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Sample records for 22-hours liquid preservation

  1. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  2. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  3. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers.

    PubMed

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Bojesen, Anders; Skydsgaard, Karsten; Sjögren, Ingrid; Laursen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate and phosphate. Phenol has been successfully used as a preservative in drug formulations for more than 50 years and is considered a safe and effective agent which complies with strict international requirements for preservatives in drug formulations. In toxicological studies, no or only mild local reactions have been observed following subcutaneous administration of phenol (7.5 mg/ml), m-cresol (3-4 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (9 mg/ml). No general toxicity reactions were observed after subcutaneous administration of these agents. Clinical evaluation of the preservatives and buffers used in Norditropin SimpleXx showed that pain perception was similar between formulations containing phenol and benzyl alcohol, whereas m-cresol was associated with more painful injections than benzyl

  4. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products.

  5. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  7. Percentage of motile spermatozoa at 22 hours after swim-up procedure: An indicator for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Yukiko; Sugimoto, Hironobu; Uemura, Mikiko; Ono, Yuri; Kishi, Junji; Emi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The decision to use in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or split insemination (IVF-ICSI) in the first cycle is based on the number of motile sperm. Hence, total fertilization failure (TFF) often occurs during IVF cycles, despite normozoospermia. To investigate whether the cumulative motile swim-up spermatozoa percentage at 22 hours post-insemination (MSPPI) is an indicator for ICSI, we analyzed TFF, fertilization, blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates. Methods This prospective study was performed using data obtained from 260 IVF cycles. At 22 hours after insemination, the remaining swim-up spermatozoa were observed and divided into six groups according to MSPPI (<10%, 10% to <30%, 30% to <50%, 50% to <70%, 70% to <90%, and 90% to 100%). Results Regardless of the ejaculated motile sperm concentration (0.6–280×106/mL motile spermatozoa), the incidence of TFF significantly increased when MSPPI was <10%, and the fertilization rate significantly decreased when MSPPI was <30%. We found that cumulative MSPPI correlated with the cumulative fertilization rate (Spearman correlation, 0.508, p<0.001). Regarding embryo development, we observed no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, or live birth among all groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MSPPI is a viable indicator for split IVF-ICSI and ICSI. Taken together, by employing the MSPPI test in advance before IVF, ICSI, or split IVF-ICSI cycles, unnecessary split IVF-ICSI and ICSI may be avoided. PMID:27689038

  8. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Siemens, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Freezing can affect concentrations and spectroscopic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water samples. Nevertheless, water samples are regularly frozen for sample preservation. In this study we tested the effect of different freezing methods (standard freezing at -18 °C and fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at -18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax < 250 nm (340 nm), EXmax: 480 nm) and 2 (EXmax: 335 nm, EXmax: 408 nm) to total fluorescence and the humification index (HIX) decreased after both freezing treatments, while the shares of component 3 (EXmax: < 250 nm (305 nm), EXmax: 438 nm) as well as SUVA254 increased. The contribution of PARAFAC component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties of DOM.

  9. Determination of alternative preservatives in cosmetic products by chromophoric derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of phenethyl alcohol, methylpropanediol, phenylpropanol, caprylyl glycol, and ethylhexylglycerin, which are used as alternative preservatives in cosmetic products, has been developed. The method is based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection after chromophoric derivatization with benzoyl chloride and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction. Different chromatographic parameters, derivatization conditions, and sample preparation variables were studied. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection values for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.06µgmL(-1). The method was validated with good recovery values (84-118%) and precision values (3.9-9.5%). It was successfully applied to 10 commercially available cosmetic samples. The good analytical features of the proposed method besides of its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make it useful to carry out the quality control of cosmetic products containing the target compounds as preservative agents.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Wang, C; Wang, X; Ma, Q

    2008-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives: 2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, bronopol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenoxyethanol, methyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, ethyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, methyl benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-propyl ester, propyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-butyl ester, butyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, phenyl benzoate, 2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, triclocarban and triclosan in cosmetics. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column was used with 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase under the condition of gradient elution. Preservatives were extracted with methanol by ultrasonicator, and then they were analysed by UPLC-PDA detector. All these preservatives were baseline separated in 8.5 min. The pre-treatment method of samples and the chromatographic condition of analysis were critically examined in this study. The recoveries ranged from 90.5 to 97.8%, with RSD values below 3.2%, and all correlation coefficients (r) were no less than 0.9997. Thus, this method could be used for analysing the preservatives in cosmetic products.

  11. A Unified Detail-Preserving Liquid Simulation by Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Modeling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Xu, Xuemiao

    2016-02-19

    Traditional methods in graphics to simulate liquid-air dynamics under different scenarios usually employ separate approaches with sophisticated interface tracking/reconstruction techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which is easy and effective to produce a variety of liquid-air interface phenomena. These phenomena, such as complex surface splashes, bubble interactions, as well as surface tension effects, can co-exist in one single simulation, and are created within the same computational framework. Such a framework is unique in that it is free from any complicated interface tracking/reconstruction procedures. Our approach is developed from the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method with the mean field model, which provides a unified framework for interface dynamics but is numerically unstable under turbulent conditions. Considering the drawbacks of the existing approaches, we propose techniques to suppress oscillation for significant stability enhancement, as well as derive a new subgrid-scale model to further improve stability, faithfully preserving liquid-air interface details without excessive diffusion by taking into account the density variation. The whole framework is highly parallel, enabling very efficient implementation. Comparisons to the related approaches show superiority on stable simulation with detail preservation and multiphase phenomena simultaneously involved. A set of animation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of spin and pure liquids with preservation of all the conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, I P; Mryglod, I M; Folk, R

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is developed to integrate numerically the equations of motion for classical many-body systems in molecular dynamics simulations. Its distinguishable feature is the possibility to preserve, independently on the size of the time step, all the conservation laws inherent in the description without breaking the time reversibility. As a result, an implicit second-order algorithm is derived and applied to pure liquids, as well as spin liquids, for which the dynamics is characterized by the conservation of total energy, linear and angular momenta, as well as magnetization and individual spin lengths. It is demonstrated on the basis of Lennard-Jones and Heisenberg fluid models that when such quantities as energy and magnetization must be conserved perfectly, the algorithm turns out to be more efficient than popular decomposition integrators and standard predictor-corrector schemes.

  13. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  14. Preserving ignitable liquid residues on soil using Triclosan as an anti-microbial agent.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dee A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-06-01

    When a fire is suspected to be intentionally set, fire debris samples can be collected and analyzed for ignitable liquid residues (ILRs). In some cases, samples will contain highly organic substrates such as soil or rotting wood. These substrates will contain a high bacterial load, which can result in systematic and irreversible damage to the ILR due to microbial degradation. This paper explores ways to preserve ILR by sterilizing fire debris samples without interfering with their subsequent analysis. There are many methods reported in the literature for sterilizing soil, such as freezing, irradiation, autoclaving, and various chemical fumigation techniques. However, these methods either do not kill all bacterial species, cannot be easily applied in the field or would interfere with the analysis of the ILRs. For this work, various anti-microbial compounds including triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) were tested for their efficacy at killing bacteria present in the soil. Triclosan was highly effective in qualitative growth studies and was therefore used to measure bacterial growth (or lack thereof) by spectroscopic analysis as well as passive headspace analysis. These experiments showed that triclosan was able to sterilize soil samples in less than 60s, maintain their sterility for at least 77h and preserve gasoline residues on a soil matrix for at least 30 days.

  15. Successful preservation of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) semen in liquid and frozen states.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Rzońca, Zenon

    2012-03-15

    Experiments on semen collection and preservation were undertaken by Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences and Forestry Wisła, Poland to assist in the protection of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) and to create an ex situ in vitro cryobank. Semen was collected from 11 captive-bred males, using dorsoabdominal massage. Ejaculates once obtained were diluted 3-fold at room temperature with EK diluent and then a number of them were stored at 4 °C for 18, 24, and 48 hours, while the remaining ejaculates were equilibrated with 6% dimethylacetamide and frozen by pipetting, drop-by-drop directly onto a liquid nitrogen surface. Frozen pellets were thawed at 60 °C in a water bath after 4 to 28 mo of storage. In total, 103 individually collected ejaculates (54 stored as liquid and 49 frozen in liquid nitrogen) were of appropriate value for further processing. The volume of ejaculates varied from 30 to 240 μL; spermatozoa concentration from 70 × 10(6) mL(-1) to 1950 × 10(6) mL(-1). The total amount of live spermatozoa in the fresh semen varied from 85.3% to 99.0%, of which from 41.1% to 85.3% were morphologically normal. Among morphologically abnormal forms, bulb-head (5.6% to 36.0%) and midpiece deformations (1.3% to 16.6%) were the most frequent. Dilution and semen storage up to 24 h at 4 °C did not affect the semen quality, as far as motility and sperm morphology are concerned. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in total live (94.9 vs. 91.7%) and live normal cells (66.4 vs. 56.7%) was observed after 48 h. About 30% to 40% of spermatozoa remained motile. Cryopreservation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the total number of live and live normal spermatozoa however, in relation to the fresh semen, their average content was 44.1% and 37.4%, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) individual differences were observed in the quality of the fresh, liquid stored and the frozen-thawed semen assessed in terms of spermatozoa motility and morphology. After a

  16. Developing a modified preservative efficacy testing approach as a predictive tool for the evaluation of preservative systems in liquid home care products under variable test conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Anne L; Bushman, Don; Lewis, Nathan; Faber, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can a formulator have confidence that a preservative system will perform as expected under adverse conditions? Extreme conditions that can lead to the development of "off odors" in the product can be a serious challenge for companies providing home care products in the global market. Formulation and stability testing occur under controlled parameters that simulate limited environmental conditions and microbial challenges are typically performed with a standard inoculum level. While this is an acceptable and dependable process, it does not necessarily assess how well a preservative system can perform under extreme environmental conditions or against unusually high levels of bacterial challenges. This is especially true when formulations are diluted and stored by the end-user. By modifying microbial challenge testing of a liquid dishwashing product to include unexpected dilution schemes, increased microbial assaults, and elevated temperatures, a pattern of preservative efficacy was established. The resulting approach proved to be a useful tool when developing use directions, recommended dilution levels, the overall surfactant system, preservative type, and storage restrictions.

  17. Analytical interferences of mercuric chloride preservative in environmental water samples: Determination of organic compounds isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction or closed-loop stripping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Falres, L.M.; Werner, M.G.; Leiker, T.J.; Rogerson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical interferences were observed during the determination of organic compounds in groundwater samples preserved with mercuric chloride. The nature of the interference was different depending on the analytical isolation technique employed. (1) Water samples extracted with dichloromethane by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed a broad HgCl2 'peak' eluting over a 3-5-min span which interfered with the determination of coeluting organic analytes. Substitution of CLLE for separatory funnel extraction in EPA method 508 also resulted in analytical interferences from the use of HgCl2 preservative. (2) Mercuric chloride was purged, along with organic contaminants, during closed-loop stripping (CLS) of groundwater samples and absorbed onto the activated charcoal trap. Competitive sorption of the HgCl2 by the trap appeared to contribute to the observed poor recoveries for spiked organic contaminants. The HgCl2 was not displaced from the charcoal with the dichloromethane elution solvent and required strong nitric acid to achieve rapid, complete displacement. Similar competitive sorption mechanisms might also occur in other purge and trap methods when this preservative is used.

  18. The mixture of liquid foam soap, ethanol and citric acid as a new fixative-preservative solution in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Turan, Erkut; Gules, Ozay; Kilimci, Figen Sevil; Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Dilek, Omer Gurkan; Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Tatar, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of liquid foam soap, ethanol, citric acid and benzalkonium chloride as a fixative-preservative solution (a soap-and ethanol-based fixing solution, or SEFS). In this study, ethanol serves as the fixative and preservative, liquid foam soap as the modifying agent, citric acid as the antioxidant and benzalkonium chloride as the disinfectant. The goat cadavers perfused with SEFS (n=8) were evaluated over a period of one year with respect to hardness, colour and odour using objective methods. Colour and hardness were compared between one fresh cadaver and the SEFS-embalmed cadavers. Histological and microbiological examinations were also performed in tissue samples. Additionally, the cadavers were subjectively evaluated after dissection and palpation. The SEFS provided the effectiveness expected over a 1-year embalming period for the animal cadavers. No bacteria or fungi were isolated except for some non-pathogenic Bacillus species. Visible mould was not present on either cadavers or in the surrounding environment. The cadavers maintained an appearance close to their original anatomical appearance, with muscles having good hardness and elasticity for dissection.

  19. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  20. New Developments in Red Blood Cell Preservation Using Liquid and Freezing Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-02

    phosphate ion exchange resin.30 ൪ Solutions of bicarbonate, adenine, glucose and mannitol (BAGM), saline, adenine and RED BLOOD CELL PRESERVATION 10...glucose (SAO), and adenine, glucose, sodium chloride and mannitol (ADSOL), have been used to maintain or increase the red cell organic phosphate...compounds, ATP which influences posttransfusion survival, and 2,3 DPG which influences red cell oxygen transport function. Studies have shown that mannitol

  1. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  2. Determination of food preservatives and saccharin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, U; Gauch, R; Baumgartner, E

    1979-05-21

    The quantitative analysis of benzoic and sorbic acid, methyl, ethyl and propyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and saccharin in foodstuffs is described. These compounds are quantitatively extracted with disposable clean-up columns packed with Extrelut and simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns. Complicated matrices such as cheese, cake, ketchup and chocolate were tested and recoveries were generally better than 95% in the concentration ranges normally used in the food industry.

  3. The preservability of turkey semen quality during liquid storage in relation to strain and age of males.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Manchisi, A; Rosato, M P

    2008-12-01

    It is difficult to maintain turkey semen quality after in vitro liquid storage and the problem is worsened by animal aging. Little is currently known about the effects of both reproductive period and strain on the preservability of qualitative characteristics of turkey semen during liquid storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reproductive period of two commercial turkey strains on semen quality changes during in vitro storage for upto 48 h at 5 degrees C. Two different periods were considered: first period from 32 to 40 weeks of age and the second one from 44 to 52 weeks. Turkey males from either British United Turkeys (BUT) Big-6 line and Hybrid Large White line (Hybrid) were used. Semen pools of each tom strain were diluted with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) and the motility, viability and membrane integrity of sperm were evaluated at 3, 24 and 48 h of liquid storage at 5 degrees C. The sperm concentration was significantly affected by period (P<0.01) and strain (P<0.05), with best values in first period and in the Hybrid semen. Besides also the motility, viability and membrane integrity during 48 h of storage were better (P<0.05) in the first period compared to the second one for both strains, particularly in Hybrid semen. During storage it was clearly shown in the first period that Hybrid sperm worsened more than the BUT one: in spite of the motility and viability values were at first (3h) higher (P<0.05) in Hybrid semen, after 48 h of storage the motility did not show any significant difference between strains while the viability resulted even better (P<0.05) in BUT semen. In the second period, although the semen quality decreased during the storage with a similar trend for both strains, better (P<0.05) values were found in BUT semen. Our results indicated that the reproductive period affected the quality of turkey semen in a different manner according to the strain. Moreover BUT semen showed a better in vitro storage

  4. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were incubated in variants of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and assessed for kinetic changes of viability (plasma membrane integrity) and intracellular calcium concentration using flow cytometry in combination with propidium iodide and Fluo-3. By this means, it was possible to determine specific effects of bicarbonate and calcium on sperm subpopulations over incubation time. During storage, standard semen parameters remained on a high level. However, flow cytometric analysis of sperm responses to capacitating and control media revealed two opposing effects of storage. There was a loss of response to bicarbonate in part of the live sperm population but an increasing degree of instability in the rest. Assessment of response to capacitating media by flow cytometry appears a markedly more sensitive way of monitoring sperm functionality during storage than the standard semen parameters of motility and viability.

  5. Effects of liquid preservation of sperm on their ability to activate oocytes and initiate preimplantational development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the pig.

    PubMed

    Binh, N T; Van Thuan, N; Miyake, M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of liquid preservation conditions on the ability of pig sperm to activate oocytes, form a male pronucleus, and initiate preimplantational development of embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Porcine ejaculates were preserved at 4, 14, and 24 degrees C for up to 48h, and then damage to the plasma membrane, morphologic changes of the acrosome, and the amount of phospholipase Czeta (PLCzeta) in the sperm were assessed by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blots, respectively. The proportion of sperm with a disintegrated plasma membrane or damaged acrosome increased in all samples as the duration of preservation increased, although the time courses of the increases varied among preservation temperatures. The immunolocalization and immunoreactivity of PLCzeta in the sperm showed its reduction concurrent with disintegration of the plasma membrane and acrosome. Rates of oocyte activation, male-pronuclear formation, and blastocyst formation after ICSI using sperm preserved for 18h at 24 degrees C (78%, 62%, and 35%, respectively) and for 48h at 14 degrees C (63%, 53%, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of any other sperm sample. We concluded that the damage to the plasma membrane and acrosome, and a sufficient amount of PLCzeta in the sperm head, enhanced successful oocyte activation, fertilization, and early development of the oocytes after ICSI. Moreover, we inferred that appropriate liquid preservation of sperm improved the efficiency of blastocyst production in vitro after ICSI in pigs.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  7. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  8. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography for determination of Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Jindong; Pei, Yuning; Long, Tao; Ding, Wen; Xie, Kun

    2012-05-01

    New molecularly imprinted microspheres synthesized by suspension polymerisation using phenylamine and naphthol as mimic template were successfully applied as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction used for the simultaneous determination of four Sudan dyes from preserved beancurd products. The obtained imprinted microspheres showed good recognition and selectivity to the four Sudan dyes in aqueous solution and the affinity could be easily controlled by adjusting the property of the solution. Under the selected experimental condition, the recoveries of the Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds at three spiked levels were ranged between 90.2-104.5% with the relative standard deviation of less than 6.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) based on a signal-to-noise of 3 and 10 were in the range of 0.005-0.009μgg(-1) and 0.015-0.030μgg(-1), respectively. Comparing with alumina and C18-based extraction, the selectivity and repeatability of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) were obviously improved. This method could be potentially applied for the determination of Sudan dyes in complicated food samples.

  9. Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Grilj, J.; Frassetto, F.; Mewes, L.; Zhang, H.; van Mourik, F.; Poletto, L.; Chergui, M.

