Science.gov

Sample records for 22-29 petroleum products

  1. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  2. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  4. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  5. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  6. Petroleum production operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book is a study of petroleum production written for those with technical expertise between novice and professional. Covers petroleum reservoirs and drive mechanisms, well completion, well performance evaluation, primary cementing, perforating, squeeze cementing, packer and tubing forces, problem well analysis, workover methods, workover planning, and beam pumping.

  7. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  8. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  9. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  10. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  11. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  12. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  13. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  14. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  15. 28 CFR 22.29 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanctions. 22.29 Section 22.29 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.29 Sanctions. Where BJA, OJJDP, BJS, NIJ, or OJP believes that a violation of section 812(a) of the Act...

  16. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  18. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  1. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  2. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  3. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  4. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  5. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  6. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  7. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  8. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  9. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  10. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  11. A Course in Fundamentals of Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dullien, F. A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a course designed to introduce the average chemical engineer, who has only a minimum familiarity with the concepts of capillarity and flow through porous media (and none at all with reservoir engineering concepts) to petroleum production engineering. Includes course outline indicating technical content of the course. (Author/JN)

  12. Vocational-Technical Course in Petroleum Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Myron A.

    A project was designed to develop a vocational course to satisfy an industry request for trained manpower in petroleum production. During phase one the feasibility was studied, formal instruction determined, an instructor named, site located and secured, and students selected for the class. A three-year trade and industrial level course for…

  13. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  14. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  15. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  16. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  17. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable...

  18. 31 CFR 542.208 - Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.208 Section 542.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 542.208 Prohibited importation of petroleum or...

  19. Analysis for petroleum products in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, D. C.; Krahn, M. M.; Brown, D. W.; MacLeod, W. D.; Collier, T. K.

    1980-03-01

    Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that readily undergo chemical and biological conversions on entering aquatic environments. These conversions lead to the formation of a host of oxygenated products, some of which are potentially toxic to marine life and to the consumer of fishery products. State-of-the-art analytical methods, as employed in our laboratories, utilize glass-capillary gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry to analyze environmental samples containing trace amounts of aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. These procedures are applied on a routine basis to the analysis of seawater, sediments and tissues of marine organisms. Despite this analytical proficiency, a need exists for analyzing oxygenated and other polar petroleum products in environmental samples. For example, techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in conjunction with on-line fluorometric assay techniques and mass spectrometry, make possible the analysis of polar oxygenated compounds resulting from both chemical and biological conversions. These methodologies are first steps toward the development of routine assay procedures for environmental samples. Current techniques for hydrocarbon analyses and new methods for analyzing polar aromatic compounds are discussed.

  20. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  1. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  2. World petroleum-derived sulfur production

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, A.

    1982-08-02

    Research efforts in new uses for sulfur, among them those of the Sulfur Development Institute of Canada, have resulted in the development of several new product markets. Petroleum and natural gas derived sulfurs are finding use as asphalt extenders in road construction throughout North America and as concrete extenders and substitutes for Portland cement in the construction industries of Mexico and the Middle East. Their use in masonry blocks is now being commercialized. Canada is the world's largest producer of commercial sulfur; 80% of it is used as a processing chemical in the form of sulfuric acid. Saudi Arabia, recently having begun to commercialize its vast resources, is constructing plants for the extraction of sulfur from natural gas and plans to export between 6 and 7 x 10/sup 5/ tons annually, much of it for fertilizer manufacture to India, Tunisia, Italy, Pakistan, Greece, Morocco, and Thailand.

  3. Solids production and control in petroleum recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, B.F.; Adamache, I.; Leopold, G.

    1996-12-31

    Reservoir solids may be produced during exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Solids management practices depend on the nature of the reservoir and the produced fluids. For conventional oil and gas reservoirs, operators normally have focused on prevention or control of solids influx into production wells. In Canada, exploitation of heavy oil reservoirs has been found to be more effective when solids are produced. Solids production from conventional oil and gas reservoirs can have detrimental effects on well productivity and equipment. Therefore, the practice has been to attempt to prevent or control solids influx into the wells by using screens, gravel packs, or other means to restrict solids flow. If, when, where, and how to install solids control systems are governed by both cost and risk factors. From a solids management point of view, production of heavy oil from unconsolidated formations poses different challenges than conventional oil and gas production. Production of large quantities of solids is critical for maintaining the productivity of wells in heavy oil reservoirs. This has necessitated the development of special pumping systems to transport fluids with high solids content. Many reservoirs are now being exploited by horizontal wells, which have long horizontal contact with the reservoir. Solids control methods for horizontal wells have been adapted from those used in vertical wells. Special techniques and equipment have been developed to remove deposited solids from horizontal wells. Specially designed equipment and techniques are required for the surface handling of high solids cut fluids. Separation, cleaning, and disposal of produced solids can be costly, especially if the solids must be oil-free to satisfy environmental regulations. 138 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran, The

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared in fulfillment of Section 1245(d)(4)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012, which requires that, not later than 60 days from enactment and every 60 days thereafter, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) "submit to Congress a report on the availability and price of petroleum and petroleum products produced in countries other than Iran in the 60-day period preceding the submission of the report."

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  6. Determination of vanadium in petroleum and petroleum products using atomic spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Fábio A C; Welz, Bernhard; Costa, Antônio C S; Lepri, Fábio G; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Ferreira, Sérgio L C

    2007-04-30

    Vanadium is recognized worldwide as the most abundant metallic constituent in petroleum. It is causing undesired side effects in the refining process, and corrosion in oil-fired power plants. Consequently, it is the most widely determined metal in petroleum and its derivatives. This paper offers a critical review of analytical methods based on atomic spectrometric techniques, particularly flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition an overview is provided of the sample pretreatment and preparation procedures for vanadium determination in petroleum and petroleum products. Also included are the most recent studies about speciation and fractionation analysis using atomic spectrometric techniques.

  7. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... offices shall be in accordance with FPMR 41 CFR 101-26.602. When contractors are authorized, consistent... CFR 101-26.602. ... petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  13. Use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael

    1991-07-01

    On-line discrimination between arbitrary petroleum products is necessary for optimal control of petroleum refinery and pipeline operation and process control involving petroleum distillates. There are a number of techniques by which petroleum products can be distinguished from one another. Among these, optical measurements offer fast, non-intrusive, real-time characterization. The application examined here involves optically monitoring the interface between dissimilar batches of fluids in a gasoline pipeline. After examination of near- infrared and mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was chosen as the best candidate for implementation. On- line FTIR data is presented, verifying the applicability of the technique for batch interface detection.

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.602-2 - Procurement of packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products. 101-26.602-2 Section 101-26.602-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... petroleum products. (a) Packaged petroleum products listed in Federal Supply Catalog for Civil Agencies.... Requisitions for packaged petroleum items not in this catalog and not otherwise included in Defense Fuel...

  19. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil.

  20. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. PMID:26378365

  1. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    PubMed

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  2. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  4. 1989 annual book of ASTM standards. Section 5: Petroleum products, lubricants and fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume of standards pertains to petroleum products and lubricants and to catalysts. The standards presented include: Standard test method for estimation of net and gross heat of combustion of petroleum fuels; Standard guide for generation and dissipation of static electricity in petroleum fuel systems; and Standard test method for solidification point of petroleum wax.

  5. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  6. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  7. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  8. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  9. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  10. 77 FR 2308 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger... of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Altol Petroleum Product Service, Parque Industrial Sabanetas, Edificio M-...

  11. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  12. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  13. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  14. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  15. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  17. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loading or dispensing petroleum products. 105.45-1... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Special Operating Requirements § 105.45-1 Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter...

  18. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  19. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  20. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  1. 77 FR 2308 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial... approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, Altol Petroleum Product Service, Calle Gregorio Ledesma HN-55 Urb....

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  3. Standard test method for saponification number of petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products that will saponify under the conditions of the test. Since compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements which are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crank-case oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted in this respect. Summary of method: a known weight of the sample, dissolved in methylethylketone is heated with a known amount of alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH). The excess alkali is titrated with standard acid and the saponification number calculated.

  4. [Study of the integral toxicity of aqueous media, polluted by petroleum and petroleum products using bacterial tests].

    PubMed

    Fomchenkov, V M; Irkhina, I A; Novikov, I A; Gurov, B N; Chugunov, V A; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    A biotest kit was used to assess the integral toxicity level of aquatic medium contamination with petroleum and petroleum-based products. The integral toxicity dynamics was also monitored during biodegradation of petroleum and petroleum-based products by an association of petroleum-degrading strains including Acinetobacter sp., Mycobacterium flavescens, and Rhodococcus sp. The following bacterial tests were used: the bioluminescence (BL) test based on Photobacterium leiognathi; electro-orientation (EO), optoosmotic (OO), and growth test; as well as the reducing activity (RA) test based on the Agrobacterium radiobacter culture. No significant increase in the integral toxicity level of aquatic medium was observed when diesel fuel and kerosene contamination had been subjected to biodegradation. Although express biotests (EO, OO, RA, and BL) detected a pronounced increase in the integral toxicity of aquatic medium, long-term growth biotest revealed no statistically significant increase in the toxicity level.

  5. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  6. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  7. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  8. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  9. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  10. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  11. Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

  12. Phototoxicity of petroleum products to marine invertebrate larvae and niles

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.; Ho, K.; Kuhn, A; McKinney, R.; Ryba, S.

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet light can activate certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), inducing the production of free radicals. In biological organisms these free radicals destroy tissues, causing up to a 4,000 fold increase in toxicity. This dramatic response is a potential marker for PAH contamination in environmental samples. Ultraviolet enhancement of toxicity has ecological relevance as well. An oil spill can release large amounts of PAHs into the marine environment. Oil spill assessments to date have not included observations of any phototoxic effect on pelagic larvae or juveniles of benthic or epibenthic invertebrates. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia were exposed to individual PAHs, as well as the water accommodated fractions of several petroleum products to verify the ability of this method to detect PAHs in environmental samples, and to determine if phototoxicity is a concern during and after an oil spill. Significant phototoxicity was seen in both single chemical and petroleum product exposures. Swartz`s EPAH model was not applicable to the authors` results. They hoped to show causality but were not fully successful due to the need to further develop the model with their species and expand the number of PAH analyzed.

  13. 49 CFR 22.29 - DOT access to participating lenders files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT access to participating lenders files. 22.29...) Participating Lenders § 22.29 DOT access to participating lenders files. A Participating Lender must allow the authorized representatives of DOT OSDBU, as well as representatives of the Office of Inspector General...

  14. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakorenko, N. N.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  15. Petroleum production and exploration in Ouachita region of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Suneson, N.H.; Campbell, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Petroleum production in the Ouachita region of southeastern Oklahoma occurs in three geographic areas parallel to regional structure. The frontal gas, central oil, and central gas belts are distinguished by differences in structural setting, reservoir strata, and types of hydrocarbons. In the frontal belt, nearly 1 trillion ft/sup 3/ of dry gas has been produced from thrusted and subthrust Morrowan and Atokan sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Over 8000 bbl of oil have been produced in the central oil belt, southeast of the Ti Valley fault. Structures consist of imbricate thrusts and isoclinal to overturned folds. The fields are typically small, associated with asphaltite or tar sands, and produce from Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs. Farther southeast, small fields within the central gas belt have produced minor gas from Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian reservoirs. Six Ordovician through Mississippian Ouachita-facies shales are potential petroleum source rocks and occur in the middle to lower part of the oil window. However, Devonian and Mississippian strata are composed primarily of terrestrial organic matter and are probably gas prone. Oil in Carboniferous reservoirs probably migrated upward stratigraphically from older sources. Recent exploration has focused on extending production from Pennsylvanian reservoirs in the frontal gas belt. However, a significant Arbuckle discovery (ARCO 2 Yourman) and a Broken Bow uplift test (Sohio 1-22 Weyerhauser) in 1987 indicate that Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group carbonates may be prospective beneath all of the Oklahoma Ouachitas. Near-future rank-wildcat exploration will probably focus on subthrust, structurally and stratigraphically favorable Arbuckle plays.

  16. Mass fragmentographic determination of polymethylbiphenyl in foods contaminated with petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, K.

    1981-06-01

    Biphenyl has been used for a long time as a fungistat to prevent decay of fresh citrus fruits. Since petroleum oils contain polymethylbiphenyl (PMBP), foods contaminated with petroleum products from various sources will also contain it. We have previously reported an analytical method for polymethylnaphthalene (PMN) and polymethylphenanthrene (PMP) which could be quite useful as a fingerprinting identification to indicate petroleum contamination of marine organisms. The objectives of this study were to determine PMN and PMP to confirm the petroleum contamination of foods and also to describe a procedure for determining PMBP in several foods by means of mass fragmentography (MF).

  17. Petroleum production structures: economic resources for Louisiana sport divers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.J.; Thompson, M.E.

    1983-08-01

    The era of expanding petroleum production from marine waters began 12 miles off the Louisiana coast in 1947 with a joint operation. Since then, the expansion of drilling and production operations has continued until, in 1981, approximately 3,500 structures were located in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the total number of structures, federal and state waters off Louisiana contain 3,100. Scientific articles dealing with the role of structures in marine habitat and their relationship to sport fishing in the Gulf of Mexico increased over the decade. This newly publicized beneficial aspect of structures is particularly important to the marine fishery off Louisiana. The structures (to which Dugas et al. attribute 'nearly all of the offshore sport fishery') are called as platforms in their description: These platforms are supported by a prewelded framework of steel pipe. Structures in other areas of the country also attract marine life and sport fishermen. Catch rates by sport fishermen were two to three times higher near structures off California than near natural reefs. (Turner et al. 1969). This may be the result of the 'fish-concentrating' nature of structures.

  18. Petroleum-specific analytical and interpretive techniques for product identification and source allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, D.T.; Uhler, A.D.; Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    As a class, petroleum and refined petroleum products represent the single largest source of contamination to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Petroleum products including crude oil and a wide spectrum of refined petroleum products are accidentally released by a variety of mechanisms including surface spills, tanker accidents, storage tank leaks, and pipeline ruptures. In many cases, the petroleum and other hydrocarbon products discovered in impacted environments usually cannot be readily linked to a source, because the products are often complex mixtures of various hydrocarbon-based components. The identification of hydrocarbon products in the environment is further confounded by complex physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that alter the fresh hydrocarbons through processes known collectively as weathering. The dilution, mixing, transport, and weathering of these hydrocarbon materials in the environment renders them very different in composition and appearance from their original source materials. This paper describes the use of EPA methods of analysis that have been modified for measurement of a large suite of petrogenic organic compounds that can be used for sensitive measurement of fresh and degraded petroleum in environmental samples ranging from volatile products such as gasoline to heavy crude oils. Petroleum specific data is reduced using multivariate chemometric techniques including hierarchal cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis to evaluate linkage between the samples and likely petroleum source products. Combined with high quality, petroleum specific data, these analysis techniques offer unparalleled means of identifying materials, differentiating between similar products such as gasolines, and linking contaminated samples to sources. Examples of the use of the methods to deduce sources of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel to terrestrial spills will be presented.

