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Sample records for 22-hours liquid preservation

  1. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  2. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  3. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products.

  4. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. PMID:24910409

  5. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  7. Percentage of motile spermatozoa at 22 hours after swim-up procedure: An indicator for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Yukiko; Sugimoto, Hironobu; Uemura, Mikiko; Ono, Yuri; Kishi, Junji; Emi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The decision to use in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or split insemination (IVF-ICSI) in the first cycle is based on the number of motile sperm. Hence, total fertilization failure (TFF) often occurs during IVF cycles, despite normozoospermia. To investigate whether the cumulative motile swim-up spermatozoa percentage at 22 hours post-insemination (MSPPI) is an indicator for ICSI, we analyzed TFF, fertilization, blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates. Methods This prospective study was performed using data obtained from 260 IVF cycles. At 22 hours after insemination, the remaining swim-up spermatozoa were observed and divided into six groups according to MSPPI (<10%, 10% to <30%, 30% to <50%, 50% to <70%, 70% to <90%, and 90% to 100%). Results Regardless of the ejaculated motile sperm concentration (0.6–280×106/mL motile spermatozoa), the incidence of TFF significantly increased when MSPPI was <10%, and the fertilization rate significantly decreased when MSPPI was <30%. We found that cumulative MSPPI correlated with the cumulative fertilization rate (Spearman correlation, 0.508, p<0.001). Regarding embryo development, we observed no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, or live birth among all groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MSPPI is a viable indicator for split IVF-ICSI and ICSI. Taken together, by employing the MSPPI test in advance before IVF, ICSI, or split IVF-ICSI cycles, unnecessary split IVF-ICSI and ICSI may be avoided.

  8. Percentage of motile spermatozoa at 22 hours after swim-up procedure: An indicator for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Yukiko; Sugimoto, Hironobu; Uemura, Mikiko; Ono, Yuri; Kishi, Junji; Emi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The decision to use in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or split insemination (IVF-ICSI) in the first cycle is based on the number of motile sperm. Hence, total fertilization failure (TFF) often occurs during IVF cycles, despite normozoospermia. To investigate whether the cumulative motile swim-up spermatozoa percentage at 22 hours post-insemination (MSPPI) is an indicator for ICSI, we analyzed TFF, fertilization, blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates. Methods This prospective study was performed using data obtained from 260 IVF cycles. At 22 hours after insemination, the remaining swim-up spermatozoa were observed and divided into six groups according to MSPPI (<10%, 10% to <30%, 30% to <50%, 50% to <70%, 70% to <90%, and 90% to 100%). Results Regardless of the ejaculated motile sperm concentration (0.6–280×106/mL motile spermatozoa), the incidence of TFF significantly increased when MSPPI was <10%, and the fertilization rate significantly decreased when MSPPI was <30%. We found that cumulative MSPPI correlated with the cumulative fertilization rate (Spearman correlation, 0.508, p<0.001). Regarding embryo development, we observed no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, or live birth among all groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MSPPI is a viable indicator for split IVF-ICSI and ICSI. Taken together, by employing the MSPPI test in advance before IVF, ICSI, or split IVF-ICSI cycles, unnecessary split IVF-ICSI and ICSI may be avoided. PMID:27689038

  9. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  10. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Siemens, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Freezing can affect concentrations and spectroscopic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water samples. Nevertheless, water samples are regularly frozen for sample preservation. In this study we tested the effect of different freezing methods (standard freezing at -18 °C and fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at -18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax < 250 nm (340 nm), EXmax: 480 nm) and 2 (EXmax: 335 nm, EXmax: 408 nm) to total fluorescence and the humification index (HIX) decreased after both freezing treatments, while the shares of component 3 (EXmax: < 250 nm (305 nm), EXmax: 438 nm) as well as SUVA254 increased. The contribution of PARAFAC component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties of DOM.

  11. Multi-detection of preservatives in cheeses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis.

  12. Determination of alternative preservatives in cosmetic products by chromophoric derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of phenethyl alcohol, methylpropanediol, phenylpropanol, caprylyl glycol, and ethylhexylglycerin, which are used as alternative preservatives in cosmetic products, has been developed. The method is based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection after chromophoric derivatization with benzoyl chloride and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction. Different chromatographic parameters, derivatization conditions, and sample preparation variables were studied. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection values for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.06µgmL(-1). The method was validated with good recovery values (84-118%) and precision values (3.9-9.5%). It was successfully applied to 10 commercially available cosmetic samples. The good analytical features of the proposed method besides of its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make it useful to carry out the quality control of cosmetic products containing the target compounds as preservative agents.

  13. Simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Wang, C; Wang, X; Ma, Q

    2008-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives: 2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, bronopol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenoxyethanol, methyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, ethyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, methyl benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-propyl ester, propyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-butyl ester, butyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, phenyl benzoate, 2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, triclocarban and triclosan in cosmetics. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column was used with 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase under the condition of gradient elution. Preservatives were extracted with methanol by ultrasonicator, and then they were analysed by UPLC-PDA detector. All these preservatives were baseline separated in 8.5 min. The pre-treatment method of samples and the chromatographic condition of analysis were critically examined in this study. The recoveries ranged from 90.5 to 97.8%, with RSD values below 3.2%, and all correlation coefficients (r) were no less than 0.9997. Thus, this method could be used for analysing the preservatives in cosmetic products.

  14. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  15. [Detection of the preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Miyazawa, Norimasa; Shimamura, Kimio; Sato, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masahito; Takano, Katsuhiro; Miyamoto, Michiko; Kojima, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiio, Makiko

    2009-01-01

    A simple determination method for preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics was developed. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in methanol. The sample solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ODS column, using water-methanol (55:45) or water-acetonitrile (3:1) adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid as the mobile phase. Chlorphenesin was detected with ultraviolet light detection at 280 nm. A linear relation was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of chlorphenesin in the range of 1-500 microg/ml. The determination limit of chlorphenesin was 1-2 microg/ml. Recoveries of chlorphenesin spiked in lotion and milky lotion at the levels of 0.03% and 0.3% were 98.8-100.0%. This method was applied for cosmetics including 0.03% and 0.3% of chlorphenesin and their content corresponded with the determined values.

  16. Preserving ignitable liquid residues on soil using Triclosan as an anti-microbial agent.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dee A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-06-01

    When a fire is suspected to be intentionally set, fire debris samples can be collected and analyzed for ignitable liquid residues (ILRs). In some cases, samples will contain highly organic substrates such as soil or rotting wood. These substrates will contain a high bacterial load, which can result in systematic and irreversible damage to the ILR due to microbial degradation. This paper explores ways to preserve ILR by sterilizing fire debris samples without interfering with their subsequent analysis. There are many methods reported in the literature for sterilizing soil, such as freezing, irradiation, autoclaving, and various chemical fumigation techniques. However, these methods either do not kill all bacterial species, cannot be easily applied in the field or would interfere with the analysis of the ILRs. For this work, various anti-microbial compounds including triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) were tested for their efficacy at killing bacteria present in the soil. Triclosan was highly effective in qualitative growth studies and was therefore used to measure bacterial growth (or lack thereof) by spectroscopic analysis as well as passive headspace analysis. These experiments showed that triclosan was able to sterilize soil samples in less than 60s, maintain their sterility for at least 77h and preserve gasoline residues on a soil matrix for at least 30 days. PMID:24769222

  17. Preserving ignitable liquid residues on soil using Triclosan as an anti-microbial agent.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dee A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-06-01

    When a fire is suspected to be intentionally set, fire debris samples can be collected and analyzed for ignitable liquid residues (ILRs). In some cases, samples will contain highly organic substrates such as soil or rotting wood. These substrates will contain a high bacterial load, which can result in systematic and irreversible damage to the ILR due to microbial degradation. This paper explores ways to preserve ILR by sterilizing fire debris samples without interfering with their subsequent analysis. There are many methods reported in the literature for sterilizing soil, such as freezing, irradiation, autoclaving, and various chemical fumigation techniques. However, these methods either do not kill all bacterial species, cannot be easily applied in the field or would interfere with the analysis of the ILRs. For this work, various anti-microbial compounds including triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) were tested for their efficacy at killing bacteria present in the soil. Triclosan was highly effective in qualitative growth studies and was therefore used to measure bacterial growth (or lack thereof) by spectroscopic analysis as well as passive headspace analysis. These experiments showed that triclosan was able to sterilize soil samples in less than 60s, maintain their sterility for at least 77h and preserve gasoline residues on a soil matrix for at least 30 days.

  18. Developing a modified preservative efficacy testing approach as a predictive tool for the evaluation of preservative systems in liquid home care products under variable test conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Anne L; Bushman, Don; Lewis, Nathan; Faber, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can a formulator have confidence that a preservative system will perform as expected under adverse conditions? Extreme conditions that can lead to the development of "off odors" in the product can be a serious challenge for companies providing home care products in the global market. Formulation and stability testing occur under controlled parameters that simulate limited environmental conditions and microbial challenges are typically performed with a standard inoculum level. While this is an acceptable and dependable process, it does not necessarily assess how well a preservative system can perform under extreme environmental conditions or against unusually high levels of bacterial challenges. This is especially true when formulations are diluted and stored by the end-user. By modifying microbial challenge testing of a liquid dishwashing product to include unexpected dilution schemes, increased microbial assaults, and elevated temperatures, a pattern of preservative efficacy was established. The resulting approach proved to be a useful tool when developing use directions, recommended dilution levels, the overall surfactant system, preservative type, and storage restrictions.

  19. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria.

  20. Lipophilicity data for some preservatives estimated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and different computation methods.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Dorina; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Sârbu, Costel

    2009-03-20

    The chromatographic behavior of some preservatives was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDB-C8), CN100 (Säulentechnik, Lichrosphere) and NH(2) (Supelcosil LC-NH(2)) columns. The lipophilicity estimated for the first time on the first three columns are comparable and very well correlated. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-water (0.1% formic acid) in different volume proportions from 40% to 60% (v/v) for RP-C18, RP-C8 and RP-CN100 column (exception for parabens on RP-C8 column-the methanol concentrations being from 55% to 65%) and from 30% to 50% (v/v) for RP-NH(2). Highly significant correlations were obtained between different experimental indices of lipophilicity (logk(w), S, phi(0), mean of k and logk, and scores of k and logk corresponding to the first principal component) and computed logP values, and C8 column seems to be more suited for estimating the lipophilicity of the investigated compounds. These direct correlations offer a very good opportunity to derive powerful predictive models via Collander-type equations. The reliability of scores values as lipophilic indices is shown by their high correlation with the logK(ow) obtained using classical "shake-flask" technique, logk(w) and also some of the computed logP values. In addition, the results obtained applying PCA to the retention data may be used in interpreting the molecular mechanism of interactions between eluents and stationary phases with different polarity and to explain the chromatographic behavior of compounds. Finally, the "congeneric lipophilicity chart" described by the scores corresponding to the first principal component has the effect of separating compounds from each other more effectively from congeneric ((dis)similarity) point of view. The parabens and tert-butylhydroquinone appeared to be the most lipophilic preservatives.

  1. Analytical interferences of mercuric chloride preservative in environmental water samples: Determination of organic compounds isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction or closed-loop stripping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Falres, L.M.; Werner, M.G.; Leiker, T.J.; Rogerson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical interferences were observed during the determination of organic compounds in groundwater samples preserved with mercuric chloride. The nature of the interference was different depending on the analytical isolation technique employed. (1) Water samples extracted with dichloromethane by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed a broad HgCl2 'peak' eluting over a 3-5-min span which interfered with the determination of coeluting organic analytes. Substitution of CLLE for separatory funnel extraction in EPA method 508 also resulted in analytical interferences from the use of HgCl2 preservative. (2) Mercuric chloride was purged, along with organic contaminants, during closed-loop stripping (CLS) of groundwater samples and absorbed onto the activated charcoal trap. Competitive sorption of the HgCl2 by the trap appeared to contribute to the observed poor recoveries for spiked organic contaminants. The HgCl2 was not displaced from the charcoal with the dichloromethane elution solvent and required strong nitric acid to achieve rapid, complete displacement. Similar competitive sorption mechanisms might also occur in other purge and trap methods when this preservative is used.

  2. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde.

  3. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg(-1), which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Lin, Chueh-Yu; Li, Zu-Guang; Tsai, Tzu-Feng

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine trace preservatives and antioxidants including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-t) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-ta) in cosmetic products. A supercritical fluid extraction procedure was used to isolate four paraben preservatives and four antioxidants from the cosmetic matrix before quantitative analysis. The optimum extraction condition was performed with static extraction for 5 min, then dynamic extraction for 20 min by using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid at 14,000 kPa and 65 degrees C. Methanol was used as collection solvent and the sea sand was chosen as a filling material. The analytes were separated on a C18 reversed-phase column using methanol-water as mobile phase and quantified by measuring its mass spectrometry. The linearity range is from 10 to 20,000 ng/g with RSD values below 18%. Detection limits are achieved at the level of 4.7-142 ng/g. It was successfully applied to the determination of paraben preservatives and antioxidants in cosmetics without tedious pretreatment.

  5. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  6. Effects of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides on Liquid-Preserved Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16°C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation. PMID:24940997

  7. Determination of food preservatives and saccharin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, U; Gauch, R; Baumgartner, E

    1979-05-21

    The quantitative analysis of benzoic and sorbic acid, methyl, ethyl and propyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and saccharin in foodstuffs is described. These compounds are quantitatively extracted with disposable clean-up columns packed with Extrelut and simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns. Complicated matrices such as cheese, cake, ketchup and chocolate were tested and recoveries were generally better than 95% in the concentration ranges normally used in the food industry. PMID:546878

  8. Chirality-preserving growth of helical filaments in the B4 phase of bent-core liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Maclennan, Joseph E; Shao, Renfan; Yoon, Dong Ki; Wang, Haitao; Korblova, Eva; Walba, David M; Glaser, Matthew A; Clark, Noel A

    2011-08-17

    The growth of helical filaments in the B4 liquid-crystal phase was investigated in mixtures of the bent-core and calamitic mesogens NOBOW and 8CB. Freezing-point depression led to nucleation of the NOBOW B4 phase directly from the isotropic phase in the mixtures, forming large left- and right-handed chiral domains that were easily observed in the microscope. We show that these domains are composed of homochiral helical filaments formed in a nucleation and growth process that starts from a nucleus of arbitrary chirality and continues with chirality-preserving growth of the filaments. A model that accounts for the observed local homochirality and phase coherence of the branched filaments is proposed. This model will help in providing a better understanding of the nature of the B4 phase and controlling its growth and morphology for applications, such as the use of the helical nanophase as a nanoheterogeneous medium. PMID:21692442

  9. Ultrastructural preservation of plasma membranes by non-lethal slow freezing to liquid nitrogen temperature.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, S; Miura, K

    1987-02-01

    Secondary hyphae of Lyophyllum ulmarium were shown to tolerate slow freezing, which allowed extracellular freezing, to -196 degrees C. A freeze-fracture study showed that under this non-lethal freezing condition, the plasma membrane of the secondary hyphae did not show any ultrastructural changes as compared with the control, except gross cellular shrinkage. Tertiary hyphae of Lyophyllum ulmarium, on the other hand, were completely injured by slow freezing to -196 degrees C, and the plasma membrane showed distinct intramembrane particle aggregation as a result of direct membrane contact caused by severe cellular deformation. It is suggested that the absence of freezing injury in the secondary hyphae was due to ultrastructural preservation of the plasma membrane, which resulted from avoidance of severe cellular deformation, while occurrence of freezing injury in the tertiary hyphae is considered to be due to ultrastructural changes in the plasma membrane caused by severe cellular deformation. PMID:3568151

  10. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying

    2013-02-01

    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  11. Simultaneous in-cell derivatization pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of multiclass preservatives in leave-on cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-11-15

    An effective one-step sample preparation methodology for the determination of multiclass preservatives in cosmetics has been developed, applying, for the first time to this kind of matrix, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and a very simple, cheap, and fast derivatization procedure: acetylation with acetic anhydride and pyridine. A multifactorial experimental design has been used to evaluate and optimize the main experimental parameters potentially affecting the extraction process. In the final conditions the sample was mixed with Florisil as the dispersing sorbent and extracted with ethyl acetate for 15 min at 120 °C. One of the main goals of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of carrying out direct cosmetic preservative acetylation by simply adding the derivatization reagents into the PLE cell. The extract was then analyzed by GC/MS without any further cleanup or concentration step. The accuracy, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs) were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. Quantitative recoveries were obtained, and relative standard deviation values were lower than 10% in all cases. The obtained LODs ranged from 0.000004% to 0.0001% (w/w), values far below the established restrictions in the European Cosmetics Regulation, making this multicomponent analytical method suitable for routine control. Finally, several cosmetic products such as moisturizing and antiwrinkle creams and lotions, hand creams, sunscreen and after-sun creams, baby lotions, and hair care products were analyzed. All the samples contained several of the target cosmetic ingredients, in some cases at quite high concentrations, although the actual European Cosmetics Regulation was fulfilled in all cases.

  12. [Preservation of erythrocytes by freezing in liquid nitrogen. Use of an I.B.M. blood regenerator].

