Science.gov

Sample records for 22-hours liquid preservation

  1. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  2. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  3. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers.

    PubMed

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Bojesen, Anders; Skydsgaard, Karsten; Sjögren, Ingrid; Laursen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is a successful medical therapy for children and adults with GH deficiency as well as for growth retardation due to chronic renal disease, Turner syndrome and in children born small for gestational age. For all of these conditions, treatment is long term and patients receive daily subcutaneous injections of GH for many years. Patient compliance is therefore of critical importance to ensure treatment benefit. One of the major factors influencing compliance is injection pain. Besides the injection device used, pain perception and local tissue reaction following injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate and phosphate. Phenol has been successfully used as a preservative in drug formulations for more than 50 years and is considered a safe and effective agent which complies with strict international requirements for preservatives in drug formulations. In toxicological studies, no or only mild local reactions have been observed following subcutaneous administration of phenol (7.5 mg/ml), m-cresol (3-4 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (9 mg/ml). No general toxicity reactions were observed after subcutaneous administration of these agents. Clinical evaluation of the preservatives and buffers used in Norditropin SimpleXx showed that pain perception was similar between formulations containing phenol and benzyl alcohol, whereas m-cresol was associated with more painful injections than benzyl

  4. Study on radiation preservation of frozen egg liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengmei, Li; Yongbao, Gu; Dianhua, Chen

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the preservation process of γ-irradiated frozen egg liquid has been studied. It shows that the proper absorbed dose is 2 kGy and there is no significant difference in nutrient components, vitamins content between the irradiated frozen egg liquid and the control. A study of a diet including γ-irradiated frozen egg liquid was carried out with 58 volunteers who, during a 70-day test, indicated that the frozen egg liquid exposed to radiation is hygienic and safe.

  5. Preservation of liquid drug preparations for oral administration.

    PubMed

    Scheler, Stefan; Saupe, Sebastian; Herre, Angela; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate functional interactions between sorbic acid, alcoholic cosolvents, and pH with respect to pharmacopeial requirements for the antimicrobial preservation of oral liquids. Twenty-seven test formulations of sugar-free syrups with varying amounts of glycerol (18-36%), propylene glycol (4-21%), and sorbic acid (0-0.15%) and with different pH values (5-8) were tested for antimicrobial preservation efficacy after inoculation with spores of Aspergillus niger. Multivariate data analysis revealed that at pH 5 the minimum concentration of sorbic acid necessary for a tenfold decrease of viable spores ranges between 0.08% and 0.10% exhibiting only minor dependence on the cosolvents concentration. Various interactions between sorbic acid and cosolvents could be observed and were discussed on basis of the degree of dissociation and distribution of sorbic acid. All tested preparations, even those free of sorbic acid, met the criteria for oral products with aqueous bases according to USP32-NF27 and JP XV which claim no increase from the initial spore count at 14 and 28 days. The EP requirement, not less than 1 log(10) reduction from the initial count at 14 days, was only met by preparations with pH 5 and not less than 0.15% sorbic acid.

  6. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products.

  7. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  8. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  9. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  10. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Siemens, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Freezing can affect concentrations and spectroscopic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water samples. Nevertheless, water samples are regularly frozen for sample preservation. In this study we tested the effect of different freezing methods (standard freezing at -18 °C and fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at -18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax < 250 nm (340 nm), EXmax: 480 nm) and 2 (EXmax: 335 nm, EXmax: 408 nm) to total fluorescence and the humification index (HIX) decreased after both freezing treatments, while the shares of component 3 (EXmax: < 250 nm (305 nm), EXmax: 438 nm) as well as SUVA254 increased. The contribution of PARAFAC component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties of DOM.