  19. Soil contamination by petroleum products. Southern Algerian case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, Amina; Boutoutaou, Djamel; Segaï, Sofiane; Segni, Ladjel

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of soil by petroleum products is a current problem in several countries in the world. In Algeria, this negative phenomenon is highly remarked in Saharan region. Numerous studies at the University of Ouargla that we will review in this paper, have tried to find an effective solution to eliminate the hydrocarbons from the soil by the technique of "biodegradation" which is a natural process based on microorganisms such as Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presence of aboriginal strain Bacillus megaterium in the soil samples with different ages of contamination has shown a strong degradation of pollutants. This strain chosen for its short time of generation which is performing as seen the best yields of elimination of hydrocarbons assessed at 98 % biostimule by biosurfactant, also 98% on a sample wich bioaugmente by urea, and 86 % of the sample which biostimule by nutrient solution. The rate of biodegradation of the contaminated soil by crude oil using the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa is higher in the presence of biosurfactant 53 % that in his absence 35 %. Another elimination technique wich is washing the contaminated soil's sample by centrifugation in the presence of biosurfactant where The rate of hydrocarbons mobilized after washing soil by centrifugation is of 50 % and 76 % but without centrifugation it was of 46% to 79%. Those processes have great capacity in the remobilization of hydrocarbons and acceleration of their biodegradation; thus, they deserve to be further developed in order to prevent environmental degradation in the region of Ouargla.

  20. Structural evolution and petroleum productivity of the Baltic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Baltic basin is an oval depression located in the western part of the Russian craton; it occupies the eastern Baltic Sea and adjacent onshore areas. The basin contains more than 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks ranging from latest Proterozoic to Tertiary in age. These rocks consist of four tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited during major tectonic episodes of basin evolution. Principal unconformities separate the sequences. The basin is underlain by a rift probably filled with Upper Proterozoic rocks. Vendian and Lower Cambrian rocks (Baikalian sequence) form two northeast-trending depressions. The principal stage of the basin development was during deposition of a thick Middle Cambrian-Lower Devonian (Caledonian) sequence. This stage was terminated by the most intense deformations in the basin history. The Middle Devonian-Carboniferous (Hercynian) and Permian-Tertiary (Kimmerian-Alpine) tectonic and depositional cycles only slightly modified the basin geometry and left intact the main structural framework of underlying rocks. The petroleum productivity of the basin is related to the Caledonian tectonostratigraphic sequence that contains both source rocks and reservoirs. However, maturation of source rocks, migration of oil, and formation of fields took place mostly during deposition of the Hercynian sequence.

  1. Sixth special price report: world petroleum-product prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-11

    Twice annually, Energy Detente accesses its own twice-monthly supplement, the Fuel Price/Tax Series, for an overview of how prices and taxes for refined petroleum products from natural gas to asphalt for end-users are changing. In this issue, it also updates its review of individual nations' pricing as to controls or free-market practices. The front cover chart reveals that, in terms of US dollars, the world average price of regular leaded (RL) gasoline is US $1.63, and high-octane leaded is US $1.78 - a difference of about 9%. A table details RL retail prices, the taxes pertaining to them, the percentages that those taxes are of prices, plus the January 1983 prices and the price change in US dollars over the period. In terms of US dollars, most price changes since January 1983 appear negative - particularly in the cases of Bolivia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. A view of actual market price changes in terms of national currencies is depicted in another table. The fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices are presented for January 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  2. Use of petroleum reside for production of ion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokonova, Y.V.

    1995-03-10

    Weakly acidic commercial cation exchangers with a static exchange capacity of 4.8-6.7 meq{center_dot}{sup -1} and a mechanical strength of 90% have been synthesized from petroleum asphaltites, resorcinol, and furfural.

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  8. Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  10. 78 FR 57406 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of... chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR...

  11. 78 FR 57407 - Approval of Altol Petroleum Product Service, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of... and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.13....

  12. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  13. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  14. Changes in the mutagenicity of petroleum products undergoing bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; Claxton, L.D.

    1995-11-01

    As EPA, industry, and others promote the use of bioremediation as a treatment alternative for environmental contamination, the health risks of such cleanup efforts must be assessed. Conversions of toxic constituents to metabolic intermediates and byproducts can result in fluctuations in toxicity over time. We have examined this process by studying the microbial degradation of petroleum products in the field and in the laboratory. For the field study, we evaluated 2 accidental releases (a coastal oil spill and a refinery leak) in which biodegradation was achieved by accelerating the proliferation of indigenous soil microbes through application of nutrient formulations. Soil samples were collected before, during, and after in situ treatment, and organics were extracted from the soils by sonication with dichloromethane (DCM). The extracts were tested for mutagenicity using the spiral Salmonella assay. Results indicated that the mutagenicity of the oil-impacted beaches depended on soil composition, nutrient formulation, and natural removal processes such as wave action. The mutagenicity of the refinery fuel-impacted soils was related to depth of collection, water table location, and levels of BTEX contamination. For the laboratory study, we evaluated the bio-degradation of 3 crude oils by 2 species of fungi combined in flasks of mineral salts. Flasks were incubated at 30{degrees}C for up to one month, and contents were extracted with DCM at 2-day intervals and tested for mutagenic activity. An oil that was highly mutagenic became nonmutagenid in as few as 5-6 days of treatment, while a nonmutagenic oil became mutagenic over time.

  15. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  16. Rhodococcus sp. F92 immobilized on polyurethane foam shows ability to degrade various petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Quek, Eugene; Ting, Yen-Peng; Tan, Hai Meng

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the immobilization and performance of a hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism on polyurethane foam (PUF) in the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The ability of four different microorganisms to immobilize on PUF and to degrade various petroleum products (Arabian light crude (ALC), Al-Shaheen crude (ASC), diesel and oil slops) was assessed by measuring the n-alkane fraction remaining in the petroleum products over time. A Rhodococcus sp. (designated as F92) had the highest number of immobilized viable cells (10(9) cells per cm3 PUF) and a maximum attachment efficiency of 90% on PUF of a density of 14 kg/m3. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of extracellular structures that could play an important role in the immobilization of F92 on PUF. Analysis by GC-MS revealed that both free and immobilized F92 cells were able to degrade approximately 90% of the total n-alkanes in the petroleum products tested within 1 week at 30 degrees C. Rhodococcus sp. F92 was efficiently immobilized onto PUF and the immobilized cells were able to degrade a variety of petroleum products such as ALC, ASC, diesel and oil slops. The results suggest the potential of using PUF-immobilized Rhodococcus sp. F92 to bioremediate petroleum hydrocarbons in an open marine environment.

  17. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  18. Fundamentals of petroleum. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gerding, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: Petroleum Geology; Petroleum Exploration; Aspects of Leasing; Drilling Operations; Production; Transportation; Refining and Processing; Petroleum Marketing; and Economics of the Industry.

  19. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Travaglini, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

  20. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  1. Separations of petroleum products involving supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, Didier

    2012-08-24

    This paper gives a survey of the most attractive trends and applications of supercritical fluid chromatography in the petroleum industry: simulated distillation, group-type analysis and related applications including the implementation of multidetection in a so-called "hypernated" system, as well as the hyphenation to GC×GC for improved group-type separation, SFC×GC and first promising SFC×SFC results. Some specific technical information related to the use of capillary columns or conventional packed columns in combination with FID (or detectors that require decompression and in some instances splitting of the mobile phase prior detection) is also provided.

  2. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production Onshore petroleum...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... some portion of biomass-based fuel, the carbon share in Table MM-1 of this subpart represents only the petroleum-based components. 2 Products that are derived entirely from biomass should not be reported, but products that were derived from both biomass and a petroleum product (i.e., co-processed) should...

  5. [Determination of aromatics in light petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) have been used widely, and the applications of this technique to many fields have already been reported. In the standard method of oil analysis, the concentrations of aromatics and naphthalene hydrocarbons in light petroleum products must be detected by more than two methods. Mono-aromatics, di-aromatics etc. in light petroleum products were detected only by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. After the proper selection of column system and optimization of chromatographic conditions, the method can achieve the group separations of paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, aromatics with 1 to 2 rings and some target components in light petroleum products with good reproducibility and good precision. The recoveries of standard compounds were 89.5% - 106.1%, and the relative standard deviations of repeatedly detecting the components were all lower than 5.8%. It took only 30 min to finish a determination.

  6. Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration for and production of petroleum have caused major detrimental impacts to soils, surface and ground waters, and the local ecosystems in the United States. These impacts arise primarily from the improper disposal of large volumes of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were not correctly sealed. It is important to understand the long-term and short-term effects of produced water and hydrocarbon releases from these sites in order to develop risk-based remediation plans. Remediation is particularly needed in aging and depleted fields where land use is changing from petroleum production to residential, agricultural or recreational uses. About 20 scientists from the USGS and other governmental agencies and academia are involved in a multidisciplinary investigation to study the transport, fate, and natural attenuation of inorganic salts, trace metals, organic compounds and radionuclides present in produced water, and their impacts at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) 'A' and 'B' sites, located on the Osage Reservation in Osage County, Oklahoma. Stakeholders in the project include the Osage Nation, which holds the mineral rights, the Bureau of Indian Affairs with trust responsibility, and the Army Corps of Engineers, which owns the surface rights at these sites and manages adjacent Skiatook Lake. The 4250-hectare Skiatook Lake provides drinking water to local Tulsa suburban communities and a rural water district, and offers recreational fishing and boating opportunities to tens of thousands of visitors each year. Approximately 1.5 and 1.0 hectare of land at the OSPER 'A' (depleted Lester lease) and 'B' (active Branstetter lease) sites, respectively, are affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization and brine and petroleum contamination due to the leakage of produced water and associated hydrocarbons from brine pits and accidental

  7. Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  14. Identification of refined petroleum products in contaminated soils using an identification index for GC chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Seunghak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrocarbons found in the environment are typically characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The shape of the GC chromatogram has been used to identify the source of petroleum contamination. However, the conventional practice of simply comparing the peak patterns of source products to those of environmental samples is dependent on the subjective decisions of individual analysts. We have developed and verified a quantitative analytical method for interpreting GC chromatograms to distinguish refined petroleum products in contaminated soils. We found that chromatograms for gasoline, kerosene, and diesel could be divided into three ranges with boundaries at C6, C8, C16, and C26. In addition, the relative peak area (RPA(GC)) of each range, a dimensionless ratio of the peak area within each range to that of the total range (C6-C26), had a unique value for each petroleum product. An identification index for GC chromatograms (ID(GC)), defined as the ratio of RPA(GC) of C8-C16 to that of C16-C26, was able to identify diesel and kerosene sources in samples extracted from artificially contaminated soils even after weathering. Thus, the ID(GC) can be used to effectively distinguish between refined petroleum products in contaminated soils.

  15. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 1. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SELECTED OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicomponent composition and corresponding physical properties data of crude oils and petroleum products are needed as input to environmental fate simulations. Complete sets of such data, however, are not available in the literature due to the complexity and expense of making t...

  17. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  18. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... case of products blended with some portion of biomass-based fuel, the carbon share in Table MM-1 of... biomass should not be reported, but products that were derived from both biomass and a petroleum...

  19. Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the laboratory determination, using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), of API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure (Method D 323, or IP 69) of 26 lb or less. Values are measured on a hydrometer at convenient temperatures, reading of density being reduced to 15/sup 0/C, and readings of relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity to 60/sup 0/F, by means of international standard tables. By means of these same tables, values determined in any one of the three systems of measurement are convertible to equivalent values in either of the other two so that measurements may be made in the units of local convenience.

  20. World sulfur production: Petroleum derived as of January 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Data are presented on world sulfur production by company within each country. The table lists the source of the sulfur (refinery gases, natural gas, acid gas, sour gas, oil sands, associated gas, or resid asphalt), the type of process used to recovery the sulfur, plant design capacity, and production. Processes include Claus, chlorination, Scot, Sulfinol, Sulfreen, modified Claus, bed absorption, MDEA-LoCat, Selectox, Parsons, SNEA, Comprimo, Uhde, Stretford, and Wellman-Lord.

  1. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  2. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  3. Modeling fish production for southern California's petroleum platforms.

    PubMed

    Pondella, Daniel J; Zahn, Laurel A; Love, Milton S; Siegel, David; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's oil platforms are nearing the end of their productive lives and therefore will be decommissioned in the near future. These structures have been shown to be important habitats for both settlement and growth for reef fishes. Important information on the biological effects (i.e., loss of biomass and production) of different decommissioning options has not yet been explored in detail. An important step in the assessment of these different decommissioning options is to look at the potential loss of fish production and habitat under the different alternatives. Using the large amount of information available on fish abundances at these structures, we have created a model to estimate the standing stock of fishes and production that would be lost because of both partial (removal from surface to 85 ft) and complete removal (the 2 decommissioning options being considered). Complete removal of a platform will likely eliminate most of its fish biomass; however, this study has shown that for rockfishes, which settle predominantly below 85 feet (26 m) and move deeper as they age, partial removal through topping would leave more than 90% of the fish biomass at the deeper platforms. Modeling of larval dispersal suggests that platforms provide an important opportunity for recruitment of fish larvae and that many larvae produced near the platforms would settle elsewhere in the region. The results presented here indicate that, even if topped, the potential contribution of platform habitat to biological resources (e.g., fish production) in this region is significant. PMID:26331484

  4. Modeling fish production for southern California's petroleum platforms.

    PubMed

    Pondella, Daniel J; Zahn, Laurel A; Love, Milton S; Siegel, David; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's oil platforms are nearing the end of their productive lives and therefore will be decommissioned in the near future. These structures have been shown to be important habitats for both settlement and growth for reef fishes. Important information on the biological effects (i.e., loss of biomass and production) of different decommissioning options has not yet been explored in detail. An important step in the assessment of these different decommissioning options is to look at the potential loss of fish production and habitat under the different alternatives. Using the large amount of information available on fish abundances at these structures, we have created a model to estimate the standing stock of fishes and production that would be lost because of both partial (removal from surface to 85 ft) and complete removal (the 2 decommissioning options being considered). Complete removal of a platform will likely eliminate most of its fish biomass; however, this study has shown that for rockfishes, which settle predominantly below 85 feet (26 m) and move deeper as they age, partial removal through topping would leave more than 90% of the fish biomass at the deeper platforms. Modeling of larval dispersal suggests that platforms provide an important opportunity for recruitment of fish larvae and that many larvae produced near the platforms would settle elsewhere in the region. The results presented here indicate that, even if topped, the potential contribution of platform habitat to biological resources (e.g., fish production) in this region is significant.