    PubMed

    Mannoni, P; Beaujean, F; Forestier, L E

    1975-12-01

    The freezing of blood permits preservation of red cells over long periods of time, several months or years. Leucocyte and platelet contamination of red cell concentrates to be frozen is negligible. The amount of the various red cell metabolites (2.3 D.P.G., A.T.P., etc.) is maintained. Washing of thawed red cells removes the remaining plasma proteins and cell residues. The freezing method employed is that of Row et al. The protector used is 28% glycerol added in equal amounts to red cell concentrate to be frozen. The blood bag is kept in liquid nitrogen at -- 196 degrees C. Thawing takes place in a water bath at 45 degrees C. Wash solution is the IBM Blood regenerator. The solution used for removing glycerol is hypertonic natrium chloride. The following parameters have been investigated: --hemoglobin level; --osmotic fragility; --the amount of 2.3 D.P.G.; --residual glycerol after thawing; and clearance of leucocytes and platelets following each step of the protocol. Preliminary data regarding these features and therapeutic efficiency of processed blood are satisfactory. PMID:1228857

  13. Assessing in vivo fertilizing capacity of liquid-preserved boar semen according to the 'Hanover gilt model'.

    PubMed

    Ardón, F; Döhring, A; Le Thi, X; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the ability of the Hanover gilt model to assess in vivo fertilizing capacity of preserved sperm and to consider whether any modifications to this model were needed. This model evaluates the fertilizing capacity of semen based on the fertilization rate, the rate of normal embryos and the accessory sperm count of 3-5-day embryos. Its distinguishing characteristics are the use of one-time insemination of sperm in reduced numbers, of spontaneously ovulating gilts and of ovulation detection through ultrasound examination of ovaries. Reduced sperm numbers allow for an accurate evaluation of the fertilizing potential of different semen treatments, thereby avoiding the compensatory effect of doses calibrated to maximize fertility. The model's usefulness was assessed in a trial run designed to compare the fertilizing capacity of liquid boar semen diluted into two different extenders. The diluent, the boar and the backflow, had no significant effect on any of the parameters studied. Gilts inseminated less than 24 h before ovulation had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) fertilization rate and accessory sperm cell count (p < 0.05) than those inseminated more than 24 h before ovulation. Very good/good embryos from homogeneous litters (only very good/good embryos were present) had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) accessory sperm count than those from heterogeneous litters (at least one embryo was of a different quality and/or oocytes were present). Both very good/good and degenerated/retarded embryos from heterogeneous litters had low accessory sperm numbers. This suggests that accessory sperm count is significantly related to the quality of the litter, but not to the quality of the embryo within gilts. It can be concluded that the Hanover gilt model is sensitive enough to show fertility differences (in this study, those associated with in vivo ageing of semen), while using relatively few gilts and little time.

  14. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were incubated in variants of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and assessed for kinetic changes of viability (plasma membrane integrity) and intracellular calcium concentration using flow cytometry in combination with propidium iodide and Fluo-3. By this means, it was possible to determine specific effects of bicarbonate and calcium on sperm subpopulations over incubation time. During storage, standard semen parameters remained on a high level. However, flow cytometric analysis of sperm responses to capacitating and control media revealed two opposing effects of storage. There was a loss of response to bicarbonate in part of the live sperm population but an increasing degree of instability in the rest. Assessment of response to capacitating media by flow cytometry appears a markedly more sensitive way of monitoring sperm functionality during storage than the standard semen parameters of motility and viability. PMID:22573481

  15. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  17. Optimized Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic Acids and Evaluation of Contamination of These Preservatives in Iranian Foods.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masood; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure followed by HPLC-UV was applied to determine the benzoate and sorbate in foods. The method was optimized for some variables including extraction solvent type and volume, dispersing solvent type and volume, and the effects of salt and pH. Optimum conditions were determined as follows: sample volume, 5 mL; extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, 250 μL; disperser solvent (acetone) volume, 1.2 mL; NaCl amount, 0.75 g/5 mL at pH 4. Sixty samples were analyzed, including 15 doogh, 15 fruit juice, 15 cookie, and 15 tomato paste; benzoic acid was detected in 57 samples (95%) at levels up to 448.1 μg/mL and sorbic acid in 31 samples (51.6%) at levels up to 1369 μg/mL. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ were determined as 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL for benzoate and 0.08 and 0.3 μg/mL for sorbate, respectively. The results showed that these preservatives are commonly used at high levels in yogurt drinks (dooghs) and cookies. Also, the concentration of benzoic acid that was detected in the tomato paste and fruit juice samples was low but may affect children and sensitive persons.

  18. Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction of preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a new polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared and used as the extraction medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of three organic acid preservatives, namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The adsorbent was synthesized by the copolymerization of 1-ally-3-vinylimidazolium chloride (AV) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The effect of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. To obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE/AVDVB for target analytes, key parameters including desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, ionic strength and pH value in sample matrix were studied in detail. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the SCSE/AVDVB could extract the preservatives effectively through multiply interactions. At the same time, a simple and sensitive method by combining SCSE/AVDVB and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of the target preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks. Low limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range of 0.012-0.23 μg/L and 0.039-0.42 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was found that the values were all below 10%. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect preservatives in different orange juice and tea drink samples successfully. The recoveries were in the range of 71.9-116%, and the RSDs were below 10% in the all cases.

  19. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  20. Simultaneous determination of nine UV filters and four preservatives in suncare products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kicheol; Mueller, Jochen; Park, Yong-Bae; Jung, Hong-Rae; Kang, Seok-Ho; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jeung-Bok

    2011-08-01

    HPLC method for quantitative determination of four preservatives and nine UV filters worldwide authorized in commercial suncare product was developed and validated, and then 101 samples of commercial suncare products were analyzed for the UV filters and preservatives using the proposed method. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water containing 0.5% acetic acid using a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min and UV measurements were carried out at 320 nm for UV filters and 254 nm for preservatives. The correlation coefficients of each calibration curves were mostly higher than 0.999. The percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) ranged from 0.97% to 6.1% for five sample aliquots. The recoveries from the spiked solutions were 98-102%. 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) was detected in 96 of 101 commercial suncare products and the concentration was in the range of 3.08-8.16% and 18 samples were found to exceed the 7.5% which has been defined as the maximum allowed concentration in Korea. Methyl paraben was detected in 81 of 101 samples and the next-most often detected preservatives were propyl paraben (25), ethyl paraben (18), and butyl paraben (4). Three samples of 101 suncare products exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (i.e., 0.58-0.79%). The proposed HPLC method allows efficient and simultaneous analysis of preservatives and UV filters suitable for quality control assays of commercial suncare products.

  1. Effect of long-term preservation of basidiomycetes on perlite in liquid nitrogen on their growth, morphological, enzymatic and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Eichlerová, Ivana; Valášková, Vendula; Baldrian, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The macro- and micro-morphological features, mycelial extension rate, enzymatic activities and possible genetic changes were studied in 30 selected strains of basidiomycetes after 10-year cryopreservation on perlite in liquid nitrogen (LN). Comparisons with the same strains preserved by serial transfers on nutrient media at 4°C were also conducted. Production of ligninolytic enzymes and hydrogen peroxide was studied by quantitative spectrophotometric methods, whereas semiquantitative API ZYM testing was used to compare the levels of a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes. Our results show that cryopreservation in LN did not cause morphological changes in any isolate. The vitality of all fungi was successfully preserved and none of the physiological features were lost, even though the extension rate and enzyme activity were slightly affected. Moreover, sequence analysis of eight strains did not detect any changes in their genetic features after cryopreservation. These findings suggest that the perlite-based freezing protocol is suitable for long-term preservation of large numbers of basidiomycetes.

  2. Analysis of preservatives with different polarities in beverage samples by dual-phase dual stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-02-22

    A new concept of "dual-phase dual stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)" was proposed to simultaneously extract six preservatives with different polarities (logKo/w values of 1.27-3.41), namely, benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MP), ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (EP), propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PP), and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (BP). The dual-phase dual SBSE apparatus was consisted of two differently coated stir bars, a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (OH-TSO)-coated stir bar that was prepared by sol-gel technique and a C(18) silica (C(18))-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated stir bar that was prepared by adhesion. In dual-phase dual SBSE, the two stir bars with different coatings were placed in the same sample solution for the simultaneous extraction of the target analytes with different polarities, and then the bars were desorbed in the same desorption solvent. The extraction performance of the dual-phase dual SBSE for the six preservatives was evaluated by comparing with the conventional SBSE (individual stir bar) with different coatings, including commercial PDMS, homemade PDMS, C(18)-APTES-OH-TSO, APTES-OH-TSO, and C(18)-PDMS. The experimental results showed that the dual-phase dual SBSE had the highest extraction efficiency for the six target preservatives. Based on this fact, a novel method by combining the dual-phase dual SBSE which was consisted of the APTES-OH-TSO-coated and C(18)-PDMS-coated stir bars with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of six target beverage preservatives in beverages. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for six target preservatives ranged from 0.6 to 2.7 μgL(-1) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.6-9.2% (C(BA,SA)=5 μgL(-1),C(MP)=20 μgL(-1),C(EP,PP,BP)=10 μgL(-1), n=7). The enrichment factors (EFs) were approximately 16-42-fold (theoretical EF was 50-fold

  3. Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Grilj, J.; Frassetto, F.; Mewes, L.; Zhang, H.; van Mourik, F.; Poletto, L.; Chergui, M.

    2015-01-01

    A tuneable repetition rate extreme ultraviolet source (Harmonium) for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids is presented. High harmonic generation produces 30–110 eV photons, with fluxes ranging from ∼2 × 1011 photons/s at 36 eV to ∼2 × 108 photons/s at 100 eV. Four different gratings in a time-preserving grating monochromator provide either high energy resolution (0.2 eV) or high temporal resolution (40 fs) between 30 and 110 eV. Laser assisted photoemission was used to measure the temporal response of the system. Vibrational progressions in gas phase water were measured demonstrating the ∼0.2 eV energy resolution. PMID:26798833

  4. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H2O2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. PMID:26143531

  5. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H2O2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm.

  6. Sensitive determination of organic acid preservatives in juices and soft drinks treated by monolith-based stir cake sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuhua; Nong, Shuyu; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of sorbic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and cinnamic acid (CA) in juices and soft drinks was developed by stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The SCSE based on polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith (PILM) as extractive medium was used to concentrate these three organic acid preservatives. Because hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions co-contributed to the extraction, the PILM-SCSE exhibited a high extractive capability towards analytes. To obtain optimum extraction performance, several SCSE parameters were investigated and discussed, including desorption solvent, pH value, ionic strength in the sample matrix, and the extraction and desorption time. Under the optimized extraction conditions, limits of detection of 0.16, 1.08, and 0.18 μg/L (S/N=3) and quantification limits of 0.52, 3.42, and 0.61 (S/N=10) were obtained for SA, BA, and CA, respectively. The method also showed good linearity and reproducibility, as well as advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and high feasibility. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SA, BA, and CA in real juices and soft drinks, and the recoveries ranged from 63.0 to 107 %.

  7. Determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dajing; Chen, Bo

    2010-09-01

    A column-switching HPLC method for the determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits was developed. After pre-treatment using a Waters Oasis HLB cartridge, the sample solution was separated on two C(18) columns using a column-switching technique with a six-port valve. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The effects of eluent composition and eluate volume on the retention and elution of neotame on SPE cartridge were investigated. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and has good reproducibility. RSD was lower than 5% (n = 5). The calibration curve of neotame was in the range 5-100 microg/ml with good linearity (r(2) = 0.999). Because neotame was concentrated 10 times from an original sample to a sample solution by solid-phase extraction (SPE), the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.5 mg/kg. The recovery yields of neotame spiked in foods was >92% with a coefficient of variation <3.2%. The proposed column-switching HPLC method can be successfully used to determine neotame in routine inspection work.

  8. Fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhui; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2011-07-15

    A fast and sensitive HPLC method for analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives has been developed. The influence of sample preparation conditions and the composition of the mobile phase and elution mode were investigated to optimize the separation of the eight studied components. Final conditions were 60% methanol and 40% water (v/v) extraction of the cosmetic creams. A C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm) was used as the separation column and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05 mol/L ammonium formate in water (pH=3.0) with gradient elution. The results showed that complete separation of the eight studied components was achieved within 10 min, the linear ranges were 1.0-200 μg/mL for phenol, 0.1-150 μg/mL for sorbic acid, 2.0-200 μg/mL for benzoic acid, 0.5-200 μg/mL for hydroquinone, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben, butyl paraben, and good linear correlation coefficient (≥0.9997) were obtained, the detection limit was in the range of 0.05-1.0 μg/mL, the average recovery was between 86.5% and 116.3%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5.0% (n=6). The method is easy, fast and sensitive, it can be employed to analyze component residues in cosmetic creams especially in a quality control setting.

  9. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine, pholcodine, and paraben preservatives in cough mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, L

    1983-02-01

    The separation and simultaneous determination, by high-performance liquid chromatography, of acetaminophen (I), guaifenesin (II), pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (III), and pholcodine (IV), together with a series of parabens (methyl to butyl, V-VIII) in a cough mixture, has been demonstrated using a chemically bonded octadecylsilane stationary phase with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:2) containing the ion-pairing agent octanesulfonic acid. Retention volumes for the active ingredients were 3.8 ml, 5.4 ml, 9.4 ml, and 15.6 ml for compounds I-IV, respectively. Corrected retention volumes for the parabens [5.4 ml for methyl (V), 9.6 ml for ethyl (VI), 18.5 ml for propyl (VII), and 37.9 ml for butyl (VIII)] showed an exponential relationship with chain length of the esterifying alcohols. Excipients did not interfere with the estimation of any of the compounds, hence pretreatment of the sample was unnecessary. Average recoveries of the active ingredients and of the parabens from laboratory prepared samples were essentially 100% of theoretical with standard deviations of 1.7, 0.3, 1.5, 0.3, 0.3, 3.3, 0.7, and 2.7% for I-VIII, respectively. PMID:6834261

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of azaarenes and their metabolites in groundwater affected by creosote wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Ondrus, M G; Steinheimer, T R

    1990-06-01

    Polynuclear azaheterocyclic compounds (azaarenes) are nitrogen-containing analogs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The nitrogen atom in the ring system causes these compounds to be slightly polar and considerably more water soluble than related PAHs. A method using a solid-surface sorption technique to extract and concentrate azaarenes and their principle metabolites present in groundwater that contains creosote waste is described. Analyte isolation and concentration is accomplished by solid-phase extraction on n-octadecyl cartridges followed by instrumental determination involving high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations and detection are achieved using flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with ultraviolet and fluorescence photometric detectors connected in series. Fluorescence detection alone is insufficient because the fluorescence response produced by two-ring azaarenes is limited. Short wavelength (229 nm) absorbance detection provides improved sensitivity for these compounds and peak rationing for more definitive identification. In this study, oxygen-containing metabolites of quinoline, isoquinoline, and acridine are detected in groundwater from hazardous waste sites in Pensacola, Florida and St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L are measured. The dependence of measured octanol-water partition coefficients on pH is discussed in the context of the isolation chemistry. As a direct bacterial degradation product of acridine with a relatively long environmental persistence, 9-acridinone may serve as a biogenic marker signaling creosote contamination of groundwater.

  11. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine, pholcodine, and paraben preservatives in cough mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, L

    1983-02-01

    The separation and simultaneous determination, by high-performance liquid chromatography, of acetaminophen (I), guaifenesin (II), pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (III), and pholcodine (IV), together with a series of parabens (methyl to butyl, V-VIII) in a cough mixture, has been demonstrated using a chemically bonded octadecylsilane stationary phase with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:2) containing the ion-pairing agent octanesulfonic acid. Retention volumes for the active ingredients were 3.8 ml, 5.4 ml, 9.4 ml, and 15.6 ml for compounds I-IV, respectively. Corrected retention volumes for the parabens [5.4 ml for methyl (V), 9.6 ml for ethyl (VI), 18.5 ml for propyl (VII), and 37.9 ml for butyl (VIII)] showed an exponential relationship with chain length of the esterifying alcohols. Excipients did not interfere with the estimation of any of the compounds, hence pretreatment of the sample was unnecessary. Average recoveries of the active ingredients and of the parabens from laboratory prepared samples were essentially 100% of theoretical with standard deviations of 1.7, 0.3, 1.5, 0.3, 0.3, 3.3, 0.7, and 2.7% for I-VIII, respectively.

  12. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream. PMID:26592621

  13. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream.

  14. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2004-01-01

    The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis), to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G) were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3), which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh) or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo). Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional test of sperm

  15. Simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry using a dispersive-SPE procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Cao, Shurui; Li, Xianliang; Tang, Bobin; Ding, Xiaowen; Xi, Cunxian; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Zhiqiong

    2015-05-01

    A new method combining dispersive-solid phase purification procedure with ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables. The new method not only had the advantages of dispersive-solid phase purification procedure such as high recoveries, easy operation, rapid analysis, little solvent usage and wide analysis range of preservatives, but also had the advantages of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry to be operated in positive mode and negative mode simultaneously. The method was validated for the following representative matrices: radish (tuber), tomato (eggplant fruit), cabbage (leafy), cowpea (bean), cucumber (melon) and so on. Samples were extracted with hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2, v/v), and then detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry after being cleaned up with dispersive-solid phase purification procedure. Significant matrix effects were compensated by using the matrix-matched calibration curves. 18 preservatives showed good linearity over the range of 5.0-100.0 μg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9904-1.000. The limits of detections were in the range of 0.04-4.16 μg/kg and the limits of quantity were in the range of 0.13-13.85 μg/kg. The recoveries of 18 preservatives ranged from 76.0% to 120.0% with the spiked levels of 2, 4 and 10 μg/kg into homogenized vegetables, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.3% to 14.8%. Compared with the reported literatures, the method is more rapid, simple, highly sensitive, reliable and can meet testing requirements of 18 preservative residues in vegetables.