  11. Cationic synthetic peptides: assessment of their antimicrobial potency in liquid preserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Speck, Stephanie; Courtiol, Alexandre; Junkes, Christof; Dathe, Margitta; Müller, Karin; Schulze, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Various semen extender formulas are in use to maintain sperm longevity and quality whilst acting against bacterial contamination in liquid sperm preservation. Aminoglycosides are commonly supplemented to aid in the control of bacteria. As bacterial resistance is increasing worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) received lively interest as alternatives to overcome multi-drug resistant bacteria. We investigated, whether synthetic cationic AMPs might be a suitable alternative for conventional antibiotics in liquid boar sperm preservation. The antibacterial activity of two cyclic AMPs (c-WWW, c-WFW) and a helical magainin II amide analog (MK5E) was studied in vitro against two Gram-positive and eleven Gram-negative bacteria. Isolates included ATCC reference strains, multi-resistant E. coli and bacteria cultured from boar semen. Using broth microdilution, minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for all AMPs. All AMPs revealed activity towards the majority of bacteria but not against Proteus spp. (all AMPs) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MK5E). We could also demonstrate that c-WWW and c-WFW were effective against bacterial growth in liquid preserved boar semen in situ, especially when combined with a small amount of gentamicin. Our results suggest that albeit not offering a complete alternative to traditional antibiotics, the use of AMPs offers a promising solution to decrease the use of conventional antibiotics and thereby limit the selection of multi-resistant strains.

  12. Determination of alternative preservatives in cosmetic products by chromophoric derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of phenethyl alcohol, methylpropanediol, phenylpropanol, caprylyl glycol, and ethylhexylglycerin, which are used as alternative preservatives in cosmetic products, has been developed. The method is based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection after chromophoric derivatization with benzoyl chloride and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction. Different chromatographic parameters, derivatization conditions, and sample preparation variables were studied. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection values for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.06µgmL(-1). The method was validated with good recovery values (84-118%) and precision values (3.9-9.5%). It was successfully applied to 10 commercially available cosmetic samples. The good analytical features of the proposed method besides of its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make it useful to carry out the quality control of cosmetic products containing the target compounds as preservative agents.

  13. Multi-detection of preservatives in cheeses by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fuselli, Fabio; Guarino, Chiara; La Mantia, Alessandro; Longo, Lucia; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    The incorrect use of preservatives in cheeses may compromise food safety and damage consumers. According to the law, more than one preservative may be contemporarily used in cheeses. So a method for their contemporary detection may be useful for both manufacturers and control agencies quality control. In this research a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with electrospray ionization method for the multi-determination of seven preservatives (benzoic acid, citric acid, hexamethylenetetramine, lysozyme, natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid) in cheese was developed. The preservatives were contemporarily extracted from cheese by a single procedure, and analyzed by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS (Ion Trap) in positive ionization mode, with single reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. Three sample types (hard, pasta filata and fresh cheese) were used for method evaluation. Recoveries were mostly higher than 90%; MDLs ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mgkg(-1), and MQLs were included between 0.07 and 0.88 mgkg(-1). Due to matrix effect, quantitation was performed by referring to a matrix matched calibration curve, for each cheese typology. This method was also applied to commercial cheese samples, with good results. It appears fast, reliable and suitable for both screening and confirmation of the presence and quantitation of the preservatives in a single, multi-detection analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Percentage of motile spermatozoa at 22 hours after swim-up procedure: An indicator for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Yukiko; Sugimoto, Hironobu; Uemura, Mikiko; Ono, Yuri; Kishi, Junji; Emi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The decision to use in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or split insemination (IVF-ICSI) in the first cycle is based on the number of motile sperm. Hence, total fertilization failure (TFF) often occurs during IVF cycles, despite normozoospermia. To investigate whether the cumulative motile swim-up spermatozoa percentage at 22 hours post-insemination (MSPPI) is an indicator for ICSI, we analyzed TFF, fertilization, blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates. Methods This prospective study was performed using data obtained from 260 IVF cycles. At 22 hours after insemination, the remaining swim-up spermatozoa were observed and divided into six groups according to MSPPI (<10%, 10% to <30%, 30% to <50%, 50% to <70%, 70% to <90%, and 90% to 100%). Results Regardless of the ejaculated motile sperm concentration (0.6–280×106/mL motile spermatozoa), the incidence of TFF significantly increased when MSPPI was <10%, and the fertilization rate significantly decreased when MSPPI was <30%. We found that cumulative MSPPI correlated with the cumulative fertilization rate (Spearman correlation, 0.508, p<0.001). Regarding embryo development, we observed no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, or live birth among all groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that MSPPI is a viable indicator for split IVF-ICSI and ICSI. Taken together, by employing the MSPPI test in advance before IVF, ICSI, or split IVF-ICSI cycles, unnecessary split IVF-ICSI and ICSI may be avoided. PMID:27689038

  15. Percentage of motile spermatozoa at 22 hours after swim-up procedure: An indicator for intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    PubMed

