current two to four wing mounted and fuselage mounted engine configurations with a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. Other innovative concepts, such as the pulse detonation engine (PDE), which potentially can replace conventional gas turbine engines, also are reviewed. It is envisioned that a hydrogen economy will drive the propulsion system revolution towards the ultimate goal of silent aircrafts with zero harmful emissions. Finally, it is envisioned that electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  15. Risk Assessment in the 21st Century | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response assessment. Originally sound and effective, with increasing dependence on chemical tools and the number of chemicals in commerce, this traditional approach is no longer adequate. This presentation provides an update on current progress in achieving the goals outlined in the NAS report on Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century, highlighting many of the advances lead by the EPA. Topics covered include the evolution of the mode of action framework into a chemically agnostic, adverse outcome pathway (AOP), a systems-based data framework that facilitates integration of modifiable factors (e.g., genetic variation, life stages), and an understanding of networks, and mixtures. Further, the EDSP pivot is used to illustrate how AOPs drive development of predictive models for risk assessment based on assembly of high throughput assays representing AOP key elements. The birth of computational exposure science, capable of large-scale predictive exposure models, is reviewed. Although still in its infancy, development of non-targeted analysis to begin addressing exposome also is presented. Finally, the systems-based AEP is described that integrates exposure, toxicokinetics and AOPs into a comprehensive framework. For the past ~50 years, risk assessment depended almost exclusively on animal testing for hazard identification and dose-response as

  16. Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix.

    PubMed

    Embry, Michelle R; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doerrer, Nancy G; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Doe, John E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The RISK21 integrated evaluation strategy is a problem formulation-based exposure-driven risk assessment roadmap that takes advantage of existing information to graphically represent the intersection of exposure and toxicity data on a highly visual matrix. This paper describes in detail the process for using the roadmap and matrix. The purpose of this methodology is to optimize the use of prior information and testing resources (animals, time, facilities, and personnel) to efficiently and transparently reach a risk and/or safety determination. Based on the particular problem, exposure and toxicity data should have sufficient precision to make such a decision. Estimates of exposure and toxicity, bounded by variability and/or uncertainty, are plotted on the X- and Y-axes of the RISK21 matrix, respectively. The resulting intersection is a highly visual representation of estimated risk. Decisions can then be made to increase precision in the exposure or toxicity estimates or declare that the available information is sufficient. RISK21 represents a step forward in the goal to introduce new methodologies into 21st century risk assessment. Indeed, because of its transparent and visual process, RISK21 has the potential to widen the scope of risk communication beyond those with technical expertise.

  17. Workshop Proceedings: Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Barbara A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications initiated the planning of a technology development program, Astrotech 21, to develop the technological base for the Astrophysics missions developed in the period 1995 to 2015. The Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century Workshop was one of three Integrated Technology Planning workshops. Its objectives were to develop an understanding of the future comprehensive development program to achieve the required capabilities. Program plans and recommendations were prepared in four areas: x ray and gamma ray sensors, ultraviolet and visible sensors, direct infrared sensors, and heterodyne submillimeter wave sensors.

  18. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  19. Human hookworm infection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.

  20. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  1. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  2. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  3. What is nursing in the 21st century and what does the 21st century health system require of nursing?

    PubMed

    Scott, P Anne; Matthews, Anne; Kirwan, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that nursing is vital to the safe, humane provision of health care and health service to our populations. It is also recognized however, that nursing is a costly health care resource that must be used effectively and efficiently. There is a growing recognition, from within the nursing profession, health care policy makers and society, of the need to analyse the contribution of nursing to health care and its costs. This becomes increasingly pertinent and urgent in a situation, such as that existing in Ireland, where the current financial crisis has lead to public sector employment moratoria, staff cuts and staffing deficits, combined with increased patient expectation, escalating health care costs, and a health care system restructuring and reform agenda. Such factors, increasingly common internationally, make the identification and effective use of the nursing contribution to health care an issue of international importance. This paper seeks to explore the nature of nursing and the function of the nurse within a 21st century health care system, with a focus on the Irish context. However, this analysis fits into and is relevant to the international context and discussion regarding the nursing workforce. This paper uses recent empirical studies exploring the domains of activity and focus of nursing, together with nurses perceptions of their role and work environment, in order to connect those findings with core conceptual questions about the nature and function of nursing.