  16. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of paraben preservatives in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    A method for the extraction and determination of seven parabens, esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, widely used as preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, etc., and two chlorinated derivatives (mono- and di-chloro methyl paraben) from mollusk samples was developed by combining matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MSPD parameters, such as solvent, solid support and clean-up sorbent, were optimized. Besides, since blank problems were observed for some parabens, these were investigated and blanks were tackled by precleaning all sorbents prior to use. Under final conditions, 0.5g of freeze-dried mollusk were dispersed with 1.2g of silica and packed into a cartridge containing 3g of C18, as on-line clean-up sorbent. This cartridge was eluted with 10mL of acetonitrile, evaporated and reconstituted in methanol for analysis. In the validation stage, successful linearity (R(2)>0.999), recoveries (between 71 and 117% for most analytes), precision (RSD lower than 21%) and limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ, lower than 0.4 and 1.4ngg(-1) dry weight respectively) levels were achieved. Finally, the new methodology was applied to mussel, clam and cockle samples. Methyl paraben was above the LOQ in five of the six samples (not found in one clam sample) at concentrations up to 7ngg(-1) dry weight. Ethyl paraben was found above the LOQ in mussel and cockle samples at a concentration level around 0.3ngg(-1). n-Propyl paraben was only above the LOQ in one mussel sample. PMID:27401811

  17. Preparation of size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles with a graphene and polymeric ionic liquid coating for the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of preservatives from vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaling; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Zhiqiong; Wang, Guoming

    2016-05-27

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 200-1000nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was synthesized and used as modified QuEChERS adsorbent for the determination of preservatives in vegetables. The size of about 200nm of Fe3O4 in Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was selected as optimum size to clean-up. It not only exerted the nanometer features of magnetic nanoparticles, but also displayed the large specific surface area of graphene (G) and the solvent effects of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs). Various experimental parameters have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 20 preservatives residues in vegetables was established by modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The good linearity with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9972-0.9999 was obtained over the range of 0.02-2.00mg/L for 20 preservatives. The detection limits of the proposed method for 20 preservatives ranged from 0.82 to 6.64μg/kg. The adsorbent was successfully applied for extraction and determination of preservatives in vegetable samples, which thus was time-saving with keeping good clean-up performance. PMID:27109197

  18. Preparation of size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles with a graphene and polymeric ionic liquid coating for the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of preservatives from vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaling; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Zhiqiong; Wang, Guoming

    2016-05-27

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 200-1000nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was synthesized and used as modified QuEChERS adsorbent for the determination of preservatives in vegetables. The size of about 200nm of Fe3O4 in Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was selected as optimum size to clean-up. It not only exerted the nanometer features of magnetic nanoparticles, but also displayed the large specific surface area of graphene (G) and the solvent effects of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs). Various experimental parameters have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 20 preservatives residues in vegetables was established by modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The good linearity with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9972-0.9999 was obtained over the range of 0.02-2.00mg/L for 20 preservatives. The detection limits of the proposed method for 20 preservatives ranged from 0.82 to 6.64μg/kg. The adsorbent was successfully applied for extraction and determination of preservatives in vegetable samples, which thus was time-saving with keeping good clean-up performance.

  19. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  20. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. PMID:26948762

  2. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model.

  3. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  4. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  5. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  6. Digitizing Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

  7. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Stojanka; Stojanović, Biljana; Veljković, Jelena; Prazić-Arsić, Ljiljana; Roglić, Goran; Manojlović, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives. PMID:18644604

  8. Multiresidue analytical method for the determination of antimicrobials, preservatives, benzotriazole UV stabilizers, flame retardants and plasticizers in fish using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-06-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of emerging pollutants belonging to personal care products (PCPs) (antimicrobials, preservatives), benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) and organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) in fish has been developed using high speed solvent extraction (HSSE) followed by silica gel clean up and ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) analysis. Developed extraction and clean up method yielded good recovery (> 70%) for all the four groups of emerging pollutants, i.e. antimicrobials (78.5-85.6%), preservatives (85.0-89.4%), BUVSs (70.9-112%) and OPCs (81.6-114%; except for TEP - 68.9% and TPeP - 58.1%) with RSDs ranging from 0.7 to 15.4%. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were less than 19.8% and 19.0%, respectively at three spiked levels. The concentrations were given in lipid weight (lw) basis, and the method detection limits were achieved in the lowest range of 0.001-0.006 ng g⁻¹ for two antimicrobials, 0.001-0.015 ng g⁻¹ for four preservatives, 0.0002-0.009 ng g⁻¹ for eight BUVSs and 0.001-0.014 ng g⁻¹ for nine OPCs. Finally, the method was successfully validated as a simple and fast extraction method for the determination of 23 compounds belonging to PCPs, BUVSs and OPCs and applied to the analysis of three species of fish from Manila Bay, the Philippines. Concentrations ranged from 27 to 278 ng g⁻¹ for antimicrobials, 6.61 to 1580 ng g⁻¹ for paraben preservatives, preservatives and four BUVSs, in fish.

  9. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1) using a Hibar(®) Lichrosorb(®) C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL(-1) and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL(-1) respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  10. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 using a Hibar® Lichrosorb® C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL-1 and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL-1 respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid.

  11. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 using a Hibar® Lichrosorb® C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL-1 and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL-1 respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  12. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1) using a Hibar(®) Lichrosorb(®) C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL(-1) and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL(-1) respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid.

  13. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 μm (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  14. Sperm fertility and viability following 48h of refrigeration: evaluation of different extenders for the preservation of bull semen in liquid state.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, A M; Nichi, M; Guasti, P N; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Sá Filho, M F; Maziero, R R; Dell'aqua, J A; Papa, F O

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of different extenders conventionally used for semen cryopreservation to maintain the viability and fertility of cooled bull semen. In Experiment 1, sperm samples obtained from 20 Nellore bulls were preserved at 5°C for 48h using two extenders containing 20% of egg yolk [Tris (TRIS-R) and Botu-Bov(®) (BB)] and another composed of 1% soy lecithin [Botu-Bov(®)-Lecithin (BB-L)] as substitutes for animal origin products. The samples were evaluated at 6, 24 and 48h for plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (ng of TBARS/10(8) cells) and sperm motility parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rate (P/AI) of 973 fixed-time artificially inseminated Nellore cows were compared when cows were inseminated with conventionally cryopreserved semen in TRIS-egg yolk glycerol (TRIS-C Control, n=253) or semen cooled for 48h in TRIS-R (n=233), BB (n=247) or BB-L (n=240). Although none of the extenders used was effective on maintaining total progressive motility and cellular integrity throughout the 48-h of the refrigeration period (P<0.01), BB-L conferred greater protection against oxidative stress (P<0.05) than egg yolk-based medias. The P/AI for semen samples preserved in TRIS-C, TRIS-R, BB and BB-L were 39.92(a), 25.32(b), 26.32(b) and 33.33(ab), respectively. These results demonstrate that the three conventional extenders used for semen cryopreservation do not provide the protection required to maintain bull semen fertility under refrigeration for a 48-h period, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates. However, the use of lecithin-based medium instead of egg yolk results in greater protection against lipid peroxidation, producing P/AI results comparable to those obtained using frozen semen. PMID:24685263

  15. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  16. Preservation and analytical procedures for the analysis of chloro-s-triazines and their chlorodegradate products in drinking waters using direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glynda A; Pepich, Barry V; Munch, David J

    2008-08-22

    A direct injection, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the chloro-s-triazine herbicides and their degradates in finished drinking water. The target compounds in the method were selected based on their inclusion in a common mechanism group (CMG) because of their ability to induce a similar toxic effect through a common mechanism of toxicity. The target list includes the chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and propazine) and their dealkylated degradates (desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, and diaminochlorotriazine). Potential matrix effects are minimized by the use of individual isotopically enriched internal standards. Analyte stability in finished chlorinated drinking water samples is ensured through careful selection of proper dechlorinating and antimicrobial reagents and through buffering sample pH. In the absence of proper dechlorination, the target analytes were found to degrade over a short period of time, even under refrigerated storage conditions. The final method has adequate sensitivity to accurately detect all target analytes at or below 0.1 microg/L and displays sufficient precision and robustness to warrant publication as EPA Method 536.

  17. Quality by design based optimization of a high performance liquid chromatography method for assay determination of low concentration preservatives in complex nasal formulations.

    PubMed

    Zakrajšek, Jure; Stojić, Vladimir; Bohanec, Simona; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    The effects of seven different chromatographic parameters and five sample preparation parameters in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in a nasal formulation were evaluated using two fractional factorial experimental designs. The design space of the analytical method was modeled using Umetrics Modde software and the optimal method conditions were predicted. The optimum HPLC chromatographic conditions were obtained using a Luna CN column (150 x 4.6 mm, 3 µm). The results show that mobile phase pH, amount of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and column temperature are the most important factors in obtaining good separation of BKC homologs from an interfering peak. In the sample preparation step, the use of an aqueous solution for dissolving the samples was the most important factor since it eliminated the interfering effect of the active compound. The optimal method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. The use of experimental designs enables obtaining the maximum amount of information with the least possible number of experiments. Such designs are an economical manner in evaluating a variety of different factors and their interactions.

  18. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  19. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  20. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  1. INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

  2. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  3. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

  4. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  5. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  6. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  7. Preservation--Everybody's Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobernd, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation…

  8. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  9. Hypersensitivity to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to cosmetics, topical medicaments, consumer goods, foods, and industrial products to protect them against microbial spoilage and to protect the consumer against infection. The ideal preservative, both effective and devoid of irritant or sensitizing potential, is still to be discovered. The present paper reviews the most important classes of preservatives, namely parabens, formaldehyde-releasers, and isothiazolinones. The author also discusses newer agents such as Euxyl K 400 and isopropynyl butylcarbamate. Each preservative is described in terms of chemical and physical characteristics, antimicrobial efficacy, exposure, cutaneous adverse reactions, patch testing concentrations, patterns of cross-reactions, and reported rates of sensitization. The history of preservatives goes back to the 1930s, and ironically, the parabens, which the industry has sought to replace with "safer" alternatives, are still the most frequently used biocides in cosmetics and appear to be far less sensitizing than most of the newer agents.

  10. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  11. Analysis Preservation in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Kyle; Heinrich, Lukas; Jones, Roger; South, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Long before data taking, ATLAS established a policy that all analyses need to be preserved. In the initial data-taking period, this has been achieved by various tools and techniques. ATLAS is now reviewing the analysis preservation with the aim of bringing coherence and robustness to the process and with a clearer view of the level of reproducibility that is reasonably achievable. The secondary aim is to reduce the load on the analysts. Once complete, this will serve for our internal preservation needs but also provide a basis for any subsequent sharing of analysis results with external parties.

  12. Mechanism of entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.

    2010-05-15

    We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

  13. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  14. Advances in lung preservation.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  15. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  16. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  17. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  18. Protection of the Transplant Kidney from Preservation Injury by Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Steve; Lin, Han-Bin; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Sawicka, Jolanta; Banerjee, Tamalina; Luo, Yigang; Beck, Gavin R.; Luke, Patrick P.; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role in ischemic injury to the heart, yet it is not known if these MMPs are involved in the injury that occurs to the transplant kidney. We therefore studied the pharmacologic protection of transplant kidneys during machine cold perfusion. Methods Human kidney perfusates were analyzed for the presence of injury markers such as cytochrome c oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), and MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured. The effects of MMP inhibitors MMP-2 siRNA and doxycycline were studied in an animal model of donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD). Results Markers of injury were present in all analyzed perfusates, with higher levels seen in perfusates from human kidneys donated after controlled DCDD compared to brain death and in perfusate from kidneys with delayed graft function. When rat kidneys were perfused at 4°C for 22 hours with the addition of MMP inhibitors, this resulted in markedly reduced levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and analyzed injury markers. Conclusions Based on our study, MMPs are involved in preservation injury and the supplementation of preservation solution with MMP inhibitors is a potential novel strategy in protecting the transplant kidney from preservation injury. PMID:27327879

  19. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  20. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  1. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  2. Electronic Technologies and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Donald J.

    Digital imaging technology, which is used to take a computer picture of documents at the page level, has significant potential as a tool for preserving deteriorating library materials. Multiple reproductions can be made without loss of quality; the end product is compact; reproductions can be made in paper, microfilm, or CD-ROM; and access over…

  3. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    SciTech Connect

    Giaretta, D.

    2008-07-01

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where

  4. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  5. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  11. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  12. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  13. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  14. Long-term preservation of freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-06-01

    Many genetically engineered mice strains have been generated worldwide and sperm preservation is a valuable method for storing these strains as genetic resources. Freeze-drying is a useful sperm preservation method because it requires neither liquid nitrogen nor dry ice for preservation and transportation. We report here successful long-term preservation at 4 °C of mouse spermatozoa freeze-dried using a simple buffer solution (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA, pH 8.0). Offspring with fertility were obtained from oocytes fertilized with freeze-dried spermatozoa from C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mouse strains stored at 4 °C for 3 years. This freeze-drying method is a safe and economical tool for the biobanking of valuable mouse strains.

  15. Effect of surfactants on the antibacterial activity of preservatives.

    PubMed

    Kurup, T R; Wan, L S; Chan, L W

    1991-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate, phenoxyethanol and chlorocresol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated in the presence of varying concentrations of Tween 80. Below cmc level, the bactericidal activities increased with decrease in the surface tension values of Tween 80 solutions and with interfacial tension values of Tween 80 solution/liquid paraffin systems. Linear relationships were found to exist between the concentrations of each preservative required to reduce the microbial population by a factor 10(3) within 48 hours and the values of surface tension and interfacial tension respectively. Reduction in surface tension and interfacial tension would have increased the adsorption and uptake of preservatives by bacterial cells thereby killing the cells at a faster rate. Concentrations of Tween 80 above cmc also enhanced the antibacterial activities of these preservatives. This was attributed to the increase in the permeability of bacterial membranes to preservatives.

  16. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Kurt, Bulent; Ozcan, Omer; Topal, Turgut; Kilic, Abdullah; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Acikel, Cengizhan; Sener, Kenan; Sahiner, Fatih; Yigit, Nuri; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alay, Semih; Ekinci, Safak

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80°C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO) solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours. PMID:26019417

  17. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  18. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  19. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  20. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  1. The Preservation of Digital Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele Valerie; Sanett, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    The authors are conducting a three-part study to evaluate current trends in the preservation of digital content, with an emphasis on electronic records. The study emanated from the authors' work on the Preservation Task Force of the International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems (InterPARES) project. This article…

  2. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  3. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  4. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  5. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  6. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  7. [Protein fractions and their enzyme activity in rat myocardium after a 22-hour space flight].

    PubMed

    Gaevskaia, M S; Veresotskaia, N A; Kolganova, N S; Kolchina, E V; Kurkina, L M

    1976-01-01

    No significant changes in the content of sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar proteins were found in the myocardium of rats that made a 22-day flight onboard the biosatellite. On the 2nd and 26th postflight days the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases of sarcoplasmatic proteins was increased and the total activity of lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzyme spectrum remained unchanged. On the 2nd postflight day the ATPase activity of myosin of the myocardium was substantially lowered and on the 26th postflight day it returned to the normal. This decline in the ATPase activity of myosin can be regarded as an adaptive reaction to weightlessness.

  8. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  9. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Christopher M.

    2011-05-01

    We wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A2+A1)(1), may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  10. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.

  11. Preservation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans with activity check.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S G; Agate, A D

    1986-01-01

    Cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans, used in biohydrometallurgical processes of economic importance, are very difficult to preserve by conventional methods. Hence, to preserve the cultures with their activity intact, various techniques were tried, after determining their respective activity in terms of Iron Oxidation Rate (IOR) and Sulfur Oxidation Rate (SOR). Among the methods tested, along with the recommended method of serial transfer in a liquid medium, were methods such as lyophilization, storage in a liquid nitrogen and mixing with sterile, inert carriers like lignite or chalcopyrite ores. After a period check-up at 4 months and 8 months storage, it was found that out of these methods, mixing with sterile ore followed by storage at 8 degrees C, kept both types of activities intact. The temperature of storage was observed to have a definite effect on activity, in that when the preserved cultures were stored at 8 degrees C, the activity was retained, whereas at 28-30 degrees C (RT) storage, the activity of all the cultures preserved by various techniques, dropped significantly.

  12. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  13. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  14. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  15. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  16. Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. ); Mahowald, A.P. )

    1992-12-18

    The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

  17. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  18. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  19. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  20. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  1. Simple sperm preservation by freeze-drying for conserving animal strains.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito

    2015-01-01

    Freeze-drying spermatozoa is the ultimate method for the maintenance of animal strains, in that the gametes can be preserved for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Furthermore, it is possible to realize easy and safe transportation of spermatozoa at an ambient temperature that requires neither liquid nitrogen nor dry ice. Freeze-drying spermatozoa has been established as a new method for storing genetic resources instead of cryopreservation using liquid nitrogen. This chapter introduces our latest protocols for freeze-drying of mouse and rat spermatozoa, and the anticipated results of the fertilizing ability of these gametes following long-term preservation or transportation. PMID:25408416

  2. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  3. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  4. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples. PMID:27377181

  5. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  6. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally. PMID:24914596

  7. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally.

  8. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  9. Nutritional aspects of food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Quattrucci, E; Masci, V

    1992-01-01

    Despite the benefits attributed to food preservatives, some concern still remains regarding their safety and possible influence on nutrients. Surprisingly, there is quite a lack of scientific knowledge in this field. In order to describe a few examples, the effects of the extensively used sulphite on thiamine, folates, pyridoxal and other nutrients have been reported. Among its antibrowning effects, inhibition of ascorbic acid browning is also considered. As far as sorbic acid is concerned, notwithstanding its easy reaction with protein, probably the acid environment of the stomach determines the breakdown of the sorbic-protein adducts. Detoxication of nitrite by tocopherol and ascorbic acid leads, in the last case, to dehydroascorbic acid and its oxidative products with loss of vitamin activity. Any oxidizing substance destroys ascorbic acid, vitamin E and free vitamin A. Phosphates are largely used with different aims, including preservation, in food processing. Their antimicrobial activity is due to both a direct effect and an interaction with other antimicrobials. Sequestering capacity of phosphates and its nutritional implications are discussed. Also mechanisms of action of organic acids are reported, focusing on sorbic acid effects on single amino acids and proteins. Finally, the little information available about the potential impact of food preservatives on nutritional functions is presented. PMID:1298657

  10. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  11. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.

  12. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  13. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  14. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  15. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  16. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  17. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property...

  18. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  19. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  20. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  1. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  2. Preservation Planning Program. Resource Notebook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Pamela W., Comp.

    Designed to be used with the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) "Preservation Planning Program Manual," this notebook provides access to background and technical information needed for planning and carrying out a variety of preservation programs and activities. Its contents, all drawn from the body of preservation literature available in late…

  3. Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, James A.