    2015-01-01

    A tuneable repetition rate extreme ultraviolet source (Harmonium) for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids is presented. High harmonic generation produces 30–110 eV photons, with fluxes ranging from ∼2 × 1011 photons/s at 36 eV to ∼2 × 108 photons/s at 100 eV. Four different gratings in a time-preserving grating monochromator provide either high energy resolution (0.2 eV) or high temporal resolution (40 fs) between 30 and 110 eV. Laser assisted photoemission was used to measure the temporal response of the system. Vibrational progressions in gas phase water were measured demonstrating the ∼0.2 eV energy resolution. PMID:26798833

  10. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H2O2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm.

  11. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine, pholcodine, and paraben preservatives in cough mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, L

    1983-02-01

    The separation and simultaneous determination, by high-performance liquid chromatography, of acetaminophen (I), guaifenesin (II), pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (III), and pholcodine (IV), together with a series of parabens (methyl to butyl, V-VIII) in a cough mixture, has been demonstrated using a chemically bonded octadecylsilane stationary phase with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:2) containing the ion-pairing agent octanesulfonic acid. Retention volumes for the active ingredients were 3.8 ml, 5.4 ml, 9.4 ml, and 15.6 ml for compounds I-IV, respectively. Corrected retention volumes for the parabens [5.4 ml for methyl (V), 9.6 ml for ethyl (VI), 18.5 ml for propyl (VII), and 37.9 ml for butyl (VIII)] showed an exponential relationship with chain length of the esterifying alcohols. Excipients did not interfere with the estimation of any of the compounds, hence pretreatment of the sample was unnecessary. Average recoveries of the active ingredients and of the parabens from laboratory prepared samples were essentially 100% of theoretical with standard deviations of 1.7, 0.3, 1.5, 0.3, 0.3, 3.3, 0.7, and 2.7% for I-VIII, respectively.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of azaarenes and their metabolites in groundwater affected by creosote wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Ondrus, M G; Steinheimer, T R

    1990-06-01

    Polynuclear azaheterocyclic compounds (azaarenes) are nitrogen-containing analogs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The nitrogen atom in the ring system causes these compounds to be slightly polar and considerably more water soluble than related PAHs. A method using a solid-surface sorption technique to extract and concentrate azaarenes and their principle metabolites present in groundwater that contains creosote waste is described. Analyte isolation and concentration is accomplished by solid-phase extraction on n-octadecyl cartridges followed by instrumental determination involving high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations and detection are achieved using flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with ultraviolet and fluorescence photometric detectors connected in series. Fluorescence detection alone is insufficient because the fluorescence response produced by two-ring azaarenes is limited. Short wavelength (229 nm) absorbance detection provides improved sensitivity for these compounds and peak rationing for more definitive identification. In this study, oxygen-containing metabolites of quinoline, isoquinoline, and acridine are detected in groundwater from hazardous waste sites in Pensacola, Florida and St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L are measured. The dependence of measured octanol-water partition coefficients on pH is discussed in the context of the isolation chemistry. As a direct bacterial degradation product of acridine with a relatively long environmental persistence, 9-acridinone may serve as a biogenic marker signaling creosote contamination of groundwater.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of azaarenes and their metabolites in groundwater affected by creosote wood preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrus, M.G.; Steinheimer, T.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Polynuclear azaheterocyclic compounds (azaarenes) are nitrogen-containing analogs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The nitrogen atom in the ring system causes these compounds to be slightly polar and considerably more water soluble than related PAHs. A method using a solid-surface sorption technique to extract and concentrate azaarenes and their principle metabolites present in groundwater that contains creosote waste is described. Analyte isolation and concentration is accomplished by solid-phase extraction on n-octadecyl cartridges followed by instrumental determination involving high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations and detection are achieved using flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with ultraviolet and fluorescence photometric detectors connected in series. Fluorescence detection alone is insufficient because the fluorescence response produced by two-ring azaarenes is limited. Short wavelength (229 nm) absorbance detection provides improved sensitivity for these compounds and peak rationing for more definitive identification. In this study, oxygen-containing metabolites of quinoline, isoquinoline, and acridine are detected in groundwater from hazardous waste sites in Pensacola, Florida and St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L are measured. The dependence of measured octanol-water partition coefficients on pH is discussed in the context of the isolation chemistry. As a direct bacterial degradation product of acridine with a relatively long environmental persistence, 9-acridinone may serve as a biogenic marker signaling creosote contamination of groundwater.

  14. A comparative study of the effects of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens upon boar semen preserved in liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Domènech, Esther; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-02-01

    The present study compares the sperm quality of boar seminal doses artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, and maintained in liquid storage at 15°C for a 9-day period. Seminal doses from 10 sexually mature Piétrain boars were diluted in a Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS)-based extender and infected either with E. coli or C. perfringens, with bacterial loads ranging from 10(1) to 10(7)cfumL(-1). During storage, the changes in sperm quality were determined by assessing pH, sperm viability, sperm motiliy, sperm morphology, sperm agglutination degree, and sperm-bacteria interaction. The infection of seminal doses led to an alkalinization of the medium, which was of higher extend in doses infected with C. perfringens. The effect of contamination on sperm viability and motility relied on bacterial type and load. Therefore, while E. coli was more harmful than C. perfringens in bacterial loads ranging from 10(1) to 10(6)cfumL(-1), the detrimental impact of C. perfringens was more apparent than that of E. coli at a bacterial load of 10(7)cfumL(-1). Despite sperm morphology not being affected by either bacterial type or load, sperm agglutination and sperm-bacteria interaction were characteristic of doses infected with E. coli, and increased concomintantly with bacterial load and along storage period. In conclusion, the effects of infection by E. coli on sperm quality were dependent of both bacterial load and storage period, whereas the effects of C. perfringens were mainly dependent on the bacterial load, with a threshold at 10(7)cfumL(-1) from which the sperm quality of seminal doses was greatly impaired.

  15. Determination of preservative and antimicrobial compounds in fish from Manila Bay, Philippines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Amano, Atsuko; Miller, Todd W; Siringan, Fernando P; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-09-15

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of four paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl) and two antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban) belonging to personal care products (PCPs) in 20 species of fish from Manila Bay (Philippines) was performed. Detection of PCPs with greater frequency indicates the ubiquitous contamination of Manila Bay. Concentrations of total paraben were one order of magnitude higher than the antimicrobials in almost all fish, except in Stolephorus indicus and Leiognathus equulus. A positive correlation was observed between parabens concentration and fish length (r = 0.31-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001) and fish weight (r = 0.28-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001), but not for the antimicrobials. The estimated dietary exposure values of the four parabens in the Philippines through fish is four orders of magnitude lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 10mg/kg/day, but the values of antimicrobials are just half of the ADI of TCS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCPs contamination in fish from Philippines.

  16. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream.

  17. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of paraben preservatives in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    A method for the extraction and determination of seven parabens, esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, widely used as preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, etc., and two chlorinated derivatives (mono- and di-chloro methyl paraben) from mollusk samples was developed by combining matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MSPD parameters, such as solvent, solid support and clean-up sorbent, were optimized. Besides, since blank problems were observed for some parabens, these were investigated and blanks were tackled by precleaning all sorbents prior to use. Under final conditions, 0.5g of freeze-dried mollusk were dispersed with 1.2g of silica and packed into a cartridge containing 3g of C18, as on-line clean-up sorbent. This cartridge was eluted with 10mL of acetonitrile, evaporated and reconstituted in methanol for analysis. In the validation stage, successful linearity (R(2)>0.999), recoveries (between 71 and 117% for most analytes), precision (RSD lower than 21%) and limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ, lower than 0.4 and 1.4ngg(-1) dry weight respectively) levels were achieved. Finally, the new methodology was applied to mussel, clam and cockle samples. Methyl paraben was above the LOQ in five of the six samples (not found in one clam sample) at concentrations up to 7ngg(-1) dry weight. Ethyl paraben was found above the LOQ in mussel and cockle samples at a concentration level around 0.3ngg(-1). n-Propyl paraben was only above the LOQ in one mussel sample.

  18. Preservation Microfilming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajor, Ladd Z.

    1972-01-01

    Microfilming preserves the library's holdings while creating space for new acquisitions without the need for new library construction and physical expansion. In addition, microfilming protects rare originals from excessive handling, preserves material with permanent research value and makes possible economic demand" reprinting via positive…

  19. Preparation of size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles with a graphene and polymeric ionic liquid coating for the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of preservatives from vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaling; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Zhiqiong; Wang, Guoming

    2016-05-27

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 200-1000nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was synthesized and used as modified QuEChERS adsorbent for the determination of preservatives in vegetables. The size of about 200nm of Fe3O4 in Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was selected as optimum size to clean-up. It not only exerted the nanometer features of magnetic nanoparticles, but also displayed the large specific surface area of graphene (G) and the solvent effects of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs). Various experimental parameters have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 20 preservatives residues in vegetables was established by modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The good linearity with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9972-0.9999 was obtained over the range of 0.02-2.00mg/L for 20 preservatives. The detection limits of the proposed method for 20 preservatives ranged from 0.82 to 6.64μg/kg. The adsorbent was successfully applied for extraction and determination of preservatives in vegetable samples, which thus was time-saving with keeping good clean-up performance.

  20. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  1. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  2. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model.

  3. Digitizing Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

  4. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  5. Neighborhood Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benin, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Because of concern about the preservation of the historic character of Stamford (Connecticut), children in a pilot program at an elementary school learned about neighborhood history, sketched houses, researched houses which had been torn down and drew and constructed replicas of them, and learned about renovation and period interior design. (IS)

  6. Cryogenic Preservation of Granulocytes and Monocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-25

    plateletpheresis bags and preserved with the granulocyte protocol. All cells were recovered after 3 months storage in liquid nitrogen with 94...phagocytic index. Technical Reports. Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. December 20, 1980. Long...and Callalan, A.B. : Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. Blood 57:592-598, 1981. Arnaout, A.A

  7. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 using a Hibar® Lichrosorb® C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL-1 and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL-1 respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  8. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 μm (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  9. Sperm fertility and viability following 48h of refrigeration: evaluation of different extenders for the preservation of bull semen in liquid state.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, A M; Nichi, M; Guasti, P N; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Sá Filho, M F; Maziero, R R; Dell'aqua, J A; Papa, F O

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of different extenders conventionally used for semen cryopreservation to maintain the viability and fertility of cooled bull semen. In Experiment 1, sperm samples obtained from 20 Nellore bulls were preserved at 5°C for 48h using two extenders containing 20% of egg yolk [Tris (TRIS-R) and Botu-Bov(®) (BB)] and another composed of 1% soy lecithin [Botu-Bov(®)-Lecithin (BB-L)] as substitutes for animal origin products. The samples were evaluated at 6, 24 and 48h for plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (ng of TBARS/10(8) cells) and sperm motility parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rate (P/AI) of 973 fixed-time artificially inseminated Nellore cows were compared when cows were inseminated with conventionally cryopreserved semen in TRIS-egg yolk glycerol (TRIS-C Control, n=253) or semen cooled for 48h in TRIS-R (n=233), BB (n=247) or BB-L (n=240). Although none of the extenders used was effective on maintaining total progressive motility and cellular integrity throughout the 48-h of the refrigeration period (P<0.01), BB-L conferred greater protection against oxidative stress (P<0.05) than egg yolk-based medias. The P/AI for semen samples preserved in TRIS-C, TRIS-R, BB and BB-L were 39.92(a), 25.32(b), 26.32(b) and 33.33(ab), respectively. These results demonstrate that the three conventional extenders used for semen cryopreservation do not provide the protection required to maintain bull semen fertility under refrigeration for a 48-h period, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates. However, the use of lecithin-based medium instead of egg yolk results in greater protection against lipid peroxidation, producing P/AI results comparable to those obtained using frozen semen.

  10. Preservation and analytical procedures for the analysis of chloro-s-triazines and their chlorodegradate products in drinking waters using direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glynda A; Pepich, Barry V; Munch, David J

    2008-08-22

    A direct injection, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the chloro-s-triazine herbicides and their degradates in finished drinking water. The target compounds in the method were selected based on their inclusion in a common mechanism group (CMG) because of their ability to induce a similar toxic effect through a common mechanism of toxicity. The target list includes the chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and propazine) and their dealkylated degradates (desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, and diaminochlorotriazine). Potential matrix effects are minimized by the use of individual isotopically enriched internal standards. Analyte stability in finished chlorinated drinking water samples is ensured through careful selection of proper dechlorinating and antimicrobial reagents and through buffering sample pH. In the absence of proper dechlorination, the target analytes were found to degrade over a short period of time, even under refrigerated storage conditions. The final method has adequate sensitivity to accurately detect all target analytes at or below 0.1 microg/L and displays sufficient precision and robustness to warrant publication as EPA Method 536.

  11. Quality by design based optimization of a high performance liquid chromatography method for assay determination of low concentration preservatives in complex nasal formulations.

    PubMed

    Zakrajšek, Jure; Stojić, Vladimir; Bohanec, Simona; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    The effects of seven different chromatographic parameters and five sample preparation parameters in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in a nasal formulation were evaluated using two fractional factorial experimental designs. The design space of the analytical method was modeled using Umetrics Modde software and the optimal method conditions were predicted. The optimum HPLC chromatographic conditions were obtained using a Luna CN column (150 x 4.6 mm, 3 µm). The results show that mobile phase pH, amount of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and column temperature are the most important factors in obtaining good separation of BKC homologs from an interfering peak. In the sample preparation step, the use of an aqueous solution for dissolving the samples was the most important factor since it eliminated the interfering effect of the active compound. The optimal method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. The use of experimental designs enables obtaining the maximum amount of information with the least possible number of experiments. Such designs are an economical manner in evaluating a variety of different factors and their interactions.

  12. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  13. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-men [top] ASCO. (2016). ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-women [top] National Cancer ...

  14. Preservation and Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for the preservation of both print and non-print library materials. Issues raised include problems of photocopying; deciding what to discard and weed out of collections; special considerations for children's books; jobs for preservation librarians; and the need for good judgment in making preservation decisions. (LRW)

  15. Organizing Preservation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele

    This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1)…

  16. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  17. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  18. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  19. Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

  20. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  1. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  2. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  3. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  4. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  5. Blood Preservation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    stordge. Since dihydroxyacetone ( DHA ) seems a very promising additive for 2,3-DPG preservation, basic studies of metabolism of DHA were carried out. These...Washington,D.C. pp. 285-297. 16. Beutler, E. and Guinto, E. 1972. The metabolism of dihydroxyacetone ( DHA ) by human erythrocytes. Clinical Research...CPD with various additives such as ascorbic acid and dihydroxyacetone , and BAGPM mixing exerted a 2,3-DPG- sparing effect. The studies of the effect of

  6. Coatings to reduce wood preservative leaching.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mojgan; Cooper, Paul

    2010-08-15

    The efficiency of semitransparent penetrating stains to reduce leaching of wood preservative components was evaluated. Five commercial wood deck finishes were applied to untreated and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), and copper azole (CA) treated wood, and leachates were collected and analyzed during 3 years of natural weathering exposure in Toronto, Canada. All stains evaluated effectively reduced the cumulative leaching of all inorganic preservative components by about 60% on average. Although most coatings showed significant film degradation starting around 12 months, the reduced leaching persisted even after 3 years. This suggests that temporary protection of wood with a coating during the early stages of use resulted in long-term reduction in preservative leaching potential. A two-week screening leaching test was able to predict the long-term leaching performance of different coatings reasonably well. Cured coating glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid coating viscosity were the most important variables affecting a leaching prediction model. To effectively reduce leaching of preservative components from treated wood, coatings should have Tg low enough to withstand stresses caused by freezing in winter and have adequate viscosity to form a barrier film layer on the wood surface.

  7. Memoir of fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Fertility preservation has been practiced for at least 50 years using semen banking, pelvic surgery, and radiation shields, but in the past 20 years it has emerged as a rapidly growing subspecialty of reproductive medicine. A dramatic rise in survivorship of young cancer patients and the widespread postponement of family building to the later years of the female reproductive lifespan have been major driving forces. Throughout the history of fertility preservation, low temperature banking has played a pivotal role, first for gametes and later for embryos and immature germ cells, while ovarian transplantation recently began to contribute and spermatogonial stem cell transfer holds future promise for men and prepubertal boys. But there are significant risks with some diseases from reimplanting residual disease, which hopefully can be eliminated by new methods for purging the tissue and germ cell culture. Since all technologies are interim, cryopreservation as a mainstay in this field will likely be swept aside eventually by a stream of progress aimed at managing fertility preservation in vivo.

  8. Preserving in Plastic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  9. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  13. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  14. Home-Made Cost Effective Preservation Buffer Is a Better Alternative to Commercial Preservation Methods for Microbiome Research

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Sebastian; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Sommer, Simone

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known. Here, we sampled feces of 11 sheep (Ovis aries sp.) by using swabs and analyzed the effect of air-drying, an inexpensive self-made nucleic acid preservation buffer (NAP), DNA/RNA Shield™, and RNAlater®, each together with freezing (for 10 days) or storing at room temperature (for 10 days) prior to 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial communities. Results revealed that the proportions of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to a bacterial phylum were affected by the preservation treatments, and that alpha diversities [observed OTUs, Shannon index, and phylogenetic diversity (PD)] were lower in all preservation treatments than in samples taken by forensic swabs and immediately frozen which is considered as the favored preservation treatment in the absence of any logistic constraints. Overall, NAP had better preservation qualities than RNAlater® and DNA/RNA Shield™ making this self-made buffer a valuable solution in wildlife microbiome studies. PMID:28197142

  15. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  16. Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    2004-10-01

    Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is highly hydrolyzed in the cortex of the same fossil even though both of preservations may be less than 2 microm away. The unique preservation pattern, sharp contrast of preservation in adjacent cells and the exceptional preservation of cytoplasm in the cortex suggest that lightning should play an important role in the preservation of cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic membranes may be more stable than the cell contents. Interpreting the preservation needs knowledge scattering in several formerly unrelated fields of science, including geophysics, botany, biophysics, cytology and microwave fixation technology. This new interpretation of fossilization will shed new light on preservation of cytoplasm and promote cytoplasm fossils from a position of rarity to a position of common research objects available for biological research. The importance of the identification of cytoplasm in fossil lies not in itself but in how much it influences the future research in paleobotany.

  17. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  18. Format-Preserving Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

    Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

  19. Long-term preservation of freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-06-01

    Many genetically engineered mice strains have been generated worldwide and sperm preservation is a valuable method for storing these strains as genetic resources. Freeze-drying is a useful sperm preservation method because it requires neither liquid nitrogen nor dry ice for preservation and transportation. We report here successful long-term preservation at 4 °C of mouse spermatozoa freeze-dried using a simple buffer solution (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA, pH 8.0). Offspring with fertility were obtained from oocytes fertilized with freeze-dried spermatozoa from C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mouse strains stored at 4 °C for 3 years. This freeze-drying method is a safe and economical tool for the biobanking of valuable mouse strains.