    Inoue, Taketo; Yonezawa, Yukiko; Sugimoto, Hironobu; Uemura, Mikiko; Ono, Yuri; Kishi, Junji; Emi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    The decision to use in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or split insemination (IVF-ICSI) in the first cycle is based on the number of motile sperm. Hence, total fertilization failure (TFF) often occurs during IVF cycles, despite normozoospermia. To investigate whether the cumulative motile swim-up spermatozoa percentage at 22 hours post-insemination (MSPPI) is an indicator for ICSI, we analyzed TFF, fertilization, blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates. This prospective study was performed using data obtained from 260 IVF cycles. At 22 hours after insemination, the remaining swim-up spermatozoa were observed and divided into six groups according to MSPPI (<10%, 10% to <30%, 30% to <50%, 50% to <70%, 70% to <90%, and 90% to 100%). Regardless of the ejaculated motile sperm concentration (0.6-280×10(6)/mL motile spermatozoa), the incidence of TFF significantly increased when MSPPI was <10%, and the fertilization rate significantly decreased when MSPPI was <30%. We found that cumulative MSPPI correlated with the cumulative fertilization rate (Spearman correlation, 0.508, p<0.001). Regarding embryo development, we observed no significant differences in the rates of blastocyst development, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, or live birth among all groups. Our findings suggest that MSPPI is a viable indicator for split IVF-ICSI and ICSI. Taken together, by employing the MSPPI test in advance before IVF, ICSI, or split IVF-ICSI cycles, unnecessary split IVF-ICSI and ICSI may be avoided.

  16. Simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives in cosmetics by ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, T; Wang, C; Wang, X; Ma, Q

    2008-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 21 preservatives: 2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, bronopol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazoline-3-ketone, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenoxyethanol, methyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, ethyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, methyl benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-propyl ester, propyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylphenol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid iso-butyl ester, butyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, phenyl benzoate, 2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, triclocarban and triclosan in cosmetics. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column was used with 0.1% formic acid solution as the mobile phase under the condition of gradient elution. Preservatives were extracted with methanol by ultrasonicator, and then they were analysed by UPLC-PDA detector. All these preservatives were baseline separated in 8.5 min. The pre-treatment method of samples and the chromatographic condition of analysis were critically examined in this study. The recoveries ranged from 90.5 to 97.8%, with RSD values below 3.2%, and all correlation coefficients (r) were no less than 0.9997. Thus, this method could be used for analysing the preservatives in cosmetic products.

  17. A Unified Detail-Preserving Liquid Simulation by Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Modeling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulong; Liu, Xiaopei; Xu, Xuemiao

    2016-02-19

    Traditional methods in graphics to simulate liquid-air dynamics under different scenarios usually employ separate approaches with sophisticated interface tracking/reconstruction techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which is easy and effective to produce a variety of liquid-air interface phenomena. These phenomena, such as complex surface splashes, bubble interactions, as well as surface tension effects, can co-exist in one single simulation, and are created within the same computational framework. Such a framework is unique in that it is free from any complicated interface tracking/reconstruction procedures. Our approach is developed from the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method with the mean field model, which provides a unified framework for interface dynamics but is numerically unstable under turbulent conditions. Considering the drawbacks of the existing approaches, we propose techniques to suppress oscillation for significant stability enhancement, as well as derive a new subgrid-scale model to further improve stability, faithfully preserving liquid-air interface details without excessive diffusion by taking into account the density variation. The whole framework is highly parallel, enabling very efficient implementation. Comparisons to the related approaches show superiority on stable simulation with detail preservation and multiphase phenomena simultaneously involved. A set of animation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of spin and pure liquids with preservation of all the conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, I P; Mryglod, I M; Folk, R

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is developed to integrate numerically the equations of motion for classical many-body systems in molecular dynamics simulations. Its distinguishable feature is the possibility to preserve, independently on the size of the time step, all the conservation laws inherent in the description without breaking the time reversibility. As a result, an implicit second-order algorithm is derived and applied to pure liquids, as well as spin liquids, for which the dynamics is characterized by the conservation of total energy, linear and angular momenta, as well as magnetization and individual spin lengths. It is demonstrated on the basis of Lennard-Jones and Heisenberg fluid models that when such quantities as energy and magnetization must be conserved perfectly, the algorithm turns out to be more efficient than popular decomposition integrators and standard predictor-corrector schemes.