    This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation…

  4. Preserving mobility in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, D M

    1997-01-01

    Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in older adults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of older adults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all older adults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness. PMID:9348757

  5. Preserving continence during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, Thomas E; Gordon, Adam; Morales, Blanca; Skarecky, Douglas W

    2013-02-01

    Preservation of postoperative urinary continence remains the primary concern of all men and their surgeons following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Without doubt, continence is the most important quality of life issue following radical prostatectomy. Identification of difficulties and lessons learned over time has helped focus efforts in order to improve urinary quality of life and continence. This review will examine definitions of continence and urinary quality of life evaluation, technical aspects and the impact of patient-related factors affecting time to and overall continence.

  6. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  7. Phenoxyethanol: protein preservative for taxonomists.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, M; Wilson, A C; Nolan, R A; Gorman, G C; Bailey, G S

    1969-02-14

    Pieces of chicken heart or skeletal muscle were placed in a dilute solution of the antimicrobial agent 2-phenoxyethanol and stored at room temperature. Under these conditions, the serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in these tissues survived in easily detectable amounts for at least 2 weeks. The surviving proteins appeared to be identical with those of fresh tissues in physical, catalytic, and immunological properties. Phenoxyethanol also preserved heart and muscle proteins of representatives of other vertebrate classes. Tissue samples collected in the analysis by biochemical taxonomists.

  8. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  9. Patient attitudes toward fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R

    2009-08-01

    The increased survival rates for pediatric cancer patients and for some malignancies that are common in young adults, such as testicular cancer and Hodgkin disease have led to an increased focus on preserving fertility. Research on the psychosocial aspects of cancer-related infertility is a recent development, but we know that both young men and women value parenthood after cancer. At least 75% of survivors who were childless at diagnosis would like future offspring. For those who do not become parents, long-term distress is common. Younger teens may have difficulty assessing whether parenthood will be important to them in the future, and informed consent protocols need to respect their desires rather than deferring too much to parents. We do not know whether parenting a non-biological child (adopted, conceived through third-party reproduction, or a stepchild) reduces distress as much as being able to have one's own genetic offspring. Survivors often have exaggerated concerns about their children's health risks, but still prefer to have biological children if possible. More research is needed on whether participating in fertility preservation reduces long-term distress about cancer-related fertility. Better evidence-based programs to educate families and reduce decisional conflict are needed.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  12. 46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face clear of the water. The... dip coated life preserver. This device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with... shall be coated evenly and smoothly to a minimum thickness of 0.010″ with a liquid vinyl...

  13. 46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face clear of the water. The... dip coated life preserver. This device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with... shall be coated evenly and smoothly to a minimum thickness of 0.010″ with a liquid vinyl...

  14. 46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face clear of the water. The... dip coated life preserver. This device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with... shall be coated evenly and smoothly to a minimum thickness of 0.010″ with a liquid vinyl...

  15. 46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face clear of the water. The... dip coated life preserver. This device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with... shall be coated evenly and smoothly to a minimum thickness of 0.010″ with a liquid vinyl...

  16. 46 CFR 160.055-5 - Construction-standard life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face clear of the water. The... dip coated life preserver. This device is constructed from one piece of unicellular plastic foam with... shall be coated evenly and smoothly to a minimum thickness of 0.010″ with a liquid vinyl...

  17. 13 CFR 108.600 - General requirement for NMVC Company to maintain and preserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Company to maintain and preserve records. 108.600 Section 108.600 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... the date of liquidation: (i) All your accounting ledgers and journals, and any other records of assets... from the addresses in 5 CFR 1310.3.)...

  18. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  19. Virtual Environments for Data Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    Data preservation in a wider sense includes also the ability to analyse data of past experiments. Because operation systems, such as Linux and Windows, are evolving rapidly, software packages can be outdated and not usable anymore already a few years after they have been written. Creating an image of the operation system is a way to be able to launch the analysis software on a computing infrastructure independent on the local operation system used. At the same time, virtualization also allows to launch the same software in collaborations across several institutes with very different computing infrastructure. At the François Arago Centre of the APC in Paris we provide user support for virtualization and computing environment access to the scientific community

  20. Abdominoplasty With Scarpa Fascia Preservation.

    PubMed

    Costa-Ferreira, António; Marco, Rebelo; Vásconez, Luis; Amarante, José

    2016-06-01

    The plane of dissection used during a full abdominoplasty has been implicated on the seroma rate. Avoiding the classic plane of dissection on top of the rectus fascia and using a more superficial plane of dissection has been suggested as a strategy to improve recovery and lower the complication rate. The authors have been applying this principle in their practice for more than a decade, and they performed 2 prospective comparative studies to evaluate the clinical effects of using a more superficial plane of dissection (with Scarpa fascia preservation) during a full abdominoplasty.The technique is presented and explained along with the results of both comparative studies.The results of both studies are discussed particularly the effects on drain volume (total and daily), the duration of drain usage and the avoidance of "long drainers." These are very relevant advantages of the technique that have not been discussed in the literature. The results and surgical strategies used by other authors which apply a more superficial plane of dissection are presented.Controversy still exits on the manipulation of the deep fat compartment by liposuction or direct fat excision. No manipulation is another option which should be considered but it has been questioned due to the risk of aesthetic compromise. A morphometric study performed on the surgical specimens of 41 female patients submitted to a full abdominoplasty validates that option.Based on this evidence, the authors recommend that surgeons consider performing abdominoplasties using a more superficial plane of dissection in the infraumbilical area with total preservation of Scarpa fascia and the deep fat compartment. The classic plane of dissection, on top of the deep fascia, should be avoided in the lower abdomen. PMID:27187249

  1. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2011-12-30

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client's requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  2. Preserving physics knowledge at the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.; Omberg, R.; Makenas, B. J.; Polzin, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    One of the goals of the Dept. of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client's requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated. (authors)

  3. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder

    2009-01-01

    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  4. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  5. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under

  6. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methodsmore » included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival

  7. Preservation of the biomedical literature: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, M M

    1989-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine began to preserve its collection many years ago. This article presents a brief review of NLM's early conservation and microfilming programs, and describes the current activities of the library's new Preservation Section. Also mentioned are the complementary efforts of NLM staff who are involved in research into electronic imaging and the campaign to increase the use of alkaline paper in medical and scientific publishing. Goals of the National Preservation Plan for the Biomedical Literature are summarized and a report on progress in implementing the plan is provided. Results of the preservation needs assessment described in the accompanying article by Kirkpatrick are briefly analyzed. Recent efforts of the Commission on Preservation and Access, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Research Libraries Group, and several international associations are described in terms of their potential benefit to preservation of the biomedical literature. The need to monitor new preservation technologies and preserve materials in audiovisual and electronic formats is emphasized. It is argued that with enough coordination, cooperation, and willingness among health sciences libraries to share the costs, the goal of preserving all of the important biomedical literature can be accomplished. PMID:2758180

  8. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Estes, Stephanie J

    2015-12-01

    Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Consideration of fertility preservation in the pediatric and adolescent population is important, as future childbearing is usually a central life goal. For postpubertal girls, both oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard of care and for postpubertal boys, sperm cryopreservation continues to be recommended. Although all the risks are unknown, it appears that fertility preservation in most cases does not worsen prognosis, allows for the birth of healthy children, and does not increase the chance of recurrence.

  9. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325828

  10. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  11. Liquid Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A.; Kausalya, Rajini

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. PMID:22043370

  12. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  13. Importance of Preserving Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our effort to make the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) data, acquired from 1969 to 1977, readily available to current and future researchers, as reported in this session last year, has made us realize some potentially serious problems that may be common to legacy scientific data. One such problem was the loss of key information contained in the original data. This happened (a) when the original investigators thought it was enough to archive only the data of interest to contemporary researchers; (b) when the data were reformatted to make them readily decipherable to current researchers by someone who did not fully understand the details of the data, thus introducing incorrectly translated information; (c) when errors associated with reading of the original data were not corrected; and (d) simply due to a programming error in reformatting. The only sure way to avoid such a problem is to archive the raw experimental data in addition to the processed data, even though they may not be readily decipherable to most current researchers. For such raw data to be useful, it is also important that complete metadata necessary to interpret the raw data be preserved.

  14. [Inappropriate preservation of myocardium by topical cooling with iced slush].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Takashima, K; Munakata, M; Ono, Y; Fukui, K; Suzuki, S; del Nido, P J

    1996-09-01

    Topical cooling with iced slush has been applied as a conventional myocardial preservation in open heart surgery. However, there might be several disadvantages due to topical cooling with iced slush which melted to be liquid, because of membrane integrity decreased during ischemia. To understand more detailed mechanism of deterioration for myocardium by immersion in some liquid during ischemia, we subjected isolated crystalloid perfused rabbit hearts to a 30 minute of ischemia with immersion in Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution (I), K-H+hexamethlyamiloride which was Na+/H+ channel blocker (II) and histidine containing cardioplegia (HBS) designed to accelerate anaerobic glycolysis by a proton buffering (III), followed by a 30 minute of reperfusion. These groups were compared to the hearts hanging in air during ischemia (control). Phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP and intracellular pH were measured by 31 PNMR in group I, II, III. Developed pressure (Dev P) and diastolic pressure (EDP) with a intracavitary balloon were also evaluated with monitoring of 2 mmHg diastolic contracture during ischemia. Dev P declined to 46%, 54% of preischemic value in group I and group II, respectively, although % recovery of control heart was 74% after ischemia-reperfusion process. Diastolic function was severely deteriorated in group I and II, as compared to control heart. ATP and intracellular pH showed a similar decline as PCr in group I and II which was not seen in group III during ischemia. HBS prevented the deterioration of PCr, ATP and intracellular pH during ischemia along with excellent recovery of myocardial function. We therefore conclude that 1) significant deterioration of myocardium occurs with ischemia if the heart preserved in Krebs-Heseleit solution and the mechanism of injury by immersion in liquid on the heart appears to be due to proton accumulation caused by intracellular acidification and loss of high energy phosphate. PMID:8911040

  15. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, J.; Mantel, C.; Forchhammer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight. There are different methods for brightness preservation for local backlight dimming displays, producing images with different visual characteristics. In this study, we have implemented, analyzed and evaluated several different approaches for brightness preservation, and conducted a subjective study based on rank ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based on the results, guidelines for selecting the perceptually preferred brightness preservation method for local backlight dimming displays are outlined.

  16. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  17. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  18. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  19. Working Together: Case Studies in Cooperative Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Condict Gaye

    This report examines regional and/or state cooperative preservation programs and related activities. The major part of the report is given over to case studies that present a synopsis of the key structural and program elements of cooperative preservation initiatives. These case studies include the: Office of Library and Archival Materials…

  20. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  1. Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsosie, Michael

    This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information…

  2. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  3. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register of Historic Places” at 36 CFR part 800. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register...

  4. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register of Historic Places” at 36 CFR part 800. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register...

  5. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  6. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  7. Building a New Historic Preservation Trades Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeg, Rhonda L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of the program coordinator of a new two-year preservation trades program at Harford Community College in Bel Air, Maryland. The two-year associate in applied sciences degree offered at Harford Community College (HCC) is a Technical Professional Studies program in Building Preservation and Restoration (BPR).…

  8. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  9. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

  10. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  11. Preserving the Character of Historic Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepenoff, Bonnie

    1991-01-01

    Historic buildings, trails, and other camp features form the character of a particular camp and provide an escape to the past. Rehabilitating and preserving old camp structures requires attention to details and maintenance considerations. The U.S. Department of the Interior publishes guidelines for identifying and preserving historical properties.…

  12. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  13. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  14. Preservation of Scientific Serials: Three Current Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, William Y.

    2000-01-01

    Concentrates on three case studies as examples of typical publications where the definitive versions are already in electronic formats and maintained online, and discusses implications for long-term preservation selection; preservation requirements; publishers as archivists; stability for the next century; copyright; technology and standards;…

  15. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Preservation

    Cancer.gov

    Modern diagnostic pathology requires that both morphology and molecular integrity are preserved throughout processing and handling of the tissue. The major challenge for molecular analysis of breast cancer samples is to preserve the molecular integrity of the specimen while insuring the structural integrity needed for diagnostic pathology.

  17. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  18. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  19. ESCRS Binkhorst lecture 2002: Pseudophakic preservative maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensaku; Ibaraki, Nobuhiro; Goto, Yoko; Oogiya, Shin; Ishigaki, Junko; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Sampei

    2003-09-01

    Many antiglaucoma eyedrops are reported to cause cystoid macular edema (CME) in aphakia and pseudophakia. We review 4 clinical and laboratory studies that compare the incidence of CME in early postoperative pseudophakia in eyes that received preserved latanoprost and timolol, nonpreserved timolol, and the preserved and nonpreserved vehicle for these drugs and looked at the morphological damage to cells and the changes in the indicators of cytokine and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis caused by latanoprost and timolol and the preservative benzalkonium chloride. Based on the findings of these studies, which indicate that the preservative causes increased synthesis of PGs and other substances and intensified postoperative inflammation, the term pseudophakic preservative maculopathy is proposed for CME caused by antiglaucoma eyedrops.

  20. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  1. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  2. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  3. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  4. Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 µm) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 µm) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali

  5. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women.

  6. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-01

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  7. Introduction: Female fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation represents one of the most important advances in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Preserving a woman's potential for becoming a genetic mother is now possible for numerous diseases that could impair female fertility either by themselves or as a result of their treatments. However, female fertility preservation is still at the pioneering level and is thus often considered an experimental treatment either from a technical standpoint or in the clinical situation in which it is discussed. As a consequence, many ethics issues are raised with fertility preservation treatment in infants, adolescents, and young women. PMID:26612064

  8. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  9. Preserving a Piece of the True Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vorkin, David H.

    2013-01-01

    I will discuss shared concerns of Curators and Collections Management Specialists at the National Air and Space Museum over the proper methods for identifying, documenting and preserving astronomical instrumentation in the Museum's purview as well as in the realm of modern astronomical research. Questions of "what" and "how" will be raised and discussed, including the issue of preserving the historical character of instrumentation deemed still useful to astronomy. As part of this discussion, we will also consider: "why" make the effort to preserve? What is the value of a personal physical encounter with the "real thing?"

  10. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  11. Liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

    2001-06-21

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates. PMID:11418851

  12. Liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Aussillous, P; Quéré, D

    2001-06-21

    The transport of a small amount of liquid on a solid is not a simple process, owing to the nature of the contact between the two phases. Setting a liquid droplet in motion requires non-negligible forces (because the contact-angle hysteresis generates a force opposing the motion), and often results in the deposition of liquid behind the drop. Different methods of levitation-electrostatic, electromagnetic, acoustic, or even simpler aerodynamic techniques-have been proposed to avoid this wetting problem, but all have proved to be rather cumbersome. Here we propose a simple alternative, which consists of encapsulating an aqueous liquid droplet with a hydrophobic powder. The resulting 'liquid marbles' are found to behave like a soft solid, and show dramatically reduced adhesion to a solid surface. As a result, motion can be generated using gravitational, electrical and magnetic fields. Moreover, because the viscous friction associated with motion is very small, we can achieve quick displacements of the droplets without any leaks. All of these features are of potential benefit in microfluidic applications, and also permit the study of a drop in a non-wetting situation-an issue of renewed interest following the recent achievement of super-hydrophobic substrates.

  13. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  14. Devitalization of Transgenic Seed That Preserves DNA and Protein Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Barry W.; Cai, Charles Q.; Embrey, Shawna K.; Herman, Rod A.; Song, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology companies have been asked to provide intact transgenic seed to regulatory agencies as reference materials for evaluating transgene and protein detection methods (PCR and immunoassay). Due to intellectual-property and product-stewardship considerations, submission of devitalized seed prior to regulatory approval is preferable in any given country. Commonly used devitalization procedures, such as heating or autoclaving, degrade the protein and/or DNA rendering the seed unfit as a reference material for these tests. A novel method for devitalizing seed was developed that involves hydration, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilization. The devitalization method described here was found to preserve the transgenic DNA and protein in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize (Zea mays) seed allowing its use as a reference material for evaluating detection methods. PMID:19183799

  15. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  16. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  17. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  18. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  19. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development...

  20. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  1. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  2. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  3. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  4. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  5. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  6. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-25

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  7. Hyperosmolar cold storage kidney preservative solution.

    PubMed

    Masuda, J Y; Bleich, R N; Beckerman, J H

    1975-04-01

    A hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution which can maintain kidneys from experimental animals viable for up to 72 hours is described. Using the criterion of a one-month failure rate, the cold storage preservation method was found to be superior to machine preservation methods. Sachs' solution was found to be superior to all other cold storage solutions. The most important aspect of the hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution appears to be its ability to maintain normal intracellular electrolyte composition and to prevent cellular damage due to swelling. The present formula requires that the basic solution and a magnesium chloride additive solution be prepared separately and combined before use. A stable combined solution is proposed which can be sterilized by membrane filtration. PMID:1130414

  8. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  9. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  10. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. 60.6 Section 60.6 Parks... HISTORIC PLACES § 60.6 Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation programs. (a) The State Historic Preservation Officer is responsible for identifying...

  11. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  12. [Dismemberment with unusual preservation of cadaver parts].