  4. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  5. Beyond the Traditional Brick Box: Designing School for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents observations on what changes and design considerations may evolve as schools move into the 21st Century. Questions addressed include remodeling existing schools to meet 21st needs, the community's role in the redesign process, the difficulty of designing by committee, and financing alternatives for poorer school districts who want to…

  6. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180.

    Bioavailability and rates...

  8. "Educating 21st Century Students: A Close-Up Look at a Successful Career and Technical Center"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fala, John; Kathryn, Strouse; Tully, Christopher; Viviano, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Through this paper we try to convey the necessity to provide the workforce with a labor force that is academically and technologically ready to meet the 21st century global demands. We feel this is accomplished by providing the students at MBIT [Middle Bucks Institute of Technology] with industry-standard equipment, academic and technology…

  9. Making 21st Century Schools: Creating Learner-Centered Schoolplaces/Workplaces for a New Culture of Students at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Learner-Centered, Information-Age schools have been proposed in "Educational Technology" and in other publications. This article reviews the experience of the New Technology Foundation, a school-development organization, working since 2001 to support 51 communities in 10 states to launch and implement 21st Century High Schools, based on…

  10. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century.

  11. Lunar Processing Cabinet 2.0: Retrofitting Gloveboxes into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Apollo 16 Lunar Processing Glovebox (cabinet 38) in the Lunar Curation Laboratory at NASA JSC received an upgrade including new technology interfaces. A Jacobs - Technology Innovation Project provided the primary resources to retrofit this glovebox into the 21st century. NASA Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office continues the over 40 year heritage of preserving lunar materials for future scientific studies in state-of-the-art facilities. This enhancement has not only modernized the contamination controls, but provides new innovative tools for processing and characterizing lunar samples as well as supports real-time exchange of sample images and information with the scientific community throughout the world.

  12. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  13. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  14. Propulsion challenges for a 21st century economically viable, environmentally compatible High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent NASA funded studies suggest an opportunity exists for a 21st Century High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to become part of the international air transportation system. However, before this opportunity for high speed travel can be realized, certain environmental and economic barrier issues must be overcome. These challenges are outlined. Research activities which NASA has planned to address these barrier issues and provide a technology base to allow the U.S. manufacturers to make an informed go/no go decision on developing an HSCT are discussed.

  15. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  16. The 21st-Century College Student: Implications for Athletic Training Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Malissa; Buxton, Barton

    1997-01-01

    Objective: With the onset of the 21 st century and increasing student diversity, institutions of higher education must become more attuned to the challenges, concerns, and needs of students entering the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. This review discusses the characteristics of the 21st-century college student. Data Sources: The sources for this information were courses of study in the authors' doctoral programs from 1980 to 1994. Data Synthesis: In the 21 st century, students of increasingly diverse ages, races, cultures, ethnicities, and classes will enter the professions of athletic training and sports medicine. Institutions of higher education that recognize the needs of their nontraditional students will be better able to serve these students. Conclusions/Recommendations: To effectively serve the 21st-century student, institutions of higher education must provide multicultural training, flexible schedules, accelerated programs, and learning experiences that are both practical and tangible. PMID:16558433

  17. The Keepers of the Key: Development Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crease, Skid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of development education in the 21st century. Awareness of the global interconnectedness of issues of water, food, health, education, and wealth is broadening the scope of development education to include a closer look at home. (CCM)

  18. Educating 21st-Century Students: An Up-Close Look at a Successful Career and Technical Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fala, John; Strouse, Kathryn; Tully, Christopher; Viviano, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As a career and technical high school, Middle Bucks Institute of Technology in Jamison, Pennsylvania, has risen to the challenge of preparing students with 21st-century skills through rigorous academics, technical knowledge, and professional development. Everyone, from the administrative director to the classroom teacher, needs to understand their…

  19. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  20. CompSpeak 2050: How Talking Computers Will Recreate an Oral Culture by Mid-21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, William

    In the 21st century, VIVOs (voice-in/voice-out computers using visual displays but no text) will make written language obsolete. Written language is essentially a technology created 6,000 to 10,000 years ago for storing and retrieving information. VIVOs will perform this same function more easily, efficiently, and universally without requiring…