  20. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  1. Building Preservation Knowledge in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ingrid

    The project to translate into Portuguese and disseminate preservation knowledge was part of a broader partnership between the Council on Library and Information Resources, which incorporates the former Commission on Preservation and Access, and a consortium of Brazilian archival, library, and museum institutions. The partnership was intended to…

  2. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  3. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  4. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  5. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  6. Historic Preservation in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

  7. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  8. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  9. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  10. A simple technique for long-term preservation of leptospires.

    PubMed

    Samir, Ahmed; Wasfy, Momtaz O

    2013-03-01

    The viability of six serovars of Leptospira spp. was studied after long storage at -70°C. The bacteria were either preserved in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) liquid growth medium or in sheep blood added as a cryoprotectant. The viability of the strains was observed on a monthly basis by dark-ground microscopy over a period of 20 months at -70°C. Addition of sheep blood was not significantly advantageous, since leptospires that were stored in EMJH showed a slight increase in number after recovery. The results suggest a very simple and useful technique for long-term preservation of such Leptospira.

  11. [Food preservation through combined processes].

    PubMed

    Sala Trepat, F J

    1995-03-01

    Food preservation by combined processes is based on the combination of two or more existing preservation methods with the objective of developing milder preservation procedures. Currently two combined processes (CP) deserve a special attention, the preservation of food by high pressures (HP) and the preservation of food with the combined use of heat and ultrasounds under pressure (Mano-Thermo-Sonication). In the preservation by HP, the food, at room temperature or at very mild temperature, is held during relatively long periods under very high pressures (100-1000 MPa) to inactivate its enzymes and/or microorganisms. This procedure has proved to be effective to inactivate vegetative cells but much less effective to inactivate most enzymes and bacterial spores. Several kinds of food preserved by this method have already been launched into the market. In Mano-Thermo-Sonication (MTS Process) microorganisms and enzymes are inactivated by a combined heat/ultrasounds treatment under pressure. By this method, the lethality of heat treatments at the same temperature is highly increased. Therefore, the intensity of heat treatments can be drastically reduced. Heat resistance of spores is reduced by a factor of 1/10 and that of enzymes and vegetative cells is reduced by a factor of 1/50 approximately. The applicability of this procedure is currently being investigated.

  12. Preserving the heritage of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weart, Spencer

    2002-01-01

    In the 40 years since its creation, the Niels Bohr Library has become the world center for preserving the historical record of modern physics and allied fields, and for helping people show this record to the public

  13. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  14. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  15. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.

  16. Mechanical engineering problems in preserving biological objects by temperature lowering.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, Z

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of dangers caused by mechanical refrigerating and liquid nitrogen systems used for low temperature preserving of biological material and safety measures to be adopted. Hazards are caused by moving or protruding parts of the machinery, its hot parts, noise and vibration, work in cold rooms, possible destruction of pressure vessels, refrigerant inflammation or explosion, breathing the refrigerant or its decomposition products, direct contact of the refrigerant with the skin or mucous tissues, depletion of stratospheric ozone or contamination of food-stuffs.

  17. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  18. Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. ); Mahowald, A.P. )

    1992-12-18

    The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

  19. Automating Preservation Information in RLIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Betsy

    1988-01-01

    Examines efforts of the Research Libraries Group to use RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) to support cooperative and individual member library preservation activities. Areas covered include enhancements to make item-specific microform information available and efforts to code information on the physical condition of materials. (30…

  20. A Capital Assets Preservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

  1. Bibliographic Control of Preservation Photocopies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telerski, R. Michele

    This study examines how American Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries catalog full-volume, monographic, non-cartographic, preservation photocopies and explores the use of full, minimal, or dependent bibliographic records. It analyzes On-line Public Access Catalog (OPAC) records structure for multiple versions materials in terms…

  2. Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

  3. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  4. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  5. The preservation of tissues for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pegg, David E

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a written version of a lecture given during the celebration of Professor Rudolf Klen's 90th birthday. Dr. Klen played by far the major part in the introduction and the development of Tissue Banking in Europe. His concept of a tissue bank envisaged the storage of all types of cell, tissue and organ that physicians and surgeons might need for the treatment of their patients. There has been much progress towards this goal, but still the final objective remains elusive. This review of the current position starts with the recognition that some tissues are required to comprise or include cells that exhibit all the formal characteristics of life if they are to function as grafts, whereas other tissues do not. For some tissues, the preservation of mechanical properties is crucial: for others it is not. These considerations are crucial for the design of preservation methods for specific tissues: bone tendon and skin can provide useful grafts in the absence of living cells and this may even be true of cardiac valves: the crucial requirement here is that the mechanical properties remain intact. Simply freezing at around -80 degrees C may be sufficient. In contrast, many cell systems, and all metabolizing organs do require healthy cells to function. Cryopreservation is often an effective remedy for isolated cells, for example haemopoietic stem cells, but the damaging effects of the formation of ice are sufficient to rule out this approach for whole vascularised organs and for some tissues too. The damaging mechanisms are discussed, and it is concluded that the site of ice crystallization is crucial. Cartilage has hitherto been recalcitrant, but we have recently developed a method that permits this tissue to be stored at liquid nitrogen temperatures without any ice and with the recovery of living cells and intact mechanical properties after storage. Thus, many methods are available to help develop tissue banking originally envisioned by Dr. Klen.

  6. Experience with bioventing at wood-preserving sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.L.; Simpkin, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The nature of the contamination and the regulatory framework of wood-preserving sites are unique. Evaluating and applying bioventing are, therefore, different than at petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Average biodegradation rates measured from in situ respiration tests and operational data at three wood-preserving sites ranged from 2.1 to 6.3 mg/kg soil/day. This is in the low range of rates from published data on bioventing at petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. A significant factor in bioventing at wood-preserving sites is in the physical characteristics of the wastes. The presence of both dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) and light, nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs) at two of the sites required dewatering in conjunction with bioventing to expose the majority of the contamination. The remedial objective at the three sites ranged from reducing contaminant mass, to reducing site risk and reducing contaminant levels so that groundwater would achieve drinking water standards. Full-scale application of bioventing is planned for 1995 at the site with mass reduction as the objective. A long-term bioventing test is being performed at the second site to evaluate the ability of bioventing to reduce levels of carcinogenic compounds, and thus risk. At the third site, bioventing is not included in the final remedy because the changes of achieving the drinking water standards are very small.

  7. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-07-05

    Here, a large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  8. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  9. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-07-05

    Here, a large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  10. Remembering preservation in hippocampal amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2017-01-01

    The lesion-deficit model dominates neuropsychology. This is unsurprising given powerful demonstrations that focal brain lesions can affect specific aspects of cognition. Nowhere is this more evident than in patients with bilateral hippocampal damage. In the last sixty years the amnesia and other impairments exhibited by these patients have helped to delineate the functions of the hippocampus and shape the field of memory. We do not question the value of this approach. However, less prominent are the cognitive processes that remain intact following hippocampal lesions. Here, we collate the piecemeal reports of preservation of function following focal bilateral hippocampal damage, highlighting a wealth of information often veiled by the field’s focus on deficits. We consider how a systematic understanding of what is preserved as well as what is lost could add an important layer of precision to models of memory and the hippocampus. PMID:26361051

  11. Comparison of preservation media and freezing conditions for storage of specimens of faeces.

    PubMed

    Dan, M; Richardson, J; Miliotis, M D; Koornhof, H J

    1989-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term recoverability of bacterial enteropathogens, two freezing conditions (deep-freezing at -70 degrees C and liquid nitrogen) and three preservation media (Cary-Blair, Amies, and buffered glycerol-saline) were tested. These were compared with storage in containers with no preservation medium and refrigeration at 4 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, viability of organisms could not be consistently maintained beyond one month; Cary-Blair medium generally gave the best results and storage without preservation medium was the least efficient. Storage in liquid nitrogen and deep-freezing effectively preserved all organisms except Campylobacter jejuni for the entire period of study (12 months). There was no difference between the various preservation media, or between storage with or without medium. Storage in preservation medium was superior to storage without such supplement for C. jejuni. We conclude that most enteropathogens survive in faecal specimens for as long as 12 months when stored at very low temperatures (-70 degrees C) whether or not preservation media are used.

  12. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  13. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally.

  14. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  15. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  16. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.

  17. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  18. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary records in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  19. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  20. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  1. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  2. Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Mark

    This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,…

  3. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  4. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open...

  5. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  6. Preserving the Collections of Joyner Library: The Preservation Planning Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth H.; Barbour, Gordon; Cotter, Michael; Goering, Lawrence

    This report is structured to educate East Carolina University about library materials preservation. The library-wide preservation program began at Joyner Library in 1993 with the organization of the Preservation and Conservation Department. The planning phase of the preservation program began in 1995 with the appointment of the…

  7. Preservation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Schwabe, Kay; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2010-09-01

    Due to their positive features (e.g., increased penetration of actives, re-enforcement of the lipid barrier and increase in skin hydration), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are used in many dermal formulations. These formulations require preservation, and preservatives can impair the physical stability of disperse systems. Therefore, in this study, the influence of preservatives on the physical stability of Q10-loaded NLC was investigated using 11 different preservative mixtures. Whereas for nanosuspensions, only a limited number of preservatives are known from the literature not affecting their physical stability, a surprisingly high number of seven preservatives could be identified to be suitable for the preservation of NLC dispersions. For Q10-loaded NLC, Hydrolite 5 proved to be the best preservative, as it was found surprisingly to stabilize the NLC dispersion. Based on the data, a preservative classification system is suggested and a mechanistic model describing six key parameters affecting the physical stability of NLC could be developed. As most suitable characterization method to screen for suitable preservatives, light microscopy was identified. By being a simple, fast and cost efficient method, even extensive preservative screening studies can be performed very efficiently.

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  9. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  10. Update on Dark Sky Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, D. L.

    1998-12-01

    The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at www.darksky.org. There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment, IAU Symposium #196, co-sponsored by the United Nations, IDA, and others, to be held the week of 12 July 1999 in Vienna, Austria. Further information on this meeting (and others) can also be found on the IDA Web site, which also contains many other resources (and links to other web sites) for those interested in the issues.

  11. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  12. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Mary Ellen; CONFINO, Rafael; STEINBERG, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  13. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; ...

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methodsmore » included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival

  14. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under

  15. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  16. Feature-Preserving Noise Removal.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Khalid; Jarenwattananon, Nanette N; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2015-09-01

    Conventional image restoration algorithms use transform-domain filters, which separate the noise from the sparse signal among the transform components or apply spatial smoothing filters in real space whose design relies on prior assumptions about the noise statistics. These filters also reduce the information content of the image by suppressing spatial frequencies or by recognizing only a limited set of shapes. Here we show that denoising can be efficiently done using a nonlinear filter, which operates along patch neighborhoods and multiple copies of the original image. The use of patches enables the algorithm to account for spatial correlations in the random field whereas the multiple copies are used to recognize the noise statistics. The nonlinear filter, which is implemented by a hierarchical multistage system of multilayer perceptrons, outperforms state-of-the-art denoising algorithms such as those based on collaborative filtering and total variation. Compared to conventional denoising algorithms, our filter can restore images without blurring them, making it attractive for use in medical imaging where the preservation of anatomical details is critical.

  17. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, J.; Mantel, C.; Forchhammer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight. There are different methods for brightness preservation for local backlight dimming displays, producing images with different visual characteristics. In this study, we have implemented, analyzed and evaluated several different approaches for brightness preservation, and conducted a subjective study based on rank ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based on the results, guidelines for selecting the perceptually preferred brightness preservation method for local backlight dimming displays are outlined.

  18. Effects of core retrieval, handling, and preservation on hydrate-bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W. J.; Hunter, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Recovery, preservation, storage, and transport of samples containing natural gas hydrate cause changes in the stress conditions, temperature, pressure, and hydrate saturation of samples. Sample handling at the ground surface and sample preservation, either by freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN) or repressurization using methane, provides additional time and driving forces for sample alteration. The extent to which these disturbances alter the properties of the hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) depend on specific sample handling techniques, as well as on the sample itself. HBS recovered during India’s National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 and the 2007 BP Exploration Alaska - Department of Energy - U.S. Geological Survey (BP-DOE-USGS) Mount Elbert (ME) gas hydrate well on the Alaskan North Slope provide comparisons of sample alterations induced by multiple handling techniques. HBS samples from the NGHP and the ME projects were examined using x-ray computed tomography. Mount Elbert sand samples initially preserved in LN have non-uniform short “crack-like” low-density zones in the center that probably do not extend to the outside perimeter. Samples initially preserved by repressurization show fewer “crack-like” features and higher densities. Two samples were analyzed in detail by Lu and coworkers showing reduced hydrate saturations approaching the outer surface, while substantial hydrate remained in the central region. Non-pressure cored NGHP samples show relatively large altered regions approaching the core surface, while pressure-cored-liquid-nitrogen preserved samples have much less alteration.

  19. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  20. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process , which is nontoxic...based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high...so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process , which

  1. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  2. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  3. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  4. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  5. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  6. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  7. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  8. Building a New Historic Preservation Trades Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Rhonda L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of the program coordinator of a new two-year preservation trades program at Harford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland. The two-year associate in applied sciences degree offered at Harford Community College (HCC) is a Technical Professional Studies program in Building Preservation and Restoration (BPR).…

  9. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  10. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... of September 23, 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the...) Resolve complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission....

  11. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  12. Preservation of hides using low salt methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, environmentally friendly, economical preservation of hides for shipping to hide processing plants is a major concern to the hides and skins industry. Raw hides are traditionally preserved with a high amount of salt before they are stored and shipped to tanneries to be processed into leat...

  13. National and International Policies for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, John

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the preservation and conservation of materials in libraries and archives and describes national and international policies that have been developed to deal with preservation problems. Highlights include managerial responsibility; paper-making and book production standards; the role of national libraries; coordination of policies;…

  14. Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsosie, Michael

    This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information…

  15. Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation…

  16. The Preservation Officer's Role in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham-Kruppa, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes the main elements of the library preservation officer's role--planning, administering, and coordinating. Areas in which preservation and collection development staff work together at the University of Texas at Austin are then discussed, including bibliographic review, binding, grant projects, needs assessment, and storage facility…

  17. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 349 Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data...exploited by competitors and attackers. This paper describes a method for anonymizing router config- uration files by removing all information that...networking researchers. Anonymizing configuration files has unusual requirements, including preserving relationships between elements of data, anonymizing

  18. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  19. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  20. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  1. GENERAL: Preservation of quantum states via a super-Zeno effect on ensemble quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ting-Ting; Luo, Jun; Sun, Xian-Ping; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Following a recent proposal by Dhar et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 100405), we demonstrate experimentally the preservation of quantum states in a two-qubit system based on a super-Zeno effect using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Using inverting radiofrequency pulses and delicately selecting time intervals between two pulses, we suppress the effect of decoherence of quantum states. We observe that preservation of the quantum state |11rangle with the super-Zeno effect is three times more efficient than the ordinary one with the standard Zeno effect.

  2. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  3. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  4. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2013-07-16

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  5. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience.

  6. Scientific Data Preservation, Copyright and Open Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouron, Philippe

    The purpose of this paper is to sum up the terms of a discussion about the legal aspects of scientific data preservation. This discussion was presented at the Marseille workshop organized on November 14th. This paper is only a basis for forthcoming works about the main project of preserving scientific data (PREDONx). The paper is focused on intellectual property rights, such as copyright or patent, and their effect on the use of scientific data. Open Science appears to be the best way to ensure the preservation, but also the publication, of scientific data.

  7. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  8. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  9. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  10. Successful transplantation of rat hearts subjected to extended cold preservation with a novel preservation solution.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Hirokata, Gentaro; Shibasaki, Susumu; Fukumori, Daisuke; Haga, Sanae; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Michitaka; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Since prolonged cold preservation of the heart deteriorates the outcome of heart transplantation, a more protective preservation solution is required. We therefore developed a new solution, named Dsol, and examined whether Dsol, in comparison to UW, could better inhibit myocardial injury resulting from prolonged cold preservation. Syngeneic heterotopic heart transplantation in Lewis rats was performed after cold preservation with UW or Dsol for 24 or 36 h. In addition to graft survival, myocardial injury, ATP content, and Ca(2+) -dependent proteases activity were assessed in the 24-h preservation group. The cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after 24-h cold preservation was assessed. Dsol significantly improved 7-day graft survival after 36-h preservation. After 24-h preservation, Dsol was associated with significantly faster recovery of ATP content and less activation of calpain and caspase-3 after reperfusion. Dsol diminished graft injury significantly, as revealed by the lower levels of infarction, apoptosis, serum LDH and AST release, and graft fibrosis at 7-day. Dsol significantly inhibited Ca(2+) overload during cold preservation. Dsol inhibited myocardial injury and improved graft survival by suppressing Ca(2+) overload during the preservation and the activation of Ca(2+) -dependent proteases. Dsol is therefore considered a better alternative to UW to ameliorate the outcome of heart transplantation.

  11. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  12. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-25

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  13. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  14. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  15. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  16. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  17. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  19. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  20. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  1. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-07-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption.

  2. Meta-analysis of subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy vs pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Wan, Mei-Hua; Szatmary, Peter; Bharucha, Shameena; Gomatos, Ilias; Nunes, Quentin M; Xia, Qing; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differences in outcome following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD). METHODS: Major databases including PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library were searched for comparative studies between patients with PPPD and SSPPD published between January 1978 and July 2014. Studies were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Secondary outcomes included operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pancreatic fistula, postoperative hemorrhage, intraabdominal abscess, wound infection, time to starting liquid diet, time to starting solid diet, period of nasogastric intubation, reinsertion of nasogastric tube, mortality and hospital stay. The pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model. RESULTS: Eight comparative studies recruiting 650 patients were analyzed, which include two RCTs, one non-randomized prospective and 5 retrospective trial designs. Patients undergoing SSPPD experienced significantly lower rates of DGE (OR = 2.75; 95%CI: 1.75-4.30, P < 0.00001) and a shorter period of nasogastric intubation (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 0.77-4.58, P < 0.00001), with a tendency towards shorter time to liquid (WMD = 2.97, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.09) and solid diets (WMD = 3.69, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.08) as well as shorter inpatient stay (WMD = 3.92, 95%CI: -0.37-8.22; P = 0.07), although these latter three did not reach statistical significance. PPPD, however, was associated with less intraoperative blood loss than SSPPD [WMD = -217.70, 95%CI: -429.77-(-5.63); P = 0.04]. There were no differences in other parameters between the two approaches, including operative time (WMD = -5.30, 95%CI

  3. Innovations in food preservation in pastoral zones.

    PubMed

    Jans, C; Mulwa Kaindi, D W; Meile, L

    2016-11-01

    Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste. However, modern preservation procedures are difficult to adapt to the lifestyles of pastoralists and so are rarely implemented or accepted. Innovations should therefore focus on improving existing accepted procedures by promoting synergistic combinations to compensate for the disadvantages of these traditional techniques and ensure the quality of the raw material right up until consumption. Drying and spontaneous fermentation are key preservation techniques among pastoralists that serve as opportunities for innovation and can be shared across pastoral communities. Further potential for innovation lies in the unique, largely uncharacterised, microflora biodiversity of fermented products. The characterisation, safety assessment and conservation of these microorganisms are needed to develop locally adapted starter cultures that retain or improve on the desired characteristics of the finished product. Careful sensitisation of stakeholders, the study of social acceptance and capacitybuilding at all levels are required to achieve the sustainable implementation of such innovations, which will contribute to enhanced food security and safety.