    PubMed

    Madea, B

    1994-01-01

    Report on a case of criminal dismembering of a corpse and the effect of vinyl on postmortem changes. Two years after murder a dismembered body, the body parts wrapped into plastic bags, were found buried 30-50 cm deep into loose earth. The whole body as well as the inner organs were very well preserved. Obviously the air-proof conditions in the plastic bag were a supporting factor for the good preservation. PMID:8198432

  13. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  14. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  15. Stability of Hydrocortisone Preservative-Free Oral Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chappe, Julie; Osman, Névine; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The physical and chemical stability of a preservative-free oral solution of hydrocortisone succinate was studied at different pH values and storage temperatures. METHODS: Oral solutions of hydrocortisone 1 mg/mL were prepared by dissolving hydrocortisone succinate powder in citrate buffers at pH 4.0, 5.5, and 6.5, or with sterile water (pH 7.4) stored in amber glass vials. Three identical samples of the formulations were prepared and stored under refrigeration (3–7°C), ambient temperature (20–22°C) and high temperature (29–31°C). A 200-μL sample was withdrawn from each of the 3 samples immediately after preparation and at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 35 days. Samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating liquid chromatography. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point; stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of hydrocortisone succinate. RESULTS: At least 92% of the initial hydrocortisone succinate concentration in solutions pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.4 remained throughout the 14-day study period under refrigeration. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or pH and no visible microbial growth in these samples. In other storage conditions, hydrocortisone succinate was rapidly degraded. CONCLUSIONS: The hydrocortisone succinate preservative-free oral solutions at pH 5.5, 6.5, or 7.4 are chemically stable when stored under refrigeration for at least 14 days. They provide flexible and convenient dosage forms without any preservatives for pediatric patients. PMID:26170771

  16. Development studies on determination of preservatives decomposition products.

    PubMed

    Zabrzewska, Beata; Chyła, Anna; Bogdan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are chemical substances whose role is to protect medicinal products against harmful changes caused by microorganisms. They are added to sterile medicinal products, such as eye drops and multidose solutions for injections, as well as to non-sterile products, such as water oral solutions, creams, gels, suppositories and capsules with liquid content. The most commonly used preservatives include: benzyl alcohol, butyl, ethyl, methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoates and their sodium salts. In medicinal products benzyl alcohol slowly oxidizes to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid while esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrolyze to p-hydroxybenzoic acid. HPLC methods were elaborated for identification and quantitative determination of the parabens, benzyl alcohol, active substances as well as their impurities in pharmaceuticals: oral solutions Amertil and Efforil (contain cetirizine hydrochloride or etilefrine hydrochloride and parabens), eye drops Difadol (contains diclofenac sodium and benzyl alcohol) and cream Tenasil (contains terbinafine hydrochloride and benzyl alcohol). The HPLC systems consisted of columns: Supelcosil LC-DP, Inertsil ODS-3 or Discovery HS F5 and three mobile phases mixtures of acetonitrile with buffers of various pH (3, 5 and 7) in proportions 45 : 55 (v/v). These systems have been characterized with appropriate selectivity (all the Rs values > 2) and sensitivity (LOD approx. 0.01 microg/mL). They also demonstrated satisfactory precision and a linear dependence between the analyte content and the peak area.

  17. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  18. Preservation methods for kidney and liver

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    With the successful testing of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine in transplant patients in 1978, the field of organ transplants began an exponential growth. With that, the field of organ preservation became increasingly important as the need to increase preservation time and improve graft function became paramount. However, for every patient that receives a transplanted organ, there are four more on the waiting list. In addition, a patient dies from the lack of a transplant almost every 1½ hour. To alleviate this donor crisis, there is a need to expand the donor pool to marginal donor organs. The main reason these organs are underutilized is because the current method of static preservation, simple cold storage, is ineffective. This article will provide a general review of the methods of preservation including simple cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion, normothermic machine perfusion, and oxygen persufflation. In addition, the article will provide a review of how these dynamic preservation methods have improved the recovery and preservation of marginal donor organs including Donation after Cardiac Death and Fatty livers. PMID:20046672

  19. Database Design for Preservation Project Management: The California Newspaper Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Lynne M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a database designed to manage a serials preservation project in which issues from multiple repositories are gathered and collated for preservation microfilming. Management information, added to bibliographic and holdings records, supports the production of reports tracking preservation activity. (Author)

  20. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  1. Liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  2. Replication in plastic of three-dimensional fossils preserved in indurated clastic sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Zapasnik, H T; Johnston, P A

    1984-06-29

    A new technique for replicating in plastic the fossils preserved in clastic rocks should now make available reliable morphologic and frequency data, comparable in quality to those derived from acid-prepared silicified faunas, for a major segment of the fossil record. The technique involves three steps: the dissolution of carbonate in fossiliferous rocks with hydrochloric acid, impregnation of resulting voids with liquid plastic, and dissolution of the rock matrix with hydrofluoric acid, leaving a concentrate of plastic-replaced fossils.

  3. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  4. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  5. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  6. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world. PMID:25829570

  7. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  8. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  9. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  10. THE ROMANCE AND ENGINEERING OF FOOD PRESERVATION.

    PubMed

    Woolrich, W R

    1944-02-11

    The engineering profession of the world can be expected to give more attention to the animal-plant food cycles in the years ahead and to determine new methods of preserving for complete utilization the critical and exhaustible supplies of plant foods for the generations yet to live. Coincidentally with this obligation which the engineer must assume, there is the romantic but very real task ahead of applying the same intensive interest in the ultimate preservation of foods as the agriculturists have displayed in producing them. The food preservation arts and sciences have now progressed forward far enough that the engineering profession can well assure the world that diets can henceforth be determined on the basis of what is good for man. With the coordination of our implements of electrical power, internal-combustion engine, propelled transportation, excellent network of road. ways and mechanical inventions, and with the competent support of the food technologists, the bacteriologists and the chemists, the engineering profession should be able to assure the multitudes that the world's ability to preserve is now prepared to equal the world's capacity to produce food. When complete coordination is effected, and production, preservation and distribution become daily realities, then the profession will have reached new heights in engineering, achievement, statesmanship and service.

  11. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  12. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  13. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  14. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-10-31

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

  15. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  16. Modified multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2007-01-27

    A common requirement of multivisceral transplantation has been removal of the native duodenum, pancreas and spleen in the process of abdominal exenteration. Oftentimes, though, the indication for their removal has not been underlying disease states in those organs. In order to avoid adverse sequelae of pancreas and splenic removal for purely anatomic reasons, we have designed a new approach and have performed a multivisceral transplantation with splenopancreatic preservation. In this modified multivisceral technique, the native spleen and pancreas are preserved with venous outflow through a native portocaval shunt, and native pancreatic exocrine drainage is established to the donor jejunum. Risk of transplant pancreatic insufficiency, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and postsplenectomy sepsis may be avoided utilizing this technique. This new modification of multivisceral transplantation allows pancreaticosplenic preservation while facilitating stomach replacement for those patients requiring intestinal replacement therapy. It represents another step towards minimizing morbidities associated with these lifesaving transplants.

  17. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  18. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  19. Moesin functionality in hypothermic liver preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Lindell, Susanne L; Kowalski, Chris; Mangino, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an isolated perfused liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by Western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.

  20. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  1. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  2. [Contact allergy to a new preservative].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Exner, M; Görtz, J; Goos, M

    1989-01-01

    A 43 year old woman with no previous skin disease developed contact eczema on the face and neck after application of a lotion used for "smoothing wrinkels", available as a non-prescription item. Patch testing of the product and of one of its ingredients, Euxyl K 400, revealed strong positive reactions. Upon testing of the individual components of the preservative Euxyl K 400, the substance 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutane showed a positive reaction even in the concentration of 0.004%. Due to the increasing use of Euxyl K 400 inclusion of the preservative in the patch test battery should be considered.

  3. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  4. Motion preservation surgery in the spine.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Ryan; Castellvi, Antonio E

    2014-05-01

    The primary goal of motion preservation surgery in the spine is to maintain normal or near normal motion in an attempt to prevent adverse outcomes commonly seen with conventional spinal fusion, most notably the development of adjacent-level degenerative disc disease. Several different surgical approaches have been developed to preserve motion in the lumbar spine, including total disc replacement, partial disc (nucleus) replacement, interspinous spacers, dynamic stabilization devices, and total facet replacement devices. The design of devices varies greatly. The devices are created using a similar rationale but are unique in design relative to their lumbar counterparts. PMID:24792608

  5. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. We present a simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  6. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  7. Preserving America's Photographic Heritage - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M. W.; Cline, J. D.; Griffin, E.; Osborn, W.

    2004-12-01

    Our shared heritage of some 3 million photographic observations is seriously in jeopardy, and astronomy may well lose vital, unrepeatable data dating back over a century. A call for preservation of astronomical plates has been made by the international astronomical community. This project is in response, and aims to establish a national archive for astronomical plates at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute that will preserve and eventually digitize selections of the plate collections in North America. Our poster describes details of the storage, cleaning and cataloging procedures that have been planned, and provides an overview of what is anticipated for succeeding Phases.

  8. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  9. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  10. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues.

  11. Preserved irradiated homolgous cartilage for orbital reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Linberg, J V; Anderson, R L; Edwards, J J; Panje, W R; Bardach, J

    1980-07-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is concenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption. PMID:7393528

  12. JPEG 2000 standards in digital preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Although JPEG 2000 is now a preferred format for archival image preservation, its use still requires care and consideration. This paper addresses how some of these issues can be addressed from a pragmatic perspective, and also looks at how the technology and file formats are developing to provide a full and consistent architecture for handling and searching large visual archives. New methods of addressing perceptual quality are discussed, showing that JPEG 2000 offers the best quality compression, although the metrics indicate that lower compression rates are recommended for preservation formats than might be assumed from previous simple metrics such as PSNR.

  13. [Hearing preservation: Better hearing with advanced technology].

    PubMed

    Rader, T; Helbig, S; Stöver, T; Baumann, U

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implantation allows patients the synergetic use of electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). The application of specific surgical and therapeutic techniques enables the reduction of inner ear trauma, which leads otherwise to complete hearing loss. Due to simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation, speech understanding is improved especially in noise. EAS is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for subjects with profound hearing loss in the higher frequencies and no or mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. Several Manufacturers offer individual soft electrodes specially designed for hearing preservation as well as combined electric-acoustic audio processors. PMID:24782208

  14. [Glaucoma medications, preservatives and the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Aptel, F; Labbé, A; Baudouin, C; Bron, A; Lachkar, Y; Sellem, E; Renard, J-P; Nordmann, J-P; Rouland, J-F; Denis, P

    2014-10-14

    Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that ocular surface disease is common in glaucoma patients receiving chronic glaucoma drops, and that the preservatives in these drops play a major role in the occurrence of ocular surface disease. These ocular surface changes may induce both symptoms reported by the patients and anterior segment clinical signs, and should be systematically assessed by history and exam in all glaucoma patients. In these patients with ocular surface disease, reducing the amount of preservatives administered to the eye should be strived for, rather than adding additional eye drops to alleviate or mask the side effects of the glaucoma drops. PMID:25440185

  15. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  16. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  17. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  18. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  19. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true State Historic Preservation... HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT PROGRAM § 801.5 State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. (a) The State Historic...

  20. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  1. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  2. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  3. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  4. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  5. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with mouse spermatozoa preserved without freezing for six months can lead to full-term development.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Mizutani, Eiji; Ono, Tetsuo; Terashita, Yukari; Jia, Xiao-feng; Shi, Hui-juan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2011-12-01

    Preservation of mammalian spermatozoa now plays an important role in fertility treatment, in generating hybrid animals, and in protecting endangered or extinct species. To date, the most common method of sperm preservation is freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). However, this method requires constant supplementation of the LN(2) and also involves some safety issues in transporting LN(2). Here we describe a new sperm preservation method that does not involve freezing. Mouse spermatozoa were cultured in four basic media (HEPES-CZB, potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids [KSOMaa], K(+)-rich nuclear isolation medium [NIM], and PBS) with or without 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 15% Ficoll as a protectant, and preserved in a refrigerator for up to 6 mo. These preserved sperm were then injected into fresh oocytes and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro or transferred into recipient females to demonstrate their genetic integrity. The results of sperm preservation for 1 mo suggested that NIM and PBS were better media than HEPES-CZB or KSOMaa and that BSA and Ficoll could improve either blastocyst or full-term development. Surprisingly, 18 pups were obtained using spermatozoa stored in these media for 6 mo. Moreover, this new method allowed easy production of healthy offspring even after transport of spermatozoa between two countries by aircraft at room temperature. In conclusion, this method allows for easy long-term preservation of mouse spermatozoa in a simple, modified medium at refrigerator temperature with very low cost and wide application. PMID:21816846

  6. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with mouse spermatozoa preserved without freezing for six months can lead to full-term development.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Mizutani, Eiji; Ono, Tetsuo; Terashita, Yukari; Jia, Xiao-feng; Shi, Hui-juan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2011-12-01

    Preservation of mammalian spermatozoa now plays an important role in fertility treatment, in generating hybrid animals, and in protecting endangered or extinct species. To date, the most common method of sperm preservation is freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). However, this method requires constant supplementation of the LN(2) and also involves some safety issues in transporting LN(2). Here we describe a new sperm preservation method that does not involve freezing. Mouse spermatozoa were cultured in four basic media (HEPES-CZB, potassium simplex optimization medium with amino acids [KSOMaa], K(+)-rich nuclear isolation medium [NIM], and PBS) with or without 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 15% Ficoll as a protectant, and preserved in a refrigerator for up to 6 mo. These preserved sperm were then injected into fresh oocytes and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro or transferred into recipient females to demonstrate their genetic integrity. The results of sperm preservation for 1 mo suggested that NIM and PBS were better media than HEPES-CZB or KSOMaa and that BSA and Ficoll could improve either blastocyst or full-term development. Surprisingly, 18 pups were obtained using spermatozoa stored in these media for 6 mo. Moreover, this new method allowed easy production of healthy offspring even after transport of spermatozoa between two countries by aircraft at room temperature. In conclusion, this method allows for easy long-term preservation of mouse spermatozoa in a simple, modified medium at refrigerator temperature with very low cost and wide application.

  7. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  8. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed. PMID:27446721

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  11. [Heritage Education: Teaching a Preservation Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Suzanne B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on heritage education, the goal of which is to introduce the historic built environment directly into elementary and secondary school curriculums. Kathlyn Hatch discusses how heritage education's linkage with historic preservation can help students relate to society. Earl Jones assesses the status of heritage education,…

  12. Fertility-preserving options for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Plante, Marie; Roy, Michel

    2006-04-01

    Childbearing is one of the most important life goals for many women, and fertility preservation is a very important factor in the overall quality of life of cancer survivors. Cervical cancer frequently affects young women; because some women tend to delay childbearing, fertility preservation must be considered when treatment options are discussed. Over the past decade, the radical trachelectomy procedure has become a well established fertility-preserving option for young women with early-stage cancer; this procedure is associated with low morbidity, good oncologic outcome, and a high proportion of pregnancies that reach the third trimester and babies that are delivered at term. This article will review available literature on the vaginal radical trachelectomy procedure and data from other surgical approaches, such as the abdominal radical trachelectomy. In addition, the potential future application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by fertility-preserving surgery in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer will be examined. Finally, ultraconservative surgical approaches (eg, conization alone with or without laparoscopic lymphadenectomy) in very early-stage disease will be discussed.

  13. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  14. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  15. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

  16. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register...

  17. Preservation For and By the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimberg, June

    1973-01-01

    The American the Beautiful Fund (ABF) has for the past eight years been supporting imaginative urban design, the preservation of green spaces, and the protection of the character of small towns and vanishing Americana through staff assistance and modest seed grants. (JA)

  18. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  19. Model for the New Millennium: Preserving Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezmierski, Virginia E.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding higher education and community building in the context of the effect on human behavior of the information technology revolution. Suggests the need for a new model which will seek to preserve a community that is open, just, disciplined, and caring by refocusing on mission, resisting change for its own sake,…

  20. Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

  1. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  2. Organ-preserving surgery for penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francisco E; Rodrigues, Raul N; Lopes, Tomé M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Penile carcinoma has traditionally been treated by either surgical amputation or radical radiotherapy, both associated with devastating anatomical, functional, and psychological impact on the patient's life. Innovative surgical techniques have focused on penile preservation in well-selected patients to minimize physical disfigurement and consequently maximize quality of life. The objective of this article is to define the current status of these organ-preserving surgical options for penile carcinoma. Materials and Methods. An extensive review of the Pubmed literature was performed to find articles discussing only reconstructive surgery which have contributed significantly to change traditional, frequently mutilating treatments, to develop less disfiguring surgery, and to improve patients' quality of life over the last two decades. Results. Several articles were included in this analysis in which a major contribution to the change in therapy was thought to have occurred and was documented as beneficial. Some articles reported novel techniques of less-mutilating surgery involving different forms of glans reconstruction with the use of flaps or grafts. The issue of safe surgical margins was also addressed. Conclusion. The development of less-disfiguring techniques allowing phallus preservation has reduced the negative impact on functional and cosmetic outcomes of amputation without sacrificing oncological objectives in appropriately selected patients based on stage, grade, and location of the tumour. Until more prospective studies are available and solid evidence is documented, organ preservation should be offered with caution.

  3. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  4. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  5. Context-preserving, dynamic word cloud visualization.

    PubMed

    Weiwei Cui; Yingcai Wu; Shixia Liu; Furu Wei; Zhou, Michelle X; Huamin Qu

    2010-01-01

    The proposed method uses context-preserving, dynamic word clouds to illustrate content evolution. It generates a sequence of word clouds in which related words are grouped together. This sequence is then coupled with a trend chart that summarizes content changes so that users can better explore large collections of documents.

  6. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  7. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  8. Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

  9. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kelly

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best practice for…

  10. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  11. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  12. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  13. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimaraes, Alexandre C.; Duarte, Alexandre S. M.; Muranaka, Eder B.; Soki, Marcelo N.; Martins, Renata S. Zanotello; Bianchini, Walter A.; Paschoal, Jorge R.; Castilho, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America. PMID:23573094

  14. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The findings…

  15. Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care.

  16. On the Evaluation of Module Preservation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The ability to compare the modular structure of gene expression networks requires fast and accurate statistical tools. NetRep software provides a permutation approach which validates seven measures used to contrast the preservation of co-expression across diverse datasets.

  17. Biomarker Preservation Potential of Subsurface Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T. C.; Harris, R. L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Pedersen, K. A.; Colwell, F. S.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Bakermans, C.

    2016-05-01

    If surface life emerged on Mars it may have succumbed to a Gaian bottleneck, whereas subsurface life would have continued to grow and evolve sheltered in rocks with sub-freezing saline pore water and their remains preserved in excavated rock.