  19. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of water-soluble vitamins, caffeine, and preservative in oral liquid tonics.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Yamamoto, M; Owada, K; Sato, S; Masui, T; Nakazawa, H

    1989-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and reliable liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nicotinamide (niacinamide), thiamine, riboflavin, riboflavin sodium phosphate, pyridoxine, caffeine, and sodium benzoate in commercial oral liquid tonics. The 7 components are separated on a reverse phase C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate-triethylamine (8 + 91.5 + 0.5 v/v/v) containing 5mM sodium octanesulfonate and adjusted to pH 2.8 with phosphoric acid. Components are detected at 254 nm with attenuation 0.02 AUFS. Acetanilide is used as an internal standard. In addition to the 7 components mentioned, nicotinic acid (niacin), cyanocobalamin, and folic acid are also separated under the same conditions. Sample preparation involves only addition to internal standard solution and dilution with mobile phase and then filtration. Recoveries of the 7 components and cyanocobalamin from spiked preparations ranged from 97 to 104% with coefficients of variation of 0.9-4.2%.

  20. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  1. [Detection of the preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Miyazawa, Norimasa; Shimamura, Kimio; Sato, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masahito; Takano, Katsuhiro; Miyamoto, Michiko; Kojima, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiio, Makiko

    2009-01-01

    A simple determination method for preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics was developed. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in methanol. The sample solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ODS column, using water-methanol (55:45) or water-acetonitrile (3:1) adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid as the mobile phase. Chlorphenesin was detected with ultraviolet light detection at 280 nm. A linear relation was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of chlorphenesin in the range of 1-500 microg/ml. The determination limit of chlorphenesin was 1-2 microg/ml. Recoveries of chlorphenesin spiked in lotion and milky lotion at the levels of 0.03% and 0.3% were 98.8-100.0%. This method was applied for cosmetics including 0.03% and 0.3% of chlorphenesin and their content corresponded with the determined values.

  2. Preserving ignitable liquid residues on soil using Triclosan as an anti-microbial agent.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dee A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-06-01

    When a fire is suspected to be intentionally set, fire debris samples can be collected and analyzed for ignitable liquid residues (ILRs). In some cases, samples will contain highly organic substrates such as soil or rotting wood. These substrates will contain a high bacterial load, which can result in systematic and irreversible damage to the ILR due to microbial degradation. This paper explores ways to preserve ILR by sterilizing fire debris samples without interfering with their subsequent analysis. There are many methods reported in the literature for sterilizing soil, such as freezing, irradiation, autoclaving, and various chemical fumigation techniques. However, these methods either do not kill all bacterial species, cannot be easily applied in the field or would interfere with the analysis of the ILRs. For this work, various anti-microbial compounds including triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) were tested for their efficacy at killing bacteria present in the soil. Triclosan was highly effective in qualitative growth studies and was therefore used to measure bacterial growth (or lack thereof) by spectroscopic analysis as well as passive headspace analysis. These experiments showed that triclosan was able to sterilize soil samples in less than 60s, maintain their sterility for at least 77h and preserve gasoline residues on a soil matrix for at least 30 days.

  3. Determination of combined p-hydroxy benzoic acid preservatives in a liquid pharmaceutical formulation by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Ghulam A

    2004-01-27

    This paper describes a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) assay method for the determination of combined p-hydroxy benzoic acid (ethylparaben (EP), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP)) preservatives in a liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The chromatographic separation was achieved with potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.05)-methanol (47.5:52.5, v/v) as mobile phase, a Spherisorb C(18) column (250 mm x 4.6mm) and UV detection at 254 nm. The analysis time was <8 min. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, specificity and ruggedness. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of 2-140 microg/ml. The correlation coefficient were >0.9999 in each case. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values for intra- and inter-day precision studies were <1%. The procedure describe here is simple, selective and is suitable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests.