  1. Managing Information for Development in the 21st Century: Prospects for African Libraries, Challenges to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    This paper discusses the role information can play in the development of African countries in the 21st century. It stresses that development information can only be guaranteed when libraries in Africa computerize their systems, form networks for resource sharing, and take advantage of the benefits of information technology (IT), especially CD-ROM…

  2. The Implementation and Assessment of a Shared 21st Century Learning Vision: A District-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Thelma M.; Hollingsworth, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Traditional educational patterns are giving way to more innovative modes and methods of learning, primarily due to radical technological changes that have increased the availability of information and improved communication. In an attempt to address this shift toward 21st century skills and learning, a single school district began a large-scale,…

  3. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  4. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  5. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  6. Pediatric hospitals' and physician strategies for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J W; Chesney, R W; Stocks, R M; Shmerling, J; Herron, P

    1999-05-01

    hospitals in the 21st century, serving the role of physician extenders, if not physician substitutes. To ensure their own survival, physicians must develop their own strategic plans as have the hospitals in which they practice. Optimally they should embrace those activities that parallel their hospital's efforts such as Quality Improvement (CQI, Benchmarking), cost containment, and practice mergers.

  7. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  8. The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    McGONIGLE, Ian Vincent; Benjamin, Ruha

    2016-07-05

    Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University. The symposium drew upon the tools and expertise from multiple disciplines and diverse geographical regions and consisted of 24 original research presentations and an interdisciplinary roundtable. Specific attention was paid to the bioethical, material and lived dimensions of recent developments in molecular technologies, and discussions interrogated the complex ways in which the 'molecular realm' is an emerging site for constituting human identities in the 21st century. Herein we summarize some of the key findings of the conference and raise three further issues for practitioners and researchers to consider in relation to the broader impact of genetics research. Namely: transnational governance of emerging biotechnologies; representation of different interest groups in policy decisions; and rights of access to emerging technologies.

  9. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  10. Student Teaching Abroad: An Experience for 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerholm, Elizabeth; Chacko, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty first century teachers need to be proficient in technology, skilled as reflective practitioners, and able to reflect on diversity in a myriad of ways: learning styles, special needs, cultural differences, racial differences, developmentally appropriate differences, teaching styles, and personality differences of children, teachers, parents,…

  11. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are:

    • Creativity and Innovation
    • Communication and Collaboration
    • Research and Information Literacy
    • Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
    • Digital Citizenship
    • Technology Operations and Concepts

    • General Education in the 21st Century: A Report of the University of California Commission on General Education in the 21st Century

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2007

      2007-01-01

      In this report, the Commission on General Education in the 21st Century--a panel of University of California faculty and administrators--issues a call for renewed attention to general education in research universities, highlighting specific reforms for University of California campuses. In addition to analyzing the historical, institutional, and…

    • Health care's power brokers in the 21st Century. Interview by Donna Vavala.

      PubMed

      Goldsmith, J

      1995-01-01

      Health care has undergone turbulent change in the 20th Century. In addition to dramatic pharmaceutical and technological advances, the entire health care delivery system has been significantly improved. Through all the turmoil, hospitals have been at the center of the health care universe. But, as the 21st Century approaches, that may change, too. What will become of hospitals, which for most of this century have played a commanding role? Will managed care organizations and group practices come out on top? And, once the new power broker takes over, what will be the impact on providers, insurers, and the government, and how will their relationships to each other change? Jeff Goldsmith, PhD, President of Health Futures, Inc., Bannockburn, Ill., and health care futurist, examines tomorrow's health care delivery system and makes some eye-opening predictions.

    • Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research

      PubMed Central

      Austin, Christopher P.; Balapure, Anil K.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bucher, John R.; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C.; Fowle, John R.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

      2015-01-01

      Summary Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved. PMID:26523530

    • Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gettys, Nancy S.

      1998-06-01

      On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

    • Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

      2014-05-01

      We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

    • Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

      2010-01-01

      The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

    • Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Boyd, Yolanda F.

      High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

    • Command, Control and Communications Capabilities Enabling 21st Century Missions, a Historical Perspective

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Waterman, Robert D.; Rice, Herbert D.; Waterman, Susan J.