  5. [Evaluation of the efficiency of Angara River water protection measures against pollution by petroleum products].

    PubMed

    Zabuga, G A; Katul'skiĭ, Iu N; Gorbunova, O V; Storozheva, L N

    2011-01-01

    The process installations and storage reservoirs of a petroleum refinery have leaks of petroleum products (PP) that pollute soil, underground waters, and eventually nearest water objects, by worsening their hygienic state. Environmental and economic assessments of the Angara River water protection system that is in operation at the petroleum refinery OAO "Angara Petroleum Company", which comprises well clusters, a gravel-filled trench, and a drainage system, have shown the high values of preventable relative natural and economic damages and other economic indicators. At the same time, comparison of the amount of PPs accumulated at the industrial site with their annual withdrawal has demonstrated a need for further development of a river protection system. Therefore the environmental protection system efficacy evaluated by the quality of goal attainment and by means of a matrix of algorithmized statements was 60% or 5 of 20 scores, which shows the necessity of special measures to protect Angara River waters. The elaboration and implementation of these measures associated with considerable expenditures make it possible not only to increase the environmental efficiency of water protection of the Angara River, but also to do the hygienic quality of water use in its related localities.

  6. Assessing Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant effects on the biodegradation of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pollutant removal capabilities can be determined and exploited to accomplish bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments. Thus, increasing knowledge on environmental behavior of different petroleum products can lead to better bioremediation strategies. Biodegradation can be enhanced by adding biosurfactants to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism consortia. This work aimed to improve petroleum products biodegradation by using a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis. The produced biosurfactant was added to biodegradation assays containing crude oil, diesel, and kerosene. Biodegradation was monitored by a respirometric technique capable of evaluating CO₂ production in an aerobic simulated wastewater environment. The biosurfactant yielded optimal surface tension reduction (30.9 mN m(-1)) and emulsification results (46.90% with kerosene). Biodegradation successfully occurred and different profiles were observed for each substance. Precise mathematical modeling of biosurfactant effects on petroleum degradation profile was designed, hence allowing long-term kinetics prediction. Assays containing biosurfactant yielded a higher overall CO₂ output. Higher emulsification and an enhanced CO2 production dataset on assays containing biosurfactants was observed, especially in crude oil and kerosene.

  7. Corrosion consequences and inhibition of galvanic couples in petroleum production equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Electrochemical potential and polarization behavior measurements made in the laboratory, along with zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) measurements made under laboratory and field conditions, were used to delineate galvanic behavior in petroleum production equipment. These measurements, confirmed by electrode weight loss data, were used to predict corrosion rates for brass/carbon steel and stainless steel/carbon steel couples in the presence and absence of a corrosion inhibitor.

  8. Bioremediation treatability studies for soils containing herbicides, chemicals, and petroleum products. (Includes technical summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nies, L.; Mesarch, M.

    1996-09-16

    Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST`s) are widespread throughout the United States. Soil contamination by hazardous pollutants may exist at some Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) facilities. Potential pollutants are petroleum products, herbicides and solvents. The primary hazard posed by LUST`s is the possible contamination of ground water, which comprises most of our drinking water supply. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether bioremediation is a feasible treatment option for contaminated INDOT soils.

  9. Production operation of small petroleum enterprises in Tomsk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I.; Filjushin, V.; Shenderova, I.; Kochetkova, O.

    2015-11-01

    Implementing resource-innovative strategy to develop Russian fuel-and-energy sector implies the promotion of small oil production enterprises developing fields with the reserves of less than 5 mln. tons. However, the efficiency of such enterprises, investigated on the example of Tomsk region (considering the indexes of oil extraction, growth of reserves, amount of capital expenditures and geological surveys), signifies the presence of definite tendencies. Consequently, management decisions concerning economic, organizational, financial and fiscal character should be taken in order to eliminate detrimental factors.

  10. 29 CFR 794.137 - Effect of activities other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... distribution of petroleum products.â 794.137 Section 794.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION FOR EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM... other than “wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum products.” As previously noted, in some...

  11. Declining Petroleum Production and the Effect Upon Communities in New Mexico's Permian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, Ryan D.

    The petroleum industry, a vital component of New Mexico's economy, is in a gradual decline. As petroleum production is primarily focused in the southeastern corner of the state, this decline phenomenon is particularly relevant to area residents. The problem addressed in this study was that little information is available regarding the lived experiences of business and community leaders concerning this phenomenon, particularly in terms of future economic sustainability. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to interview a purposive sample of business and community leaders regarding their lived experiences and perceptions relating to the economic sustainability of the region. Research questions asked about the general awareness of the decline of oil production---data collected from federal and state databases---and potential options for alternative economic development. Coded data were analyzed and themes and patterns were identified. Findings included a general lack of awareness of area residents regarding a decline of production, assumed economic stability, and resistance to change based on a lack of incentive. Included in the findings were potential options for strategic economic diversification. Recommendations included a campaign to promote awareness of the decline of oil, provide incentives for change, and economic diversification as method of moving the local economy away from dependence upon the petroleum industry. Implications for positive social change were that the affected region can use the findings to identify sustainable alternative industries to support the communities into the future.

  12. Measurements of radiation level in petroleum products and wastes in Riyadh City Refinery.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, F S; Al-Harshan, G A

    2008-07-01

    Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas facilities. Twenty-seven petroleum samples were collected from Riyadh Refinery. Fourteen samples were products and 13 were waste samples; three of them were scale samples and 10 were sludge samples. The specific radioactivities of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (40)K, and (235)U for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples was estimated. It ranged between 0.574 and 0.154. The age of two scale samples was determined and found to be 2.39 and 3.66 years. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence analysis (XRF) and Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca and Fe were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum wastes were higher than that of the petroleum products.

  13. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  15. Inspection of integrated two-stage liquefaction products by petroleum assay

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Zhou, P.

    1991-12-31

    A series of standard petroleum inspection tests was performed on the net product and fractions thereof from the direct liquefaction of Pittsburgh seam (Ireland Mine) coal. The product examined was generated during Run 259, period G in the catalytic/catalytic, close-coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction operating mode at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Tests Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. In this paper, the results of these inspection tests are reported and compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Qualitative refining requirements are inferred from the data.

  16. Inspection of integrated two-stage liquefaction products by petroleum assay

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A. ); Zhou, P. )

    1991-01-01

    A series of standard petroleum inspection tests was performed on the net product and fractions thereof from the direct liquefaction of Pittsburgh seam (Ireland Mine) coal. The product examined was generated during Run 259, period G in the catalytic/catalytic, close-coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction operating mode at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Tests Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. In this paper, the results of these inspection tests are reported and compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Qualitative refining requirements are inferred from the data.

  17. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  18. Spatially explicit methane emissions from petroleum production and the natural gas system in California.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seongeun; Millstein, Dev; Fischer, Marc L

    2014-05-20

    We present a new, spatially resolved inventory of methane (CH4) emissions based on US-EPA emission factors and publically available activity data for 2010 California petroleum production and natural gas production, processing, transmission, and distribution. Compared to official California bottom-up inventories, our initial estimates are 3 to 7 times higher for the petroleum and natural gas production sectors but similar for the natural gas transmission and distribution sectors. Evidence from published "top-down" atmospheric measurement campaigns within Southern California supports our initial emission estimates from production and processing but indicates emission estimates from transmission and distribution are low by a factor of approximately 2. To provide emission maps with more accurate total emissions we scale the spatially resolved inventory by sector-specific results from a Southern California aircraft measurement campaign to all of California. Assuming uncertainties are determined by the uncertainties estimated in the top-down study, our estimated state total CH4 emissions are 541 ± 144 Gg yr(-1) (as compared with 210.7 Gg yr(-1) in California's current official inventory), where the majority of our reported uncertainty is derived from transmission and distribution. We note uncertainties relative to the mean for a given region are likely larger than that for the State total, emphasizing the need for additional measurements in undersampled regions.

  19. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  20. Inspection of integrated two-stage liquefaction products as petroleum refining feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Zhou, P.

    1991-12-31

    Regardless of the specific technology used to produce transportation fuels from coal, the net product of the liquefaction process will have to undergo additional refining to make finished products. Consequently, there is a need to characterize the material that exits the liquefaction plant as net product and enters the refinery as feed. The net product of the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) process, as practiced at the 6 ton/day (5.5 tonne/day) Wilsonville, Alabama (USA) plant, is a distillable liquid boiling predominantly below 650{degrees}F (343{degrees}C). Products from ITSL operations at the Wilsonville plant were evaluated through the use of standard petroleum tests on several occasions. However, those evaluations were performed on materials generated much earlier in the ITSL campaign and, thus, may not be representative of products generated from the process as it is currently configured. For this work, net products were obtained for analysis from ITSL operations during fully lined-out material balance operating periods.Samples were taken fro Run 259G, which was operated with Ireland Mine coal (hvAb, Pittsburgh seam, West Virginia, USA) and from Run 260D, which was operated with Black Thunder Mine coal (subbituminous, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA). A complete suite of light crude oil assay tests was performed on each sample. These assays included tests on the whole coal liquid, and the separated naphtha (<380{degrees}F/193{degrees}C), jet fuel or kerosene (380{degrees}F/193{degrees}C {times} 510{degrees}F/266{degrees}C), and diesel fuel (>510{degrees}F/266{degrees}C) fractions. The results of the assays were compared against typical petroleum product specifications. The discussion will concentrate on the test results of the bituminous coal product.

  1. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  2. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  3. Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Panko, Julie M; Unice, Ken; Brown, Jay L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2008-09-01

    Benzene may be present as a trace impurity or residual component of mixed petroleum products due to refining processes. In this article, the authors review the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products and characterize the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Analysis showed that products that normally contained less than 0.1% v/v benzene, such as paints and paint solvents, printing solvents and inks, cutting and honing oils, adhesives, mineral spirits and degreasers, and jet fuel typically have yielded time-weighted average (TWA) airborne concentrations of benzene in the breathing zone and surrounding air ranging on average from <0.01 to 0.3 ppm. Except for a limited number of studies where the benzene content of the product was not confirmed to be <0.1% v/v, airborne benzene concentrations were also less than current occupational exposure limits (e.g., threshold limit value of 0.5 ppm and permissible exposure limit of 1.0 ppm) based on exceedance fraction calculations. Exposure modeling using Monte Carlo techniques also predicted 8-hr TWA near field airborne benzene concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.4 ppm under three hypothetical solvent use scenarios involving mineral spirits. The overall weight-of-evidence indicates that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after about 1978 contained <0.1% v/v benzene, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5 ppm under most product use scenarios. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: a document containing exposure modeling scenarios and

  4. Health Effects of Cut Gas Lines and Other Petroleum Product Release Incidents - Seven States, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ayana R

    2015-06-12

    Large mass casualty gas explosions and catastrophic oil spills are widely reported and receive considerable regulatory attention. Smaller, less catastrophic petroleum product releases are less likely to receive publicity, although study of these incidents might help focus and prioritize prevention efforts. To describe the causes and health impacts of petroleum product release incidents (including gas explosions and oil spills), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) analyzed 2010-2012 data from the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP). A total of 1,369 petroleum product release incidents were reported from seven states, resulting in 512 injuries and 36 deaths. Approximately one fourth of the incidents were associated with utilities, and approximately one fifth were associated with private vehicles or residences. Approximately 10% of petroleum product releases resulted from inadvertent damage to utility lines. Understanding the characteristics of acute petroleum product releases can aid the public and utility workers in the development of preventive strategies and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with such releases.

  5. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...--Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 21, 2011, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. (``PIDX'') has filed written notifications... organization is: Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc., Houston, TX. The nature and scope of PIDX's...

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  9. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. Skin tumorigenic potential of crude and refined coal liquids and analogous petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Witschi, H P; Smith, L H; Frome, E L; Pequet-Goad, M E; Griest, W H; Ho, C H; Guerin, M R

    1987-08-01

    The skin tumorigenic potential of seven complex hydrocarbon mixtures was determined: a coal-derived raw blend composed of light and heavy oils, a low- and high-severity hydrotreated product of that blend, and naphthas and fuel oils from the raw blend or from natural petroleum. Male and female C3H/Bdf mice were exposed three times per week to each test mixture by dermal application of 50 microliters of neat, 50, or 25% (w/v) preparations. Room, vehicle, and benzo[alpha]pyrene control groups were run concurrently. The raw blend produced an almost 100% incidence of skin tumors at all three doses while tumorigenicity was considerably decreased by hydrotreating the blend both in terms of incidence and onset. The tumorigenicities of the naphthas and fuel oils derived from the raw blend or from petroleums were low relative to that of the parent mixture. Although tumorigens in the raw blend were much reduced by hydrotreatment, tumorigenicity of the other agents did not parallel the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be good tumor initiators. PMID:3653572

  12. Simulated distillation of petroleum and coal-derived products by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, M.; Johnson, B.R.; Mitchell, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The advantages of simulated distillation (SD) of petroleum compounds by super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC) over high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) are well recognised. Most of the research performed using this technique has employed conventional open tubular columns but the use of packed capillary columns which offer high sample capacities, greater efficiency of separation and a shorter analysis time has recently received much attention. Previous work at Leeds using a variety of column packings (C{sub 1}-C{sub 18} alkyl groups bonded to silica) has demonstrated that high molecular weight hydrocarbons with boiling points up to 800{degrees}C can be successfully eluted with pure CO{sub 2} as a mobile phase. However, the high compositional variability of coal-derived samples increases the difficulty of SD-SFC of coal fractions as compared to petroleum derived fractions. In this study, a number of coal samples have been investigated to determine the suitability of packed capillary SD-SFC for heavy coal products.

  13. Standard test method for ultraviolet absorbance and absorptivity of petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the measurement of the ultraviolet absorption of a variety of petroleum products. It covers the absorbance of liquids of the absorptivity of liquids or the absorptivity of liquids and solids, or both, at wavelengths in the region 220 to 400 nm of the spectrum. The use of this method implies that the conditions of measurement - wavelength, solvent, if any, sample path length, and sample concentration - are specified by reference to one of the examples of the application of this method in the appendixes or by a statement of other conditions of measurement. Examples of the application of this method are the determination of the absorbance of white mineral oil, the absorptivity of refined petroleum wax, and the absorptivity of USP petrolatum. The ultraviolet absorbance of a liquid is determined by measuring the absorption spectrum of the undiluted liquid in a cell of known path length under specified conditions. The ultraviolet absorptivity of a solid or a liquid is determined by measuring the absorbance, at specified wavelengths, of a solution of the liquid or solid at known concentration in a cell of known path length.