  4. Preservation methods for kidney and liver

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1½ hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers. PMID:20046672

  5. Candidates for larynx preservation: the next step?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Nonsurgical treatment approaches to enable larynx preservation in patients who would otherwise undergo laryngectomy have evolved over recent years. Randomized trials have demonstrated that concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is more effective than doublet cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (PF)-based induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy in enabling larynx preservation. However, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is also associated with more toxicities than induction PF followed by radiotherapy. The triplet induction regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) is more effective than PF and is now considered to be the standard induction chemotherapy regimen for future larynx preservation trials. Manipulating the postinduction treatment regimen may help to improve larynx preservation rates, and possibly survival, and the use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy plus the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab has been investigated in this setting. Determining the most effective treatment approach for larynx preservation will involve conducting a trial comparing concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy with sequential TPF induction chemotherapy followed by either radiotherapy or cetuximab plus radiotherapy. Collaboration among international groups is required to assess which approach would be most beneficial in terms of larynx function preservation, disease control, and survival.

  6. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  7. Database Design for Preservation Project Management: The California Newspaper Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Lynne M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a database designed to manage a serials preservation project in which issues from multiple repositories are gathered and collated for preservation microfilming. Management information, added to bibliographic and holdings records, supports the production of reports tracking preservation activity. (Author)

  8. 78 FR 46374 - Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION RIN 3133-AE16 Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program AGENCY: National Credit Union.... SUMMARY: The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) recognizes the importance of minority credit... Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program to encourage the preservation of Minority...

  9. Liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  10. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J. R. C.; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H′). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H′. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H′. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar & pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer. PMID:25384534

  11. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  12. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  13. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  14. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2015-07-20

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  15. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  16. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  17. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  18. Liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    In contrast to lithium batteries, the electrochromic windows are used under the sunlight, which requires the stability against UV-light, in addition to the usual electrochemical and thermal stabilities. Thus, the selection of the electrode materials and the combination with the electrolytes should be carefully performed in terms of stability requirements. Recently many reports in relation to those subjects were published. Therefore only fundamental properties of liquid electrolytes required for the electrochromic research are reviewed in this chapter.

  19. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  20. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  1. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  2. Antimicrobial preservative effectiveness of natural peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kamysz, Wojciech; Turecka, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The constantly growing resistance of microbes to drugs and other substances which fight microbial infections leads to search for new antimicrobial substances. Among substances which attract the scientists attention are antimicrobial peptides. Such compounds are quite common in nature and belong to the most important elements of the innate immune system of all living organisms. Numerous antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from insects, amphibians, mammals, plants and bacterial species. In this study we investigated the in vitro activity of two animal peptides, citropin 1.1 and protegrin 1 alone and in combination against microbial strains proposed for the evaluation of preservatives: Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The results of the antimicrobial preservative effectiveness were compared to the values received for benzalkonium chloride, popular preservative of medicines and cosmetics.

  3. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-10-31

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

  4. Privacy-preserving backpropagation neural network learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2009-10-01

    With the development of distributed computing environment , many learning problems now have to deal with distributed input data. To enhance cooperations in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving two-party distributed algorithm of backpropagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the other. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets.

  5. Sequence Compaction to Preserve Transition Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Liu, C.L.

    2002-12-12

    Simulation-based power estimation is commonly used for its high accuracy despite excessive computation times. Techniques have been proposed to speed it up by compacting an input sequence while preserving its power-consumption characteristics. We propose a novel method to compact a sequence that preserves transition frequencies. We prove the problem is NP-Complete, and propose a graph model to reduce it to that of finding a heaviest weighted trail on a directed graph, along with a heuristic utilizing this model. We also propose using multiple sequences for better accuracy with even shorter sequences. Experiments showed that power dissipation can be estimated with an error of only 2.3 percent, while simulation times are reduced by 10. Proposed methods effectively preserve transition frequencies and generated solutions that are very close to an optimal. Experiments also showed that multiple sequences granted more accurate results with even shorter sequences.

  6. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  7. Preserving Dark Skies: Do Astronomers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. R.; Crawford, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    Ground based telescopes are, even in this era of planetary missions and space telescopes, the dominant source of data on solar system objects. Yet many of the premier observing sites in the world are threatened by increasing artificial light that is scattered into the sky - light pollution. World class observing sites such as Mt. Wilson have long since lost the ability to do cutting edge faint object science and observatories in Southern Arizona have been recently threatened - the Canoa Ranch development being the most recent example. Yet there are actions that can be taken to preserve dark skies, not only for astronomy, but also for the benefit of all humanity. Lead by astronomers, effective outdoor lighting codes have been produced and adopted by many jurisdictional authorities. Advocacy organizations such as the International Dark-sky Association (IDA) distribute educational material on how to preserve dark skies through good outdoor lighting practices. Other institutions, such as the National Park Service, are realizing that dark skies are an integral part of the wilderness experience and are taking steps to preserve the quality of their skies. However, the primary beneficaries of dark sky preservation efforts, namely the ground based astronomical community, have largely failed to become involved in efforts to preserve dark skies. For example, only a few percent of the membership of the American Astronomical Society is active in light pollution work or is even a member of IDA. In this presentation, Iwe will outline what is being done locally to preserve dark skies througout the world. In addition, some observations on the level of support from the astronomical community will be offered.

  8. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  9. Moesin functionality in hypothermic liver preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Lindell, Susanne L; Kowalski, Chris; Mangino, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an isolated perfused liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by Western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.

  10. Avian genetic stock preservation: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    2006-02-01

    There are different types of poultry genetic resources including mutants, inbred lines, specialized/selected stocks, standard breeds, and elite commercial pure lines. These resources differ in their degree of value to the poultry industry. There is considerable concern within poultry breeding companies about the continuing losses of these genetic resources, particularly as this loss seems to have escalated over the past decade. Varied genetic stocks can provide fundamental information regarding gene function, genetic interactions, and genetic pathways. This information is important for efficient improvement of commercial poultry performance. Equally important is the role of these genetic resources in teaching and the education of students and future researchers. Currently, the only practical preservation method for birds in the poultry industry involves live bird conservation. Flocks of elite commercial stocks are maintained at multiple locations, providing insurance against disease outbreak and the possibility of quarantine restrictions. The current cryopreservation methods apply only to sperm. Thus, the W chromosome and the mitochondria, which are contributed by the female gamete, cannot be preserved. Cryopreserved semen shows considerable variation in both fertility and hatchability rates, not only among lines, but also among males within lines. The biological basis for this variation is unknown, and there is concern that the use of cryopreserved semen may result in unintended selection and loss of genetic variability. Cryopreservation cannot be applied in the poultry breeding industry until methodologies are developed that produce high viability for both male and female avian preserved gametes. More research is needed in the areas of sources of variation in viability following freeze/thaw, female gamete cryopreservation, and embryo preservation. Because there are currently no appropriate methods of cryopreservation available to the poultry industry, the long

  11. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  12. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  13. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  14. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  15. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  16. Debating the biological reality of modelling preservation.

    PubMed

    ter, Steeg P F; Ueckert, J E

    2002-03-01

    Predictive food microbiology is a rapidly developing science and has made great advances. The aim is to debate a number of issues in modelling preservation: (1) inoculum and prehistory effects on lag times and process susceptibility; (2) mechanistic vs. empirical modelling; and (3) concluding remarks (the Species concept, methodology and biovariability). Increasing the awareness in these issues may bridge the gap between the complex reality in food microbial physiology and the application potential of predictive models. The challenge of bringing integrated preservation or risk analysis further and developing ways to truly model and link biological susceptibility distributions from raw ingredients via process survival to outgrowth probabilities in the final product remains.

  17. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  18. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  19. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  20. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  1. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  2. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  3. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  4. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  5. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  6. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  7. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  9. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  12. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  13. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed. PMID:27446721

  15. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The…

  16. Language Preservation and Human Resources Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorne, Joyce A.

    Those who work in the field of preserving Native American languages are an assortment of individuals who come to the work as a central career (linguists), through family heritage (fluent speakers), or through a developed passion (language learners). This paper examines the field from the perspective of R. Wayne Pace, Phillip C. Smith, and Gordon…

  17. [Heritage Education: Teaching a Preservation Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Suzanne B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on heritage education, the goal of which is to introduce the historic built environment directly into elementary and secondary school curriculums. Kathlyn Hatch discusses how heritage education's linkage with historic preservation can help students relate to society. Earl Jones assesses the status of heritage education,…

  18. Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

  19. Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

    The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

  20. Preservation Planning Project Study Team. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Libraries.

    This final report is a product of a comprehensive 14-month Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the University of Pittsburgh Libraries, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies. The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  1. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  2. Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedinger, Theresa

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,…

  3. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item…

  4. Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

  5. 78 FR 30810 - Paleontological Resources Preservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... for a unified Federal policy for the collection, storage, and preservation of fossils; (2) the need..., regulations, and policies. Section 291.3(f) would state that the proposed regulations would not affect any... associated records would delineate the types of information that are required by 16 U.S.C. 470aaa-4 of...

  6. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  7. Digital Storytelling: Preserving a Cultural Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how digital photography could be an effective cultural preservation enabler. On July 1, 2007, with initial funding from Research in Motion and Merit Travel and support of more than 300 family and friends, the author and his team arrived in the small town of Monduli, Tanzania with the purpose of teaching digital…

  8. Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

  9. Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

  10. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  11. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  12. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  13. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-03

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  14. Biomarker Preservation Potential of Subsurface Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T. C.; Harris, R. L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Pedersen, K. A.; Colwell, F. S.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Bakermans, C.

    2016-05-01

    If surface life emerged on Mars it may have succumbed to a Gaian bottleneck, whereas subsurface life would have continued to grow and evolve sheltered in rocks with sub-freezing saline pore water and their remains preserved in excavated rock.

  15. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  16. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  17. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, Bill; Hooten, Gwen

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  18. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  19. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  20. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  1. Polynuclear azaarenes in wood preservative wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Giam, C.S.

    1984-05-01

    Polynuclear azaarenes in a creosote-pentachlorophenol wood preservative wastewater were analyzed. The total concentration of azaarenes was determined to be 1300 mg kg/sup -1/. Potential adverse effects of these compounds on environmental quality and health suggest a need to develop analytical protocols for measuing azaarenes in hazardous wastes.

  2. BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

  3. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the life of the residents of Washington for more than a century. (b) The Historic Preservation Plan of... regard to height, scale, proportion, rhythm, texture, materials, architectural detail, and the amount of... ensure that these structures maintain their historic or architectural integrity, but will not...

  4. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  5. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.... Rehabilitation of buildings within the Development Area, which, according to the Plan and the Historic... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  6. Current Concepts in Hip Preservation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kelly L.; Cook, P. Christopher; Geisler, Paul R.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Giordano, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Successful treatment of nonarthritic hip pain in young athletic individuals remains a challenge. A growing fund of clinical knowledge has paralleled technical innovations that have enabled hip preservation surgeons to address a multitude of structural variations of the proximal femur and acetabulum and concomitant intra-articular joint pathology. Often, a combination of open and arthroscopic techniques are necessary to treat more complex pathomorphologies. Peri- and postoperative recovery after such procedures can pose a substantial challenge to the patient, and a dedicated, thoughtful approach may reduce setbacks, limit morbidity, and help optimize functional outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles through December 2014 using the search terms hip preservation, labrum, surgical dislocation, femoroacetabular impingement, postoperative rehabilitation, peri-acetabular osteotomy, and rotational osteotomy. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to locate additional references of interest. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Hip preservation procedures and appropriate rehabilitation have allowed individuals to return to a physically active lifestyle. Conclusion: Effective postoperative rehabilitation must consider modifications and precautions specific to the particular surgical techniques used. Proper postoperative rehabilitation after hip preservation surgery may help optimize functional recovery and maximize clinical success and patient satisfaction. PMID:26733593

  7. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  8. Advances in organ preservation for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Pleass, Henry C

    2016-08-04

    Organ transplantation provides the best available therapy for a myriad of medical conditions, including end-stage renal disease, hepatic failure and type I diabetes mellitus. The current clinical reality is, however, that there is a significant shortage of organs available for transplantation with respect to the number of patients on organ waiting lists. As such, methods to increase organ supply have been instituted, including improved donor management, organ procurement and preservation strategies, living organ donation, transplantation education and the increased utilization of donation after circulatory death and expanded criteria donors. In particular, especially over the last decade, we have witnessed a significant change in the way donor organs are preserved, away from static cold storage methods to more dynamic techniques centred on machine perfusion (MP). This review highlights the current state and future of organ preservation for transplantation, focusing on both abdominal and thoracic organs. In particular, we focus on MP preservation of renal, hepatic, pancreatic, cardiac and lung allografts, also noting relevant advances in Australasia. MP of organs after procurement holds considerable promise, and has the potential to significantly improve graft viability and function post-transplantation, especially in donors in whom acceptance criteria have been expanded.

  9. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of Historic Places,” issued by the National Park Service, to identify sites, buildings, structures,...

  10. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of Historic Places,” issued by the National Park Service, to identify sites, buildings, structures,...

  11. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E; Olsen, Maia E; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Holdaway, Richard N; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-07-07

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes.

  12. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  13. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  14. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear. The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP. From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires. Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37–81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250–615) min and 800 (400–5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4

  15. Locality-preserved maximum information projection.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chen, S; Hu, Z; Zheng, W

    2008-04-01

    Dimensionality reduction is usually involved in the domains of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Linear projection of features is of particular interest for dimensionality reduction since it is simple to calculate and analytically analyze. In this paper, we propose an essentially linear projection technique, called locality-preserved maximum information projection (LPMIP), to identify the underlying manifold structure of a data set. LPMIP considers both the within-locality and the between-locality in the processing of manifold learning. Equivalently, the goal of LPMIP is to preserve the local structure while maximize the out-of-locality (global) information of the samples simultaneously. Different from principal component analysis (PCA) that aims to preserve the global information and locality-preserving projections (LPPs) that is in favor of preserving the local structure of the data set, LPMIP seeks a tradeoff between the global and local structures, which is adjusted by a parameter alpha, so as to find a subspace that detects the intrinsic manifold structure for classification tasks. Computationally, by constructing the adjacency matrix, LPMIP is formulated as an eigenvalue problem. LPMIP yields orthogonal basis functions, and completely avoids the singularity problem as it exists in LPP. Further, we develop an efficient and stable LPMIP/QR algorithm for implementing LPMIP, especially, on high-dimensional data set. Theoretical analysis shows that conventional linear projection methods such as (weighted) PCA, maximum margin criterion (MMC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and LPP could be derived from the LPMIP framework by setting different graph models and constraints. Extensive experiments on face, digit, and facial expression recognition show the effectiveness of the proposed LPMIP method.

  16. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  17. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de présenter les résultats préliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problèmes à résoudre pour conserver à très basse température des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryopréservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explorée pour augmenter la durée de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrôler la compatibilité donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isolées à la température de l'azote liquide, actuellement

  18. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  19. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, digitalpreservation.gov) that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  20. Intact preservation of environmental samples by freezing under an alternating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Xiao, Nan; Hirose, Takehiro; Sugeno, Masaya; Ohwada, Norio; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-04-01

    The study of environmental samples requires a preservation system that stabilizes the sample structure, including cells and biomolecules. To address this fundamental issue, we tested the cell alive system (CAS)-freezing technique for subseafloor sediment core samples. In the CAS-freezing technique, an alternating magnetic field is applied during the freezing process to produce vibration of water molecules and achieve a stable, super-cooled liquid phase. Upon further cooling, the temperature decreases further, achieving a uniform freezing of sample with minimal ice crystal formation. In this study, samples were preserved using the CAS and conventional freezing techniques at 4, -20, -80 and -196 (liquid nitrogen) °C. After 6 months of storage, microbial cell counts by conventional freezing significantly decreased (down to 10.7% of initial), whereas that by CAS-freezing resulted in minimal. When Escherichia coli cells were tested under the same freezing conditions and storage for 2.5 months, CAS-frozen E. coli cells showed higher viability than the other conditions. In addition, an alternating magnetic field does not impact on the direction of remanent magnetization in sediment core samples, although slight partial demagnetization in intensity due to freezing was observed. Consequently, our data indicate that the CAS technique is highly useful for the preservation of environmental samples.

  1. Preservation of protein in marine systems: Hydrophobic and other noncovalent associations as major stabilizing forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Reno T.; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2001-05-01

    - The fate of proteins during early diagenesis was investigated in environments with low mineral content to assess preservation mechanisms other than mineral sorption. Preservation was examined in anoxic, organic-rich sediments of Mangrove Lake, a marine environment located in Bermuda, and for particulate material generated during oxic decay of diatoms. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) treatment tested the hypothesis that proteins may undergo modification reactions with glucose to form advanced-glycation end products (AGEs). A small but significant release (additional 14%) of proteins was observed after PTB treatment in surficial sediments, indicating that some aggregations can proceed through an α-dicarbonyl intermediate of the AGE pathway. Size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography with protein fluorescence, absorbance, and evaporative light-scattering detector measurements under native (phosphate or bicarbonate buffers) and denaturing (guanidine · HCl, urea, or acetonitrile) conditions point to the importance of hydrophobic and other noncovalent interactions in the stabilization of proteinaceous material in the environment. Soluble aggregates of substantial, relative molecular mass ( Mr ≳ 10 6) appear to be formed early in the diagenetic sequence. The preferential preservation of very high Mr, multisubunit phytoplankton proteins in sediments suggests that such aggregations confer resistance to degradation. Alternatively, some of the proteinaceous material may represent that fraction of organic matter that is highly prone to aggregations. Extended incubations (18 h; 37°C) with trypsin and proteinase-K showed that much of the aggregates that could be extracted are receptive to proteolytic cleavage. Buffer-, surfactant-, and NaOH-extractable aggregates comprised most of the acid-hydrolyzable proteinaceous material in detritus and surficial sediments but <35% in 9.7-m-deep sediments, suggesting additional mechanisms for preservation might be in

  2. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Isasi, Marcelo P.; Freitas, Francisco I.; Andrade, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China. PMID:26035285

  3. Techniques and Results for Open Hip Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Haughom, Bryan; Stover, Michael D.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is the most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg–Calve–Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26649292

  4. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  5. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-06-02

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China.