      2010-01-01

      Command, Control and Communications (CCC) has evolved through the years from simple switches, dials, analogue hardwire networks and lights to a modern computer based digital network. However there are two closely coupled pillars upon which a CCC system is built. The first, is that technology drives the pace of advancement. The second is that a culture that fosters resistance to change can limit technological advancements in the CCC system. While technology has advanced at a tremendous rate throughout the years, the change in culture has moved slowly. This paper will attempt to show through a historical perspective where specific design decisions for early CCC systems have erroneously evolved into general requirements being imposed on later systems. Finally this paper will provide a glimpse into the future directions envisioned for CCC capabilities that will enable 21st century missions.

    • Multicultural Education Is Essential for the Academic Success of Schools in the 21st Century.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duhon-Sells, Rose

      A multicultural thrust should be the key element in restructuring American education in preparation for the 21st century. Demographic trends indicate that European Americans will be outnumbered by other racial and ethnic groups in the next century. Consequently, new educational techniques and content need to be developed and infused into school…

  1. What We Educators Get Wrong about 21st-Century Learning: Results of a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Mehta, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first-century learning and how it differs from prior conceptions of learning have received significant attention lately. Kereluik, Mishra, Fahnoe, and Terry (2013) offered a synthesis of multiple expert frameworks and perspectives on 21st-century learning, summarizing them in nine forms of knowledge (under three broad categories:…

  2. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  3. FutureTox: building the road for 21st century toxicology and risk assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J Craig; Sander, Miriam; Bus, James S

    2014-02-01

    This article reports on the outcome of FutureTox, a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) workshop, whose goal was to address the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing 21st century technologies for toxicity testing, hazard identification, and risk assessment. One goal of the workshop was to facilitate an interactive multisector and discipline dialog. To this end, workshop invitees and participants included stakeholders from governmental and regulatory agencies, research institutes, academia, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Europe and the United States. The workshop agenda was constructed to collectively review and discuss the state-of-the-science in these fields, better define the problems and challenges, outline their collective goals for the future, and identify areas of common agreement key to advancing these technologies into practice.

  4. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-21

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  5. Gentian violet: a 19th century drug re-emerges in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maley, Alexander M; Arbiser, Jack L

    2013-12-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an antibacterial and antifungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an antitypranosomal, antiviral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this article is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase.

  6. Energy transitions in the early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin

    2013-01-01

    We are in the early stages of a long and complex transition from a global economy based on fossil energy to an economy based on low carbon renewable energy. However, fossil fuel resources are abundant and widely distributed, and they will remain the dominant source of primary energy for at least the next quarter century. In the United States, displacement of coal by natural gas for electric power generation has done more to reduce CO2 emissions than all new renewables combined, and this may occur globally for the next decade or two, even if the European Union does not take advantage of its large unconventional natural gas resources. Greater energy efficiency (not including the efficiencies associated with displacement of coal by gas) will also be more important than new renewables. Cost/benefit ratios are important for sustainability of the transition, and some energy efficiency technologies and displacement of coal by natural gas have lower cost/benefit ratios than wind power, solar power or biofuels. Money spent on the large scale deployment of wind, solar and especially biofuels would be better spent on research, development and demonstration of a broader suite of technologies that would support the energy transition, with a focus on improving the cost benefit ratios of already deployed technologies and developing alternatives. Advanced nuclear reactors, engineered geothermal systems, fossil fuel recovery coupled with CO2 sequestration and pre-combustion or post-combustion decarbonation of fossil fuels with geological CO2 sequestration are among the technologies that might be more cost effective than wind, solar or biofuels, and biofuels have serious adverse societal and environment consequences.

  7. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Zaelke, D.; Velders, G. J. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-06-01

    There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4), black carbon aerosols (BC), tropospheric ozone (O3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential) HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  8. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Zaelke, D.; Velders, G. J.; Ramanathan, V.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4), black carbon aerosols (BC), tropospheric ozone (O3) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6°C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential) HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5°C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2°C warming threshold during this century.

  9. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor); Alred, John W. (Editor); Bell, Larry S. (Editor); Cintala, Mark J. (Editor); Crabb, Thomas M. (Editor); Durrett, Robert H. (Editor); Finney, Ben R. (Editor); Franklin, H. Andrew (Editor); French, James R. (Editor); Greenberg, Joel S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space.