  14. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production activities, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, on the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    This Biological Assessment evaluates the potential adverse effects that production activities conducted on the Naval Petroleum Reserveys in California may have on the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). DOE concluded that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of the proposed activities will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species because results of surveys indicated that giant kangaroo rat burrow systems and habitat was initiated; a habitat restoration program was developed and implemented; and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil and waste water spills, restrict off-road vehicle travel, and to regulate public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  16. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  17. Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Song, Linhua; Wu, Pingping; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingyin; Yan, Zifeng

    2014-03-01

    The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60-90°C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370°C, 40min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC-MS and FT-ICR MS techniques. PMID:24445192

  18. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  19. Naval petroleum reserves: Preliminary analysis of future net revenues from Elk Hills production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This is an interim report on the present value of the net revenues from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve. GAO calculated alternative present values of the net revenues applying (1) low, medium, and high forecasts of future crude oil prices and (2) alternative interest rates for discounting the future net revenues to their present values. The calculations are sensitive to both the oil price forecasts and discount rates used; they are preliminary and should be used with caution. They do not take into account possible added tax revenues collected by the government if Elk Hills were sold nor varying production levels and practices, which could either increase or decrease the total amount of oil that can be extracted.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  4. COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS EXPOSURE CRITERIA FOR PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio (mid-Western) and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene (NAPH)-type compou...

  5. DETERMINING BACKGROUND EXPOSURE TO PETROLEUM AND COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: COMPARISON OF MID-WESTERN AND MID-ATLANTIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional background levels of exposure to fish from petroleum and combustion by-products were determined for the state of Ohio and the mid-Atlantic region. Exposures were measured using bile metabolites that fluoresce at 290/335 nm for naphthalene(NAPH)-type compounds and at 380...

  6. Groundwater quality from private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Silcox, Cheryl A.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey provided technical support to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry for site selection and sample collection and analysis in a 2012 investigation of groundwater quality from 29 private domestic water-supply wells in the vicinity of petroleum production in southwestern Indiana. Petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, aromatic volatile organic compounds, methane concentrations greater than 8,800 micrograms per liter, chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter, and gross alpha radioactivity greater than 15 picocuries per liter were reported in the analysis of groundwater samples from 11 wells.

  7. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.J.

    1998-08-03

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests.

  8. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  9. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock. PMID:27573274

  10. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels.

  11. The mammalian toxicological hazards of petroleum-derived substances: an overview of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-derived substances are complex and composed of aliphatic (normal-, iso-, and cycloparaffins), olefinic, and/or aromatic constituents. Approximately 400 of these complex substances were evaluated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge program. The substances were separated into 13 groups (categories), and all available data were assessed. Toxicology testing was conducted as necessary to fully address the end points encompassed by the HPV initiative. In a broad sense, volatile hydrocarbons may cause acute central nervous system effects, and those that are liquids at room temperature pose aspiration hazards if taken into the lungs as liquids and may also cause skin irritation. Higher boiling substances may contain polycyclic aromatic constituents (PACs) that can be mutagenic and carcinogenic and may also cause developmental effects. Substances containing PACs can also cause target organ and developmental effects. The effects of aliphatic constituents include liver enlargement and/or renal effects in male rats via an α-2u-globulin-mediated process and, in some cases, small but statistically significant reductions in hematological parameters. Crude oils may contain other constituents, particularly sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which are removed during refining. Aside from these more generic considerations, some specific petroleum substances may contain unusually toxic constituents including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and/or n-hexane, which should also be taken into account if present at toxicologically relevant levels. PMID:24351873

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Mani, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Benzene exposures among vehicle mechanics in the United States and abroad were characterized using available data from published and unpublished studies. In the United States, the time-weighted-average (TWA) airborne concentration of benzene for vehicle mechanics averaged 0.01-0.05 ppm since at least the late 1970s, with maximal TWA concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm. Benzene exposures were notably lower in the summer than winter and in the Southwest compared to other geographic regions, but significantly higher during known gasoline-related tasks such as draining a gas tank or changing a fuel pump or fuel filter. Measured airborne concentrations of benzene were also generally greater for vehicle mechanics in other countries, likely due to the higher benzene content of gasoline and other factors. Short-term airborne concentrations of benzene frequently exceeded 1 ppm during gasoline-related tasks, but remained below 0.2 ppm for tasks involving other petroleum-derived products such as carburetor and brake cleaner or parts washer solvent. Application of a two-zone mathematical model using reasonable input values from the literature yielded predicted task-based benzene concentrations during gasoline and aerosol spray cleaner scenarios similar to those measured for vehicle mechanics during these types of tasks. When evaluated using appropriate biomarkers, dermal exposures were found to contribute little to total benzene exposures for this occupational group. Available data suggest that vehicle mechanics have not experienced significant exposures to benzene in the workplace, except perhaps during short-duration gasoline-related tasks, and full-shift benzene exposures have remained well below current and contemporaneous occupational exposure limits. These findings are consistent with epidemiology studies of vehicle mechanics, which have not demonstrated an increased risk of benzene-induced health effects in this cohort of workers. Data and information presented

  14. Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Mani, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Benzene exposures among vehicle mechanics in the United States and abroad were characterized using available data from published and unpublished studies. In the United States, the time-weighted-average (TWA) airborne concentration of benzene for vehicle mechanics averaged 0.01-0.05 ppm since at least the late 1970s, with maximal TWA concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm. Benzene exposures were notably lower in the summer than winter and in the Southwest compared to other geographic regions, but significantly higher during known gasoline-related tasks such as draining a gas tank or changing a fuel pump or fuel filter. Measured airborne concentrations of benzene were also generally greater for vehicle mechanics in other countries, likely due to the higher benzene content of gasoline and other factors. Short-term airborne concentrations of benzene frequently exceeded 1 ppm during gasoline-related tasks, but remained below 0.2 ppm for tasks involving other petroleum-derived products such as carburetor and brake cleaner or parts washer solvent. Application of a two-zone mathematical model using reasonable input values from the literature yielded predicted task-based benzene concentrations during gasoline and aerosol spray cleaner scenarios similar to those measured for vehicle mechanics during these types of tasks. When evaluated using appropriate biomarkers, dermal exposures were found to contribute little to total benzene exposures for this occupational group. Available data suggest that vehicle mechanics have not experienced significant exposures to benzene in the workplace, except perhaps during short-duration gasoline-related tasks, and full-shift benzene exposures have remained well below current and contemporaneous occupational exposure limits. These findings are consistent with epidemiology studies of vehicle mechanics, which have not demonstrated an increased risk of benzene-induced health effects in this cohort of workers. Data and information presented

  15. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    PubMed

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016. PMID:26588432

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  19. Maps showing petroleum exploration intensity and production in major Cambrian to Ordovician reservoir rocks in the Anadarko Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitch; Hester, Tim

    1996-01-01

    The Anadarko basin is a large, deep, two-stage Paleozoic basin (Feinstein, 1981) that is petroleum rich and generally well explored. The Anadarko basin province, a geogrphic area used here mostly for the convenience of mapping and data management, is defined by political boundaries that include the Anadarko basin proper. The boundaries of the province are identical to those used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1995 National Assessment of United Stated Oil and Gas Resources. The data in this report, also identical to those used in the national assessment, are from several computerized data bases including Nehring Research Group (NRG) Associates Inc., Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States (1992); Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Well History Control System (1991); and Petroleum Information (PI), Inc., Petro-ROM: Production data on CD-ROM (1993). Although generated mostly in response to the national assessment, the data presented here arc grouped differently and arc displayed and described in greater detail. In addition, the stratigraphic sequences discussed may not necessarily correlate with the "plays" of the 1995 national assessment. This report uses computer-generated maps to show drilling intensity, producing wells, major fields, and other geologic information relevant to petroleum exploration and production in the lower Paleozoic part of the Anadarko basin province as defined for the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 national petroleum assessment. Hydrocarbon accumulations must meet a minimum standard of 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO) or 6 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG) estimated ultimate recovery to be included in this report as a major field or revoir. Mapped strata in this report include the Upper Cambrian to Lower Ordovician Arbuckle and Low Ordovician Ellenburger Groups, the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group, and the Middle to Upper Ordovician Viola Group.

  20. Stimulating in situ surfactant production to increase contaminant bioavailability and augment bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haws, N. W.; Bentley, H. W.; Yiannakakis, A.; Bentley, A. J.; Cassidy, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of a bioremediation strategy is largely dependent on relationships between contaminant sequestration (geochemical limitations) and microbial degradation potential (biological limitations). As contaminant bioavailability becomes mass transfer limited, contaminant removal will show less sensitivity to biodegradation enhancements without concurrent enhancements to rates of mass transfer into the bioavailable phase. Implementing a strategy that can simultaneously address geochemical and biological limitations is motivated by a subsurface zone of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons (LPH) contamination that is in excess of 10 acres (40,000 sq. meters). Biodegradation potential at the site is high; however, observed biodegradation rates are generally low, indicative of bioavailability limitations (e.g., low aqueous solubilities, nutrient deficiencies, and/or mass transfer limitations), and estimates indicate that bioremediation (i.e., biosparging/bioventing) with unaugmented biodegradation may be unable to achieve the remedial objectives within an acceptable time. Bench-scale experiments using soils native to the site provide evidence that, in addition to nutrient additions, a pulsed oxygen delivery can increase biodegradation rates by stimulating the microbial production of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), leading to a reduction in surface tension and an increase in contaminant bioavailability. Pilot-scale tests at the field site are evaluating the effectiveness of stimulating in situ biosurfactant production using cyclic biosparging. The cyclic sparging creates extended periods of alternating aerobic and oxygen-depleted conditions in the submerged smear zone. The increased bioavailability of LPH and the resulting biodegradation enhancements during the test are evaluated using measurements of surface tension (as confirmation of biosurfactant accumulation) and nitrate concentrations (as substantiation of anaerobic biodegradation during shut-off periods). The

  1. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Todolí, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2013-10-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques.

  2. Remediation of saturated soil contaminated with petroleum products using air sparging with thermal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M I; El-menshawy, Nabil; Saif, Amany M

    2007-05-01

    Pollutants in the form of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), such as petroleum products, pose a serious threat to the soil and groundwater. A mathematical model was derived to study the unsteady pollutant concentrations through water saturated contaminated soil under air sparging conditions for different NAPLs and soil properties. The comparison between the numerical model results and the published experimental results showed acceptable agreement. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted to remove NAPLs from the contaminated soil using the sparging air technique, considering the sparging air velocity, air temperature, soil grain size and different contaminant properties. This study showed that sparging air at ambient temperature through the contaminated soil can remove NAPLs, however, employing hot air sparging can provide higher contaminant removal efficiency, by about 9%. An empirical correlation for the volatilization mass transfer coefficient was developed from the experimental results. The dimensionless numbers used were Sherwood number (Sh), Peclet number (Pe), Schmidt number (Sc) and several physical-chemical properties of VOCs and porous media. Finally, the estimated volatilization mass transfer coefficient was used for calculation of the influence of heated sparging air on the spreading of the NAPL plume through the contaminated soil.

  3. Comparative toxicity of crude and refined coal liquids and analogous petroleum products: II. Chemical characterization. [Products of H-Coal process

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1986-04-01

    In Part I of this paper, the dermal tumorigenicity of crude and hydrogenated H-Coal Blends, a home heating oil and a reformed naphtha refined from the hydrotreated H-Coal Blend, and two analogous petroleum products is reported. This paper compares the tumorigenicity assay results with the chemistry of the samples.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Biological activity of a leached chernozem contaminated with the products of combustion of petroleum gas and its restoration upon phytoremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, N. A.; Novoselova, E. I.; Shamaeva, A. A.; Grigoriadi, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    It is shown that contamination of leached chernozems by combustion products of petroleum gas favors changes in the biological activity of the soil: the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria and micromycetes has increased, as well as the activity of catalase and lipase and phytotoxicity. Bromopsis inermis Leys used as a phytoameliorant has accelerated the destruction of hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. The benzpyrene concentration in plants on contaminated soils considerably exceeds its background concentration.

  7. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  8. 77 FR 28405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on January 31..., 2012 (77 FR 14046). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on April 17, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  9. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on June 8, 2012. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 40086...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on July 5, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  10. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 27..., 2009 (74 FR 15003). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 2, 2010, pursuant to Section...

  11. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 5..., 2012 (77 FR 54612). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2012, pursuant...

  12. 77 FR 14046 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 1..., 2011 (76 FR 78044). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on January 31, 2012, pursuant to...

  13. 76 FR 78044 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the... Act on August 2, 2010 (75 FR 45156). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on November 1, 2011, pursuant to...

  14. 77 FR 40086 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 17..., 2012 (77 FR 28405). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Notice is hereby given that, on June 8, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  15. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Research Forum (PERF) Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater Effluents (``PERF... nutrients from wastewater, and engaging a third party consultant to summarize current state of...

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  17. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. 1993 Conference on artificial intelligence in petroleum exploration and production: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings contain 22 papers about the use of neural networks and expert systems in the petroleum industry for the following applications: data analysis of well logs; fracture recognition; formation evaluation while drilling; cathodic protection; soil remedial action; chemical reactions; interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns; formation damage evaluation; choosing target wells for stimulation; ranking prospects; forecasting of oil output; reservoir history matching; workover operations; and selection of injection method. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Crude oil, petroleum product, and water discrimination on terrestrial substrates with airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent sinking produced the largest oil spill in U.S. history. One of the most prominent portions of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached thousands of miles of shoreline. The most common method of detecting oil remains visual spotting from airframes, supplemented by panchromatic / multispectral aerial photography and satellite imagery. While this imagery provides a synoptic view, it is often ambiguous in its ability to discriminate water from hydrocarbon materials. By employing spectral libraries for material identification and discrimination, imaging spectroscopy supplements traditional imaging techniques by providing specific criteria for more accurate petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. This paper applies a new hydrocarbon-substrate spectral library to SpecTIR HST-3 airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005. Using common material identification algorithms, this preliminary analysis demonstrates the applicability and limitations of hyperspectral data to petroleum/water discrimination in certain conditions. The current work is also the first application of the petroleum-substrate library to imaging spectroscopy data and shows potential for monitoring long term impacts of Deepwater Horizon.

  1. Source Attribution of Methane Emission from Petroleum Production Operations using High-Resolution Airborne Thermal-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Young, S. J.; Riley, D.; Leifer, I.

    2012-12-01

    High spatio-spectral resolution airborne thermal-infrared (TIR) imaging spectrometry is shown to be effective in detecting and tracking gaseous emissions from petroleum production facilities. The high spatial resolution (1-2 m) of the sensor permits unequivocal trace-back of emission plumes to their source. The high spectral resolution (44 nm across the 7.5-13.5 μm TIR band) enables precise identification and discrimination of primary and subsidiary plume components through the application of spectral matched filtering and adaptive coherence estimation techniques. Operation in the TIR spectral region allows operations to be conducted throughout the diurnal cycle, since the measurement relies on observation of emissive radiation and the intrinsic thermal contrast between the fugitive plume gases and the underlying scene. Methane plumes associated with petroleum production operations and natural emissions have been identified in a variety of environmental settings. The accompanying figure shows a grayscale thermal image of a marine production platform off the California coast. A gas plume (identified as methane) being released from a venting boom is shown superimposed in false color.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  10. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  11. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance. PMID:27039364

  12. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance.