  18. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illustrating the history of the United States. The Pennsylvania Avenue Area achieves national historic... historic structures will be required to take into account the qualities of the adjacent structures (with... preservation will, where appropriate, take into account the historic buildings to remain, aiming for...

  19. Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

    The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

  20. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  1. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... significance because of both its ceremonial role in the life of the nation and its social and economic role in the life of the residents of Washington for more than a century. (b) The Historic Preservation Plan of... historic structures will be required to take into account the qualities of the adjacent structures...

  2. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... significance because of both its ceremonial role in the life of the nation and its social and economic role in the life of the residents of Washington for more than a century. (b) The Historic Preservation Plan of... historic structures will be required to take into account the qualities of the adjacent structures...

  3. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... significance because of both its ceremonial role in the life of the nation and its social and economic role in the life of the residents of Washington for more than a century. (b) The Historic Preservation Plan of... historic structures will be required to take into account the qualities of the adjacent structures...

  4. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  5. Hearing preservation in cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Priscila Carvalho; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2014-01-01

    In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a "soft surgery" cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

  6. Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedinger, Theresa

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,…

  7. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  8. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item…

  9. Preservation of bacteria in natural polymers.

    PubMed

    Krumnow, April A; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Olsen, Eric; Globa, Ludmila; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2009-08-01

    A new inexpensive and simple method for preserving microorganisms has been developed. Natural polymers of acacia gum and pullulan were used to preserve model bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis via immobilization and storage under various conditions. Formulation of E. coli and B. subtilis in acacia gum significantly increased the viability of both cultures during desiccation at 40 degrees C as well as during the storage at various temperatures and relative humidity. In the ranges of temperatures and humidity used in experiments, the high humidity affected the viability of E. coli more than high temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for E. coli thermal degradation were used for quantification of results and characterization of the preservation process. Viability of B. subtilis in acacia gum polymer was not significantly changed during the storage in the temperature and humidity experiments. The number of viable B. subtilis recovered after storage in pullulan, and in PBS under various humidity conditions was 1-2 logs less in comparison with the number of cells before storage. It was found that acacia gum provides better protection than pullulan for both bacteria during the preservation process.

  10. Cardioplegia and myocardial preservation during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Engelman, R M; Levitsky, S; O'Donoghue, M J; Auvil, J

    1978-09-01

    A standard experimental protocol was developed to explore the role of hypothermia and potassium cardioplegia in myocardial preservation during 120 minutes of ischemic arrest followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Seven different experimental groups of six animals each were evaluated using an in-vivo pig heart preparation. Hypothermic arrest without cardioplegia and cardioplegic arrest at normothermia were each compared to hypothermic cardioplegia. In addition, the use of an asanguineous hypothermic coronary perfusate without cardioplegia was compared to both multidose cardioplegia and single-dose cardioplegia followed by the same asanguineous perfusate. The parameters measured included: myocardial contractility and compliance, myocardial blood flow, endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio, and electron microscopic studies. Myocardial preservation was inadequate with hypothermic arrest alone (without cardioplegia; and with cardioplegia at normothermia. In both experimental groups, myocardial contractility and compliance were so depressed that the) could not be accurately measured following ischemia and reperfusion while coronary blood flow remained significantly elevated. Preservation was improved but still inadequate following myocardial washout with a normokalemic or hypokalemic perfusate and following single dose cardioplegia plus myocardial washout. In the latter four groups, contractility ranged from 42 to 78% of control, and there was a decrease in compliance of 16 to 78%. Adequate preservation was found only after hypothermia and multidose potassium (35 mEq/L) cardioplegia. In this group, contractility was 129 +/- 13% of control and compliance increased by 21 +/- 24% compared to that of the control.

  11. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  12. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de présenter les résultats préliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problèmes à résoudre pour conserver à très basse température des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryopréservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explorée pour augmenter la durée de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrôler la compatibilité donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isolées à la température de l'azote liquide, actuellement

  13. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  14. Microstructure preserving cryo-sampling of friable faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Ulrike; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    Microstructures of deformation bands and faults in uncemented, friable sediments are of particular interest, as they give insight on the mechanical and chemical processes of deformation in granular material under extremely low burial conditions. However, structure preserving sampling of the microfabric is hardly possible, as common geoscientific rock sampling techniques immediately would destroy the original pore geometries and obliterate evidence of grain fracturing or flaking. We present two unconventional probing-methods to guarantee conservation of all original microstructures for further preparation of thin sections, admitting analysis using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscope techniques. During suitable weather conditions well below freezing temperature of water, we sampled coarse, friable sands by carefully sprinkling water onto the area of interest. After some few minutes, the uppermost 2-4 cm of the sample are fixated, and can oriented be removed from their position without internal destruction. In order to protect the sample during transport to the lab, it is embedded in a plaster bandage, with the top left uncovered to permit later dehydration. This way, the dried sample can be saturated with resin, enabling proper polishing for thin section preparation. Alternatively, if climatic or weather conditions do not permit natural freezing of the samples, we used liquid nitrogen, which is available in most labs at low cost. The nitrogen can be easily held in place by an insulating cup, and causes instant freezing of a suitably sized sample. The following procedure is identical to the aforementioned method. In summary, the microstructures observed indicate that the both sampling techniques perfectly preserve the sedimentary and deformation fabrics, and can thus be recommended for gathering of samples from friable sediments.

  15. Liquid crystal nanocomposites produced by mixtures of hydrogen bonded achiral liquid crystals and functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katranchev, B.; Petrov, M.; Keskinova, E.; Naradikian, H.; Rafailov, P. M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Spassov, T.

    2014-12-01

    The liquid crystalline (LC) nature of alkyloxybenzoic acids is preserved after adding of any mesogenic or non-mesogenic compound through hydrogen bonding. However, this noncovalent interaction provokes a sizable effect on the physical properties as, e. g. melting point and mesomorphic states. In the present work we investigate nanocomposites, prepared by mixture of the eighth homologue of p-n-alkyloxybenzoic acids (8OBA) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the purpose to modify the optical properties of the liquid crystal. We exercise optical control on the LC system by inserting SWCNT specially functionalized by carboxylic groups. Since the liquid crystalline state combines order and mobility at the molecular (nanoscale) level, molecular modification can lead to different macroscopical nanocomposite symmetry. The thermal properties of the functionalized nanocomposite are confirmed by DSC analyses. The mechanism of the interaction between surface-treated nanoparticles (functionalized nanotubes) and the liquid crystal 8OBA bent- dimer molecules is briefly discussed.

  16. Preservation of protein in marine systems: Hydrophobic and other noncovalent associations as major stabilizing forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Reno T.; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2001-05-01

    - The fate of proteins during early diagenesis was investigated in environments with low mineral content to assess preservation mechanisms other than mineral sorption. Preservation was examined in anoxic, organic-rich sediments of Mangrove Lake, a marine environment located in Bermuda, and for particulate material generated during oxic decay of diatoms. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) treatment tested the hypothesis that proteins may undergo modification reactions with glucose to form advanced-glycation end products (AGEs). A small but significant release (additional 14%) of proteins was observed after PTB treatment in surficial sediments, indicating that some aggregations can proceed through an α-dicarbonyl intermediate of the AGE pathway. Size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography with protein fluorescence, absorbance, and evaporative light-scattering detector measurements under native (phosphate or bicarbonate buffers) and denaturing (guanidine · HCl, urea, or acetonitrile) conditions point to the importance of hydrophobic and other noncovalent interactions in the stabilization of proteinaceous material in the environment. Soluble aggregates of substantial, relative molecular mass ( Mr ≳ 10 6) appear to be formed early in the diagenetic sequence. The preferential preservation of very high Mr, multisubunit phytoplankton proteins in sediments suggests that such aggregations confer resistance to degradation. Alternatively, some of the proteinaceous material may represent that fraction of organic matter that is highly prone to aggregations. Extended incubations (18 h; 37°C) with trypsin and proteinase-K showed that much of the aggregates that could be extracted are receptive to proteolytic cleavage. Buffer-, surfactant-, and NaOH-extractable aggregates comprised most of the acid-hydrolyzable proteinaceous material in detritus and surficial sediments but <35% in 9.7-m-deep sediments, suggesting additional mechanisms for preservation might be in

  17. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, digitalpreservation.gov) that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  18. Determination of halonitromethanes and haloacetamides: an evaluation of sample preservation and analyte stability in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2012-06-01

    Simultaneous quantitation of 6 halonitromethanes (HNMs) and 5 haloacetamides (HAAms) was achieved with a simplified liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stability tests showed that brominated tri-HNMs immediately degraded in the presence of ascorbic acid, sodium sulphite and sodium borohydride, and also reduced in samples treated with ammonium chloride, or with no preservation. Both ammonium chloride and ascorbic acid were suitable for the preservation of HAAms. Ammonium chloride was most suitable for preserving both HNMs and HAAms, although it is recommended that samples be analysed as soon as possible after collection. While groundwater samples exhibited a greater analytical bias compared to other waters, the good recoveries (>90%) of most analytes in tap water suggest that the method is very appropriate for determining these analytes in treated drinking waters. Application of the method to water from three drinking water treatment plants in Western Australia indicating N-DBP formation did occur, with increased detections after chlorination. The method is recommended for low-cost, rapid screening of both HNMs and HAAms in drinking water.

  19. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in preserved fruits by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y H; Chou, S S; Sheu, F; Shyu, Y T

    2000-08-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary method for the simultaneous determination of the sweeteners dulcin, aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K and the preservatives sorbic acid; benzoic acid; sodium dehydroacetate; and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in preserved fruits is developed. These additives are ion-paired and extracted using sonication followed by solid-phase extraction from the sample. Separation is achieved using a 57-cm fused-silica capillary with a buffer comprised of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.02 M borate-phosphate buffer (pH 8.6), and 5% acetonitrile, and the wavelength for detection is 214 nm. The average recovery rate for all sweeteners and preservatives is approximately 90% with good reproducibility, and the detection limits range from 10 to 25 microg/g. Fifty preserved fruit samples are analyzed for the content of sweeteners and preservatives. The sweeteners found in 28 samples was aspartame (0.17-11.59 g/kg) or saccharin (0.09-5.64 g/kg). Benzoic acid (0.02-1.72 g/kg) and sorbic acid (0.27-1.15 g/kg) were found as preservatives in 29 samples.

  20. Fertility preservation in women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghoon; Song, Jae Yun; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation (FP) is an effort to retain the fertility of cancer patients, and as an emerging discipline, it plays a central role in cancer care. Because of improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, an increasingly large number of patients are surviving with cancer. FP specialists should make an effort to spread the significance of FP among reproductive women with cancer and provide appropriate education both for associated physicians and for cancer patients who wish to preserve their fertility. Physicians who take part in the initial diagnosis and management of cancer should consider the importance of early referral of young cancer patients to FP specialists and take care of those patients by providing timely information and appropriate counseling. Individualized treatment strategies should be delivered depending on the patient's situation with appropriate team approach. PMID:22816069

  1. Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, D C; Nowak, M A

    1999-10-01

    Gene duplication events produce both perfect and imperfect copies of genes. Perfect copies are said to be functionally redundant when knockout of one gene produces no 'scoreable', phenotypic effects. Preserving identical, duplicate copies of genes is problematic as all copies are prone to accumulate neutral mutations as pseudogenes, or more rarely, evolve into new genes with novel functions. We summarise theoretical treatments for the invasion and subsequent evolutionary modification of functionally redundant genes. We then consider the preservation of functionally identical copies of a gene over evolutionary time. We present several models for conserving redundancy: asymmetric mutation, asymmetric efficacy, pleiotropy, developmental buffering, allelic competition and regulatory asymmetries. In all cases, some form of symmetry breaking is required to maintain functional redundancy indefinitely.

  2. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. [Contact allergies to recently introduced preservatives].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Köllner, A; Tholen, S; Frosch, P J

    1991-04-01

    Preservatives have come under fire due to their possible detrimental properties and the high rate of contact allergies some of them cause. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is searching for alternatives that will be effective, safe and economical. The present paper introduces a selection of new or revived biocides (Kathon CG, benzisothiazolinone, Euxyl K 400, Biobans, Grotans, Bronopol, Germall II), and the range of application and the sensitization potency of each are discussed. Test concentrations for patch tests are recommended. Kathon CG is the most commonly used preservative among these biocides, although it has a high sensitization potency and is a frequently encountered contact allergen. To make discovery of a new allergen easier and to reduce the risk of side effects, manufacturers should be required to specify the ingredients of their products on the labels.

  4. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  5. Patch tests with fragrance materials and preservatives.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Liem, D H; Nater, J P; van Ketel, W G

    1985-02-01

    179 patients suspected of cosmetic allergy were patch tested with a series of 16 fragrance materials and 9 preservatives. In 67 patients (37.4%), 1 or more of these substances gave positive reactions. In the group of fragrance materials, the largest numbers of positive patch test reactions were seen to isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, alpha-amylcinnamic alcohol, and a mixture of alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The fragrance mix in the ICDRG standard series detected nearly 80% of cases of contact allergy to fragrance materials other than its constituents. In the group of preservatives, Kathon CG and quaternium-15 scored the highest number of positive reactions. It is argued that the commonly used patch test concentrations of 2% for oak moss and geraniol may be too low to detect all cases of sensitization.

  6. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  7. Islet Culture/Preservation Before Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-12-17

    Although islet culture prior to transplantation provides flexibility for the evaluation of isolated islets and the pretreatment of patients, it is well known that isolated islets deteriorate rapidly in culture. Human serum albumin (HSA) is used for medium supplementation instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), which is typically used for islet culture research, to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic materials. However, FBS contains several factors that are beneficial to islet viability and which also neutralize the endogenous pancreatic enzymes or exogenous enzymes left over from the isolation process. Several groups have reported the comparison of cultures at 22°C and 37°C. Recent studies have demonstrated the superiority of 4°C preservation to 22°C and 37°C cultures. We herein review the current research on islet culture/preservation for clinical islet transplantation. PMID:26858905

  8. Preserving humanity in an age of technology.

    PubMed

    Mann, R E

    1992-03-01

    Preserving humanity in the present technological age can be a challenge for all health care workers, but perhaps particularly for staff working within an intensive care environment. This article highlights some of the potential effects of such technology on staff, patients and relatives, particularly bringing to light some of the disadvantages brought about by the use of such technology. Areas considered include the role of nurses within a technological environment, patients' and relatives' reactions to technology, the potential effect on autonomy and responsibility for both patients and nurses, economic issues, and finally ethical and moral issues raised by the advent of further technology. Despite many positive contributions to nursing care which arise from the use of technology, there are disadvantages attributed to technology which have only been mentioned superficially in previous literature on this subject. The question arises as to whether nurses are able to balance preserving the humanity of patients with the extensive use of technology in an intensive care environment today.

  9. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-06-02

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China.

  10. Privacy preserving RBF kernel support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data. PMID:25013805

  11. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented. PMID:19548681

  12. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China. PMID:26035285

  13. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Giaquinto, Joseph; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug}

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  14. Techniques and Results for Open Hip Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Haughom, Bryan; Stover, Michael D.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is the most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg–Calve–Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26649292

  15. Techniques and Results for Open Hip Preservation.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Hellman, Michael D; Haughom, Bryan; Stover, Michael D; Nho, Shane J

    2015-01-01

    While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is the most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26649292

  16. Preserving idealism in global health promotion.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

    2010-12-01

    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history. PMID:21513081

  17. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  18. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Young; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  19. Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  20. Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954

  1. Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.

  2. Preserving idealism in global health promotion.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

    2010-12-01

    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history.

  3. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  4. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  5. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  6. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  7. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  8. Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very quickly after an eruption may be good candidates for containment and preservation of refractory organic material that existed in a biologic system pre-eruption due to their impermeability and ability to attenuate UV radiation. Analysis using NanoSIMS of volcanic glass could then be performed to both deduce carbon isotope ratios that indicate biologic origin and confirm entrainment during eruption. Terrestrial contamination is one of the biggest barriers to definitive Martian organic identification in soil and rock samples. While there is a greater potential to concentrate organics in sedimentary strata, volcanic glasses may better encapsulate and preserve organics over long time scales, and are widespread on Mars. If volcanic glass from many sites on Earth could be shown to contain biologically derived organics from the original environment, there could be significant implications for the search for biomarkers in ancient Martian environments.

  9. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them.

  10. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D.

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  11. Mass preserving registration for lung CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung intensities due to differences in inspiration level, we propose to adjust the intensity of lung tissue according to the local expansion or compression. An image registration method without intensity adjustment is compared to the proposed method. Both approaches are evaluated on a set of 10 pairs of expiration and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger differences between these regions in the case of mass preserving image registration, indicating that mass preserving registration is better at capturing localized differences in lung deformation.

  12. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed. PMID:20605688

  13. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  14. [Preservation of fertility in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    de Lambert, Guénolée; Poirot, Catherine; Guérin, Florent; Brugières, Laurence; Martelli, Héléne

    2015-05-01

    Preserving fertility is a requisite for any child undergoing gonadotoxic treatment for cancer. Techniques vary depending on the age, sex of the patient and nature of the treatment. Boys undergoing irradiation have testicular protection or transposition. Post-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy can have semen cryopreservation like adults. However, fertility preservation for pre-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy implies testicular tissue cryopreservation. Research concentrates on germ cell transplantation, autotransplantation of testicular tissue or in vitro spermatogonial maturation in order to later restore spermatogenesis. Ovarian transposition can be undergone in case of brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy in girls and has published success rates of 80%. Ovarian cryopreservation has been developed since 1995 for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal girls undergoing chemotherapy. The ovary is retrieved surgically and ovarian cortical segments are frozen. Thawing and transplantation of gonadal tissue are the next steps to restoring fertility. However, immature oocytes will have to be matured either in vivo or in vitro in order to restore fertility. Fertility preservation must be offered to children with cancer even if maturation of immature germ cells is uncertain for research 20 to 30 years from now will probably enable fertility restoration.