  4. Successful preservation of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) semen in liquid and frozen states.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Rzońca, Zenon

    2012-03-15

    Experiments on semen collection and preservation were undertaken by Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences and Forestry Wisła, Poland to assist in the protection of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) and to create an ex situ in vitro cryobank. Semen was collected from 11 captive-bred males, using dorsoabdominal massage. Ejaculates once obtained were diluted 3-fold at room temperature with EK diluent and then a number of them were stored at 4 °C for 18, 24, and 48 hours, while the remaining ejaculates were equilibrated with 6% dimethylacetamide and frozen by pipetting, drop-by-drop directly onto a liquid nitrogen surface. Frozen pellets were thawed at 60 °C in a water bath after 4 to 28 mo of storage. In total, 103 individually collected ejaculates (54 stored as liquid and 49 frozen in liquid nitrogen) were of appropriate value for further processing. The volume of ejaculates varied from 30 to 240 μL; spermatozoa concentration from 70 × 10(6) mL(-1) to 1950 × 10(6) mL(-1). The total amount of live spermatozoa in the fresh semen varied from 85.3% to 99.0%, of which from 41.1% to 85.3% were morphologically normal. Among morphologically abnormal forms, bulb-head (5.6% to 36.0%) and midpiece deformations (1.3% to 16.6%) were the most frequent. Dilution and semen storage up to 24 h at 4 °C did not affect the semen quality, as far as motility and sperm morphology are concerned. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in total live (94.9 vs. 91.7%) and live normal cells (66.4 vs. 56.7%) was observed after 48 h. About 30% to 40% of spermatozoa remained motile. Cryopreservation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the total number of live and live normal spermatozoa however, in relation to the fresh semen, their average content was 44.1% and 37.4%, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) individual differences were observed in the quality of the fresh, liquid stored and the frozen-thawed semen assessed in terms of spermatozoa motility and morphology. After a

  5. Developing a modified preservative efficacy testing approach as a predictive tool for the evaluation of preservative systems in liquid home care products under variable test conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Anne L; Bushman, Don; Lewis, Nathan; Faber, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can a formulator have confidence that a preservative system will perform as expected under adverse conditions? Extreme conditions that can lead to the development of "off odors" in the product can be a serious challenge for companies providing home care products in the global market. Formulation and stability testing occur under controlled parameters that simulate limited environmental conditions and microbial challenges are typically performed with a standard inoculum level. While this is an acceptable and dependable process, it does not necessarily assess how well a preservative system can perform under extreme environmental conditions or against unusually high levels of bacterial challenges. This is especially true when formulations are diluted and stored by the end-user. By modifying microbial challenge testing of a liquid dishwashing product to include unexpected dilution schemes, increased microbial assaults, and elevated temperatures, a pattern of preservative efficacy was established. The resulting approach proved to be a useful tool when developing use directions, recommended dilution levels, the overall surfactant system, preservative type, and storage restrictions.

  6. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lipophilicity data for some preservatives estimated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and different computation methods.

    PubMed

    Casoni, Dorina; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Sârbu, Costel

    2009-03-20

    The chromatographic behavior of some preservatives was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDB-C8), CN100 (Säulentechnik, Lichrosphere) and NH(2) (Supelcosil LC-NH(2)) columns. The lipophilicity estimated for the first time on the first three columns are comparable and very well correlated. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-water (0.1% formic acid) in different volume proportions from 40% to 60% (v/v) for RP-C18, RP-C8 and RP-CN100 column (exception for parabens on RP-C8 column-the methanol concentrations being from 55% to 65%) and from 30% to 50% (v/v) for RP-NH(2). Highly significant correlations were obtained between different experimental indices of lipophilicity (logk(w), S, phi(0), mean of k and logk, and scores of k and logk corresponding to the first principal component) and computed logP values, and C8 column seems to be more suited for estimating the lipophilicity of the investigated compounds. These direct correlations offer a very good opportunity to derive powerful predictive models via Collander-type equations. The reliability of scores values as lipophilic indices is shown by their high correlation with the logK(ow) obtained using classical "shake-flask" technique, logk(w) and also some of the computed logP values. In addition, the results obtained applying PCA to the retention data may be used in interpreting the molecular mechanism of interactions between eluents and stationary phases with different polarity and to explain the chromatographic behavior of compounds. Finally, the "congeneric lipophilicity chart" described by the scores corresponding to the first principal component has the effect of separating compounds from each other more effectively from congeneric ((dis)similarity) point of view. The parabens and tert-butylhydroquinone appeared to be the most lipophilic preservatives.