  6. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  7. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  8. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  9. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Giaquinto, Joseph; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug}

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  11. Privacy preserving RBF kernel support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data.

  12. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  13. Archiving and Preservation in Electronic Libraries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    that is those libraries that are moving toward provision of materials in electronic form, have been swept up in this attitude as well. But, electronic...for consistency within the presentation and are not indicative of general consensus within the community. Born digital - materials that are created...preservation Digitalpreservation - keeping the bits and bytes safe and unaltered for a long period of time Digitization - converting materials in non

  14. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  15. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  16. Energy preserving QMF for image processing.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jian-ao; Wang, Yonghui

    2014-07-01

    Implementation of new biorthogonal filter banks (BFB) for image compression and denoising is performed, using test images with diversified characteristics. These new BFB’s are linear-phase, have odd lengths, and with a critical feature, namely, the filters preserve signal energy very well. Experimental results show that the proposed filter banks demonstrate promising performance improvement over the filter banks of those widely used in the image processing area, such as the CDF 9/7.

  17. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  18. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  19. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  20. Preservation of female fertility: an essential progress.

    PubMed

    Tulandi, Togas; Huang, Jack Y J; Tan, Seang Lin

    2008-11-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation treatment for malignancies or other conditions such as hematologic and autoimmune disorders, have resulted in improved survival rates but may lead to sterility. Women who postpone conception until late reproductive years are also at increased risk to become infertile. The purpose of our review is to evaluate advances and techniques for fertility preservation. We performed a literature search using the keywords fertility preservation, vitrification, oocytes, embryo, ovarian cryopreservation, and ovarian suspension and conducted the search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of systematic reviews. The results show that today, it is possible to cryopreserve oocytes, embryos, or ovarian tissue. The most commonly used technique remains embryo cryopreservation. Another improvement is the development of vitrification or rapid freezing technique. For women undergoing local pelvic radiation, one should consider ovarian suspension. Medical professionals, patients, and their families should be aware that in some conditions, the reproductive function can be preserved. Although one cannot guarantee future fertility, a realistic hope for women at risk of having premature ovarian failure can now be offered.

  1. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them.

  2. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  3. Current Concepts in Hip Preservation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kelly L.; Cook, P. Christopher; Yen, Yi-Meng; Giordano, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An evolution in conceptual understanding, coupled with technical innovations, has enabled hip preservation surgeons to address complex pathomorphologies about the hip joint to reduce pain, optimize function, and potentially increase the longevity of the native hip joint. Technical aspects of hip preservation surgeries are diverse and range from isolated arthroscopic or open procedures to hybrid procedures that combine the advantages of arthroscopy with open surgical dislocation, pelvic and/or proximal femoral osteotomy, and biologic treatments for cartilage restoration. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles from January 1920 to January 2015 using the search terms hip preservation, labrum, surgical dislocation, femoroacetabular impingement, peri-acetabular osteotomy, and rotational osteotomy. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to locate additional references of interest. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Thoughtful individualized surgical procedures are available to optimize the femoroacetabular joint in the presence of hip dysfunction. Conclusion: A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between femoral and pelvic orientation, morphology, and the development of intra-articular abnormalities is necessary to formulate a patient-specific approach to treatment with potential for a successful long-term result. PMID:26502445

  4. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani’s, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them. PMID:24948912

  5. Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajala, Tosin; Rafi, Junaid; Larsen-Disney, Peter; Howell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation. PMID:20379357

  6. Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  7. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  8. Mass preserving registration for lung CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

  9. Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very quickly after an eruption may be good candidates for containment and preservation of refractory organic material that existed in a biologic system pre-eruption due to their impermeability and ability to attenuate UV radiation. Analysis using NanoSIMS of volcanic glass could then be performed to both deduce carbon isotope ratios that indicate biologic origin and confirm entrainment during eruption. Terrestrial contamination is one of the biggest barriers to definitive Martian organic identification in soil and rock samples. While there is a greater potential to concentrate organics in sedimentary strata, volcanic glasses may better encapsulate and preserve organics over long time scales, and are widespread on Mars. If volcanic glass from many sites on Earth could be shown to contain biologically derived organics from the original environment, there could be significant implications for the search for biomarkers in ancient Martian environments.

  10. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  11. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  12. 2-[(Hydroxymethyl)amino]ethanol in water as a preservative: Study of formaldehyde released by Taguchi's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisessirikul, W.; Loykulnant, S.; Montha, S.; Fhulua, T.; Prapainainar, P.

    2016-06-01

    This research studied the quantity of free formaldehyde released from 2- [(hydroxymethyl)amino]ethanol (HAE) in DI water and natural rubber latex mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The quantity of formaldehyde retained in the solution was cross-checked by using titration technique. The investigated factors were the concentration of preservative (HAE), pH, and temperature. Taguchi's method was used to design the experiments. The number of experiments was reduced to 16 experiments from all possible experiments by orthogonal arrays (3 factors and 4 levels in each factor). Minitab program was used as a tool for statistical calculation and for finding the suitable condition for the preservative system. HPLC studies showed that higher temperature and higher concentration of the preservative influence the amount of formaldehyde released. It was found that conditions at which formaldehyde was released in the lowest amount were 1.6%w/v HAE, 4 to 40 °C, and the original pH. Nevertheless, the pH value of NR latex should be more than 10 (the suitable pH value was found to be 13). This preservative can be used to replace current preservative systems and can maintain the quality of latex for long-term storage. Use of the proposed preservative system was also shown to have reduced impact on the toxicity of the environment.

  13. Signal Preservation in Pulsing Turbidity Current Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, G. M.; Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent debate has focused on the potential preservation of the signal of seismic events in the sedimentary record via the initiation of large-scale turbidity current flows. The failure of a seismic zone lying across a series of submarine canyon systems may initiate multiple linked turbidity currents from each canyon head. Such events can be distinguished from locally triggered turbidity currents by their deposits. Canyon systems may be expected to become progressively interconnected with depth. Differing run out times of each interconnected channel is expected to result in pulsing flow behavior, a key feature of such turbidity currents. Thus, cyclical waxing to waning flow behavior preserved in the rock record may be a key indicator of a large-scale seismic trigger. Novel experimental research is presented that explores the dynamics of pulsed turbidity currents. The experimental study is used to quantitatively examine controls on the time and length scale of signal preservation in pulsing density driven flows. The experiments consisted of a multi gate lock box, with the gates remotely operated by pneumatic rams. Gate timers allow for accurate experimental repeatability and a careful investigation of the effect of time spacing between flows on pulsing flow dynamics. Parameters investigated include volumes of material released, effective flow density and viscosity (as a proxy of flow mud content). Full flow field visualization was made using an array of interlinked HD cameras. Dyeing separate components of the flow different colors enabled detailed analysis of flow dynamic behavior occurring between head and tail. The secondary pulsing flow was seen to rapidly overtake the first flow. Observations of flow velocity and density suggested that due to stratification the secondary flow was travelling along the density interface between the main body of the primary flow and its turbulent wake. As the pulsing flows created in the laboratory experiments rapidly merged, it

  14. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  15. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  16. Liquid annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludewig, Hans

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.

  17. Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Chen, Wen-Chen; Padilla, Willie J

    2013-04-26

    We present an experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell, we are able to modify the absorption by 30% at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4% in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e., a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  18. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  19. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  20. The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps the preservation and…

  1. Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Considers whether conversion to digital form is a preservation action, the contrasts between selection for digital conversion and selection for traditional preservation, and the potential effects on the field of preservation. Topics include value and demand; intellectual property rights; added value; and costs. (LRW)

  2. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-20 - Life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life preservers. 144.01-20...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-20 Life preservers. (a) An approved life preserver shall be provided for each person on a manned platform. The...

  4. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  5. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  6. 33 CFR 144.01-20 - Life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life preservers. 144.01-20...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-20 Life preservers. (a) An approved life preserver shall be provided for each person on a manned platform. The...

  7. 33 CFR 144.01-20 - Life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life preservers. 144.01-20...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-20 Life preservers. (a) An approved life preserver shall be provided for each person on a manned platform. The...

  8. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  9. 33 CFR 144.01-20 - Life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life preservers. 144.01-20...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-20 Life preservers. (a) An approved life preserver shall be provided for each person on a manned platform. The...

  10. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  11. Report on the Preservation Planning Project: University of Pennsylvania Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Peter G., Comp.

    The University of Pennsylvania Libraries' Preservation Planning Project was designed to explore new ideas for planning and operating a preservation program for the Penn Library. The first goal of the project was to study the feasibility of an organizational plan that would put the preservation effort under the direction of a small internal staff…

  12. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  17. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  18. 10 CFR 1015.504 - Preservation of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of evidence. 1015.504 Section 1015.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Referrals to the Department of Justice § 1015.504 Preservation of evidence. DOE will take care to preserve all files...

  19. 78 FR 35960 - Minor Boundary Revision at Mojave National Preserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Mojave National Preserve AGENCY: National Park Service....S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Mojave National Preserve is modified to include 7.12 acres of..., California, immediately adjacent to the current northern boundary of Mojave National Preserve. ] Notice...

  20. 4 CFR 201.15 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 201.15 Section 201.15 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.15 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives...

  1. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  5. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  6. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  7. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  8. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  9. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  10. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  11. Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

    2006-01-01

    The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful…

  12. Preservation of organic molecules at Mars' near-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    origin of the organic matter in near-surface materials in Gale Crater. The future Mars Organic Molecule Organizer (MOMA) instrument onboard ExoMars 2018 should improve the detection of organic molecules in Mars subsurface in two ways. Firstly, by drilling a sample down to 2 meters, it will access more preserved area against deleterious radiations. Secondly, MOMA derivatization using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent is designed to assess the potential enantiomeric excess of complex chiral molecules of interest, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids, to aid at the determination of their biotic or abiotic origin. Gale crater had recently been defined as an ancient habitable environment, due to the simultaneous presence of liquid water, energy source and a mild range of temperature, pH, pressure and salinity. The presence of organic molecules opens up habitability to another level, where the building blocks of life were available for more complex system to evolve. This view into ancient Mars begins to provide a context for habitable environments and is a first step toward understanding the presence and diversity of possible prebiotic or biotic molecular signatures. Moreover, it helps mapping out potential windows of preservation for chemically reduced organic compounds, which will help on sample and site selection on all bodies of the solar system.

  13. Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, María; Otero, Borja; Martín, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 15–25% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients’ reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

  14. Disjointness preserving operators between little Lipschitz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Vargas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Given a real number [alpha][set membership, variant](0,1) and a metric space (X,d), let Lip[alpha](X) be the algebra of all scalar-valued bounded functions f on X such that endowed with any one of the norms ||f||=max{p[alpha](f),||f||[infinity]} or ||f||=p[alpha](f)+||f||[infinity]. The little Lipschitz algebra lip[alpha](X) is the closed subalgebra of Lip[alpha](X) formed by all those functions f such that f(x)-f(y)/d(x,y)[alpha]->0 as d(x,y)->0. A linear mapping is called disjointness preserving if f[dot operator]g=0 in lip[alpha](X) implies (Tf)[dot operator](Tg)=0 in lip[alpha](Y). In this paper we study the representation and the automatic continuity of such maps T in the case in which X and Y are compact. We prove that T is essentially a weighted composition operator Tf=h[dot operator](f[circle, open][phi]) for some nonvanishing little Lipschitz function h and some continuous map [phi]. If, in addition, T is bijective, we deduce that h is a nonvanishing function in lip[alpha](Y) and [phi] is a Lipschitz homeomorphism from Y onto X and, in particular, we obtain that T is automatically continuous and T-1 is disjointness preserving. Moreover we show that there exists always a discontinuous disjointness preserving linear functional on lip[alpha](X), provided X is an infinite compact metric space.

  15. Evaluation of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor and a Simplified Engine Preservation Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A240 100 EVALUATIONS OF PRESERVATIVE ENGINE OIL CONTAINING VAPOR-PHASE CORROSION INHIBITOR AND A SIMPLIFIED ENGINE PRESERVATION TECHNIQUE INTERIM...22060-5606 62786 AH20 123 11. TITLE (Include Security Classtfication) Evaluations of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor...the feasibility of adding a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) component to improve the preservation performance of MIL-L-21260 and (2) to evaluate

  16. Amino acid racemization on Mars: implications for the preservation of biomolecules from an extinct martian biota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; McDonald, G. D.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Using kinetic data, we have estimated the racemization half-lives and times for total racemization of amino acids under conditions relevant to the surface of Mars. Amino acids from an extinct martian biota maintained in a dry, cold (<250 K) environment would not have racemized significantly over the lifetime of the planet. Racemization would have taken place in environments where liquid water was present even for time periods of only a few million years following biotic extinction. The best preservation of both amino acid homochirality and nucleic acid genetic information associated with extinct martian life would be in the polar regions.

  17. Larynx preservation: what is the standard treatment?

    PubMed

    Horn, Samy; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Lefèbvre, Jean-Louis; Horiot, Jean-Claude; Lartigau, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Locally advanced laryngeal and hypo-pharyngeal cancers have a rather poor prognosis. Up until the early 1990s, standard treatment was total laryngectomy, with dramatic functional and social outcome. The introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy made concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) the standard treatment for selected patients, fit for an organ preservation strategy. Over two decades of improvement in nonsurgical management of locally advanced laryngeal cancer is reviewed, including the most recent improvements with the introduction of taxanes and anti-EGFR targeted therapy.

  18. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  19. Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Voisard, Karen; Smiley, Sue

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016).

  20. Controller reduction by preserving impulse response energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng

    1989-01-01

    A model order reduction algorithm based on a Krylov recurrence formulation is developed to reduce order of controllers. The reduced-order controller is obtained by projecting the full-order LQG controller onto a Krylov subspace in which either the controllability or the observability grammian is equal to the identity matrix. The reduced-order controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has a parameter-matching property. Two numerical examples drawn from other controller reduction literature are used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed reduction algorithm.

  1. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  2. Exploring principles of hibernation for organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Ratigan, Emmett D; McKay, Dianne B

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mimicking hibernating states has led investigators to explore the biological mechanisms that permit hibernating mammals to survive for months at extremely low ambient temperatures, with no food or water, and awaken from their hibernation without apparent organ injury. Hibernators have evolved mechanisms to adapt to dramatic reductions in core body temperature and metabolic rate, accompanied by prolonged periods without nutritional intake and at the same time tolerate the metabolic demands of arousal. This review discusses the inherent resilience of hibernators to kidney injury and provides a potential framework for new therapies targeting ex vivo preservation of kidneys for transplantation.

  3. Preserved Musical Semantic Memory in Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jessica; Koenig, Phyllis; Gunawardena, Delani; McMillan, Corey; Bonner, Michael; Grossman, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the scope of semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Design Case study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient A man with semantic dementia, as demonstrated by clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging studies. Main Outcome Measures Music performance and magnetic resonance imaging results. Results Despite profoundly impaired semantic memory for words and objects due to left temporal lobe atrophy, this semiprofessional musician was creative and expressive in demonstrating preserved musical knowledge. Conclusion Long-term representations of words and objects in semantic memory may be dissociated from meaningful knowledge in other domains, such as music. PMID:21320991

  4. Summary report on transverse emittance preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Vos, L.

    1997-12-01

    During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

  5. Privacy Preserving Publication of Moving Object Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonchi, Francesco

    The increasing availability of space-time trajectories left by location-aware devices is expected to enable novel classes of applications where the discovery of consumable, concise, and actionable knowledge is the key step. However, the analysis of mobility data is a critic task by the privacy point of view: in fact, the peculiar nature of location data might enable intrusive inferences in the life of the individuals whose data is analyzed. It is thus important to develop privacy-preserving techniques for the publication and the analysis of mobility data.

  6. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and Lifecyle of Information Management at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayat, Mo; Kempler, Steve; Deshong, Barbara; Johnson, James; Gerasimov, Irina; Esfandiari, Ed; Berganski, Michael; Wei, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for information loss. This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input-output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of information preservation; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important metadata about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions. Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of information lifecycle management. By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of

  7. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  8. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  9. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components.

    PubMed

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  10. Selection for preservation: considerations for the health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, D T; McClure, L W

    1989-01-01

    Just as no health sciences library can afford to collect every work on a subject, neither can any health sciences library afford to preserve every item that is added to its collection. In decision making for collection development, health sciences libraries apply a set of selection criteria. Those same criteria have direct application in selection for preservation decisions. This paper summarizes the literature of selection for preservation, describes the scholarly record of biomedicine, and presents criteria for selection for preservation decisions. The preservation priorities statement for microfilming of monographs and serials in the National Library of Medicine collection is included as an appendix. PMID:2758182

  11. Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Thomas H P

    2010-12-23

    Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges.

  12. Chlorhexidine preserves dentin bond in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, M R O; Carvalho, R M; de Goes, M F; di Hipólito, V; Geraldeli, S; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L

    2007-01-01

    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength.

  13. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  14. Leaf metallome preserved over 50 million years.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N P; Manning, P L; Bergmann, U; Larson, P L; van Dongen, B E; Sellers, W I; Webb, S M; Sokaras, D; Alonso-Mori, R; Ignatyev, K; Barden, H E; van Veelen, A; Anné, J; Egerton, V M; Wogelius, R A

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) elemental mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are applied here to fossil leaf material from the 50 Mya Green River Formation (USA) in order to improve our understanding of the chemistry of fossilized plant remains. SRS-XRF of fossilized animals has previously shown that bioaccumulated trace metals and sulfur compounds may be preserved in their original distributions and these elements can also act as biomarkers for specific biosynthetic pathways. Similar spatially resolved chemical data for fossilized plants is sparsely represented in the literature despite the multitude of other chemical studies performed. Here, synchrotron data from multiple specimens consistently show that fossil leaves possess chemical inventories consisting of organometallic and organosulfur compounds that: (1) map discretely within the fossils, (2) resolve fine scale biological structures, and (3) are distinct from embedding sedimentary matrices. Additionally, the chemical distributions in fossil leaves are directly comparable to those of extant leaves. This evidence strongly suggests that a significant fraction of the chemical inventory of the examined fossil leaf material is derived from the living organisms and that original bioaccumulated elements have been preserved in situ for 50 million years. Chemical information of this kind has so far been unknown for fossilized plants and could for the first time allow the metallome of extinct flora to be studied.