  10. Treating Parkinson’s disease in the 21st century: Can stem cell transplantation compete?

    PubMed Central

    Buttery, Philip C; Barker, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic and selective degeneration of a unique population of cells—the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons—that occurs in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has made the condition an iconic target for cell replacement therapies. Indeed, transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic cells into the DA-deficient striatum was first trialled nearly 30 years ago, at a time when other treatments for the disease were less well developed. Over recent decades standard treatments for PD have advanced, and newer biological therapies are now emerging. In the 21st century, stem cell technology will have to compete alongside other sophisticated treatments, including deep brain stimulation and gene therapies. In this review we examine how stem cell–based transplantation therapies compare with these novel and emerging treatments in the management of this common condition. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2802–2816, 2014. PMID:24610597

  11. Using Virtual Simulations in the Design of 21st Century Space Science Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Sonya L.; Alves, Jeffery R.

    1996-01-01

    Space Technology has been rapidly increasing in the past decade. This can be attributed to the future construction of the International Space Station (ISS). New innovations must constantly be engineered to make ISS the safest, quality, research facility in space. Since space science must often be gathered by crew members, more attention must be geared to the human's safety and comfort. Virtual simulations are now being used to design environments that crew members can live in for long periods of time without harmful effects to their bodies. This paper gives a few examples of the ergonomic design problems that arise on manned space flights, and design solutions that follow NASA's strategic commitment to customer satisfaction. The conclusions show that virtual simulations are a great asset to 21st century design.

  12. The second conference on lunar bases and space activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles in this report.

  13. New Approaches to Providing Individualized Diabetes Care in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Priscilla W.; Corathers, Sarah D.; Raymond, Jennifer; Streisand, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Building from a foundation of rapid innovation, the 21st century is poised to offer considerable new approaches to providing modern diabetes care. The focus of this paper is the evolving role of diabetes care providers collaboratively working with patients and families toward the goals of achieving optimal clinical and psychosocial outcomes for individuals living with diabetes. Advances in monitoring, treatment and technology have been complemented by trends toward patient-centered care with expertise from multiple health care disciplines. The evolving clinical care delivery system extends far beyond adjustment of insulin regimens. Effective integration of patient-centered strategies, such as shared-decision making, motivational interviewing techniques, shared medical appointments, and multidisciplinary team collaboration, into a dynamic model of diabetes care delivery holds promise in reaching glycemic targets and improving patients’ quality of life. PMID:25901504

  14. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  15. A look at cultural psychiatry in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    Cultural psychiatry, as a subspecialty of psychiatry and thus medicine, has grown steadily and extensively in the 20th century, especially during the second part of this century. In this article, we look at the origins of cultural psychiatry; at its history through the centuries; at its role in the clinical, educational, and research domains; at its significance in today's conceptualization of the fields of psychiatry and mental health; and at its future perspectives within the realms of both medicine and psychiatry.

  16. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  17. What Is a University in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The term "university" has a longstanding history, yet its definition remains highly contentious at the turn of the century. According to conventional scholarship, the first university initially appeared as far back as the 12th century with the formation of the University of Paris and the University of Bologna (circa 1150 AD). Other scholars,…

  18. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  19. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge. PMID:21149687

  20. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    PubMed

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  1. The Pendulum Swing of User Instruction and Interaction: The Resurrection of "How to Use" Technology to Learn in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Judith; Terras, Melody M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of technology to support learning is well recognised. One generation ago a major strand of human--computer interaction research focussed on the development of forms of instruction in how to interact with computers. Today, however, the advanced usability of modern technologies has all but removed the presence of many user manuals. Learners,…

  2. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  3. The 21st Century - Barrels of Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    security and environment. 20th Century Transportation market growth on cheap oil ; evolution to less polluting vehicles initiated by early environmental...legislation. 20th Century Transportation market growth on cheap oil ; evolution to less polluting vehicles initiated by early environmental legislation...Green” fuels • DARPA Biojet Program – General Electric (GE) – University of North Dakota EERC – UOP • Feedstocks – Seed Crop Oils (canola, jatropha