  8. The comparison of five low cost liquid formulations to preserve two phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas and Pantoea

    PubMed Central

    Goljanian-Tabrizi, Sanaz; Amiri, Soleiman; Nikaein, Donya; Motesharrei, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Phosphorus is one of the low bioavailable macroelements. Use of microorganisms in biofertilizers could release phosphorus from insoluble compounds. Pseudomonas putida P13 and Pantoea agglomerans P5 are well recognized for application as phosphate solubilizing bioinoculants and are used as solid carrier based. Liquid bioinoculants are preferred for economizing production process and longer shelf-life. Materials and Methods: Five low cost liquid formulations were examined. Formulations 1, 2 and 3, were phosphate buffer, 0.2% and 0.5% KNO3 dissolved in phosphate buffer, respectively. Formulation 4 was nutrient broth containing 4% glycerol and formulation 5 was diluted nutrient broth containing 4% glycerol. Survival (cfu) and phosphate solubilization index (SI) were evaluated after 3 months. Results: Considering strain P5, increase in KNO3 concentration decreased preserving ability. While using KNO3 at 0.2% was accompanied with reaching maximum SI level. Overall, less nutritious formulations (1 and 5) provided maximum preserving ability without bioactivity loss. In the case of strain P13, maximum survival obtained in formulations 2 and 3, whereas SI level decreased. Preserving ability in formulations 1, 4 and 5 was similar but less nutritious formulations (1 and 5), improved bioactivity. Conclusion: The results introduced two formulations of 1 and 5 as economically efficient liquid bioinoculants for Pseudomonas putida and Pantoea agglomerans. PMID:28491248

  9. The comparison of five low cost liquid formulations to preserve two phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas and Pantoea.

    PubMed

    Goljanian-Tabrizi, Sanaz; Amiri, Soleiman; Nikaein, Donya; Motesharrei, Zeinab

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the low bioavailable macroelements. Use of microorganisms in biofertilizers could release phosphorus from insoluble compounds. Pseudomonas putida P13 and Pantoea agglomerans P5 are well recognized for application as phosphate solubilizing bioinoculants and are used as solid carrier based. Liquid bioinoculants are preferred for economizing production process and longer shelf-life. Five low cost liquid formulations were examined. Formulations 1, 2 and 3, were phosphate buffer, 0.2% and 0.5% KNO3 dissolved in phosphate buffer, respectively. Formulation 4 was nutrient broth containing 4% glycerol and formulation 5 was diluted nutrient broth containing 4% glycerol. Survival (cfu) and phosphate solubilization index (SI) were evaluated after 3 months. Considering strain P5, increase in KNO3 concentration decreased preserving ability. While using KNO3 at 0.2% was accompanied with reaching maximum SI level. Overall, less nutritious formulations (1 and 5) provided maximum preserving ability without bioactivity loss. In the case of strain P13, maximum survival obtained in formulations 2 and 3, whereas SI level decreased. Preserving ability in formulations 1, 4 and 5 was similar but less nutritious formulations (1 and 5), improved bioactivity. The results introduced two formulations of 1 and 5 as economically efficient liquid bioinoculants for Pseudomonas putida and Pantoea agglomerans.

  10. Analytical interferences of mercuric chloride preservative in environmental water samples: Determination of organic compounds isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction or closed-loop stripping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Falres, L.M.; Werner, M.G.; Leiker, T.J.; Rogerson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical interferences were observed during the determination of organic compounds in groundwater samples preserved with mercuric chloride. The nature of the interference was different depending on the analytical isolation technique employed. (1) Water samples extracted with dichloromethane by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed a broad HgCl2 'peak' eluting over a 3-5-min span which interfered with the determination of coeluting organic analytes. Substitution of CLLE for separatory funnel extraction in EPA method 508 also resulted in analytical interferences from the use of HgCl2 preservative. (2) Mercuric chloride was purged, along with organic contaminants, during closed-loop stripping (CLS) of groundwater samples and absorbed onto the activated charcoal trap. Competitive sorption of the HgCl2 by the trap appeared to contribute to the observed poor recoveries for spiked organic contaminants. The HgCl2 was not displaced from the charcoal with the dichloromethane elution solvent and required strong nitric acid to achieve rapid, complete displacement. Similar competitive sorption mechanisms might also occur in other purge and trap methods when this preservative is used.

  11. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of liquid crystalline systems with retynil palmitate by the challenge test and D-value.