  13. DNA-polyfluorophore Chemosensors for Environmental Remediation: Vapor-phase Identification of Petroleum Products in Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shenliang; Yuen, Lik Hang; Kwon, Hyukin; Ono, Toshikazu; Kool, Eric T

    2013-08-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by petroleum-based products is an extremely widespread and important environmental problem. Here we have tested a simple optical approach for detecting and identifying such industrial contaminants in soil samples, using a set of fluorescent DNA-based chemosensors in pattern-based sensing. We used a set of diverse industrial volatile chemicals to screen and identify a set of five short oligomeric DNA fluorophores on PEG-polystyrene microbeads that could differentiate the entire set after exposure to their vapors in air. We then tested this set of five fluorescent chemosensor compounds for their ability to respond with fluorescence changes when exposed to headgas over soil samples contaminated with one of ten different samples of crude oil, petroleum distillates, fuels, lubricants and additives. Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence change data (as Δ(R,G,B) emission intensities) revealed that these five chemosensors on beads could differentiate all ten product mixtures at 1000 ppm in soil within 30 minutes. Tests of sensitivity with three of the contaminant mixtures showed that they could be detected and differentiated in amounts at least as low as one part per million in soil. The results establish that DNA-polyfluorophores may have practical utility in monitoring the extent and identity of environmental spills and leaks, while they occur and during their remediation.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of petroleum products in soil and ground water at Longmire, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumioka, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    The removal of an underground waste-oil storage tank in Mount Rainier National Park, at Longmire, Washington, led to the discovery that soil surrounding the tank was saturated with unidentified petroleum hydrocarbons. Subsequent investigations by the National Park Service indicated that a petroleum product smelling like diesel oil was present in the unsaturated zone as far as 120 feet from the tank site. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service to determine the extent to which the petroleum hydrocarbons have affected the unsaturated zone and ground water in the Longmire area. Measurements of water levels in wells and of water-surface elevations of the Nisqually River and a wetland west of Longmire indicate that ground water does not flow from the maintenance area to the river or to the wetland. Waste oil and diesel oil were detected in soil samples from the site closest to the waste-oil storage-tank site. Diesel oil was also detected in samples from a site about 200 feet northwest of the storage-tank site. Organic compounds of undetermined origin were detected in soil samples from all of the other sites. Waste oil was not conclusively detected in any of the ground-water samples. Diesel oil was detected in water samples from the well closest to the storage tank and from a well about 200 feet west of the storage-tank site. Ground-water samples from all of the other wells contained organic compounds of undetermined origin.

  19. Monitoring of soil and groundwater contamination following a pipeline explosion and petroleum product spillage in Ijegun, Lagos Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Victoria Funmilayo; Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem

    2013-05-01

    In May 2008, an accidental damage of a Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) pipeline occurred in Ijegun area of Lagos, Nigeria, resulting in oil spillage and consequent contamination of the environment. The residual concentration of the total hydrocarbon (THC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in the groundwater and soil was therefore investigated between March 2009 and July 2010. Results showed elevated THC mean levels in groundwater which were above the World Health Organization maximum admissible value of 0.1 mg/l. THC values as high as 757.97 mg/l in groundwater and 402.52 mg/l in soil were observed in March 2009. Pronounced seasonal variation in the concentration of THC in groundwater and soil samples show that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in the measured concentration of THC between each season (dry and wet), with the highest being in the dry season and between the years 2009 and 2010. Significant hydrocarbon contamination, 500 m beyond the explosion site and 25 months after the incident, was observed revealing the extent of the spillage of petroleum products. The highest concentrations of 16.65 μg/l (benzene), 2.08 μg/l (toluene), and 4864.79 μg/l (xylene) were found in stations within the 100 m buffer zone. Most of the samples of groundwater taken were above the target value of 0.2 μg/l set for BTEX compounds by the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industry in Nigeria. The level of hydrocarbon in the impacted area calls for concern and remediation of the area is urgently needed to reduce further negative impact on the ecosystem.

  20. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (<200 mg) and higher throughput (20 samples/h) measurement. Naphthenic acid structures were assigned based on nominal masses of a set of predefined acid structures. Stearic acid is used as an internal standard to calibrate ESI-MS response factors for quantification purposes. With the use of structure-property correlations, boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  1. Impacts of petroleum production on ground and surface waters: Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research A site, Osage County Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary group of about 20 scientists, we are investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) sites, located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Geochemical data collected from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids [TDS]), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. Results from the depleted OSPER A site show that the salts continue to be removed from the soil and surficial rocks, but degraded oil persists on the contaminated surface. Eventually, the bulk of inorganic salts and dissolved organics in the brine will reach the adjacent Skiatook Lake, a 4250-ha (10,501-ac) potable water reservoir. Repeated sampling of 44 wells show a plume of high-salinity water (2000-30,000 mg/L TDS) at intermediate depths that intersects Skiatook Lake and extends beyond the visibly impacted areas. No liquid petroleum was observed in this plume, but organic acid anions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and other volatile organic carbon (VOC) are present. The chemical composition of released brine is modified by sorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, evapotranspiration, volatilization, and bacterially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions, in addition to mixing with percolating precipitation water, lake water, and pristine groundwater. Results show that only minor amounts of salt are removed by runoff, supporting the conclusion that significant amounts of salts from produced water and petroleum releases still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 65 yr of natural attenuation. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  3. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may... derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is chiefly...

  10. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed.

  12. Investigation of relationships between linears, total and hazy areas, and petroleum production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. M.; Street, J. S. (Principal Investigator); Munsell, C. J.; Obrien, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. Derivative maps of rectilinear, curvilinear, tonal, and hazy features were made using standard laboratory techniques. Mapping of rectilinears on both bands 5 and 7 over the entire region indicated the presence of a northeast-southwest and a northwest-southeast regional trend which is indicative of the bedrock fracture pattern in the basin. Curved lines generally bound areas of unique tone, maps of tonal patterns repeat many of the boundaries seen on curvilinear maps. Tones were best analyzed on spring and fall imagery in the Williston Basin. It is postulated that hazy areas are caused by atmospheric phenomena. The ability to use ERTS imagery as an exploration tool was examined where petroleum and gas are presently produced (Bottineau Field, Nesson and Antelope anticlines, Redwing Creek, and Cedar Creek anticline). It is determined that some tonal and linear features coincide with location of present production in Redwing and Cedar Creeks. In the remaining cases, targets could not be sufficiently well defined to justify this method.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  15. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Brief: Information technology as an aid to productivity in petroleum exploration -- fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, M.; Iliffe, J. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper considers the relationship between information technology investment, technical productivity, and business benefit. The effect of introducing IT to the industry and its impact on geoscience is described, along with a discussion of whether investment in IT has brought the expected benefits to other industries. The paper concludes with a consideration of the present business perceptions of IT and asks whether a company, by concentrating solely on such issues as technical productivity, will actually maximize the benefits of IT.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  20. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  1. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  2. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  3. Predicting petroleum phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie

    2003-03-01

    Phototoxicity to Daphnia magna was studied on 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 petroleum products (ranging from diesel to crude oil). The phototoxicity ranking of pure PAHs was about the same as found in another study on fish gill cells in vitro (Toxicology 127 (1998) 143), suggesting that the relative acute phototoxicity does not differ significantly between different species. Most petroleum products were found to be phototoxic, although the results differ somewhat between test methods (preparation of water-accommodated fractions or petroleum ether dissolved oil slurries). The degree of phototoxicity of a sample is related to both the source and the refining process of the crude oil. The best chemical predictors found were the concentrations of eight phototoxic parent PAHs. An even simpler analytical technique suggested for initial screening would be direct measurements of "total PAH," where samples having more than 3% PAH should be studied further.

  4. Shakedown operation of group of units for aromatic hydrocarbon production at the Novopolotsk petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkovskii, A.D.; Chesnovitskii, K.G.; Koroleva, M.I.; Sulimov, A.D.; Teteruk, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    This article describes how technical xylene and C/sub 9/ aromatic hydrocarbons are produced in catalytic reformers operated in conjunction with diethylene glycol extraction units. In the operation of the unit, the greatest difficulties were encountered in purification of the p-xylene, owing to frequent mechanical failures of the equipment of the pulsed columns due to hydraulic shock and unstable operation under the process conditions required to obtain a product with a purity above 99%. As a result of the successful shakedown operations of individual aromatic hydrocarbons, the yields of commercial products (ethylbenzene, p-xylene, o-xylene, pseudocumene) have amounted to 76.9% of the technical xylene feed.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  8. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Brandt, Adam R; Yeh, Sonia; Englander, Jacob G; Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations affecting U.S. transportation fuels require holistic examination of the life-cycle emissions of U.S. petroleum feedstocks. With an expanded system boundary that included land disturbance-induced GHG emissions, we estimated well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of U.S. production of gasoline and diesel sourced from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis was based on detailed characterization of the energy intensities of 27 oil sands projects, representing industrial practices and technological advances since 2008. Four major oil sands production pathways were examined, including bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) from both surface mining and in situ projects. Pathway-average GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, separation, and upgrading ranged from ∼6.1 to ∼27.3 g CO2 equivalents per megajoule (in lower heating value, CO2e/MJ). This range can be compared to ∼4.4 g CO2e/MJ for U.S. conventional crude oil recovery. Depending on the extraction technology and product type output of oil sands projects, the WTW GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel produced from bitumen and SCO in U.S. refineries were in the range of 100-115 and 99-117 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, representing, on average, about 18% and 21% higher emissions than those derived from U.S. conventional crudes. WTW GHG emissions of gasoline and diesel derived from diluted bitumen ranged from 97 to 103 and 96 to 104 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, showing the effect of diluent use on fuel emissions.

  9. Screening of polar components of petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    The polar components of fuels may enable differentiation between fuel types or commercial fuel sources. Screening for these components in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Various commercial fuels from several sources were analyzed by flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry without extensive sample preparation, separation, or chromatography. This technique enabled screening for unique polar components at very low concentrations in commercial hydrocarbon products. This analysis was then applied to hydrocarbon samples collected from the subsurface with a different extent of biodegradation or weathering. Although the alkane and isoprenoid portion had begun to biodegrade or weather, the polar components had changed little over time. Because these polar compounds are unique in different fuels, this screening technique can provide source information on hydrocarbons released into the environment. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  10. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M.

    2007-07-01

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  11. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and designed to…

  12. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  13. A compositional multiphase model for groundwater contamination by petroleum products. 2. Numerical solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we develop a numerical solution to equations developed in part 1 (M.Y. Corapcioglu and A.L. Baehr, this issue) to predict the fate of an immiscible organic contaminant such as gasoline in the unsaturated zone subsequent to plume establishment. This solution, obtained by using a finite difference scheme and a method of forward projection to evaluate nonlinear coefficients, provides estimates of the flux of solubilized hydrocarbon constituents to groundwater from the portion of a spill which remains trapped in a soil after routine remedial efforts to recover the product have ceased. The procedure was used to solve the one-dimensional (vertical) form of the system of nonlinear partial differential equations defining the transport for each constituent of the product. Additionally, a homogeneous, isothermal soil with constant water content was assumed. An equilibrium assumption partitions the constituents between air, water, adsorbed, and immiscible phases. Free oxygen transport in the soil was also simulated to provide an upper bound estimate of aerobic biodegradation rates. Results are presented for a hypothetical gasoline consisting of eight groups of hydrocarbon constituents. Rates at which hydrocarbon mass is removed from the soil, entering either the atmosphere or groundwater, or is biodegraded are presented. A significant sensitivity to model parameters, particularly the parameters characterizing diffusive vapor transport, was discovered. We conclude that hypocarbon solute composition in groundwater beneath a gasoline contaminated soil would be heavily weighted toward aromatic constituents like benzene, toluene, and xylene.In this paper we develop a numerical solution to equations developed in part 1 (M. Y. Corapcioglu and A. L. Baehr, this issue) to predict the fate of an immiscible organic contaminant such as gasoline in the unsaturated zone subsequent to plume establishment. This solution, obtained by using a finite difference scheme and a method

  14. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  15. Secondary production of freshwater zooplankton communities exposed to a fungicide and to a petroleum distillate in outdoor pond mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Yannick; Roucaute, Ana; Roucaute, Marc; Gorzerino, Caroline; Cailleaud, Kevin; Lagadic, Laurent; Bassères, Anne; Caquet, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Ecological risk assessment of chemicals in mesocosms requires measurement of a large number of parameters at the community level. Studies on invertebrate communities usually focus on taxonomic approaches, which only provide insights into taxonomic structure changes induced by chemicals. In the present study, abundance, biomass (B), theoretical production (P), and instantaneous P/B ratio were used as endpoints to assess the effects of the commercial form of the dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram (35 µg/L and 170 µg/L nominal concentrations) and of the hydrocarbon water accommodated fraction (HWAF) of a petroleum distillate (0.01 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and 20 mg/L loadings) on the zooplankton community in freshwater pond mesocosms. Endpoints were measured during a 4-wk treatment period (1 pulse/wk) followed by a 5-mo posttreatment period to evaluate zooplankton population recovery. The chlorophyll a concentration in water was significantly increased after treatment with HWAF, whereas it was not affected by thiram treatment. Zooplankton abundance-based analysis showed effects on a limited number of taxa, whereas other endpoints (mainly the P/B ratio) revealed that more taxa were impacted, with recovery depending on the chemical and concentration. Exposure to HWAF mainly had a negative impact on cladocerans, which resulted in top-down effects (between cladocerans and phytoplankton). Thiram negatively affected rotifers and copepods, suggesting more direct toxic effects. The results show that the use of secondary production as an endpoint provides a more comprehensive assessment of potential direct and indirect effects of chemicals on a community, and they also support evidence of alteration in functional processes.

  16. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  17. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg‑1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  18. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  19. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  1. Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project

    SciTech Connect

    Upchurch, J.L.; Money, R.P.