  4. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  5. Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century--Framing the Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, Amelia M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, the guest editors of the EPAA Special Issue on "Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century": a) introduce the background, history, and context of community colleges in the larger higher education landscape; b) summarize the three research papers and two video commentaries that were…

  6. Workplace, Organizational, and Societal: Three Domains of Learning for 21st-Century Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Barto, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Interconnections between workplace and organizational learning can highlight the ongoing changes taking place that prestage the need for learning cities and regions. The diverse institutions that comprise cities and regions can function as organizational learning mechanisms in the 21st century. Learning cities themselves can also be conceptualized…

  7. Chapter 10: Cotton harvesting and ginning in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter briefly reviews the history of cotton harvest preparation, harvesting, and ginning in the U. S. up until the beginning of the 21st century. The review particularly focuses on the mechanization of the U. S. cotton industry and its defining characteristics in the latter portion of t...

  8. A Collaborative Approach to Implementing 21st Century Skills in a High School Senior Research Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Michael K.; Dallas, Kim B.

    2010-01-01

    Businesses and higher education leaders are looking for students with the ability to evaluate and analyze information and to use this information to solve real-world problems. These are the information literacy skills students need for the 21st century. However, several recent studies on the ability of college freshmen to handle the rigor of…

  9. Rethinking and Retooling for the 21st Century: A Must for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The principal's role must change to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Administrative thinking must shift from efficiency to effectiveness. This article presents an Iceberg Model to enable the administrator to become an instructional leader by building a knowledge base, developing a philosophy and vision, and modifying observable behavior.…

  10. Achieving Quality Assurance and Moving to a World Class University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2013-01-01

    Globalization in the 21st century has brought innumerable challenges and opportunities to universities and countries. Universities are primarily concerned with how to ensure the quality of their education and how to boost their local and global competitiveness. The pressure from both international competition and public accountability on…

  11. 76 FR 38673 - Establishment of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Establishment of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of the Interior is...

  12. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  13. Managing AASL's New "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Claire Gatrell; Franklin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    No doubt most school librarians have heard of the American Association of School Librarians' (AASL) new "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner." The four standards with their accompanying skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies form a defining new vision for the direction of school library programs. AASL named the…

  14. Moving the science of behavioral change into the 21st century: part 2.

    PubMed

    Saranummi, Niilo; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Intille, Stephen S; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy J; Pavel, Misha

    2013-01-01

    What follows is the second part of a two-part special series of articles that illustrate through examples the breadth and depth of the field of behavioral-change science and highlight the challenges in moving it in to the 21st century. The first part appeared in the September/October issue of IEEE Pulse (see [1]-[3]).

  15. From Engagement to Ecotone: Land-Grant Universities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Pendleton-Jullian, Ann; Adler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the country's land-grant colleges and universities will celebrate their sesquicentennial. This anniversary provides a good opportunity to consider how these distinctively American institutions have evolved over the past 150 years and how well they are doing today in preparing students for the 21st century. Resilience will be a key…

  16. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  17. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  18. Is Mobile Learning the Future of 21st Century Education? Educational Considerations from Various Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Minakshi; Moseley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key trends currently affecting the practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry, as mentioned in "The 2011 Horizon Report," is that learners prefer flexibility and mobility. Mobile learning is gaining popularity as an emerging trend facilitating the process of teaching and learning in the 21st Century. Research indicates…

  19. Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kathryn, Ed.; Archambault, Leanna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills, methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our students--the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The examples found in this report have unique elements and…

  20. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  1. Superintendents for the 21st Century: It's Not Just a Job, It's a Calling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The 21st-century superintendent faces several challenges: changing demographics (growing diversity), the divide between haves and have-nots, devaluation of children (reliance on remediation over prevention), de-emphasis on education for citizenship, deregulation, devolution of power, "demassification" (fewer common information sources),…

  2. Meeting the Tests of Time: Small States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The analytic category of "small states" remains problematic in the 21st century. Its legitimacy as a rigorous conceptual category continues to be debated; even as small states assume a strident visibility on the world stage because of climate change negotiations. This paper reviews the scepticism that hovers around the small state concept, and…

  3. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  4. Social Development of 21st Century and Reform of China's Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Lan

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation. The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society. The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present…