    PubMed

    Chorilli, Marlus; Leonardi, Gislaine Ricci; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; Scarpa, Maria Virgínia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the preservative effectiveness of liquid crystalline systems containing retynil palmitate (RP) by the challenge test (CT) and D-value. A system was developed containing water, silicon glycol copolymer, and polyether functional siloxane with 1% RP added. The analyses were carried out by methods in the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP 31, 2008) using the microorganisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The CT showed that after 7 days, all microorganisms were eliminated except A. niger, which maintained viability for at least 28 days after inoculation. Moreover, the microorganisms E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, C. albicans, and A. niger presented different growth behaviors, evidenced by differences among the D-values calculated. It was concluded that the CT and D-value were efficient methods for evaluation of the preservative property of these formulations.

  12. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzaldehyde arising from benzyl alcohol used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Hossein Ali; Rezaee, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Shirin Sadeghi; Montazeri, Naser; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of benzaldehyde, a toxic oxidation product of the widely used preservative and co-solvent benzyl alcohol in injectable formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, vitamin B-complex and Voltaren injection solutions by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (43.0 µL 1,2-dichloroethane) and disperser solvent (1.0 mL acetonitrile) for the formation of a cloudy solution in a 5.0-mL aqueous sample containing benzaldehyde. The linear range was 1.0-1000 µg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.2 µg L(-1) for benzaldehyde. 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  13. The mixture of liquid foam soap, ethanol and citric acid as a new fixative-preservative solution in veterinary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Turan, Erkut; Gules, Ozay; Kilimci, Figen Sevil; Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Dilek, Omer Gurkan; Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Tatar, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of liquid foam soap, ethanol, citric acid and benzalkonium chloride as a fixative-preservative solution (a soap-and ethanol-based fixing solution, or SEFS). In this study, ethanol serves as the fixative and preservative, liquid foam soap as the modifying agent, citric acid as the antioxidant and benzalkonium chloride as the disinfectant. The goat cadavers perfused with SEFS (n=8) were evaluated over a period of one year with respect to hardness, colour and odour using objective methods. Colour and hardness were compared between one fresh cadaver and the SEFS-embalmed cadavers. Histological and microbiological examinations were also performed in tissue samples. Additionally, the cadavers were subjectively evaluated after dissection and palpation. The SEFS provided the effectiveness expected over a 1-year embalming period for the animal cadavers. No bacteria or fungi were isolated except for some non-pathogenic Bacillus species. Visible mould was not present on either cadavers or in the surrounding environment. The cadavers maintained an appearance close to their original anatomical appearance, with muscles having good hardness and elasticity for dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg(-1), which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Lin, Chueh-Yu; Li, Zu-Guang; Tsai, Tzu-Feng

    2006-07-07

    This study evaluated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine trace preservatives and antioxidants including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-t) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-ta) in cosmetic products. A supercritical fluid extraction procedure was used to isolate four paraben preservatives and four antioxidants from the cosmetic matrix before quantitative analysis. The optimum extraction condition was performed with static extraction for 5 min, then dynamic extraction for 20 min by using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid at 14,000 kPa and 65 degrees C. Methanol was used as collection solvent and the sea sand was chosen as a filling material. The analytes were separated on a C18 reversed-phase column using methanol-water as mobile phase and quantified by measuring its mass spectrometry. The linearity range is from 10 to 20,000 ng/g with RSD values below 18%. Detection limits are achieved at the level of 4.7-142 ng/g. It was successfully applied to the determination of paraben preservatives and antioxidants in cosmetics without tedious pretreatment.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of 17 preservatives and antioxidants in condiments using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Zhang, Chenguang

    2011-08-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives and 6 antioxidants in condiments. The condiment sample with low fat or middle fat was diluted with saturated NaCl solution (adjusting pH to 2 - 3 with phosphoric acid), then extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified using liquid-liquid extraction with hexane, and the sample with middle fat was further purified using solid phase extraction with a C8 column. The condiment sample with high fat was diluted with hexane, then dissolved with saturated NaCl solution (adjusting pH to 2 -3 with phosphoric acid), and extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified using solid phase extraction with a C8 column. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution with the mobile phases of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile, and determined by tandem mass spectrometry in negtive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method had good linearity (r > or = 0.995 5). The limits of quantification (LOQs) (S/N = 10) of 17 analytes ranged from 0.05 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg. The recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 118% at three spiked levels, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.57% to 13.1%. The method can be applied for the determination of preservatives and antioxidants in condiments.