  15. Riverscape and groundwater preservation: a choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  16. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani’s, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them. PMID:24948912

  17. Context preserving maps of tubular structures.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Kaufman, Arie

    2011-12-01

    When visualizing tubular 3D structures, external representations are often used for guidance and display, and such views in 2D can often contain occlusions. Virtual dissection methods have been proposed where the entire 3D structure can be mapped to the 2D plane, though these will lose context by straightening curved sections. We present a new method of creating maps of 3D tubular structures that yield a succinct view while preserving the overall geometric structure. Given a dominant view plane for the structure, its curve skeleton is first projected to a 2D skeleton. This 2D skeleton is adjusted to account for distortions in length, modified to remove intersections, and optimized to preserve the shape of the original 3D skeleton. Based on this shaped 2D skeleton, a boundary for the map of the object is obtained based on a slicing path through the structure and the radius around the skeleton. The sliced structure is conformally mapped to a rectangle and then deformed via harmonic mapping to match the boundary placement. This flattened map preserves the general geometric context of a 3D object in a 2D display, and rendering of this flattened map can be accomplished using volumetric ray casting. We have evaluated our method on real datasets of human colon models.

  18. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  19. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  20. 2-[(Hydroxymethyl)amino]ethanol in water as a preservative: Study of formaldehyde released by Taguchi's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisessirikul, W.; Loykulnant, S.; Montha, S.; Fhulua, T.; Prapainainar, P.

    2016-06-01

    This research studied the quantity of free formaldehyde released from 2- [(hydroxymethyl)amino]ethanol (HAE) in DI water and natural rubber latex mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The quantity of formaldehyde retained in the solution was cross-checked by using titration technique. The investigated factors were the concentration of preservative (HAE), pH, and temperature. Taguchi's method was used to design the experiments. The number of experiments was reduced to 16 experiments from all possible experiments by orthogonal arrays (3 factors and 4 levels in each factor). Minitab program was used as a tool for statistical calculation and for finding the suitable condition for the preservative system. HPLC studies showed that higher temperature and higher concentration of the preservative influence the amount of formaldehyde released. It was found that conditions at which formaldehyde was released in the lowest amount were 1.6%w/v HAE, 4 to 40 °C, and the original pH. Nevertheless, the pH value of NR latex should be more than 10 (the suitable pH value was found to be 13). This preservative can be used to replace current preservative systems and can maintain the quality of latex for long-term storage. Use of the proposed preservative system was also shown to have reduced impact on the toxicity of the environment.

  1. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  2. Signal Preservation in Pulsing Turbidity Current Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, G. M.; Dorrell, R. M.; McCaffrey, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent debate has focused on the potential preservation of the signal of seismic events in the sedimentary record via the initiation of large-scale turbidity current flows. The failure of a seismic zone lying across a series of submarine canyon systems may initiate multiple linked turbidity currents from each canyon head. Such events can be distinguished from locally triggered turbidity currents by their deposits. Canyon systems may be expected to become progressively interconnected with depth. Differing run out times of each interconnected channel is expected to result in pulsing flow behavior, a key feature of such turbidity currents. Thus, cyclical waxing to waning flow behavior preserved in the rock record may be a key indicator of a large-scale seismic trigger. Novel experimental research is presented that explores the dynamics of pulsed turbidity currents. The experimental study is used to quantitatively examine controls on the time and length scale of signal preservation in pulsing density driven flows. The experiments consisted of a multi gate lock box, with the gates remotely operated by pneumatic rams. Gate timers allow for accurate experimental repeatability and a careful investigation of the effect of time spacing between flows on pulsing flow dynamics. Parameters investigated include volumes of material released, effective flow density and viscosity (as a proxy of flow mud content). Full flow field visualization was made using an array of interlinked HD cameras. Dyeing separate components of the flow different colors enabled detailed analysis of flow dynamic behavior occurring between head and tail. The secondary pulsing flow was seen to rapidly overtake the first flow. Observations of flow velocity and density suggested that due to stratification the secondary flow was travelling along the density interface between the main body of the primary flow and its turbulent wake. As the pulsing flows created in the laboratory experiments rapidly merged, it

  3. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  4. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  5. Sperm Preservation by Freeze-Drying for the Conservation of Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takehito; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Hidefusa; Onuma, Manabu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4°C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of “freeze-drying zoo” to conserve wild animals. PMID:25409172

  6. Liquid annulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludewig, Hans

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the specific impulse varies with the square root of the temperature and inversely with the square root of the molecular weight of the propellant. Typical values for specific impulse corresponding to various rocket concepts are shown. The Liquid Annulus core concept consists of a fuel element which will be arranged in a moderator block. The advantages as seen for the system are: high specific impulse; structural material will all run at low temperature; and lower fission product inventory because of evaporation. It is felt that this concept is worth at least a first look because of the promise of very high specific impulse. Because of the low thrust, one would probably need a cluster of engines. This is not necessarily bad because there would be some redundancy, but because of the low thrust one might have to refuel while running. Depending on the fuel vaporization, material can be included in the uranium that is injected as one is running along.

  7. Functional recovery of porcine hepatocytes after hypothermic or cryogenic preservation for liver support systems.

    PubMed

    Naik, S; Santangini, H A; Trenkler, D M; Mullon, C J; Solomon, B A; Pan, J; Jauregui, H O

    1997-01-01

    The provision of an immediate supply of isolated porcine hepatocytes for artificial liver support requires preservation techniques that will allow maintenance of cell viability and detoxification functions. By means of a simple and cost-effective cryopreservation system, porcine hepatocytes can be available for both local and distant medical treatment facilities. Additionally, cryopreservation provides an adequate period for quality control testing to be completed prior to use of any specific cell lot. We are reporting a dual approach, namely the preservation of porcine hepatocytes, at 4 degrees C and at -196 degrees C in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Using a combination of cryoprotectant agents with Chee's modified Eagle's culture media (CEM), collagenase isolated hepatocytes stored at 4 degrees C for 24 h maintained 80% of the initial diazepam metabolism measured in freshly isolated cells and nearly 100% of initial function was preserved in hepatocytes stored up to 6 mo at -196 degrees C. University of Wisconsin solution (UW) was also tested and while adequate for 4 degrees C storage, it certainly did not match the performance of the CEM formulations for preservation of metabolic function of cells stored in liquid nitrogen. Based on our results of viability and detoxification function the combination of CEM with DMSO, polyethylene glycol and serum provided optimal protection for LN2 frozen cells. Other findings in these studies underlined the importance of the gradual introduction of DMSO in the prefreezing process, the period of osmotic equilibration, and the rapid postthaw withdrawal of this agent to minimize cytotoxic effects at these critical stages. Our freezing methodology provides the foundation for further technological developments in the cryopreservation of the large numbers of cells (billions) that are necessary for extracorporeal liver assist devices.

  8. The Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter. 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established in 1986 to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps the preservation and…

  9. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used on wooden articles that are used or... protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption. (b) The substances permitted are as...

  12. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  14. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Collection and Preservation of Evidence; Information Created Pursuant to... preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  15. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  16. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act, 16...

  17. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act, 16...

  18. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  19. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preserving historic landmarks and properties... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  20. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act, 16...

  1. 32 CFR 644.317 - Preserving historic landmarks and properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preserving historic landmarks and properties. 644... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.317 Preserving historic landmarks and properties. Purposes of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, (16 U.S.C. 470)...

  2. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16...

  3. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water...

  5. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  6. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  7. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  8. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  10. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  11. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  15. Video Preservation and Digital Reformatting: Pain and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Jerome; Jimenez, Mona

    2006-01-01

    The digital library community is increasingly concerned with long-term preservation of digital materials. This concern presents an opportunity for strategic alliances between digital library units and preservation departments confronting the difficulties inherent in preservation reformatting of moving image materials. However, successful…

  16. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and...

  17. Preservation of Electronic Scholarly Publishing: An Analysis of Three Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honey, Sadie L.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars publish in journals to preserve their work and to make sure that it is available for current and future researchers. More and more of this publishing is done in electronic format. Libraries, the institutions that have traditionally overseen the preservation of print publications, are now struggling with the preservation of digital…

  18. 4 CFR 201.15 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 201.15 Section 201.15 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.15 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives...

  19. 36 CFR 801.5 - State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Historic Preservation Officer responsibilities. 801.5 Section 801.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION HISTORIC PRESERVATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT ACTION GRANT...

  20. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  1. 14 CFR 136.9 - Life preservers for over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life preservers for over water. 136.9... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.9 Life preservers... is wearing a life preserver from before takeoff until flight is no longer over water. (b)...

  2. 7 CFR 1.24 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1.24 Section 1.24 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.24 Preservation of records. Agencies shall preserve all correspondence relating to the requests it receives under...

  3. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned preserved figs. 145.134 Section 145.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Canned preserved figs. (a) Canned preserved figs is the food prepared from one of the optional...

  4. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned preserved figs. 145.134 Section 145.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Canned preserved figs. (a) Canned preserved figs is the food prepared from one of the optional...

  5. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned preserved figs. 145.134 Section 145.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Canned preserved figs. (a) Canned preserved figs is the food prepared from one of the optional...

  6. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned preserved figs. 145.134 Section 145.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Canned preserved figs. (a) Canned preserved figs is the food prepared from one of the optional...

  7. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned preserved figs. 145.134 Section 145.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Canned preserved figs. (a) Canned preserved figs is the food prepared from one of the optional...

  8. 6 CFR 5.28 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 5.28 Section 5.28 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.28 Preservation of records. Each component will preserve all...

  9. 6 CFR 5.10 - Preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 5.10 Section 5.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.10 Preservation of records. Each component shall preserve...

  10. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  11. Optimization of preservation and storage time of sponge tissues to obtain quality mRNA for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana; Pérez-Porro, Alicia R; Carmona, Susana; Leys, Sally P; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-03-01

    Transcriptome sequencing with next-generation sequencing technologies has the potential for addressing many long-standing questions about the biology of sponges. Transcriptome sequence quality depends on good cDNA libraries, which requires high-quality mRNA. Standard protocols for preserving and isolating mRNA often require optimization for unusual tissue types. Our aim was assessing the efficiency of two preservation modes, (i) flash freezing with liquid nitrogen (LN₂) and (ii) immersion in RNAlater, for the recovery of high-quality mRNA from sponge tissues. We also tested whether the long-term storage of samples at -80 °C affects the quantity and quality of mRNA. We extracted mRNA from nine sponge species and analysed the quantity and quality (A260/230 and A260/280 ratios) of mRNA according to preservation method, storage time, and taxonomy. The quantity and quality of mRNA depended significantly on the preservation method used (LN₂) outperforming RNAlater), the sponge species, and the interaction between them. When the preservation was analysed in combination with either storage time or species, the quantity and A260/230 ratio were both significantly higher for LN₂-preserved samples. Interestingly, individual comparisons for each preservation method over time indicated that both methods performed equally efficiently during the first month, but RNAlater lost efficiency in storage times longer than 2 months compared with flash-frozen samples. In summary, we find that for long-term preservation of samples, flash freezing is the preferred method. If LN₂ is not available, RNAlater can be used, but mRNA extraction during the first month of storage is advised.

  12. Preservation of organic molecules at Mars' near-surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freissinet, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    origin of the organic matter in near-surface materials in Gale Crater. The future Mars Organic Molecule Organizer (MOMA) instrument onboard ExoMars 2018 should improve the detection of organic molecules in Mars subsurface in two ways. Firstly, by drilling a sample down to 2 meters, it will access more preserved area against deleterious radiations. Secondly, MOMA derivatization using dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) as a reagent is designed to assess the potential enantiomeric excess of complex chiral molecules of interest, such as amino acids, sugars or carboxylic acids, to aid at the determination of their biotic or abiotic origin. Gale crater had recently been defined as an ancient habitable environment, due to the simultaneous presence of liquid water, energy source and a mild range of temperature, pH, pressure and salinity. The presence of organic molecules opens up habitability to another level, where the building blocks of life were available for more complex system to evolve. This view into ancient Mars begins to provide a context for habitable environments and is a first step toward understanding the presence and diversity of possible prebiotic or biotic molecular signatures. Moreover, it helps mapping out potential windows of preservation for chemically reduced organic compounds, which will help on sample and site selection on all bodies of the solar system.

  13. Fertility preservation and breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, María; Otero, Borja; Martín, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and its incidence increases with age, with the majority of patients diagnosed after menopause. However, in 15–25% of cases, patients are premenopausal at the time of diagnosis, and about 7% of them are below the age of 40. Therefore, a considerable amount of young women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their reproductive life. Within this group, most cancer cases require cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy, which are responsible for a decrease in the patients’ reproductive function, along with their age. The efficacy of such treatments, among other factors, has led to a high five-year-survival rate, which results in an increasing number of young women who survive breast cancer before having fulfilled their reproductive wishes, especially considering the current trend to delay pregnancy until the late 30s or early 40s in developed countries. The combination of these factors justifies the importance of fertility preservation and reproductive counselling at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in young women. A wide range of fertility preservation techniques has been developed, such as ovarian suppression, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, immature oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Early counselling and referral of these patients to fertility specialists are fundamental factors in order to maximise their chances of pregnancy. This review aims to update the knowledge about the influence of breast cancer in fertility, the influence of pregnancy and fertility preservation techniques in breast cancer patients and assessment of ovarian reserve for a better treatment choice. A special section dedicated to BRCA-mutation carriers has been included because of their specific features. A comprehensive literature search has been conducted, including publications from the last five years. PMID:25729416

  14. Hearing Preservation Among Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Dunn, Camille C.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Beatty, Charles W.; Neff, Brian A.; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite successful preservation of low-frequency hearing in patients undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) with shorter electrode lengths, there is still controversy regarding which electrodes maximize hearing preservation (HP). The thin straight electrode array (TSEA) has been suggested as a full cochlear coverage option for HP. However, very little is known regarding its HP potential. Methods A retrospective review was performed at two tertiary academic medical centers, reviewing the electronic records for 52 patients (mean, 58.2 yr; range, 11–85 yr) implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Slim Straight (Centennial, CO, USA) electrode array, referred to herein as the thin straight electrode array or TSEA. All patients had a preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) of 85 dB HL or less. Hearing thresholds were measured at initial activation (t1) and 6 months after activation (t2). HP was assessed by evaluating functional HP using a cutoff level of 85 dB HL PTA. Results At t1, 54% of the subjects had functional hearing; 33% of these subjects had an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL, and 17% had an LFPTA between 56 and 70 dB HL. At t2, 47% of the patients had functional hearing, with 31% having an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL. Discussion Preliminary research suggests that the TSEA has the potential to preserve functional hearing in 54% of patients at t1. However, 22% (n = 6) of the patients who had functional hearing at t1 (n = 28) lost their hearing between t1 and t2. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that influence HP with the TSEA electrode and determine the speech perception benefits using electric and acoustic hearing over electric alone. PMID:25575373

  15. Dormant bud preservation for germplasm conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of dormant buds (DB) for cryopreservation of different plant species has been demonstrated in several reports. For the majority of the species, processing DB for long-term liquid nitrogen storage does not involve establishing tissue cultures and the time for growing out post-cryo mat...

  16. Electrokinetics over liquid/liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Todd M.

    2011-11-01

    Since liquid-liquid interfaces flow in response to an applied stress, one might expect electrokinetic flows at liquid-liquid interfaces to be significantly higher than over liquid-solid interfaces. The earliest predictions for the electrophoretic mobility of charged mercury drops - distinct approaches by Frumkin and Levich (1946), and Booth (1951) - differed by O (a /λD) , where a is the radius of the drop and λD is the Debye screening length. Seeking to reconcile this rather striking discrepancy, Levine (1973) showed double-layer polarization to be the key ingredient. Without a physical mechanism by which electrokinetic effects are enhanced, however, it is difficult to know how general the enhancement is - whether it holds only for liquid metal surfaces, or more generally, for all liquid/liquid surfaces. By considering a series of systems in which a planar metal strip is coated with either a liquid metal or liquid dielectric, we show that the central physical mechanism behind the enhancement predicted by Frumkin and Levich (1946) is the presence of an unmatched electrical stress upon the electrolyte-liquid interface, which establishes a Marangoni stress on the droplet surface and drives it into motion. The source of the unbalanced electrokinetic stress on a liquid metal surface is clear - metals represent equipotential surfaces, so no field exists to drive an equal and opposite force on the surface charge. This might suggest that liquid metals represent a unique system, since dielectric liquids can support finite electric fields, which might be expected to exert an electrical stress on the surface charge that balances the electric stress. We demonstrate, however, that electrical and osmotic stresses on relaxed double-layers internal to dielectric liquids precisely cancel, so that internal electrokinetic stresses generally vanish in closed, ideally polarizable liquids. The enhancement for liquid mercury drops can thus be expected quite generally over clean

  17. Exploring principles of hibernation for organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Ratigan, Emmett D; McKay, Dianne B

    2016-01-01

    Interest in mimicking hibernating states has led investigators to explore the biological mechanisms that permit hibernating mammals to survive for months at extremely low ambient temperatures, with no food or water, and awaken from their hibernation without apparent organ injury. Hibernators have evolved mechanisms to adapt to dramatic reductions in core body temperature and metabolic rate, accompanied by prolonged periods without nutritional intake and at the same time tolerate the metabolic demands of arousal. This review discusses the inherent resilience of hibernators to kidney injury and provides a potential framework for new therapies targeting ex vivo preservation of kidneys for transplantation.

  18. Non-Markovian environments and entanglement preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jackson; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Yeo, Ye

    2010-06-15

    Using the Shabani-Lidar post-Markovian master equation, we derive non-Markovian generalizations of important quantum decohering operations on single qubits. When environmental memory effects are being taken into account, both single-qubit coherence and two-qubit entanglement may be preserved over a longer period of time, in contrast to the corresponding situations where these are totally neglected. We argue that recognizing the fact that every environment is inherently non-Markovian could be the key to the resolution of the issue of entanglement sudden death.