    1997-02-01

    On May 1, 1995 Phillips Petroleum`s Seastar Project began production as the first cluster-type subsea development in the Gulf of Mexico. Seastar production reached approximately 60 million cubic feet of gas per day (mmscfd) in November 1995 with the completion of a second {open_quotes}sales{close_quotes} line (a pipeline that transports the petroleum to shore) at the Vermilion Block 386-B host platform. Currently, the field is producing 40 to 50 mmscfd and plans are on schedule for the addition of a third producing well during the first quarter of 1997. All of the subsea equipment was installed using a drilling vessel and onboard ROV support. The Seastar project began in 1987 when Phillips and its partners leased Garden Banks Blocks 70 and 71, located 110 miles south of Cameron Louisiana. The partnership drilled two wells in 1990 that discovered noncommercial hydrocarbon reserves. Following a reevaluation of the seismic data, Phillips assumed 100 percent ownership in the leases and drilled Garden Banks 71 No. 2, which discovered 350 feet of {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} sand (oil resource) in March 1993. The initial phase of the project consisted of two satellite subsea trees tied back to a four-slot retrievable subsea manifold in 760 feet of water. Commingled gas production is delivered via dual subsea pipelines to a host platform processing facility in 300 feet of water 13 miles away in Vermilion Block 386-B, thence via sales lines to shore.

  2. Fundamentals of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents basic information about the petroleum industry. Nine fully illustrated chapters cover geology, exploration, leasing, drilling, production, transportation, refining and processing, marketing, and economics of the industry, with the extensive use of high tech in every phase of the industry described. A detailed index facilitates the book's use as a reference.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in six sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  18. Sensitivity enhancement of evanescent waveguide optical sensor for detecting adulterant traces in petroleum products using SiON technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Aradhana; Deka, Bidyut; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2013-11-01

    The development of an evanescent waveguide optical sensor incorporating planar waveguide geometry using silicon oxynitride as the core layer on silica-silicon wafer and its implementation for detection of adulterant traces in petroleum products is presented in this paper. This work focuses on enhancement of sensitivity and analyzed by using Simple Effective Index Method (SEIM), based on sinusoidal modes. The embedded waveguide of length ~ 10,000 μm and core width ~ 50 μm have been developed using SiON technology and applied for checking adulteration so as to ensure the purity of the fuel such that the engine will give the desired performance including low emissions yielding better accuracy and high sensitivity within a very short pulse. The thin cladding layer acts as the analytes (mixture of adulterated fuel) that supports the waveguiding film having a refractive index smaller than that of the core. The main aim of this present work is to encompass a speedy choice to the time-consuming existing methods for detecting adulterated fuels, which generally requires some time to give the consequence. The developed sensor allows spot determination of the percentage concentration of adulterant in pure petrol without involving any chemical analysis. The waveguide based sensor is polarization independent and the sensitivity of the waveguide sensor is ~10 times more than that of the existing planar waveguide sensors and also 5 times more than that of asymmetric waveguide structure. Advantages include high sensitivity, simple fabrication and easy interrogation without involving the use of solvents or toxic chemicals.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. The energy-water nexus: Potential groundwater-quality degradation associated with petroleum production from shale and tight reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Gans, K. D.; Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.

    2013-12-01

    Oil and natural gas are the main sources of primary energy in the USA, providing 63% of total energy consumption in 2011. Production of petroleum from shale and very low permeability reservoirs has increased substantially due to recent developments in deep horizontal drilling, downhole telemetry and massive multi-stage hydraulic fracturing using ';slick water'. Production of natural gas from shale has increased rapidly, from 0.4 Tcf in 2000, to 6.8 Tcf in 2011, almost 30% of gas production in USA; it is projected to increase to account for 49% of USA gas in 2035. U.S. crude oil production has also increased from 5.0 Mbpd in 2008 to 5.6 Mbpd in 2011; oil from unconventional sources in 2035 is projected to be 0.7 to 2.8 Mbpd, accounting for 36% of domestic production. Hydraulic fracturing is carried out by injecting large volumes (~10,000-50,000 m3/well) of fresh water with added proppant, and organic and inorganic chemicals at high fluid pressures. Approximately 500-5,000 m3/well of water are also used for drilling the wells. The total water used for shale gas wells is relatively low compared to the consumptive total water usage in wet regions (e.g. 0.06% of water for the Marcellus Shale); but is much higher in arid regions (e.g. 0.8% for the Haynesville Shale) where water used could be a significant constraint for gas development because its use could impact the available water supply. Fluid pressure is lowered following hydraulic fracturing, causing the ';flowback' brine, which is a mixture of fracturing fluid and formation water, to return to the surface through the casing. During the 2-3 weeks of the ';flowback' period for a Marcellus Shale well, 10-50% of the fracturing fluid returns to the surface, initially at high rates (~1,000 m3/day), decreasing finally to ~ 50 m3/day. The salinity of the ';flowback' water is initially moderate (45,000 mg/L TDS), reflecting the composition of the fracturing water, and increasing to ~200,000 mg/L TDS. Production of natural

  8. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  12. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data for December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report presents statistical data on the production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process. PMID:25743765

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. Statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales are presented. Data on crude oil include the domestic purchase price, the free on board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oils and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: (1) summary statistics, (2) crude oil prices, (3) prices of petroleum products, (4) volumes of petroleum products, and (5) prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Data presented in this document describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. This document contains information on oil production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). When aggregated, the data reported by the various petroleum sectors in this report approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the U.S.

  7. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  15. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  16. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  1. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  2. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  3. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  4. 29 CFR 794.132 - “Petroleum products”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPetroleum productsâ. 794.132 Section 794.132 Labor... WHOLESALE OR BULK PETROLEUM DISTRIBUTORS UNDER SECTION 7(b)(3) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemption... § 794.132 “Petroleum products”. A sale by an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution...

  5. Petroleum Technology: From Refinery To Home, Business, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the application of petroleum technology and presents activities designed to raise students' awareness of the importance of petroleum-based products in their lives. Includes a handout designed to help students understand the refining processes in which the crude oil from the drill site is transformed into nearly 6,000 petroleum-based…

  6. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  9. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  10. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication.

  11. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication. PMID:17400318

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  5. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  6. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  7. Petroleum and health care: evaluating and managing health care's vulnerability to petroleum supply shifts.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jeremy; Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care-primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies-and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services.

  8. Petroleum geology and total petroleum systems of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and Iraq

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, James E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    The Widyan Basin-Interior Platform Province (2023) ranks 17th in the world, exclusive of the United States, with 62.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent of total petroleum endowment (cumulative production plus remaining petroleum plus estimated mean undiscovered volumes). Mean estimates of undiscovered petroleum for the province, which includes both Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems as well as portions of three additional total petroleum systems from adjacent provinces, are 21.22 billion barrels of oil, 94.75 trillion cubic feet of gas (15.8 billion barrels of oil equivalent), and 6.85 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The Paleozoic total petroleum system is dominantly gas prone, whereas the volumetrically larger Jurassic total petroleum system is oil prone - resulting in the characterization of the province as an oil province. The discovery maturity for the province is a relatively low 31 percent, meaning that much of the province petroleum potential lies in the future.

  9. Environmental impacts of oil production on soil, bedrock, and vegetation at the U.S. Geological Survey Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research site A, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.; Keeland, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the impacts of oil and gas production on soils, groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems in the United States. Two sites in northeastern Oklahoma (sites A and B) are presently being investigated under the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research project. Oil wells on the lease surrounding site A in Osage County, Oklahoma, produced about 100,000 bbl of oil between 1913 ard 1981. Prominent production features on the 1.5-ha (3.7-ac) site A include a tank battery, an oil-filled trench, pipelines, storage pits for both produced water and oil, and an old power unit. Site activities and historic releases have left open areas in the local oak forest adjacent to these features and a deeply eroded salt scar downslope from the pits that extends to nearby Skiatook Lake. The site is underlain by surficial sediments comprised of very fine-grained eolian sand and colluvium as much as 1.4 m (4.6 ft) thick, which, in turn, overlie flat-lying, fractured bedrock comprised of sandstone, clayey sandstone, mudstone, and shale. A geophysical survey of ground conductance and concentration measurements of aqueous extracts (1:1 by weight) of core samples taken in the salt scar and adjacent areas indicate that unusual concentrations of NaCl-rich salt are present at depths to at least 8 m (26 ft) in the bedrock; however, little salt occurs in the eolian sand. Historic aerial photographs, anecdotal reports from oil-lease operators, and tree-ring records indicate that the surrounding oak forest was largely established after 1935 and thus postdates the majority of surface damage at the site. Blackjack oaks adjacent to the salt scar have anomalously elevated chloride (>400 ppm) in their leaves and record the presence of NaCl-rich salt or salty water in the shallow subsurface. The geophysical measurements also indicate moderately elevated conductance beneath the oak forest adjoining the salt scar. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of

  10. Ecological investigations of petroleum production platforms in the central Gulf of Mexico: volume II. Final report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Surveys of biofouling macroepibiota and fishes were made in June 1978 at four production platforms offshore Louisiana and were supplemented by limited observations made at an additional 15 platforms in August and September of 1978. Biofouling communities of nearshore platforms were dominated by barnacles in terms of biomass, whereas the communities on offshore platforms were dominated by bivalves. Primary production was largely restricted to surface zones of nearshore platforms but at some offshore platforms primary producers were abundant to depths of 30 m.

  11. Life cycle risks for human health: a comparison of petroleum versus bio-based production of five bulk organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Roes, Alexander L; Patel, Martin K

    2007-10-01

    This article describes the development and application of a generic approach to the comparative assessment of risks related to the production of organic chemicals by petrochemical processes versus white biotechnology. White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology, typically uses bio-based feedstocks instead of the fossil raw materials used in the petrochemical sector. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the production of chemicals by means of white biotechnology has lower conventional risks than their production by petrochemical processes. Conventional risks are the risks of well-established processes, and not those related to genetically modified microorganisms and plants. Our approach combines classical risk assessment methods (largely based on toxicology), as developed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, with statistics on technological disasters, accidents, and work-related illnesses. Moreover, it covers the total process chain for both petrochemical and bio-based products from cradle to grave. The approach was applied to five products: the plastics polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), and ethanol. Our results show that the conventional risks related to the white biotechnology products studied are lower than those of the petrochemical products. However, considering the uncertainties with respect to the ranges of input data, the (incomplete) coverage of emissions by the environmental priority strategies (EPS) 2000 method, and the uncertainties of the assumptions made in this study (i.e., large to very large), the differences in results between bio-based and petrochemical products fall into the uncertainty range. Because of this, future research is necessary to decrease the uncertainties before we can conclude that the conventional risks of biotechnologically produced chemicals are lower than those of fossil-fuel-derived chemicals.

  12. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  13. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  14. Long-term effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the life cycle and productivity of the littoral oligochaete lumbricillus lineatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt-Lillge, D.

    Cultures of Lumbricillus lineatus, a dominant inhabitant of sandy shore lines, have been exposed to water-soluble fractions of crude oil (Arabian Light) through 5 generations (15 months). Although, in short-term tests very resistant to high hydrocarbon concentrations, long-term exposure of the worms considerably reduced the fertility of eggs and hatching success of embryos. However, the depressed reproduction and general viability was in part compensated by an increased cocoon production Mixtures of oil and the dispersants Corexit 7664 and Finasol OSR-5 proved to be drastically more toxic than oil per se, diminishing cocoon production and fertility of eggs markedly.

  15. Quasi-Monte Carlo based global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling free product migration and recovery from petroleum-contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Huang, Gordon; Lu, Hongwei; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Yi

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents a global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (GUSA) framework based on global sensitivity analysis (GSA) and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methods. Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) is employed by GUSA to obtain realizations of uncertain parameters, which are then input to the simulation model for analysis. Compared to GLUE, GUSA can not only evaluate global sensitivity and uncertainty of modeling parameter sets, but also quantify the uncertainty in modeling prediction sets. Moreover, GUSA's another advantage lies in alleviation of computational effort, since those globally-insensitive parameters can be identified and removed from the uncertain-parameter set. GUSA is applied to a practical petroleum-contaminated site in Canada to investigate free product migration and recovery processes under aquifer remediation operations. Results from global sensitivity analysis show that (1) initial free product thickness has the most significant impact on total recovery volume but least impact on residual free product thickness and recovery rate; (2) total recovery volume and recovery rate are sensitive to residual LNAPL phase saturations and soil porosity. Results from uncertainty predictions reveal that the residual thickness would remain high and almost unchanged after about half-year of skimmer-well scheme; the rather high residual thickness (0.73-1.56 m 20 years later) indicates that natural attenuation would not be suitable for the remediation. The largest total recovery volume would be from water pumping, followed by vacuum pumping, and then skimmer. The recovery rates of the three schemes would rapidly decrease after 2 years (less than 0.05 m(3)/day), thus short-term remediation is not suggested.

  16. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1991. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report is submitted in two volumes, Volume I representing the work accomplished under Fuels Research and Volume II the work for Energy Production Research during the period July 1--Sept. 30, 1991. Topics covered include: chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience technology, resource assessment technology, microbial technology, environmental technology.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describes production, imports, exports, PAD distruct movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products.

  18. Aromaticity and amyloid formation: effect of π-electron distribution and aryl substituent geometry on the self-assembly of peptides derived from hIAPP(22-29).

    PubMed

    Profit, Adam A; Vedad, Jayson; Saleh, Mohamad; Desamero, Ruel Z B

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive investigation of peptides derived from the 22-29 region of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) that contain phenylalanine analogs at position 23 with a variety of electron donating and withdrawing groups, along with heteroaromatic surrogates, has been employed to interrogate how π-electron distribution effects amyloid formation. Kinetic aggregation studies using turbidity measurements indicate that electron rich aromatic ring systems consistently abolish the amyloidogenic propensity of hIAPP(22-29). Electron poor systems modulate the rate of aggregation. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the parallel β-sheet secondary structure of aggregates derived from peptides containing electron poor phenylalanine analogs and provide direct evidence of ring stacking. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the presence of amyloid fibrils. The effect of aryl substituent geometry on peptide self-assembly reveals that the electronic nature of substituents and not their steric profile is responsible for failure of the electron donating group peptides to aggregate. Non-aggregating hIAPP(22-29) peptides were found to inhibit the self-assembly of full-length hIAPP(1-37). The most potent inhibitory peptides contain phenylalanine with the p-amino and p-formamido functionalities. These novel peptides may serve as leads for the development of future aggregation inhibitors. A potential mechanism for inhibition of amylin self-assembly by electron rich (-29) peptides is proposed.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  1. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1997 with data for July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1996 with data for December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-08

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1998 with data for October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1997 with data for November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1997 with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1997 with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1998, with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1996 with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1997 with data for August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1997 with data for January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1996 with data for October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-04

    The Petroleum Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  19. Petroleum refinery process and apparatus for the production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons from fuel gas and catalytic reformate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Kushnerick, J.D.; Owen, H.