  15. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  16. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial laser and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C., within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable of focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and man be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  17. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  18. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  19. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount about 20 C, with the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radical sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  20. Gliomas and exposure to wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Cordier, S; Poisson, M; Gerin, M; Varin, J; Conso, F; Hemon, D

    1988-10-01

    A case-referent study was undertaken to look for occupational risk factors among patients with glioma treated in a neurological hospital in Paris between 1975 and 1984. In the study group were 125 men with gliomas (aged less than or equal to 65) and 238 patients (also less than or equal to 65) admitted for non-neoplastic, non-malformative vascular diseases in the same department during the same period constituting the reference group. All diagnoses were confirmed by tomodensitometry. Information on occupational history was obtained from a postal questionnaire and from medical records. Comparison of cases and referents showed a significant excess risk among teachers (OR = 4.1) and a raised risk among wood workers (OR = 1.6). Four of nine cases of glioma who had been employed as wood workers reported that a colleague had suffered from glioma (those reports were confirmed by hospital records). None were reported among 11 referent wood workers. Using a complementary questionnaire on wood work, exposure assessment to wood preservatives and solvents showed that frequent exposure to organochlorine wood preservatives and to organic solvents occurred more often among cases than referent wood workers (p less than 0.10).

  1. Preparation and preservation of hypoxia UW solution.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chidang; Wang, Chunyou; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Rui; Yang, Zhiyong

    2007-10-01

    In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of UW solution was detected. The hypoxia UW solution was exposed to the air or sealed up to preserve by using different methods, and the changes of oxygen partial pressure was tested. The results showed that oxygen partial presure of 50 mL UW solution, purged by argon for 15 min at a flow rate of 2 L/min, was declined from 242+/-6 mmHg to 83+/-10 mmHg. After exposure to the air, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was gradually increased to 160+/-7 mmHg at 48 h. After sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bad filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was stable, about 88+/-13 mmHg at 72 h. It was concluded that oxygen of UW solution could be purged by argon efficiently. Sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bag filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of UW solution could be stabilized.

  2. Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-01-01

    Objective Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ε-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ε-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. Methods The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ε-differential privacy. Results We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. Limitation The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Conclusions Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis. PMID:23242630

  3. Optimum arousal level preservation system using biosignals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Issey; Ohashi, Hayato; Yokoyama, Kiyoko

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a driver's optimum arousal level preservation system while driving. The important point of developing this system is how we keep a driver's adequate conditions on driving. Most of the systems, which have been already put to practical use, are using audible sound or warning messages on a display to urge driver to take a rest. However, arousal levels are strongly related to the balance of autonomic modulations; therefore we need the stimulation that preserves a driver's adequate condition physiologically. Some preceding studies reported that the stimulation using the biological rhythms especially heart beating rhythms are influential to human body. We gave a consideration to this fact and made a course of using driver's heartbeat rhythm for the feedback stimulation to realize the demand. In this paper, we examined the stimulation from two points of views. The one is to investigate the possibilities of controlling a driver's heartbeat rhythms by making synchronization between the driver's heartbeat and a vibratory stimulation. The other one is to find out the stimulation that induces RSA (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia) in order to adjust the parasympathetic modulations. The result of the experiment indicated that the 1 [s] constant beat stimulation has an effect of inducing RSA, and the stimulation using a rhythm of heartbeat has a possibility of controlling driver's heart rate variability, and its' efficiency might be possible to be improved by adjusting the rhythm of the stimulation to the driver's heartbeat rhythms.

  4. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  5. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  6. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases.

  7. Effect of chordal preservation on left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Muthialu, Nagarajan; Varma, Shashi K; Ramanathan, Sundar; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekar; Rao, K Madhusudana; Srinivasan, Muralidharan

    2005-09-01

    Chordopapillary apparatus preservation was compared with valve-excising mitral valve replacement in a retrospective analysis of 360 patients, of whom 98 had total or partial chordal preservation and 262 had the conventional operation. No significant differences were seen in age, sex, pathology, crossclamp or cardiopulmonary bypass times between the 3 groups. Left ventricular fractional shortening decreased significantly in patients whose valves had been excised completely, whereas it remained unchanged in patients with either partial or total chordal conservation. There was a survival benefit for patients undergoing leaflet preservation (92% vs. 80% for conventional excision at 5 years; p=0.001). Chordal preservation during valve replacement for mitral valve disease improves survival, enhances functional status, preserves left ventricular geometry and function, and improves overall cardiac performance. Preservation of the posterior leaflet alone offers excellent results that are comparable to those of patients with total chordal preservation.

  8. Simplified field preservation of tissues for subsequent DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Corinne L; Foran, David R

    2011-07-01

    Successful DNA-based identification of mass disaster victims depends on acquiring tissues that are not highly degraded. In this study, multiple protocols for field preservation of tissues for later DNA analysis were tested. Skin and muscle samples were collected from decaying pig carcasses. Tissues were preserved using cold storage, desiccation, or room temperature storage in preservative solutions for up to 6 months. DNA quality was assessed through amplification of successively larger segments of nuclear DNA. Solution-based storage, including a DMSO/NaCl/EDTA mixture, alcohols, and RNAlater preserved DNA of the highest quality, refrigeration was intermediate, and desiccation was least effective. Tissue type and extent of decomposition significantly affected stored DNA quality. Overall, the results indicate that any tissue preservation attempt is far superior to delaying or forgoing preservation efforts, and that simple, inexpensive methods can be highly effective in preserving DNA, thus should be initiated as quickly as possible.

  9. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;…

  10. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germpaslm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), ca. 30,000 are vegetaively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports demonstrated the advantages of long term storage of plant tissues in liqui...

  11. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germplasm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPS), ca. 30,000 are vegetatively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports have demonstrated the advantages of long-term storage of plant tissues in ...

  12. To Preserve or Not to Preserve the Orbit in Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C. Arturo; Bush, Carrie; Carrau, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Context The effect on survival of orbital evisceration on patients with paranasal sinus neoplasms has not been well established. Objective To review systematically the available literature concerning survival in patients who undergo surgery for paranasal sinus neoplasm with and without preservation of the eye. Data Source A retrospective meta-analysis of English and non-English articles using Medline and the Cochrane database. Eligibility Criteria Studies analyzing 5-year survival rates in patients who had orbital evisceration compared with orbital preservation for the treatment of paranasal sinus neoplasms were included in the final analysis. Data Extraction Independent review by two authors using predefined data fields. Data Synthesis A meta-analysis of four articles involving 443 patients was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects method. Results Our analysis revealed a total effect size of 0.964 in favor of preservation of the eye; however, these results are not robust, having a true effect size anywhere from 0.785 to 1.142 with a 95% confidence interval. Limitations Only retrospective observational studies were included because a prospective randomized study cannot be performed in this population. Conclusion Our study supports the notion that in select patients preservation of the eye may yield a different outcome when compared with orbital evisceration. PMID:25844298

  13. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  14. Effect of ionic liquid on activity, stability, and structure of enzymes: a review.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Mu; Alothman, Zied Abdullah; Khan, Abbul Bashar; Ali, Maroof

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquids have shown their potential as a solvent media for many enzymatic reactions as well as protein preservation, because of their unusual characteristics. It is also observed that change in cation or anion alters the physiochemical properties of the ionic liquids, which in turn influence the enzymatic reactions by altering the structure, activity, enatioselectivity, and stability of the enzymes. Thus, it is utmost need of the researchers to have full understanding of these influences created by ionic liquids before choosing or developing an ionic liquid to serve as solvent media for enzymatic reaction or protein preservation. So, in the present review, we try to shed light on effects of ionic liquids chemistry on structure, stability, and activity of enzymes, which will be helpful for the researchers in various biocatalytic applications.

  15. Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D; Alexander, Charles W; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D; Romano, Catherine E; Wham, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is

  16. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan - an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Fu, C.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people's expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments' powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan's heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan's cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan's preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.

  17. Stochastic rotation dynamics for nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuang-Wu Mazza, Marco G.

    2015-04-28

    We introduce a new mesoscopic model for nematic liquid crystals (LCs). We extend the particle-based stochastic rotation dynamics method, which reproduces the Navier-Stokes equation, to anisotropic fluids by including a simplified Ericksen-Leslie formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the applicability of this hybrid model by studying the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition and nonequilibrium problems, such as the dynamics of topological defects and the rheology of sheared LCs. Our simulation results show that this hybrid model captures many essential aspects of LC physics at the mesoscopic scale, while preserving microscopic thermal fluctuations.

  18. Preserving Symmetry in Preconditioned Krylov Subspace Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Chow, E.; Saad, Y.; Yeung, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of solving a linear system Ax = b when A is nearly symmetric and when the system is preconditioned by a symmetric positive definite matrix M. In the symmetric case, one can recover symmetry by using M-inner products in the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. This idea can also be used in the nonsymmetric case, and near symmetry can be preserved similarly. Like CG, the new algorithms are mathematically equivalent to split preconditioning, but do not require M to be factored. Better robustness in a specific sense can also be observed. When combined with truncated versions of iterative methods, tests show that this is more effective than the common practice of forfeiting near-symmetry altogether.

  19. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerio, S.; Behari, S.; Boyd, J.; Brochmann, M.; Culbertson, R.; Diesburg, M.; Freeman, J.; Garren, L.; Greenlee, H.; Herner, K.; Illingworth, R.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jonckheere, A.; Li, Q.; Naymola, S.; Oleynik, G.; Sakumoto, W.; Varnes, E.; Vellidis, C.; Watts, G.; White, S.

    2017-04-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and D0 experiments each have approximately 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 and beyond. To achieve this goal, we have implemented a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards in both software and data storage technology and leverages resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. These efforts have also provided useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments, and enable high-quality scientific output for years to come.

  20. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state σ for the ancillary mode; σ determines the properties of the added noise.

  1. Post-cremation taphonomy and artifact preservation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michael W; Schultz, John J

    2002-05-01

    Contemporary commercial cremation is a reductive taphonomic process that represents one of the most extreme examples of postmortem human alteration of bone. The thorough reduction and fragmentation of cremated human remains often leaves little biological evidence of diagnostic value. Instead, non-osseous artifacts often provide the best evidence of the origin of the cremated remains, the identity of the decedent, and commingling of the remains of more than one individual. Once human remains have been cremated they are most commonly placed into a processor and reduced into small fragments and fine ash suitable for inurnment or scattering. The type of processor determines the size and utility of the particulates and artifacts available for analysis. The newest type of processors have changed the manner and degree of postmortem bone modification and altered the preservation of diagnostic bone fragments and cremation artifacts. This paper addresses the impact of the newest cremation procedures on forensic analysis of cremated remains.

  2. Preserved conceptual priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla A R; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2006-10-01

    We assessed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adult control (HC) group performance on: (1) a conceptual priming task, in which participants had to make a semantic decision as to whether a degraded picture of an object encountered previously belonged to the category of living or non-living things; and (2) a recognition memory task. The AD group showed a dissociation between impaired performance on the recognition task and preserved priming for semantic decisions to degraded pictures. We argue that it is not whether priming is conceptual or perceptual that is important for the observation of priming in AD, rather it is the nature of the response that is required (c.f., Gabrieli et al., 1999).

  3. Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.

    1997-03-01

    An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

  4. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE PAGES

    Boyd, J.; Herner, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; ...

    2015-12-23

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and DO experiments each have nearly 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 or beyond. To achieve this, we are implementing a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards in bothmore » software and data storage technology as well as leveraging resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. Furthermore, these efforts will provide useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments throughout high-energy physics, and provide a roadmap for high-quality scientific output for years to come.« less

  5. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE PAGES

    Amerio, S.; Behari, S.; Boyd, J.; ...

    2017-01-22

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and D0 experiments each have approximately 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 and beyond. To achieve this goal, we have implemented a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards inmore » both software and data storage technology and leverages resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. Lastly, these efforts have also provided useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments, and enable high-quality scientific output for years to come.« less

  6. HOPWA funding preserved: Clinton unveils health plan.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    In his first veto as President, Bill Clinton preserved the full $186 million funding allocation for the Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program. Congressional Republicans had cut $30 million from the appropriation for fiscal 1995 as part of a package of $16.4 billion in funding rescissions. In other action, Clinton's plan to balance the Federal budget deficit in ten years leaves most AIDS programs intact. Both Clinton and the Republicans plan to reduce the growth in Medicaid spending, which provides medical care to about forty percent of people with AIDS and ninety percent of infants and children with AIDS. In addition, Clinton has proposed a health-care initiative in which insurers could not deny coverage to people with medical problems, would have to renew policies regardless of the subscriber's medical condition, and would have to offer coverage to small companies. Finally, Clinton proposes subsidies to make insurance more affordable to people who lose their jobs.

  7. Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders.

    PubMed

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis.

  8. Precambrian organic geochemistry - Preservation of the record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Wedeking, K. W.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of earlier studies is presented, and new results in Precambrian organic geochemistry are discussed. It is pointed out that two lines of evidence can be developed. One is based on structural organic chemistry, while the other is based on isotopic analyses. In the present investigation, the results of both structural and isotopic investigations of Precambrian organic matter are discussed. Processes and products related to organic geochemistry are examined, taking into account the carbon cycle, an approximate view of the principal pathways of carbon cycling associated with organic matter in the present global ecosystem, processes affecting sedimentary organic matter, and distribution and types of organic matter. Attention is given to chemical fossils in Precambrian sediments, kerogen analyses, the determination of the structural characteristics of kerogen, and data concerning the preservation of the Precambrian organic geochemical record.

  9. Memory preservation made prestigious but easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Debus, Christina; Sandhaus, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Preserving memories combined with story-telling using either photo books for multiple images or high quality products such as one or a few images printed on canvas or images mounted on acryl to create high-quality wall decorations are gradually becoming more popular than classical 4*6 prints and classical silver halide posters. Digital printing via electro photography and ink jet is increasingly replacing classical silver halide technology as the dominant production technology for these kinds of products. Maintaining a consistent and comparable quality of output is becoming more challenging than using silver halide paper for both, prints and posters. This paper describes a unique approach of combining both desktop based software to initiate a compelling project and the use of online capabilities in order to finalize and optimize that project in an online environment in a community process. A comparison of the consumer behavior between online and desktop based solutions for generating photo books will be presented.

  10. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.; Herner, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Roser, R.; Sakumoto, W.

    2015-12-23

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and DO experiments each have nearly 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 or beyond. To achieve this, we are implementing a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards in both software and data storage technology as well as leveraging resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. Furthermore, these efforts will provide useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments throughout high-energy physics, and provide a roadmap for high-quality scientific output for years to come.

  11. Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

    2014-05-30

    The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity.

  12. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh

    2016-11-01

    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  13. Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

    2009-10-01

    Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

  14. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.

    PubMed

    Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2009-05-28

    High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time.

  15. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL)

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Objective Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human–machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. Methods In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. Results We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Conclusions Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human–machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility. PMID:24201028

  16. Graft preservation solutions in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernhard; Reineke, David; Heinisch, Paul Philip; Schönhoff, Florian; Huber, Christoph; Kadner, Alexander; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Vein grafts are still the most commonly used graft material in cardiovascular surgery and much effort has been spent in recent years on investigating the optimal harvesting technique. One other related topic of similar importance remained more or less an incidental one. The storage solutions of vein grafts following procurement and prior to implantation are, despite their assumed impact, a relatively neglected theme. There is no doubt that the endothelium plays a key role in long-term patency of vein grafts, but the effects of the different storage solutions on the endothelium remain unclear : In a review of the literature, we could find 20 specific papers that addressed the question, of which the currently available preservation solutions are superior, harmless, damaging or ineffective. The focus lies on saline and autologous whole blood. Besides these two storage media, novel or alternative solutions have been investigated with surprising findings. In addition, a few words will be spent on potential alternatives and novel solutions on the market. As there is currently no randomized clinical trial regarding saline versus autologous whole blood available, this review compares all previous studies and methods of analysis to provide a certain level of evidence on this topic. In summary, saline has negative effects on the endothelial layers and therefore may compromise graft patency. Related factors, such as distension pressure, may outbalance the initial benefit of autologous whole blood or storage solutions and intensify the harmful effects of warm saline. In addition, there is no uniform consent on the superiority of autologous whole blood for vein graft storage. This may open the door to alternatives such as the University of Wisconsin solution or one of the specific designed storage solutions like TiProtec™ or Somaluthion™. Whether these preservation solutions are superior or advantageous remains the subject of further studies.

  17. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  18. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  19. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation...

  20. More than Ten Years After: Identity and Direction in Library Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maralyn

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature of preservation for 1990. Topics addressed include preservation in original format; conservation treatment; pest management; deterioration of paper, deacidification, and paper strengthening; preservation replacement; newer reformatting technologies; the management of preservation programs; education for preservation…

  1. Active packaging for topical cosmetic/drug products: a hot-melt extruded preservative delivery device.

    PubMed

    Zema, L; Sangalli, M E; Maroni, A; Foppoli, A; Bettero, A; Gazzaniga, A

    2010-06-01

    A delivery device intended for the prolonged release of antimicrobial agents, able to enhance the stability profile of liquid/semi-solid cosmetic/pharmaceutical products for topical application, was proposed in the present study. With the aid of a simulation program based on compartment models, the relevant kinetic and formulation parameters were defined using dehydroacetic acid sodium salt (DHA.Na, Prevan) as the model preservative. Indeed, the overall DHA.Na degradation rate is increased in the presence of formaldehyde releasers that are often employed as co-preservatives. Inert matrices (3 g weight and 18 mm diameter) based on high-density polyethylene (HDPE), possibly consistent with the design of an active packaging meant for preservative delivery, were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Units with satisfactory physical-technological properties could be obtained up to 50%w/w loads of antimicrobial agent. In an attempt to modify the relevant Fickian release profiles by varying the area exposed to the medium, matrix systems coated with an impermeable film except for one base (CMs) or for the inner surface of a central drilled hole (PCMs) were investigated. On the basis of the n exponent of power equation and the outcome of linear fitting, PCMs were proven able to yield the zero-order release behaviour needed to ensure constant DHA.Na levels over a predetermined time period, as indicated by the simulation process.