  5. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  6. Infancy and Early Childhood in the Urban Environment: Problems for the 21st Century. Research Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael

    The function of this paper is to initiate a discussion of the kinds of questions that should be asked when one considers what kind of environment is needed in the year 2000 to optimize human growth and development. More specifically, the paper focuses on the problems of the infant and young child in the 21st century urban environment. The essay is…

  7. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  8. Learning the Real-World Skills of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a summer internship program at South Houston High School which utilizes an innovative curriculum to teach students 21st century skills alongside core academics. Using the Transitions career education curriculum--a comprehensive curriculum created by ASCL Educational Services to fulfill Chicago Public Schools' need for soft…

  9. Climate change may restrict dryland forest regeneration in the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Petrie, M D; Bradford, J B; Hubbard, R M; Lauenroth, W K; Andrews, C M; Schlaepfer, D R

    2017-03-07

    The persistence and geographic expansion of dryland forests in the 21(st) century will be influenced by how climate change supports the demographic processes associated with tree regeneration. Yet, the way that climate change may alter regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative framework that estimates forest regeneration potential (RP) as a function of key environmental conditions for ponderosa pine, a key dryland forest species. We integrated meteorological data and climate projections for 47 ponderosa pine forest sites across the western United States, and evaluated RP using an ecosystem water balance model. Our primary goal was to contrast conditions supporting regeneration among historical, mid-21(st) century and late-21(st) century time frames. Future climatic conditions supported 50% higher RP in 2020-2059 relative to 1910-2014. As temperatures increased more substantially in 2060-2099, seedling survival decreased, RP declined by 50%, and the frequency of years with very low RP increased from 25% to 58%. Thus, climate change may initially support higher RP and increase the likelihood of successful regeneration events, yet will ultimately reduce average RP and the frequency of years with moderate climate support of regeneration. Our results suggest that climate change alone may begin to restrict the persistence and expansion of dryland forests by limiting seedling survival in the late 21(st) century. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century: Implications for the Profession and Administrator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Joanne; And Others

    In 1991, the Oregon Legislature passed a landmark educational reform bill, the "Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century," providing for an extended school year, instructional accountability, establishment of state-funded, alternative learning centers, and a restructured high school program issuing certificates of mastery. High school…

  11. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  12. Webquest 2.0: Best Practices for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, WebQuests have grown in popularity in educational environments. In order to effectively implement a WebQuest in the classroom, best pedagogical practices must be employed; however, these best WebQuest practices should reflect the exigent 21st century skills students need to be successful, productive members of the global…

  13. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  14. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlman, Carl J.; Aubert, Jean-Eric

    For a large part of the last two millennia, China was the world's largest and most advanced economy. Then it missed the Industrial Revolution and stagnated. Only after opening to the outside world in 1979 was China's economic performance again impressive. At the turn of the 21st century, China faces daunting internal challenges compounded by the…

  15. Fostering 21st-Century Evolutionary Reasoning: Teaching Tree Thinking to Introductory Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to interpret and reason from Tree of Life (ToL) diagrams has become a vital component of science literacy in the 21st century. This article reports on the effectiveness of a research-based curriculum, including an instructional booklet, laboratory, and lectures, to teach the fundamentals of such tree thinking in an introductory biology…

  16. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  17. BIOMIND Portal for Developing 21st Century Skills and Overcoming Students' Misconception in Biology Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vebrianto, Rian; Rery, Radjawaly Usman; Osman, Kamisah

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of BIOMIND portal in enhancing students' 21st century skills and overcoming their misconceptions in Biology subject. 118 Indonesian high school students were involved in this quasi-experimental study. The experimental group underwent learning experiences using BIOMIND portal whereas the…

  18. Music Education in the 21st Century in the United Kingdom: Achievements, Analysis and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan, Ed.; Creech, Andrea. Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of music education in the UK is constantly shifting and developing. This book provides a timely and unique overview of this restless sector by considering the achievements of music education, analysing its current performance and setting out aspirations for the future. "Music Education in the 21st Century in the United…

  19. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: A Descriptive Evaluation for 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation study provides descriptive information about the implementation and outcomes of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (CCLC) program in West Virginia, from September 2012 through May 2013. The report draws on information from online surveys of directors of 30 CCLC programs and from school teachers for 4,102 participating…

  20. Paving the Way for the 21st Century: The Human Factor in Higher Education Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G., Ed.