    1991-02-12

    This paper describes a process for the production of gasoline. It comprises: contacting a feed stream comprising C{sub 4}{sup {minus}} olefin hydrocarbons with a feed stream comprising C{sub 6} to C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons at an aromatic to olefin weight ratio of 5:1 to 20:1 over a fluidized zeolite catalyst at a temperature of 350{degrees} to 900{degrees}F a pressure of 20 to 650 psig in a riser reactor having multiple olefin feed injection points to alkylate the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} aromatics with the olefins to form C{sub 7} to C{sub 11} alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon gasoline products, wherein the multiple olefin feed injection points are spaced along the height of the riser reactor and the aforethe aromatic to olefin weight ratio is maintained throughout the riser reactor and withdrawing a portion of the catalyst from the riser for regeneration of the catalyst the withdrawn catalyst containing only a minor amount of deposited coke.

  20. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  6. Lacustrine petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, A.J.; Kelts, K.; Talbot, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a proceedings volume from a 1985 symposium sponsored by the Geological Society of London and the International Geological Correlation Program Project No. 219 (Comparative lacustrine sedimentology in space and time). That meeting set the tone for subsequent IGCP No. 219 symposia, where sedimentary, petroleum, and structural geologists, as well as geochemists and paleontologists, have grappled with important problems in lake geology. The 1985 meeting on lacustrine source rocks considered the following questions: (1) How can we develop more refined methods for interpreting depositional environments from lake deposits and fossils , (2) What limnologic, sedimentologic, and tectonic conditions are most conducive to the production and accumulation of organic matter in lakes , (3) What diagenetic changes affect organic-rich sediments after deposition , and (4) How can questions 2 and 3 be best evaluated from the stratigraphic record As a group, lakes are extremely productive ecosystems. Marine environments that would be ranked as high productivity systems are only moderately productive by lacustrine standards. Even with energy transfer rates of less than a few percent from the primary producers to the sediment, lacustrine mudrocks can be extremely rich in organic matter. The major limitations of lacustrine source rocks are not lithologic but limitations of scale (both spatial and temporal). How, in the middle of a continent, do you get a hole in the ground that is both big enough and long-lasting enough to generate significant quantities of hydrocarbons

  7. Biological assessment of the effects of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California, on the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1986-06-01

    Surveys to determine the distribution and relative abundance of blunt-nosed leopard lizards on Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 were conducted in 1980 and 1981. In 1982 radiotelemetry and pitfall trapping techniques were used to gain additional information on the species and develop alternative methods of study. Incidental observations of blunt-nosed leopard lizards were recorded and used in the distribution information for NPR-1. DOE determined during this biological assessment that the construction projects and operational activities necessary to achieve and sustain MER have not adversely affected the blunt-nosed leopard lizard and its habitat, because only approximately 6% of the potential blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat on NPR-1 was disturbed by construction and operational activities. DOE believes that the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of MER will not jeopardize the continued existence of the species, because results of surveys indicated that blunt-nosed leopard lizards are mainly distributed near the periphery of Elk Hills where few petroleum developments occurred in the past and where they are unlikely to occur in the future. A policy of conducting preconstruction surveys to protect blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitat was initiated, a habitat restoration plan was developed and implemented, and administrative policies to reduce vehicle speeds, contain oil spills, restrict off-road vehicle (ORV) travel, and to prohibit public access, livestock grazing, and agricultural activities were maintained.

  8. Method for recovering petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Coenen, H.; Kriegel, E.

    1985-08-06

    A process for recovering petroleum from deposits which have already been worked by primary extraction or are not suited for primary extraction. A gas in its supercritical state is introduced into the deposit. The supercritical gas charges itself with the petroleum while flowing through the deposit. The charged supercritical gas leaves the deposit and the petroleum is separated in a plurality of fractions from the charged supercritical gas.

  9. Petroleum system and production characteristics of the Muddy (J) Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous) Wattenberg continuous gas field, Denver basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Cox, D.O.; Weimer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Wattenberg field is a continuous-type gas accumulation. Estimated ultimate recovery from current wells is 1.27 tcf of gas from the Lower Cretaceous Muddy (J) Sandstone. Mean gas resources that have the potential to be added to these reserves in the next 30 yr are 1.09 tcf; this will be primarily through infill drilling to recover a greater percentage of gas in place and to drain areas that are isolated because of geologic compartmentalization. Greatest gas production from the Muddy (J) Sandstone in Wattenberg field occurs (1) from within the most permeable and thickest intervals of Fort Collins Member delta-front and nearshore-marine sandstones, (2) to a lesser extent from the Horsetooth Member valley-fill channel sandstones, (3) in association with a large thermal anomaly that is delineated by measured temperatures in wells and by vitrinite reflectance contours of 0.9% and greater, (4) in proximity to the bounding Mowry, Graneros, and Skull Creek shales that are the hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoir seals, and (5) between the Lafayette and Longmont right-lateral wrench fault zones (WFZs) with secondary faults that act as conduits in areas of the field. The axis of greatest gas production is north 25 to 35?? northeast, which parallels the basin axis. Recurrent movement along five right-lateral WFZs that crosscut Wattenberg field shifted the Denver basin axis to the northeast and influenced depositional and erosional patterns of the reservoir and seal intervals. Levels of thermal maturity within the Wattenberg field are anomalously high compared to other areas of the Denver basin. The Wattenberg field thermal anomaly may be due to upward movement of fluids along faults associated with probable igneous intrusions. Areas of anomalous high heat flow within the field correlate with an increased and variable gas-oil ratio.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures and accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. 56 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1996 with data for February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-02

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-03

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost Of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1995 with data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research quarterly technical report, January 1--March 31, 1993. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following tasks: chemical flooding -- supporting research; gas displacement -- supporting research; thermal recovery -- supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and microbial technology. Chemical flooding covers: surfactant flooding methods; development of improved alkaline flooding methods; mobility control and sweep improvement in chemical flooding; and surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Gas displacement covers: gas flooding performance prediction improvement; and mobility control, profile modification and sweep improvement in gas flooding. Thermal recovery includes: thermal processes for light oil recovery; thermal processes for heavy oil recovery; and feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the mid-continent region -- Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri; simulation analysis of steam-foam projects; and field application of foams for oil production symposium. Geoscience technology covers: three-phase relative permeability; and imaging techniques applied to the study of fluids in porous media. Resource assessment technology includes: reservoir assessment and characterization; TORIS research support; upgrade the BPO crude oil analysis data base; and compilation and analysis of outcrop data from the Muddy and Almond Formations. Microbial technology covers development of improved microbial flooding methods; and microbial-enhanced waterflooding field project.

  18. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  19. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and bacterial biosensors are being used to analyze petroleum-contaminated environments. PMID:14665675

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1998, with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the Unites States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1997 with data for November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1998 with data from December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1995: With data for October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  17. Towards silicon speciation in light petroleum products using gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a dynamic reaction cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainet, Fabien; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Ponthus, Jeremie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Castro, Joaudimir; Tessier, Emmanuel; Donard, Olivier François Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Silicon speciation has recently gained interest in the oil and gas industry due to the significant poisoning problems caused by silicon on hydrotreatment catalysts. The poisoning effect clearly depends on the structure of the silicon species which must be determined and quantified. The hyphenation of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) allows a specific detection to determine the retention times of all silicon species. The aim of this work is to determine the retention indices of unknown silicon species to allow their characterization by a multi-technical approach in order to access to their chemical structure. The optimization of the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-MS using hydrogen as reactant gas successfully demonstrated the resolution of the interferences (14N14N+ and 12C16O+) initially present on 28Si. The linearity was excellent for silicon compounds and instrumental detection limits ranged from 20 to 140 μg of Si/kg depending on the response of the silicon compounds. A continuous release of silicon in the torch was observed most likely due to the use of a torch and an injector which was made of quartz. A non-universal response for silicon was observed and it was clearly necessary to use response coefficients to quantify silicon compounds. Known silicon compounds such as cyclic siloxanes (D3-D16) coming from PDMS degradation were confirmed. Furthermore, more than 10 new silicon species never characterized before in petroleum products were highlighted in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) degradation samples produced under thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. These silicon species mainly consisted of linear and cyclic structures containing reactive functions such as ethoxy, peroxide and hydroxy groups which can be able to react with the alumina surface and hence, poison the catalyst. This characterization will further allow the development of innovative solutions such as trapping silicon compounds or

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  20. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  1. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-18

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  2. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  3. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  4. Contribution of offshore petroleum deposits to marine food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, S.

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum production out of offshore petroleum deposits often coincides with abundant fisheries in the world. Superposition of marine microorganism concentration distribution and offshore petroleum field distribution from various data in the literature provides to prove this coincidence. Sakhalin Island coastal regions, North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, etc. are chosen for the superpositions. Significant conformity is observed between the plankton concentration distribution and the offshore petroleum deposit distribution in all those regions. Also, most studies on the consequence of oil spills to marine eco-systems have focused mainly on hazardous marine pollution caused by spilled petroleum at high concentration in marine environment. However, some of those data clearly indicate stimulation of plankton population in properly low concentration levels of dissolved hydrocarbons and dissolved petroleum compositions. Further, increase of hydrocarbon concentration leads to its inhibition from its stimulation conditions upon crossing over a critical concentration level—a plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration (SITC) of hydrocarbons. The SITC varies depending on hydrocarbon compounds, petroleum compositions, and microorganisms such as planktons. Further, petroleum composition diffusing through subterranean layers from petroleum deposits reacts with dissolved oxygen to be consumed at the ocean floor to precipitate the agglomerate suspension of hydrocarbons, leaving the sea water in a condition of oxygen depletion on the ocean floor. Such incidents are also briefly discussed.Plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration of petroleum fractions

  5. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  7. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner's acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. S. 254: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, January 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the text of a bill to impose import taxes on crude oil and refined petroleum products, petrochemical feedstock or petrochemical derivatives. Taxes will be paid by the first person who sells the product within the U.S. and by the person who uses the product.

  11. Romania's petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, M.O. ); Popescu, B.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In Romania, nine onshore petroleum systems and one offshore petroleum system have recently been identified. Of the onshore systems, three are related to the compressional folded basins: Teleajen-Sita (early Middle Cretaceous marine source rocks), and Puciossa-Fusaru and Alunis-Kliwa (Oligocene-early Miocene marine source rocks). In the same category, we have included the recently discovered Deleni petroleum system with source rocks of not yet identified origin but whose reservoirs certainly belong to a folded basin. In the foreland platform basins, two systems can be distinguished: Rimesti-Fauresti (Middle Jurassic marine source rocks) and Infra-Anhydrite (with presumed Middle Jurassic or middle Miocene marine source rocks). The areas corresponding to the posttectonic basins include three onshore petroleum systems and one offshore system: the Pannonian (Badenian marine and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks), the Valea Caselor-Borsa (oligocene marine source rocks) and the Transylvanian (Badenian marine shales source and Sarmatian brackish water source rocks). Offshore, there is only one petroleum system consisting of Oligocene-Miocene marine source rock and Cretaceous or Eocene reservoirs. The majority of the mentioned petroleum systems reservoirs are Paleozoic to Pliocene clastics, but in the platform areas, carbonate reservoirs are found in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. In all the petroleum systems, despite the different ages of the source rocks, most of the hydrocarbons have been expelled relatively recently during the Late Sarmatian-Pliocene interval. This face is substantiated by examples from two petroleum systems: the Rimesti-Fauresti (duration time 173 m.y., preservation 2 m.y.) and the Alunis-Kliwa (duration time 29-30 m.y., preservation 4 m.y.). The hydrocarbons were first expelled and migrated into described systems reservoirs after Late Styrian and Moldavian overthrusting, i.e. not earlier than 12-14 m.y.

  12. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  13. Development of Interspecies Correlation Models for Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating the consequences of petroleum products to water column organisms has commonly been hampered by limited acute toxicity data, which exists only for a relatively small number of test species. In this study, we developed petroleum-specific Interspecies Correlation Estimati...

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1995, with data for December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-27

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on petroleum include the domestic first purchase price, landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  16. Metagenomic Approach for Understanding Microbial Population from Petroleum Muck

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, M. N.; Dhebar, S. V.; Dhebar, S. V.; Bhargava, P.; Pandit, A. S.; Patel, R. P.; Saxena, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum products play a major role in fueling the economy of the world but the pollution they create has become a critical issue. Understanding the diversity present in pipeline muck will help with the exploration of new microbial strains with better hydrocarbon degrading capacities for bioremediation of polluted sites. This study provides an analysis of petroleum muck using next generation sequencing. PMID:24874664

  17. UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sinca a significant number of the two or more million underground storage tank (UST) systems used for petroleum products leak, their cleanup poses a major environmental challenge. Our understnading of the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment is critical t...

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil.

  19. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  20. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  1. Petroleum engineering manpower supply

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.

    1982-09-01

    The supply of Petroleum Engineers within the U.S. has shown an exponential growth during the last decade due to increases in the price of petroleum and concommitant demand for engineers in the petroleum industry at all levels of activity. Schools currently have very large enrollments; many lack sufficient faculty and facilities to adequately handle the large loads. Recent uncertainty in long range forecasting of petroleum demand, coupled with uncertainty in the price of oil due to turmoil in the Middle East and the discovery of additional large reserves of petroleum as a result of increased drilling, has led to a decline of approximately 25% in the price of crude oil on the spot market and subsequent reductions in drilling in 1982 from a high of 4,500 rigs in the U.S. to 2528 rigs by August 31, 1982; a reduction of 44% this year. This reduction in activity will be reflected in reduced job opportunities for many new graduates in December 1982 and in 1983, and the ''pipelines'' within the schools are filled with students in expectation of good jobs in the private sector of the economy. Since Petroleum Engineering departments maintain a close tie with industry, it is essential that some balance be maintained between supply and demand, so as to try to prevent a glut of engineers descending upon the market. Steps are underway at many schools. to reduce enrollments by a variety of methods at the present time. An upturn in demand in petroleum prices may serve to mitigate the problem within the next two years, but a long-range interchange between industrial hiring forecasts and universities is essential in planning for the future.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Reservoirs and petroleum systems of the Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This GIS product was designed to provide a quick look at the ages and products (oil or gas) of major reservoir intervals with respect to the different petroleum systems that have been identified in the Gulf Coast Region. The three major petroleum source-rock systems are the Tertiary (Paleocene-Eocene) Wilcox Formation, Cretaceous (Turonian) Eagle Ford Formation, and Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation. The ages of the reservoir units extend from Jurassic to Pleistocene. By combining various GIS layers, the user can gain insights into the maximum extent of each petroleum system and the pathways for petroleum migration from the source rocks to traps. Interpretations based on these data should improve development of exploration models for this petroleum-rich province.

  4. Contributions in petroleum geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, A.H.; Koederitz, L.; Honarpour, M. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses petroleum reservoir components and properties. The contents include: Systems of units. Reservoir Rocks. Reservoir fluids. Relative permeability and capillarity. Reservoir volume and fluid flow. Naturally fractured reservoirs. Natural production mechanisms. Prediction of oil and gas recovery. Analysis of well performance. Gas-condensate reservoirs. Enhanced oil recovery processes.