  2. Alginate-Encapsulation for the Improved Hypothermic Preservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Swioklo, Stephen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Connon, Che J

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable progress within the cell therapy industry, unmet bioprocessing and logistical challenges associated with the storage and distribution of cells between sites of manufacture and the clinic exist. We examined whether hypothermic (4°C-23°C) preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells could be improved through their encapsulation in 1.2% calcium alginate. Alginate encapsulation improved the recovery of viable cells after 72 hours of storage. Viable cell recovery was highly temperature-dependent, with an optimum temperature of 15°C. At this temperature, alginate encapsulation preserved the ability for recovered cells to attach to tissue culture plastic on rewarming, further increasing its effect on total cell recovery. On attachment, the cells were phenotypically normal, displayed normal growth kinetics, and maintained their capacity for trilineage differentiation. The number of cells encapsulated (up to 2 × 10(6) cells per milliliter) did not affect viable cell recovery nor did storage of encapsulated cells in a xeno-free, serum-free,current Good Manufacturing Practice-grade medium. We present a simple, low-cost system capable of enhancing the preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells stored at hypothermic temperatures, while maintaining their normal function. The storage of cells in this manner has great potential for extending the time windows for quality assurance and efficacy testing, distribution between the sites of manufacture and the clinic, and reducing the wastage associated with the limited shelf life of cells stored in their liquid state.

  3. Key issues relating to the genetic stability and preservation of cells and cell banks.

    PubMed

    Simione, F P

    1992-01-01

    The long term maintenance of genetically stable cells is important for ensuring reproducible results and continuity in the advance of microbiology, cell biology and biotechnology. As actively growing cultures, cells are constantly at risk of changing, and the necessity for subculturing living materials increases the chances for genetic change and contamination. Many techniques are available for stabilizing living cells; the method employed must be compatible with the intended use of the culture. The most commonly utilized means of preserving living cells are by freezing to cryogenic temperatures, and freeze-drying. Master stocks are usually maintained at liquid nitrogen or comparable temperatures, while working stocks can be frozen or freeze-dried, and maintained at more economical and easily managed temperatures where possible. However, low temperature techniques may cause damage that can result in genetic change, or potential selection when only a small portion of the population survives. Therefore, a good preservation program must include a comprehensive cell characterization regimen that is applied both before and after preserving the cells to ensure that changes are detected when they do occur. Assurance of long term stability necessitates well designed safekeeping and security measures that include minimizing specimen handling through well designed inventory systems, validation and monitoring of storage temperatures, provisions for backup inventory, and training of personnel. Cell banking also requires good cataloguing and data management practices to avoid duplication and misidentification, and to ensure proper tracking of specimens and ease of access.

  4. Assessment of the RNASound RNA Sampling Card for the Preservation of Influenza Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hilda; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2016-01-01

    Shipping influenza virus specimens, isolates or purified RNA is normally conducted at ultra-low temperatures using dry ice to ensure minimal degradation of the samples but this is expensive and requires special packaging and shipping conditions. Therefore, alternative methods for shipping influenza viruses or RNA at ambient temperatures would be desirable. The RNASound RNA Sampling Card (FortiusBio LLC, San Diego, CA, USA) is a device that enables specimens or isolates to be applied to a card, whereby viruses are inactivated, while RNA is preserved and purified RNA can also easily be eluted. To evaluate this card, we applied influenza virus cell culture isolate supernatants to either the RNASound card or Whatman Grade No. 1 filter paper (GE Healthcare, Rydalmere, NSW, Australia) and compared the preservation to that of material stored in liquid form. Preservation was tested using influenza A and B viruses at two different storage temperatures [cool (2–8°C) or room temperature (18–22°C)] and these were compared with control material stored at -80°C, for 7, 14, or 28 days. The quality of the RNA recovered was assessed using real time RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The RNASound card was effective in preserving influenza RNA at room temperature for up to 28 days, with only a minor change in real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold values for selected gene targets when comparing between viruses applied to the card or stored at -80°C. Similar results were obtained with filter paper, whilst virus in liquid form performed the worst. Nevertheless, as the RNASound card also has the capability to inactivate viruses in addition to preserving RNA at room temperature for many weeks, this makes it feasible to send samples to laboratories using regular mail, and thus avoid the need for expensive shipping conditions requiring biohazard containers and dry ice. Moreover, the quick and simple RNA recovery from the RNASound card allows recipient labs to obtain RNA without the need for

  5. Image segmentation on adaptive edge-preserving smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Xiuqing

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, typical active contour models are widely applied in image segmentation. However, they perform badly on real images with inhomogeneous subregions. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper proposes an edge-preserving smoothing image segmentation algorithm. At first, this paper analyzes the edge-preserving smoothing conditions for image segmentation and constructs an edge-preserving smoothing model inspired by total variation. The proposed model has the ability to smooth inhomogeneous subregions and preserve edges. Then, a kind of clustering algorithm, which reasonably trades off edge-preserving and subregion-smoothing according to the local information, is employed to learn the edge-preserving parameter adaptively. At last, according to the confidence level of segmentation subregions, this paper constructs a smoothing convergence condition to avoid oversmoothing. Experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in precision, recall, and F-measure compared with other segmentation algorithms, and it is insensitive to noise and inhomogeneous-regions.

  6. Dynamics of liquid-liquid displacement.

    PubMed

    Fetzer, Renate; Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John

    2009-07-21

    Capillary driven liquid-liquid displacement in a system with two immiscible liquids of comparable viscosity was investigated by means of optical high speed video microscopy. For the first time, the impact of substrate wettability on contact line dynamics in liquid-liquid systems was studied. On all substrates, qualitatively different dynamics, in two distinct velocity regimes, were found. Hydrodynamic models apply to the fast stage of initial spreading, while nonhydrodynamic dissipation dominates contact line motion in a final stage at low speed, where the molecular kinetic theory (MKT) successfully captured the dynamics. The MKT model parameter values showed no systematic dependence on substrate wettability. This unexpected result is interpreted in terms of local contact line pinning.

  7. The study on privacy preserving data mining for information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Privacy preserving data mining have a rapid development in a short year. But it still faces many challenges in the future. Firstly, the level of privacy has different definitions in different filed. Therefore, the measure of privacy preserving data mining technology protecting private information is not the same. So, it's an urgent issue to present a unified privacy definition and measure. Secondly, the most of research in privacy preserving data mining is presently confined to the theory study.

  8. Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J.; Lomaglio, Melanie J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or co-contractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that non-neural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Methods Eighteen stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age and sex matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/s for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservation were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Results Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic, as well as nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r=0.640, p=0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r=0.508, p=0.009), but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. Conclusions The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of non-neural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke. PMID

  9. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  10. Liquid medication administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily. Oral syringes have some advantages for giving liquid medicines. They are accurate. They are easy to ... cups are also a handy way to give liquid medicines. However, dosing errors have occurred with them. ...

  11. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or destroy the historic significance of the building or the facility, alternative methods of access... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for...

  12. Improving oral rehabilitation through the preservation of the tissues through alveolar preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzman, Gregori Michael; Mahesh, Lanka

    2012-01-01

    When performing a tooth extraction, imminent collapse of the tissue by resorption and remodeling of the socket is a natural occurrence. The procedure for the preservation of the alveolar ridge has been widely described in the dental literatures and aims to maintain hard and soft tissues in the extraction site for optimal rehabilitation either with conventional fixed or removable prosthetics or implant-supported prosthesis. PMID:22977727

  13. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  14. New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Carsten; Debruyne, Regis; Kuch, Melanie; McNally, Elizabeth; Schwarcz, Henry; Aubrey, Andrew D; Bada, Jeffrey; Poinar, Hendrik

    2009-06-01

    Despite being plagued by heavily degraded DNA in palaeontological remains, most studies addressing the state of DNA degradation have been limited to types of damage which do not pose a hindrance to Taq polymerase during PCR. Application of serial qPCR to the two fractions obtained during extraction (demineralization and protein digest) from six permafrost mammoth bones and one partially degraded modern elephant bone has enabled further insight into the changes which endogenous DNA is subjected to during diagenesis. We show here that both fractions exhibit individual qualities in terms of the prevailing type of DNA (i.e. mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA) as well as the extent of damage, and in addition observed a highly variable ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA among the six mammoth samples. While there is evidence suggesting that mitochondrial DNA is better preserved than nuclear DNA in ancient permafrost samples, we find the initial DNA concentration in the bone tissue to be as relevant for the total accessible mitochondrial DNA as the extent of DNA degradation post-mortem. We also evaluate the general applicability of indirect measures of preservation such as amino-acid racemization, bone crystallinity index and thermal age to these exceptionally well-preserved samples.

  15. High order parametrized maximum-principle-preserving and positivity-preserving WENO schemes on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christlieb, Andrew J.; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Xu, Zhengfu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the maximum-principle-preserving (MPP) flux limiting technique developed by Xu (2013) [20] to a class of high order finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes for scalar conservation laws and the compressible Euler system on unstructured meshes in one and two dimensions. The key idea of this parameterized limiting technique is to limit the high order numerical flux with a first order flux which preserves the MPP or positivity-preserving (PP) property. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the flux limiting approach with high order finite volume method on unstructured meshes which are often needed for solving some important problems on irregular domains. Truncation error analysis based on one-dimensional nonuniform meshes is presented to justify that the proposed MPP schemes can maintain third order accuracy in space and time. We also demonstrate through smooth test problems that the proposed third order MPP/PP WENO schemes coupled with a third order Runge-Kutta (RK) method attain the desired order of accuracy. Several test problems containing strong shocks and complex domain geometries are also presented to assess the performance of the schemes.

  16. New insights from old bones: DNA preservation and degradation in permafrost preserved mammoth remains

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Carsten; Debruyne, Regis; Kuch, Melanie; McNally, Elizabeth; Schwarcz, Henry; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bada, Jeffrey; Poinar, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Despite being plagued by heavily degraded DNA in palaeontological remains, most studies addressing the state of DNA degradation have been limited to types of damage which do not pose a hindrance to Taq polymerase during PCR. Application of serial qPCR to the two fractions obtained during extraction (demineralization and protein digest) from six permafrost mammoth bones and one partially degraded modern elephant bone has enabled further insight into the changes which endogenous DNA is subjected to during diagenesis. We show here that both fractions exhibit individual qualities in terms of the prevailing type of DNA (i.e. mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA) as well as the extent of damage, and in addition observed a highly variable ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA among the six mammoth samples. While there is evidence suggesting that mitochondrial DNA is better preserved than nuclear DNA in ancient permafrost samples, we find the initial DNA concentration in the bone tissue to be as relevant for the total accessible mitochondrial DNA as the extent of DNA degradation post-mortem. We also evaluate the general applicability of indirect measures of preservation such as amino-acid racemization, bone crystallinity index and thermal age to these exceptionally well-preserved samples. PMID:19321502

  17. Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress.

    PubMed

    Morales-gomez, D A

    1993-04-01

    Respect for traditional knowledge is urges as a source of learning to understand where societies originate. A Western understanding of traditional cultural knowledge must go beyond an understanding of fundamental values that give meaning; there must be a change in the cultural perception of development. There operates a complex interaction among artistic and spiritual practices, language and communication, patterns of social reproduction, practices in community governance, and management of natural and human resources. There are contradictions because cultural expression is a diverse combination of individual and collective capacities to manage the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of life. Quick solutions sometimes lead to romanticized notions of cultural knowledge, rather than being systematic and historical and part of the cultural milieu. From the ethnic perspective, traditional knowledge is seen as "indigenous" or an expression of "curious" traditions and practices of native peoples which are different from one's own perspective. Viewing traditional knowledge in this fashion detaches it from rites, languages, and community practices. When reduced to a utilitarian economic notion, traditional knowledge is separated from the lessons drawn from survival strategies and practices of "materially impoverished peoples." Sometimes, the application of this knowledge bypasses recognition of the part played by traditional peoples. People in the North or industrialized countries neglect the human and sociocultural basis of knowledge, even though there have been attempts to reclaim cultural knowledge as part of development efforts. There remain many questions about how to better understand traditional knowledge, how to preserve it in a meaningful way, and how to apply it to sustain development. There is no consensus about what traditional knowledge is and how it is "genuinely" expressed. The definition of traditional knowledge is as a body of

  18. Knowledge Preservation for Design of Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    An engineer at NASA Lewis RC presented a challenge to us at Southern University. Our response to that challenge, stated circa 1993, has evolved into the Knowledge Preservation Project which is here reported. The stated problem was to capture some of the knowledge of retiring NASA engineers and make it useful to younger engineers via computers. We evolved that initial challenge to this - design a system of tools such that, with this system, people might efficiently capture and make available via commonplace computers, deep knowledge of retiring NASA engineers. In the process of proving some of the concepts of this system, we would (and did) capture knowledge from some specific engineers and, so, meet the original challenge along the way to meeting the new. Some of the specific knowledge acquired, particularly that on the RL- 10 engine, was directly relevant to design of rocket engines. We considered and rejected some of the techniques popular in the days we began - specifically "expert systems" and "oral histories". We judged that these old methods had too high a cost per sentence preserved. That cost could be measured in hours of labor of a "knowledge professional". We did spend, particularly in the grant preceding this one, some time creating a couple of "concept maps", one of the latest ideas of the day, but judged this also to be costly in time of a specially trained knowledge-professional. We reasoned that the cost in specialized labor could be lowered if less time were spent being selective about sentences from the engineers and in crafting replacements for those sentences. The trade-off would seem to be that our set of sentences would be less dense in information, but we found a computer-based way around this seeming defect. Our plan, details of which we have been carrying out, was to find methods of extracting information from experts which would be capable of gaining cooperation, and interest, of senior engineers and using their time in a way they would

  19. Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Cianciolo, Frank; Wetzel, Marc; Finkelstein, Keely; Wren, William; Nance, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses

  20. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  1. Liquid detection circuit

    DOEpatents

    Regan, Thomas O.

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Simultaneous speciation and preservation of aqueous As, Sb and Se redox couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Pichler, T.

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new method for the simultaneous speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic (III, V), antimony (III, V) and selenium (IV, VI) in water samples via double-focusing sector field-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Hamilton PRX-X100 anion exchange column with EDTA (pH of 4.7) and 3% methanol as mobile phase was used for species separation. The flow rate was set to 1.5 mL min-1 and a solvent gradient (linear ramp from 5 mM to 30 mM) was applied. The overall analysis time for all six desired species was 11 minutes. The detection limits for As(III), As(V), Sb(III), Sb(V), Se(VI) and Se(IV) were 0.02 μg L-1, 0.06 μg L-1, 0.2 μg L-1, 0.02 μg L-1, 0.2 μg L-1 and 0.4 μg L-1 respectively. The retention times for As(III), As(V), Sb(III), Sb(V), Se(IV) and Se(VI) were 1.70, 2.94, 7.14, 2.28, 3.38 and 9.36 min, respectively. Subsequently, the stability of inorganic As(III, V), Sb(III, V) and Se(IV, VI) species in different water samples (groundwater, lake water and river water) was studied over a time scale of 11 weeks. High concentrations of Fe (25.0 mg/L) and Mn (25.0 mg/L) were added to different matrices to simulate Fe and Mn rich environments. All samples were spiked with 5.0 μg/L As(III, V) and Sb(III, V) and 15.0 μg/L Se(IV, VI).. We investigated several strategies for species preservation, i.e., EDTA only, EDTA combined with acidification (HCl, HNO3, formic acid and acetic acid). The preserved samples were stored at 4 °C in the dark. For comparison, another subsample without any preservation was stored at room temperature in the presence of light. The results showed that a combination EDTA acidified to pH of 3 can be used to preserve all species for at least 11 weeks. While EDTA only (pH = 6) failed to preserve As and Sb species, although Se species were preserved.

  3. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  4. Sleep for preserving and transforming episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Marion; Born, Jan

    2013-07-08

    Sleep is known to support memory consolidation. Here we review evidence for an active system consolidation occurring during sleep. At the beginning of this process is sleep's ability to preserve episodic experiences preferentially encoded in hippocampal networks. Repeated neuronal reactivation of these representations during slow-wave sleep transforms episodic representations into long-term memories, redistributes them toward extrahippocampal networks, and qualitatively changes them to decontextualized schema-like representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations regulate the underlying communication: Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples coalescing with thalamic spindles mediate the bottom-up transfer of reactivated memory information to extrahippocampal regions. Neocortical slow oscillations exert a supraordinate top-down control to synchronize hippocampal reactivations of specific memories to their excitable up-phase, thus allowing plastic changes in extrahippocampal regions. We propose that reactivations during sleep are a general mechanism underlying the abstraction of temporally stable invariants from a flow of input that is solely structured in time, thus representing a basic mechanism of memory formation.

  5. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  6. Energy Preserved Sampling for Compressed Sensing MRI

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bradley S.; Ji, Genlin; Dong, Zhengchao

    2014-01-01

    The sampling patterns, cost functions, and reconstruction algorithms play important roles in optimizing compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI). Simple random sampling patterns did not take into account the energy distribution in k-space and resulted in suboptimal reconstruction of MR images. Therefore, a variety of variable density (VD) based samplings patterns had been developed. To further improve it, we propose a novel energy preserving sampling (ePRESS) method. Besides, we improve the cost function by introducing phase correction and region of support matrix, and we propose iterative thresholding algorithm (ITA) to solve the improved cost function. We evaluate the proposed ePRESS sampling method, improved cost function, and ITA reconstruction algorithm by 2D digital phantom and 2D in vivo MR brains of healthy volunteers. These assessments demonstrate that the proposed ePRESS method performs better than VD, POWER, and BKO; the improved cost function can achieve better reconstruction quality than conventional cost function; and the ITA is faster than SISTA and is competitive with FISTA in terms of computation time. PMID:24971155

  7. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-10-07

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

  8. Preserving cell shape under environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Cook, Boaz; Hardy, Robert W; McConnaughey, William B; Zuker, Charles S

    2008-03-20

    Maintaining cell shape and tone is crucial for the function and survival of cells and tissues. Mechanotransduction relies on the transformation of minuscule mechanical forces into high-fidelity electrical responses. When mechanoreceptors are stimulated, mechanically sensitive cation channels open and produce an inward transduction current that depolarizes the cell. For this process to operate effectively, the transduction machinery has to retain integrity and remain unfailingly independent of environmental changes. This is particularly challenging for poikilothermic organisms, where changes in temperature in the environment may impact the function of mechanoreceptor neurons. Thus, we wondered how insects whose habitat might quickly vary over several tens of degrees of temperature manage to maintain highly effective mechanical senses. We screened for Drosophila mutants with defective mechanical responses at elevated ambient temperatures, and identified a gene, spam, whose role is to protect the mechanosensory organ from massive cellular deformation caused by heat-induced osmotic imbalance. Here we show that Spam protein forms an extracellular shield that guards mechanosensory neurons from environmental insult. Remarkably, heterologously expressed Spam protein also endowed other cells with superb defence against physically and chemically induced deformation. We studied the mechanical impact of Spam coating and show that spam-coated cells are up to ten times stiffer than uncoated controls. Together, these results help explain how poikilothermic organisms preserve the architecture of critical cells during environmental stress, and illustrate an elegant and simple solution to such challenge.