    This book presents human resources issues that will affect the financial management of colleges and universities as they move into the 21st century. It examines how business managers and human resources managers must balance human resources management policies and practices against the financial demands on the institution. It discusses the…

  1. Engineering Students for the 21st Century: Student Development through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Alan; Bunting, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Through support of the National Science Foundation's Department Level Reform program, "Engineering Students for the 21st Century" (ES21C) has implemented a ten-course sequence designed to help students develop into engineers. Spread across the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) curriculum at Oklahoma State University, these…

  2. President Clinton's Call to Action for American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Bill

    Former President Bill Clinton's 1997 State of the Union Address discusses the issue of ensuring that Americans have the best education in the world. He issued the following 10-point call to action for American education in the 21st century: (1) set rigorous standards, with national tests in fourth-grade reading and eighth-grade math; (2) make sure…

  3. A Call to Action for American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document describes President Clinton's call to action for American education in the 21st century. Strong, safe schools with clear standards of achievement and discipline, and talented and dedicated teachers in every classroom are needed. Priorities include: setting rigorous national standards, with national tests in fourth-grade reading and…

  4. A Study of California Public School District Superintendents and Their Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The number of school districts needing to focus their attention on ensuring that their students are receiving a 21st Century education has grown considerably with the creation of the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the looming deadline of the 2014-2015 school year when the new assessments will be given. The assessment dates,…

  5. 21st Century Skills: What Are They and How Do We Assess Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the "hottest" topics in the educational measurement community in the past decade has been the assessment of 21st century skills. This special issue demonstrates work being performed in this realm. The present article provides a context for the four primary articles that follow and a brief but broad view of some models of 21st…

  6. A Framework for the "Entrepreneurial" Learner of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers-Hild, Connie; King, James W.; Foster, John E.; Fritz, Susan M.; Waller, Steven S.; Wheeler, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    Successful distance learners and entrepreneurs may be similar in that they seek out and capitalize on opportunities and marshal resources to achieve their goals. Further, entrepreneurial behavior is a vital asset in the rapidly changing global knowledge economy of the 21 st Century. This paper presents a theoretical framework for examining the…

  7. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  8. 21st Century Learning Frameworks and the Missions of Public Education: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, K. Micah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the missions of public education in the United States and selected 21st century reform frameworks published by think tank organizations. This was conducted through the process of an integrative review. To begin, a literature search was conducted to identify the broad missions of public education in…

  9. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require…

  10. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  11. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  12. Educating for the 21st Century: Beyond Racist, Sexist, and Ecologically Violent Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Francis P.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses resources of hope in educating for the 21st century, arguing the importance of active listening to children's voices and resistance to fatalistic fallacies regarding negative trends. The discussion examines principles from critical futurism and contemporary movements of educational innovation (including peace, multicultural, nonsexist,…

  13. Recruiting the Strategic Corporal in the 21st Century (Through the Year 2010)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    troubling age of national aggression, transnational threats, and terrorism spurred by ethnic conflict.5 With the demise of the Soviet Union, the...U.S. feminism and social power. Woulfe, J. (1998). Into the Crucible: Making Marines for the 21st Century. California: Presidio Press.

  14. A Vision and Strategy:Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manuscript provides an introduction and overview for a series of five papers resulting from a SETAC Pellston Workshop titled A Vision and Strategy for Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century: Defining Adverse Outcome Pathways Associated with Ecological Risk. It proposes...

  15. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  16. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katitia, David Melita Ole

    2015-01-01

    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  17. Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century: What Role for High School Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    2005-01-01

    As part of the broader policy debate on how to reform K-12 education, particularly high schools, basic questions about career and technical education are on the table. "Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century" begins with a summary of what researchers know--and do not know--about the value of high school…

  18. Content Literacy for the 21st Century: Excavation, Elevation, and Relational Cosmopolitanism in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, James S.; Baildon, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the a case for conceptualizing content literacy, especially in social studies, as inquiry-based social practices for understanding and addressing complex, multifaceted problems. Two core practices especially needed for a Web-dominated 21st century are then described--excavation and elevation. Next, these two practices are…

  19. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  20. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…