  5. The Pros and Cons of Petroleum Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    A mineral agreements expert discusses the options open to tribes, from the most standard lease form to arrangements as yet untried by Indian Nations. Discussion covers 18 basic provisions for inclusion in agreements, tax considerations, and basic forms of petroleum agreements (leases, joint ventures, production sharing, and service contracts).…

  6. Characterization of Nitrogen-Containing Species in Coal and Petroleum-Derived Products by Ammonia Chemical Ionization-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, Garret A.; Lynn, Ronald J.; Sprecher, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A coal-derived light distillate and a petroleum-derived residuum have been studied by high resolution mass spectrometry using both low-pressure ammonia chemical ionization and low-voltage electron impact ionization. A mass calibration mixture for use with ammonia chemical ionization has been developed. Selective ionization of the basic nitrogen-containing compounds by ammonia chemical ionization and compound type characterization of the resulting quasi-molecular species has been demonstrated. Several homologous series of nitrogen-containing compounds were identified in a basic extract by electron impact ionization and compared with quasimolecular analogs identified by ammonia chemical ionization.

  7. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-12-08

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  8. Uptake and trans-membrane transport of petroleum hydrocarbons by microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Fei; Wang, Hong Qi

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-based products are a primary energy source in the industry and daily life. During the exploration, processing, transport and storage of petroleum and petroleum products, water or soil pollution occurs regularly. Biodegradation of the hydrocarbon pollutants by indigenous microorganisms is one of the primary mechanisms of removal of petroleum compounds from the environment. However, the physical contact between microorganisms and hydrophobic hydrocarbons limits the biodegradation rate. This paper presents an updated review of the petroleum hydrocarbon uptake and transport across the outer membrane of microorganisms with the help of outer membrane proteins. PMID:26740752

  9. Importance of technical analysis of petroleum futures

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Recent structural changes of the global economy have resulted in {open_quotes}free market{close_quotes} forces determining the prices of petroleum products. In the early years of the petroleum age, market prices were unduly influenced by forces such as Standard Oil. The Texas Railroad Commission, {open_quotes}The Seven Sisters{close_quotes} and OPEC. Petroleum product prices set on the New York Mercantile and on the International Petroleum Exchange in London reflect the current supply/demand judgement of informed participants. In dollar terms, crude oil is the worlds most important commodity. Large capital pools such as hedge and pension funds seek risk diversification through purchases of derivatives such as the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index futures contract established in 1991. Global computerized trading made possible in part by advances in telecommunication technology can result in rapid market adjustments. Computer assisted mathematical analysis of price, volume, open interest, momentum, volatility, and premiums is useful to the working energy professional when planning upstream activities such as production purchases or drilling programs.

  10. THE SOLAR TRANSFORMITY OF OIL AND PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an emergy evaluation of the biogeochemical process of petroleum formation. Unlike the previous calculation, in which the transformity of crude oil was back calculated from the relative efficiency of electricity production and factors relating coal to transport...

  11. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy continued to operate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 in Wyoming through its contractors. In addition, natural gas operations were conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. All productive acreage owned by the Government at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California was produced under lease to private companies. The locations of all six Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves are shown in a figure. Under the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976, production was originally authorized for six years, and based on findings of national interest, the President was authorized to extend production in three-year increments. President Reagan exercised this authority three times (in 1981, 1984, and 1987) and President Bush authorized extended production once (in 1990). President Clinton exercised this authority in 1993 and again in October 1996; production is presently authorized through April 5, 2000. 4 figs. 30 tabs.

  12. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  13. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free on board price and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The data provided are compiled from six Energy Information Administration survey forms. 50 tabs.

  15. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  16. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum substances are used in large quantities, primarily as fuels. They are complex mixtures whose major constituents are hydrocarbons derived from crude oil by distillation and fractionation. Determining the complete molecular composition of petroleum and its refined products is not feasible with current analytical techniques because of the huge number of molecular components. This complex nature of petroleum products, with their varied number of constituents, all of them exhibiting different fate and effect characteristics, merits a dedicated hazard and risk assessment approach. From a regulatory perspective they pose a great challenge in a number of REACH processes, in particular in the context of dossier and substance evaluation but also for priority setting activities. In order to facilitate the performance of hazard and risk assessment for petroleum substances the European oil company association, CONCAWE, has developed the PETROTOX and PETRORISK spreadsheet models. Since the exact composition of many petroleum products is not known, an underlying assumption of the PETROTOX and PETRORISK tools is that the behaviour and fate of a total petroleum substance can be simulated based on the physical-chemical properties of representative structures mapped to hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) and on the relative share of each HB in the total mass of the product. To assess how differing chemical compositions affect the simulated chemical fate and toxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures, a series of model simulations were run using an artificial petroleum substance, containing 386 (PETROTOX) or 160 (PETRORISK) HBs belonging to different chemical classes and molecular weight ranges, but with equal mass assigned to each of them. To this artificial petroleum substance a guided series of subsequent modifications in mass allocation to a delineated number of HBs belonging to different chemical classes and carbon ranges was performed, in what we perceived as a guided "walking tour

  17. Explaining EIA Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Price Data and Comparing with Other U.S. Government Data Sources, 2001 to 2010

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the sampling frames and basic data collection methods for petroleum price data reported by Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other Government agencies. In addition, it compares and contrasts annual average prices reported by EIA with comparable prices from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) CPI (Consumer Price Indexes) for the retail prices of residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel and motor gasoline (all grades.) Further, it compares refiner wholesale/resale prices for No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 diesel fuel, motor gasoline (all grades,) kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil reported by EIA with comparable prices from the BLS PPI (Producer Price Index.) A discussion of the various crude oil prices and spot/futures prices published by EIA and other Government agencies is also included in the article.

  18. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly: September 1996, with data for June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Detailed statistics for crude oil, including the price of imported crude oil by country of origin, by gravity, and by crude stream. To aid the reader in determining the market changes, the majority of the tables show data for the report month and previous months for the current year, and the report month for the previous year. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Potential applications of bioprocess technology in petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Brajesh; Ward, Owen

    2012-11-01

    Petroleum refining is traditionally based on the use of physicochemical processes such as distillation and chemical catalysis that operate under high temperatures and pressures conditions, which are energy intensive and costly. Biotechnology has become an important tool for providing new approaches in petroleum industry during oil production, refining and processing as well as managing environmentally safe pollutant remediation and disposal practices. Earlier biotechnology applications in the petroleum industry were limited to microbial enhanced oil recovery, applications of bioremediation to contaminated marine shorelines, soils and sludges. The potential role of bioprocess technology in this industry has now expanded further into the areas of biorefining and upgrading of fuels, production of fine chemicals, control of souring during production and air VOC biofiltration. In this paper we provide an overview of the major applications of bioprocesses and technology development in the petroleum industry both in upstream and downstream areas and highlight future challenges and opportunities.

  1. Applications of T-ray spectroscopy in the petroleum field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Douseri, Fatemah M.

    2005-11-01

    Because of heavy usage of petroleum products, which are the main source of energy in daily life and industry, a fast, reliable, and portable analysis system is needed to complement traditional techniques. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or T-rays, is electromagnetic radiation in the 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range. One unique attribute of T-rays is their ability to sensitively measure the induced molecular dipole moments in non-polar liquids such as aromatics, which make up the majority of the contents of many petroleum products. This information can lead to several applications in petroleum analysis. The application of T-rays to petroleum product analysis has the potential to make a significant impact in the petroleum field. In this dissertation, I show the first use of T-ray time-domain spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques for petroleum product analysis. I report on the feasibility of analyzing selected petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel, lubricating oil, and selected compounds of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). With the use of a T-ray time-domain spectrometer. I demonstrate that gasolines with different octane numbers and diesel all show specific absorption coefficients and refractive indexes in the spectral range from 0.5 to 2.0 THz. Furthermore, I report the qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected BTEX components in gasoline and diesel using FTIR spectroscopy in the 50 to 650 cm-1 region. I distinguish gasolines with different octane numbers from diesel and lubricating oil according to their different spectral features. I also determine the concentration of (o, m, p) xylene isomers in gasoline according to their specific absorption bands. The experimental results in this thesis, imply that linking between the knowledge of petroleum products and the development of T-ray spectrometer with the cooperation of industry might translate the T-ray spectroscopic system into a real world application in

  2. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  3. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  4. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  5. [Petroleum substances--human health hazards. I. Classification of petroleum substances on the list of dangerous substances and assessment of existing hazards].

    PubMed

    Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Complex products derived from petroleum are widely used as fuels, greases, solvents, and intermediates in many branches of industry. Petroleum exposure-related human health hazards, observed in occupationally exposed people and in the general population, are a serious sanitary problem. Complex and variable composition of individual petroleum products makes the actual assessment of human health hazards difficult. Potential hazards, and resulting classification of individual petroleum substance groups, are discussed in the presented work. This should prove to be helpful to work safety and hygiene services as well as to supervising institutions, mainly the sanitary inspection, in a proper assessment of the hazards, and consequently in taking appropriate preventive actions. In Part I., general issues concerning the hazard assessment and legal aspects of petroleum substances classification are presented. In Part. II., individual groups of petroleum substances are discussed with respect to health hazards, resulting from both physicochemical properties and toxicity, and their classification based on this analysis is suggested. PMID:17133920

  6. The peroxidase-mediated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a H2O2-induced SBR using in-situ production of peroxidase: Biodegradation experiments and bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-08-01

    A bacterial peroxidase-mediated oxidizing process was developed for biodegrading total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Almost complete biodegradation (>99%) of high TPH concentrations (4g/L) was attained in the bioreactor with a low amount (0.6mM) of H2O2 at a reaction time of 22h. A specific TPH biodegradation rate as high as 44.3mgTPH/gbiomass×h was obtained with this process. The reaction times required for complete biodegradation of TPH concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4g/L were 21, 22, 28, and 30h, respectively. The catalytic activity of hydrocarbon catalyzing peroxidase was determined to be 1.48U/mL biomass. The biodegradation of TPH in seawater was similar to that in fresh media (no salt). A mixture of bacteria capable of peroxidase synthesis and hydrocarbon biodegradation including Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were identified in the bioreactor. The GC/MS analysis of the effluent indicated that all classes of hydrocarbons could be well-degraded in the H2O2-induced SBR. Accordingly, the peroxidase-mediated process is a promising method for efficiently biodegrading concentrated TPH-laden saline wastewater. PMID:27060866

  7. [Rhizosphere enhanced remediation of petroleum contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-zhi; Sun, Shan-shan; Qiao, Wei; Liu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The effects of growing tall fescue on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons was studied in laboratory scale pots. Degradation of hydrocarbons as well as microbial counts, soil fluorescein diacetate activity, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity were determined. The results showed that, in the rhizosphere soil system, total petroleum hydrocarbons disappeared faster than that in unvegetated pots soil. After 10 weeks, 11.8% and 27.4% of spiked petroleum hydrocarbons disappeared from the bulk and rhizosphere soils respectively. Abiotic loss of petroleum hydrocarbons by evaporation was of minor significance in the test. The microbial plate counts and soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Petroleum compounds had significant effect on fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activity. Vegetation resulted in significantly greater first-order decay constants compared to the unvegetated control. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were present in the soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Four oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1-acenaphthenone, 9-fluorenone, anthraquinone, and benzfluorenone were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study.

  8. Invariance in the isoheptanes of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.

    1987-07-31

    Four isoheptanes in petroleum display a remarkable invariance in a ratio of sums of concentrations. The isoheptanes are not at thermodynamic equilibrium, nor are they fixed to some constant composition. The four isomers display coherent change in relative amounts but maintain invariance in the ratio of sums. Within sets of genetically related petroleum samples, invariance reaches levels that approach the limits of their analytical precision. The invariance is inconsistent with a chemical origin that involves the thermal fragmentation of natural products or their derivatives. It suggests a reaction process at steady state, in which relative rates of product formation are constant. A mechanism is proposed in which the four isoheptanes are formed pairwise and sequentially through two intermediates in a catalytic process that operates at steady state. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Treatment of petroleum-contaminated water resources: modern techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Konovalov, V. V.; Dmitrieva, N. V.; Belozerova, D. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the issue of petroleum-contaminated water resources. The authors have analyzed the dynamics of oil spills, including the world's largest ones, and claimed the issue to be global. The modern methods of mitigating oil spill effects have been studied, as well as the modern techniques of water resource treatment. The particular attention is paid to peat sorbent production, which is considered a promising trend of petroleum- contaminated water treatment.

  10. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills): Supplemental environmental impact statement. Record of decision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations, which implement the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, and the US Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act regulations, the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, is issuing a Record of Decision on the continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The Department of Energy has decided to continue current operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and implement additional well drilling, facility development projects and other activities necessary for continued production of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, entitled ``Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California (DOE/SEIS-0158),`` was released on September 3, 1993.

  11. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  12. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  13. Production of carbon nanotubes: Chemical vapor deposition synthesis from liquefied petroleum gas over Fe-Co-Mo tri-metallic catalyst supported on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyopratomo, P.; Wulan, Praswasti P. D. K.; Sudibandriyo, M.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes were produced by chemical vapor deposition method to meet the specifications for hydrogen storage. So far, the various catalyst had been studied outlining their activities, performances, and efficiencies. In this work, tri-metallic catalyst consist of Fe-Co-Mo supported on MgO was used. The catalyst was prepared by wet-impregnation method. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was used as carbon source. The synthesis was conducted in atmospheric fixed bed reactor at reaction temperature range 750 - 850 °C for 30 minutes. The impregnation method applied in this study successfully deposed metal component on the MgO support surface. It found that the deposited metal components might partially replace Mg(OH)2 or MgO molecules in their crystal lattice. Compare to the original MgO powder; it was significant increases in pore volume and surface area has occurred during catalyst preparation stages. The size of obtained carbon nanotubes is ranging from about 10.83 nm OD/4.09 nm ID up to 21.84 nm OD/6.51 nm ID, which means that multiwall carbon nanotubes were formed during the synthesis. Yield as much as 2.35 g.CNT/g.catalyst was obtained during 30 minutes synthesis and correspond to carbon nanotubes growth rate of 0.2 μm/min. The BET surface area of the obtained carbon nanotubes is 181.13 m2/g and around 50 % of which is contributed by mesopores. Micropore with half pore width less than 1 nm contribute about 10% volume of total micro and mesopores volume of the carbon nanotubes. The existence of these micropores is very important to increase the hydrogen storage capacity of the carbon nanotubes.

  14. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  15. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  16. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  17. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  18. Fractionation process for petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Mitchael, M.R.; Krenowicz, R.A.; Southard, W.M.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a process which comprises separating a petroleum wax into a lower boiling wax fraction of a narrow melting range and a higher boiling wax fraction of wider melting range by subjecting the petroleum wax to distillation in a wiped film evaporator.

  19. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  20. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.