  19. Privacy Preserving Publication of Moving Object Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonchi, Francesco

    The increasing availability of space-time trajectories left by location-aware devices is expected to enable novel classes of applications where the discovery of consumable, concise, and actionable knowledge is the key step. However, the analysis of mobility data is a critic task by the privacy point of view: in fact, the peculiar nature of location data might enable intrusive inferences in the life of the individuals whose data is analyzed. It is thus important to develop privacy-preserving techniques for the publication and the analysis of mobility data.

  20. Summary report on transverse emittance preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Vos, L.

    1997-12-01

    During the past years, significant progress has been made in understanding the beam transverse emittance blow-up and its preservation. However, one often finds him-/herself ignorant when he/she tries to explain what was observed in an existing machine or to predict what will happen in a machine under design. There are a number of such examples given in this report. Some of them are even fundamental. These are the challenges. But they are also the directions leading to new achievements. The workshop gladly acknowledged them and promised to work on them.

  1. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  2. Preservation of Isolated Heart for 72 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, E.; Parker, R.

    1968-01-01

    Isolated hearts of dogs have been preserved in a viable condition for 72 hours with hypothermic perfusion (5° C.) at normal atmospheric pressure. On removal and connexion to the femoral artery and vein of another dog these hearts beat strongly and without failing until removed after six hours. In mechanical function and histological appearance they were virtually identical with control hearts. The most useful criterion of viability of the quiescent myocardium during storage was the change in coronary resistance with time of perfusion. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4879972

  3. Privacy Preservation over Untrusted Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardagna, Claudio A.; Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Stavrou, Angelos

    The proliferation of mobile devices has given rise to novel user-centric applications and services. In current mobile systems, users gain access to remote servers over mobile network operators. These operators are typically assumed to be trusted and to manage the information they collect in a privacy-preserving way. Such information, however, is extremely sensitive and coveted by many companies, which may use it to improve their business. In this context, safeguarding the users’ privacy against the prying eyes of the network operators is an emerging requirement.

  4. Groundwater remediation at a wood preservatives site

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, H.K.; Damera, R.

    1994-12-31

    A wood treatment facility in Pennsylvania allegedly discharged about a million gallons of spent wood preservatives containing pentachlorophenol into a well from 1947 to 1963. Contaminated water was noticed in a creek adjacent to the site and was reported by the residents in 1972. Subsequently this site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the EPA in 1982. Tetra Tech, Inc. has performed Remedial Investigations (RI), Feasibility Studies (FS), Remedial Designs (RD) and Remedial Action (RA) at this Superfund site, for five years. This paper presents an overview of RI, FS, RD and treatability studies related to groundwater remediation.

  5. Amino acid racemization on Mars: implications for the preservation of biomolecules from an extinct martian biota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; McDonald, G. D.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Using kinetic data, we have estimated the racemization half-lives and times for total racemization of amino acids under conditions relevant to the surface of Mars. Amino acids from an extinct martian biota maintained in a dry, cold (<250 K) environment would not have racemized significantly over the lifetime of the planet. Racemization would have taken place in environments where liquid water was present even for time periods of only a few million years following biotic extinction. The best preservation of both amino acid homochirality and nucleic acid genetic information associated with extinct martian life would be in the polar regions.

  6. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and Lifecyle of Information Management at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayat, Mo; Kempler, Steve; Deshong, Barbara; Johnson, James; Gerasimov, Irina; Esfandiari, Ed; Berganski, Michael; Wei, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for information loss. This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input-output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of information preservation; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important metadata about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions. Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of information lifecycle management. By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of

  7. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and life-cyle of information management at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, M. G.; Deshong, B.; Esfandiari, A. E.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S. J.; Wei, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for "information loss". This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input/output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of "information preservation"; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important "metadata" about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions.Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of "information lifecycle management". By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The "NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification" is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long

  8. Optimization of preservatives in a topical formulation using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahali, Y; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Mielcarek, C; Bensouda, Y

    2009-12-01

    Optimizing the preservative regime for a preparation requires the antimicrobial effectiveness of several preservative combinations to be determined. In this study, three preservatives were tested: benzoic acid, sorbic acid and benzylic alcohol. Their preservative effects were evaluated using the antimicrobial preservative efficacy test (challenge-test) of the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A D-optimal mixture design was used to provide a maximum of information from a limited number of experiments. The results of this study were analysed with the help of the Design Expert software and enabled us to formulate emulsions satisfying both requirements A and B of the EP.

  9. Selection for preservation: considerations for the health sciences.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, D T; McClure, L W

    1989-01-01

    Just as no health sciences library can afford to collect every work on a subject, neither can any health sciences library afford to preserve every item that is added to its collection. In decision making for collection development, health sciences libraries apply a set of selection criteria. Those same criteria have direct application in selection for preservation decisions. This paper summarizes the literature of selection for preservation, describes the scholarly record of biomedicine, and presents criteria for selection for preservation decisions. The preservation priorities statement for microfilming of monographs and serials in the National Library of Medicine collection is included as an appendix. PMID:2758182

  10. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

    PubMed Central

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  11. Establishment of long-term preservation for dimethyl sulfide by the solid-phase microextraction method.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ai; Niki, Takushi; Watanabe, Yutaka W

    2006-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) derived from marine biological activity affects radiative forcing of the climate. The general analytical technique for DMS in seawater (purge and trap analytical method, P&T) is complex onboard ship. Thus it is difficult to obtain sufficient data for a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of DMS in the sea surface layer. On the other hand, a new analytical method for DMS using SPME (solid-phase microextraction) has recently been developed as an alternative method to P&T. This method is simpler than P&T because no special or complex apparatus is needed. If it is possible to preserve DMS for an extended period in excess of the duration of the cruise, the SPME method is a promising method for measuring DMS in seawater. We assessed an analytical method which can allow us to preserve DMS on the long-term scale using SPME. In liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), as preserved environment, for a period of 20 days after sampling, we found the preservation rate of DMS to be 94.7 +/- 4.4% (n = 6) in this study. Furthermore, estimating the distribution coefficient with respect to the effect of salinity on SPME, we found that DMS changed by 0.1 nM/% sal, suggesting that salinity has only a minor influence on oceanic DMS measurements in the open ocean because the minimal change of the open ocean salinity is within 2 %. Applying the SPME method to open ocean samples, we found that there were no significant differences in DMS between the unpreserved and preserved samples (r = 0.99, n = 26, SE = 0.01, p < 0.0001), showing the SPME method has potential for use for open ocean surveys.

  12. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  13. Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and hepatachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. The authors conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results.

  14. Comparison of methods of preserving tissues for pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Stickel, W H; Stickel, L F; Dyrland, R A; Hughes, D L

    1984-06-01

    Formalin preservation, freezing, spoiling followed by freezing, and phenoxyethanol were compared in terms of concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, endrin, and heptachlor epoxide measured in brain, liver and carcass of birds fed dietary dosages of pesticides and in spiked egg homogenate. Phenoxyethanol proved to be an unsatisfactory preservative; the amount of 'extractable lipid' was excessive, and measurements of concentrations in replicates were erratic. Concentrations of residues in formalin-preserved and frozen samples did not differ significantly in any tissue. Percentage lipid in brains and eggs, however, were significantly lower in formalin-preserved samples. Samples of muscle and liver that had been spoiled before freezing yielded less DDD, and muscle samples yielded more DDT than formalin-preserved samples. We conclude that formalin preservation is a satisfactory method for preservation of field samples and that the warming and spoiling of samples that may occur unavoidably in the field will not result in misleading analytical results.

  15. Preservation of Microbial Lipids in Geothermal Sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2011-04-01

    Lipid biomarkers are widely used to study the earliest life on Earth and have been invoked as potential astrobiological markers, but few studies have assessed their survival and persistence in geothermal settings. Here, we investigate lipid preservation in active and inactive geothermal silica sinters, with ages of up to 900 years, from Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand. Analyses revealed a wide range of bacterial biomarkers, including free and bound fatty acids, 1,2-di-O-alkylglycerols (diethers), and various hopanoids. Dominant archaeal lipids include archaeol and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The predominance of generally similar biomarker groups in all sinters suggests a stable microbial community throughout Champagne Pool's history and indicates that incorporated lipids can be well preserved. Moreover, subtle differences in lipid distributions suggest that past changes in environmental conditions can be elucidated. In this case, higher archaeol abundances relative to the bacterial diethers, a greater proportion of cyclic GDGTs, the high average chain length of the bacterial diethers, and greater concentrations of hopanoic acids in the older sinters all suggest hotter conditions at Champagne Pool in the past.

  16. Preserving the Future of Small Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    1997-05-01

    The diminishing availability of small (1-2m) telescopes at national facilities throughout the world requires that new models for operating such facilities must be developed if they are to be preserved for the next generation of astronomers. Their users, typically students and faculty at small universities, must achieve an equitable voice in decisions affecting those facilities which support their education and research. In exchange, they must assume a larger role in the facilities' operation, management and funding. Preliminary discussions at the 1996 Lowell workshop and the 1997 Toronto AAS meeting indicated that there is broad interest in not only preserving but increasing the science done by small observatories. Drawing upon the experiences of several existing organizations, here we discuss the merits of: (1) forming small consortia to pool the necessary resources to acquire and operate facilities; (2) creating informal networks of consortia and/or individual institutions; (3) establishing modest travel support programs for students and isolated faculty to facilitate their participation in existing internship programs and projects; and (4) creating avenues by which disadvantaged astronomers can make their needs and capabilties known to prospective collaborators and policy- making bodies.

  17. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  18. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  19. Chlorhexidine Preserves Dentin Bond in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, M. R. O.; Carvalho, R. M.; de Goes, M. F.; di Hipólito, V.; Geraldeli, S.; Tay, F. R.; Pashley, D. H.; Tjäderhane, L.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength. PMID:17189470

  20. Nested Krylov methods and preserving the orthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desturler, Eric; Fokkema, Diederik R.

    1993-01-01

    Recently the GMRESR inner-outer iteraction scheme for the solution of linear systems of equations was proposed by Van der Vorst and Vuik. Similar methods have been proposed by Axelsson and Vassilevski and Saad (FGMRES). The outer iteration is GCR, which minimizes the residual over a given set of direction vectors. The inner iteration is GMRES, which at each step computes a new direction vector by approximately solving the residual equation. However, the optimality of the approximation over the space of outer search directions is ignored in the inner GMRES iteration. This leads to suboptimal corrections to the solution in the outer iteration, as components of the outer iteration directions may reenter in the inner iteration process. Therefore we propose to preserve the orthogonality relations of GCR in the inner GMRES iteration. This gives optimal corrections; however, it involves working with a singular, non-symmetric operator. We will discuss some important properties, and we will show by experiments that, in terms of matrix vector products, this modification (almost) always leads to better convergence. However, because we do more orthogonalizations, it does not always give an improved performance in CPU-time. Furthermore, we will discuss efficient implementations as well as the truncation possibilities of the outer GCR process. The experimental results indicate that for such methods it is advantageous to preserve the orthogonality in the inner iteration. Of course we can also use iteration schemes other than GMRES as the inner method; methods with short recurrences like GICGSTAB are of interest.

  1. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  2. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries. PMID:26476068

  3. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  4. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial laser and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C., within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable of focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and man be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  5. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount about 20 C, with the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radical sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  6. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  7. Preservation Conditions, Practices, and Needs in the General Libraries. A Report by the Preservation Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. General Libraries.

    The survey documented in this report was conducted in 1981 to investigate the preservation conditions, practices, and needs of the units of the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. The report is divided into six major portions. The first five sections report the responses to questionnaires on specific formats: books and serials;…

  8. Germplasm Preservation of Vegetatively-propagated Crops at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 476,049 germpaslm accessions maintained by the USDA, ARS, National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), ca. 30,000 are vegetaively-propagated and as such require preservation as non seed propagules. Numerous research reports demonstrated the advantages of long term storage of plant tissues in liqui...

  9. Editorial Commentary: Arthroscopic Hip Preservation Is Critical for Preserving Health and Function in Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Hal David

    2016-09-01

    Hip health is a critical factor in preserving daily life activities and wellbeing for both adults and adolescents. There are several potential economic influences in developing arthroscopic hip techniques for the evaluation and treatment of hip pathology in patients of all ages. PMID:27594331

  10. Post-consumer use efficacies of preservatives in personal care and topical drug products: relationship to preservative category.

    PubMed

    Ravita, Timothy D; Tanner, Ralph S; Ahearn, Donald G; Arms, Erin L; Crockett, Patrick W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six used personal care and topical OTC drug items collected from consumers in the USA were examined for the presence of microbial contaminants. Of the eye and face product type containing global preservative chemistries (i.e., acceptable for use in Japan without major restrictions), 55% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.1814). For the mascara products with global preservative chemistries, 79% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.024). Products containing global preservative chemistries accounted for 88% (n = 14) of the products that had microbial contents above 10(4) CFU/g (P < 0.001). Prominent contaminants were species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and yeast. In general, under the stress of consumer use, products preserved with global preservative chemistries did not maintain as adequate preservation as products with non-global preservatives. PMID:18802729

  11. Autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    PubMed

    Havenga, Klaas; Enker, Warren E

    2002-10-01

    The main objectives of surgery for rectal cancer are cure and the prevention of local or pelvic recurrence. Preservation of pelvic autonomic functions are important associated goals that have influenced the design of the operation. These changes began with modifications to the art of lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and with the introduction of sharp pelvic dissection along anatomical pelvic fascial planes for rectal cancer in the mid-1970s. These changes evolved to include deliberate autonomic nerve preservation as a part of the operation that was ultimately reported as TME with ANP [1]. While it is a small nuance. dissection was generally directed to the widest possible pelvic margin--medial to the autonomic nerves, as opposed to just peripheral to the mesorectum. Both sexual and urinary functions are complex. and patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer may have differing baseline levels of function. Pre-existing benign prostatic hypertrophy or stress incontinence are common physical conditions. Patients bring personal or cultural attitudes to the subject of sexual function with advancing years. in a population with a median age in the mid-sixties. Other health issues such as coronary artery or peripheral vascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes mellitus. smoking or alcohol intake, or the use of medications to treat these conditions, may influence sexual function. Radiation therapy, frequently used in conjunction with chemotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer, may be associated with its own incidence of impotence caused via a different mechanism. While radiation may affect the vasa nervosa of the autonomic nerves, leading to fibrosis and dysfunction. radiation therapy may also be associated with smooth muscle fibrosis, causing vasculogenic impotence due to penile outflow dysfunction in the corpora cavernosa. The causes of impotence after surgery alone or after surgery. radiation, and chemotherapy for rectal cancer are complex, and not all answers to

  12. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan - an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Fu, C.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people's expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments' powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan's heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan's cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan's preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.

  13. Stochastic rotation dynamics for nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuang-Wu Mazza, Marco G.

    2015-04-28

    We introduce a new mesoscopic model for nematic liquid crystals (LCs). We extend the particle-based stochastic rotation dynamics method, which reproduces the Navier-Stokes equation, to anisotropic fluids by including a simplified Ericksen-Leslie formulation of nematodynamics. We verify the applicability of this hybrid model by studying the equilibrium isotropic-nematic phase transition and nonequilibrium problems, such as the dynamics of topological defects and the rheology of sheared LCs. Our simulation results show that this hybrid model captures many essential aspects of LC physics at the mesoscopic scale, while preserving microscopic thermal fluctuations.

  14. Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David

    2014-05-30

    The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. PMID:24876495

  15. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.; Herner, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Roser, R.; Sakumoto, W.

    2015-12-23

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and DO experiments each have nearly 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 or beyond. To achieve this, we are implementing a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards in both software and data storage technology as well as leveraging resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. Furthermore, these efforts will provide useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments throughout high-energy physics, and provide a roadmap for high-quality scientific output for years to come.

  16. Data preservation at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boyd, J.; Herner, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Roser, R.; Sakumoto, W.

    2015-12-23

    The Fermilab Tevatron collider's data-taking run ended in September 2011, yielding a dataset with rich scientific potential. The CDF and DO experiments each have nearly 9 PB of collider and simulated data stored on tape. A large computing infrastructure consisting of tape storage, disk cache, and distributed grid computing for physics analysis with the Tevatron data is present at Fermilab. The Fermilab Run II data preservation project intends to keep this analysis capability sustained through the year 2020 or beyond. To achieve this, we are implementing a system that utilizes virtualization, automated validation, and migration to new standards in bothmore » software and data storage technology as well as leveraging resources available from currently-running experiments at Fermilab. Furthermore, these efforts will provide useful lessons in ensuring long-term data access for numerous experiments throughout high-energy physics, and provide a roadmap for high-quality scientific output for years to come.« less

  17. Precambrian organic geochemistry - Preservation of the record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Wedeking, K. W.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of earlier studies is presented, and new results in Precambrian organic geochemistry are discussed. It is pointed out that two lines of evidence can be developed. One is based on structural organic chemistry, while the other is based on isotopic analyses. In the present investigation, the results of both structural and isotopic investigations of Precambrian organic matter are discussed. Processes and products related to organic geochemistry are examined, taking into account the carbon cycle, an approximate view of the principal pathways of carbon cycling associated with organic matter in the present global ecosystem, processes affecting sedimentary organic matter, and distribution and types of organic matter. Attention is given to chemical fossils in Precambrian sediments, kerogen analyses, the determination of the structural characteristics of kerogen, and data concerning the preservation of the Precambrian organic geochemical record.

  18. Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders.

    PubMed

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis.

  19. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state σ for the ancillary mode; σ determines the properties of the added noise.

  20. Privacy-preserving Kruskal-Wallis test.

    PubMed

    Guo, Suxin; Zhong, Sheng; Zhang, Aidong

    2013-10-01

    Statistical tests are powerful tools for data analysis. Kruskal-Wallis test is a non-parametric statistical test that evaluates whether two or more samples are drawn from the same distribution. It is commonly used in various areas. But sometimes, the use of the method is impeded by privacy issues raised in fields such as biomedical research and clinical data analysis because of the confidential information contained in the data. In this work, we give a privacy-preserving solution for the Kruskal-Wallis test which enables two or more parties to coordinately perform the test on the union of their data without compromising their data privacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that solves the privacy issues in the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test on distributed data. PMID:23871682