  9. Preserving & Serving 150 years of KNMI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Vegte, J.; Som de Cerff, W. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has over 150 years of knowledge and gathered information related to weather, Climate and Seismology. A huge part of this information is from numerical models, insitu sensor networks and remote sensing satellites. This digital collection is mostly internal only available and is a collection of non searchable , non standardized file formats, lacking documentation and has no references to scientific publications. With the Dutch funded KNMI Data Centre (KDC) project we aim to tackle al these issues. In the project a user driven development approach with SCRUM is chosen to get maximum user involvement in a relative short development timeframe. Building on open standards and proven opensource technology (which includes in-house developed software like ADAGUC WMS and Portal) should result in a solid first release in 2012-Q3. This presentation will focus on the aspects of developing the KDC relating to its technical challenges, the human factor and the development strategy to come to a future-proof centre that will preserve our data en make it usable for the community.

  10. Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy.

    PubMed

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Dhakar, Lokesh; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-06-26

    We experimentally demonstrate a micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial with polarization independent characteristics for multiple resonances in terahertz spectral region. The metamaterial unit cell consists of eight out-of-plane deformable microcantilevers placed at each corner of an octagon ring. The octagon shaped unit cell geometry provides the desired rotational symmetry, while the out-of-plane movable cantilevers preserves the symmetry at different configurations of the metamaterial. The metamaterial is shown to provide polarization independent response for both electrical inductive-capacitive (eLC) resonance and dipolar resonance at all states of actuation. The proposed metamaterial has a switching range of 0.16 THz and 0.37 THz and a transmission intensity change of more than 0.2 and 0.7 for the eLC and dipolar resonances, respectively for both TE and TM modes. Further optimization of the metal layer thickness, provides an improvement of up to 80% modulation at 0.57 THz. The simultaneously tunable dual band isotropic metamaterial will enable the realization of high performance electro-optic devices that would facilitate numerous terahertz applications such as compressive terahertz imaging, miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy and next generation high speed wireless communication possible in the near future.

  11. Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy

    PubMed Central

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Dhakar, Lokesh; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial with polarization independent characteristics for multiple resonances in terahertz spectral region. The metamaterial unit cell consists of eight out-of-plane deformable microcantilevers placed at each corner of an octagon ring. The octagon shaped unit cell geometry provides the desired rotational symmetry, while the out-of-plane movable cantilevers preserves the symmetry at different configurations of the metamaterial. The metamaterial is shown to provide polarization independent response for both electrical inductive-capacitive (eLC) resonance and dipolar resonance at all states of actuation. The proposed metamaterial has a switching range of 0.16 THz and 0.37 THz and a transmission intensity change of more than 0.2 and 0.7 for the eLC and dipolar resonances, respectively for both TE and TM modes. Further optimization of the metal layer thickness, provides an improvement of up to 80% modulation at 0.57 THz. The simultaneously tunable dual band isotropic metamaterial will enable the realization of high performance electro-optic devices that would facilitate numerous terahertz applications such as compressive terahertz imaging, miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy and next generation high speed wireless communication possible in the near future. PMID:26115416

  12. Biomass preservation in impact melt ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Kieren Torres; Bailey, Melanie J.; Berhanu, Deborah; Bland, Phil A.; Cressey, Gordon; Howard, Lauren E.; Jeynes, Chris; Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.; Stolojan, Vlad; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2013-12-01

    Meteorites can have played a role in the delivery of the building blocks of life to Earth only if organic compounds are able to survive the high pressures and temperatures of an impact event. Although experimental impact studies have reported the survival of organic compounds, there are uncertainties in scaling experimental conditions to those of a meteorite impact on Earth and organic matter has not been found in highly shocked impact materials in a natural setting. Impact glass linked to the 1.2-km-diameter Darwin crater in western Tasmania is strewn over an area exceeding 400km2 and is thought to have been ejected by a meteorite impact about 800kyr ago into terrain consisting of rainforest and swamp. Here we use pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to show that biomarkers representative of plant species in the local ecosystem--including cellulose, lignin, aliphatic biopolymer and protein remnants--survived the Darwin impact. We find that inside the impact glass the organic components are trapped in porous carbon spheres. We propose that the organic material was captured within impact melt and preserved when the melt quenched to glass, preventing organic decomposition since the impact. We suggest that organic material can survive capture and transport in products of extreme impact processing, at least for a Darwin-sized impact event.

  13. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  14. Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, K

    2009-02-04

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the lowest cost by developing a maintenance strategy that is supported by sound technical and economic justification. RCM has been used extensively by the aircraft, space, defense, power generation, and manufacturing industries where functional failures of SSCs can have the potential to compromise worker or public safety, cause adverse environmental impact, cause loss of production, and/or result in excessive damage to critical SSCs. This paper provides a framework for performing an RCM analysis in support of DOE Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The influence of RCM on the various aspects of the maintenance program including the work control process is also discussed.

  15. The preservation of low emittance flat beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1993-04-01

    Many future linear collider designs require beams with very small transverse emittances and large emittance ratios {epsilon}{sub x} {much_gt} {epsilon}{sub y}. In this paper, we will discuss issues associated with the preservation of these small emittances during the acceleration of the beams. The primary sources of transverse emittance dilution in a high energy linear accelerator are the transverse wakefields, the dispersive errors, RF deflections, and betatron coupling. We will discuss the estimation of these effects and the calculation of tolerances that will limit the emittance dilution with a high degree of confidence. Since the six-dimensional emittance is conserved and only the projected emittances are increased, these dilutions can be corrected if the beam has not filamented (phase mixed). We discuss methods of correcting the dilutions and easing the tolerances with beam-based alignment and steering techniques, and non-local trajectory bumps. Finally, we discuss another important source of luminosity degradation, namely, pulse-to-pulse jitter.

  16. Radiation preservation of low nitrite bacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harwant

    Sodium nitrite, a key ingredient of the mix used to cure bacon and other meats, promotes and fixes bacon's characteristic pink color, inhibits lipid peroxidation and prevents growth of microorganisms, particularly Clostridium botulinum spores. Unfortunately, nitrite leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative. Radurization of bacon containing 20 to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4°C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of ⩾ 90 days, as opposed to ˜ 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at temperature of -20° or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable at room temperature for months to years. It has organoleptic qualities comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Various aspects of preservation of bacon are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing.

  17. Preserving the Pyramid of STI Using Buckets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The product of research projects is information. Through the life cycle of a project, information comes from many sources and takes many forms. Traditionally, this body of information is summarized in a formal publication, typically a journal article. While formal publications enjoy the benefits of peer review and technical editing, they are also often compromises in media format and length. As such, we consider a formal publication to represent an abstract to a larger body of work: a pyramid of scientific and technical information (STI). While this abstract may be sufficient for some applications, an in-depth use or analysis is likely to require the supporting layers from the pyramid. We have developed buckets to preserve this pyramid of STI. Buckets provide an archive- and protocol-independent container construct in which all related information objects can be logically grouped together, archived, and manipulated as a single object. Furthermore, buckets are active archival objects and can communicate with each other, people, or arbitrary network services. Buckets are an implementation of the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) DL model. In SODA, data objects are more important than the archives that hold them. Much of the functionality traditionally associated with archives is pushed down into the objects, such as enforcing terms and conditions, negotiating display, and content maintenance. In this paper, we discuss the motivation, design, and implication of bucket use in DLs with respect to grey literature.

  18. A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

  19. Liquid/liquid/solid contact angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borocco, Marine; Pellet, Charlotte; Authelin, Jean-René; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Compagnie des Interfaces Team

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have investigated solid/liquid/air interfaces and their corresponding wetting properties. We discuss what happens in less-studied liquid/liquid/solid systems, and focus on questions of dynamical wetting in a tube, having in mind applications in detergency. We use a capillary tube filled with water and containing a slug of silicone oil (or vice-versa), and present a series of experiments to determine static and dynamic wetting properties corresponding to this situation. We also discuss interfacial aging of such systems.

  20. Propagation of a liquid-liquid explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, F.H.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1981-08-01

    Direct contact between two liquids, one cold and the other hot, may be precluded by the presence of a vapor film. Bridging of this film by one or both fluids results in rapid local boiling, which may initiate a propagating liquid-liquid explosion. A mechanism is discussed for the propagation that involves implosion of the film, rapid mixing of the fluids, heat exchange to warm the cold fluid above the temperature for spontaneous nucleation, and the explosive generation of vapor, which in turn continues to sustain the film implosion. Plausibility for the model is demonstrated by means of numerical studies by high-speed computer.

  1. Densification and shape distortion in liquid-phase sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; German, R.M.

    1999-12-01

    Densification and dimensional control are important aspects of liquid-phase sintering. The capillary force and the solid bonding affect both densification and shape preservation. Capillarity, which is orientated isotropically, causes uniform shrinkage and holds grains together to preserve the component shape in the early stage of sintering. On the other hand, solid bonding resists viscous flow and inhibits densification and shape distortion. The capillary force decreases with densification and approaches zero as pores are eliminated. Thus, shape retention eventually requires solid-grain bonding. The solid-grain bonding provides compact rigidity, which is represented by compact strength. Shape distortion occurs when the compact loses its strength. For every situation, there is a critical compact strength above which no shape distortion occurs. Distortion in liquid-phase sintering indicates that the compact strength passed below a critical level.

  2. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  3. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  4. The effects of preserved red blood cells on the severe adverse events observed in patients infused with hemoglobin based oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Valeri, C Robert; Ragno, Gina

    2008-01-01

    The severe adverse events observed in patients who received hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) were associated with the Ringer's D.L lactate resuscitative solution administered and to the excipient used in the HBOCs containing Ringer's D,L lactate and the length of storage of the preserved RBC administered to the patient at the time that the HBOCs were infused. This paper reports the quality of the red blood cells preserved in the liquid state at 4 degrees C and that of previously frozen RBCs stored at 4 degrees C with regard to their survival, function and safety. Severe adverse events have been observed related to the length of storage of the liquid preserved RBC stored at 4 degrees C prior to transfusion. The current methods to preserve RBC in the liquid state in additive solutions at 4 degrees C maintain their survival and function for only 2 weeks. The freezing of red blood cells with 40% W/V glycerol and storage at -80 degrees C allows for storage at -80 degrees C for 10 years and following thawing, deglycerolization and storage at 4 degrees C in the additive solution (AS-3, Nutricel) for 2 weeks with acceptable 24 hour posttransfusion survival, less than 1% hemolysis, and moderately impaired oxygen transport function with no associated adverse events. Frozen deglycerolized RBCs are leukoreduced and contain less than 5% of residual plasma and non-plasma substances. Frozen deglycerolized RBCs are the ideal RBC product to transfuse patients receiving HBOCs.

  5. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  6. Sliding Luttinger liquid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Kane, C. L.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2001-07-01

    We study systems of coupled spin-gapped and gapless Luttinger liquids. First, we establish the existence of a sliding Luttinger liquid phase for a system of weakly coupled parallel quantum wires, with and without disorder. It is shown that the coupling can stabilize a Luttinger liquid phase in the presence of disorder. We then extend our analysis to a system of crossed Luttinger liquids and establish the stability of a non-Fermi-liquid state: the crossed sliding Luttinger liquid phase. In this phase the system exhibits a finite-temperature, long-wavelength, isotropic electric conductivity that diverges as a power law in temperature T as T-->0. This two-dimensional system has many properties of a true isotropic Luttinger liquid, though at zero temperature it becomes anisotropic. An extension of this model to a three-dimensional stack exhibits a much higher in-plane conductivity than the conductivity in a perpendicular direction.

  7. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  8. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  9. 48 CFR 5231.205-90 - Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizations 5231.205-90 Shipbuilding capability preservation agreements. (a) Scope and authority. Where it... capability preservation agreements: (1) The Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and... extend beyond 5 years. (4) The agreement must project an overall benefit to the Navy, including...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Kidney Preservation Solutions Prior to Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Abdurrahman; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Kazan, Dilek; Akgoz, Muslum; Senal, Merve Oztug; Berber, Ibrahim; Titiz, Izzet; Bilsel, Gokhan; Kilercik, Hakan; Karaosmanoglu, Kubra; Cicek, Muslum; Yurtsever, Ilknur; Yazıcı, Cevat

    2016-01-01

    One of the main issues in kidney transplantation is the optimal functional preservation of the organ until its transplantation into the appropriate recipient. Despite intensive efforts, the functional preservation period remains limited to hours. During this time, as a result of cellular injury, various proteins, peptides, and other molecules are released by the organ into the preservation medium. In this study, we used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of preservation solutions in which organs had been preserved prior to their transplantation. Samples were obtained from the preservation solutions of 25 deceased donor kidneys scheduled for transplantation. The protein profiles of the solutions were analyzed using 2D gel electrophoresis/MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. We identified and quantified 206 proteins and peptides belonging to 139 different groups. Of these, 111 proteins groups were belonging to kidney tissues. This study used proteomic techniques to analyze the protein profiles of organ preservation solutions. These findings will contribute to the development of improved preservation solutions to effectively protect organs for transplantation. PMID:28036361

  11. A Practical Guide to Preservation in School and Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitts, Maxine K.

    This monograph provides some starting points for beginning preservation activities in libraries within a framework of three key essentials: awareness, judgment, and advocacy. In the first section, the text is concerned with how public and school libraries can both contribute to, and benefit from, the vast amount of preservation information that is…

  12. University of Tennessee, Knoxville Library. Preservation Planning Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtson, Betty; And Others

    This report is the result of a year-long preservation planning study at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville Library, during which four task forces investigated the physical condition of the collections, environmental conditions of the libraries, state of disaster preparedness, and organizational issues relating to preservation. Task force…

  13. Isolation and Cryogenic Preservation of Monocytes from Plateletpheresis Cellular Residues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-11

    ISOLATION AND CRYOGENIC PRESERVATION OF I MONOCYTES FROM PLATELETPHERESIS CELLULAR RESIDUES Prepared for publication in TRANSFUSION Center for Blood...and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED Isolation and cryogenic preservation of mono- Technical Annual ytes from plateletpheresis cellular...If necoaamy mnd identify by block number) Monocytes, isolation, cryopreservation Plateletpheresis residues Counterflow centrifugation 20. ABSTRACT

  14. Automating Preservation Management in the ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Patricia, Comp.; Reed-Scott, Jutta, Comp.

    In the fall of 1993, the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Office of Management Services conducted a survey to determine the status of automation activities within preservation departments in member libraries. The survey was sent to 68 ARL libraries that have established preservation departments under the management of a preservation…

  15. Jewelry History: A Core Bibliography in Support of Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Christine De Bow

    The intent of this project was to create a core bibliography in support of preservation of scholarly jewelry research, and to encourage the interest and involvement of jewelry historians, appraisers, professionals, collectors, and connoisseurs in preservation initiatives. The bibliography identifies a core of jewelry history books that are…

  16. 40 CFR 1602.8 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of records. 1602.8 Section 1602.8 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND ACCESS TO INDIVIDUAL RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1602.8 Preservation of...

  17. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  18. Preserving Our Wildlife Heritage: The Concerned Citizen is Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews conservationists efforts in preserving wildlife. Concern is expressed that current public attitude is waning and that unless all concerned citizens continue to work for conservation that present laws will not be adequate to preserve the environment and its wildlife. (SL)

  19. Clonal preservation of apricot, peach and nut trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will affect the geographical area suitable for cultivation of fruit and nut trees; hence, preserving genetic diversity of horticultural trees is imperative for securing our future food supply. Many tree species are preserved as seeds but horticultural cultivars, elite and breeding lin...

  20. Preliminary Analysis of the Massachusetts Preservation Needs Assessment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor

    As a result of a lack of information about the preservation of library and archives materials in Massachusetts libraries and records repositories, a survey was conducted to determine the preservation needs of public, academic and special libraries (including museums), manuscript repositories, historical societies and town clerks' offices. The…

  1. Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir

    PubMed Central

    Karabay, Oguz; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug. PMID:22345891

  2. 22 CFR 102.15 - Protection and preservation of wreckage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection and preservation of wreckage. 102.15 Section 102.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.15 Protection and preservation of wreckage. In so far as local...

  3. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts.

  4. 1 CFR 304.10 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Preservation of records. 304.10 Section 304.10... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.10 Preservation of records... promptly identify such records in its “Freedom of Information Reference Guide” and specify the...

  5. 29 CFR 70.27 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preservation of records. 70.27 Section 70.27 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION OR MATERIALS Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 70.27 Preservation of records. Each component...

  6. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver— (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  7. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver— (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  8. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver— (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  9. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver— (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  10. 46 CFR 108.699 - Substitution of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substitution of life preservers. 108.699 Section 108.699... AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.699 Substitution of life preservers. A work vest may not be substituted for a required life preserver— (a) For the life saving equipment requirements of...

  11. 7 CFR 503.3 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of property. 503.3 Section 503.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.3 Preservation of property....

  12. 7 CFR 503.3 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of property. 503.3 Section 503.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.3 Preservation of property....

  13. 7 CFR 503.3 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of property. 503.3 Section 503.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.3 Preservation of property....

  14. 7 CFR 503.3 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of property. 503.3 Section 503.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.3 Preservation of property....

  15. 7 CFR 503.3 - Preservation of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of property. 503.3 Section 503.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.3 Preservation of property....

  16. APPROACHES FOR REMEDIATION OF UNCONTROLLED WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an overview of remediation of uncontrolled wood preserving sites. It is, in part, a distillation of discussions that took place at a Forum on Wood Preserving Waste that was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1988. Information from this workshop h...

  17. Arthur Ziegler: Prophet of Preservation for the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1975-01-01

    This article traces the history and development of the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation. This foundation has been notably successful in preserving neighborhoods for their original inhabitants and now has the first urban renewal program to be based on historic preservation for poor people. (BT)

  18. 12 CFR 749.2 - Vital records preservation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... records preservation, a schedule for the storage and destruction of records, and a records preservation log detailing for each record stored, its name, storage location, storage date, and name of the person sending the record for storage. It is recommended credit unions include in these procedures a method...

  19. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  20. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...