  17. Effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides on liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Martin; Junkes, Christof; Mueller, Peter; Speck, Stephanie; Ruediger, Karin; Dathe, Margitta; Mueller, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are mandatory additives in semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. The worldwide increase in resistance to conventional antibiotics requires the search for alternatives not only for animal artificial insemination industries, but also for veterinary and human medicine. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are of interest as a novel class of antimicrobial additives for boar semen preservation. The present study investigated effects of two synthetic cyclic hexapeptides (c-WFW, c-WWW) and a synthetic helical magainin II amide derivative (MK5E) on boar sperm during semen storage at 16 °C for 4 days. The standard extender, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing 250 µg/mL gentamicin (standard), was compared to combinations of BTS with each of the peptides in a split-sample procedure. Examination revealed peptide- and concentration-dependent effects on sperm integrity and motility. Negative effects were more pronounced for MK5E than in hexapeptide-supplemented samples. The cyclic hexapeptides were partly able to stimulate a linear progressive sperm movement. When using low concentrations of cyclic hexapeptides (4 µM c-WFW, 2 µM c-WWW) sperm quality was comparable to the standard extender over the course of preservation. C-WFW-supplemented boar semen resulted in normal fertility rates after AI. In order to investigate the interaction of peptides with the membrane, electron spin resonance spectroscopic measurements were performed using spin-labeled lipids. C-WWW and c-WFW reversibly immobilized an analog of phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas MK5E caused an irreversible increase of PC mobility. These results suggest testing the antimicrobial efficiency of non-toxic concentrations of selected cyclic hexapeptides as potential candidates to supplement/replace common antibiotics in semen preservation.

  18. Determination of food preservatives and saccharin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, U; Gauch, R; Baumgartner, E

    1979-05-21

    The quantitative analysis of benzoic and sorbic acid, methyl, ethyl and propyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and saccharin in foodstuffs is described. These compounds are quantitatively extracted with disposable clean-up columns packed with Extrelut and simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns. Complicated matrices such as cheese, cake, ketchup and chocolate were tested and recoveries were generally better than 95% in the concentration ranges normally used in the food industry.

  19. Spectral components of human cardiovascular responses to step changes in Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) before and after 22 hour of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.; Grande, K. J.; Murphy, C. D.; Patwardhan, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in autonomic outflow to peripheral organs during the development of bedrest induced orthostatic intolerance have not been determined. Recent studies have indicated that spectral analysis provides an indirect assessment of these changes. Eight male subjects were studied before and after 22 hours of 6 degree head down bedrest plus Lasix (40 mg. P.P.). Cardiovascular spectra (using an autoregressive technique) were determined for heart rate (HR, ECG), arterial pressure (AP, Finapres), radial artery flow (RF, Hokansen) and respiration rate (RR, BoMed). Spectra were obtained from 2.5 minute segments during control, lower body negative pressure (minus 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mmHg) and recovery. Bedrest increased HR spectra power in the low frequency (.001 to .041 Hz) range, increased RF power in the low and mid (.04 to .18 Hz) range and increased AP power in the high (.18 to .50 Hz) frequency range. Increasing levels of lower body negative pressure decreased HR power and increased RF power in the high frequency range and decreased AP power in the low frequency range. Since spectral power of HR in the high frequency range has been shown to indicate parasympathetically mediated regulation and power in the low and mid frequency ranges indicates a sympathetic / parasympathetic mixture, then both bedrest and lower body negative pressure appeared to shift sympathetic / parasympathetic balance toward sympathetic regulation of HR. The interpretation of the spectral content of AP and RF with respect to their autonomic origins remains unclear.

  20. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying

    2013-02-01

    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  1. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ambroxol in the presence of different preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Koundourellis, J E; Malliou, E T; Broussali, T A

    2000-08-15

    A high-performance chromatographic method is described for simultaneous determination of ambroxol in the presence of different preservatives in syrups. The method separates ambroxol from methyl- ethyl-, propyl- and butyl paraben and from other multi-component mixtures. The retention behaviour of ambroxol and parabens as a function of both pH and mobile phase composition was investigated. The eluents were monitored with a UV detector at 247 nm. Linear relationships between the amount of pharmaceutical compounds and peak heights were confirmed at the concentrations of 0.74-14.08 microg ml(-1). The high recovery (no extraction of the samples is required) and the low %RSD confirm the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ambroxol in different pharmaceutical preparations.

  2. Application of raisin extracts as preservatives in liquid bread and bread systems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q; Wolf-Hall, C; Hall, C A

    2009-01-01

    Interest in natural ingredients with multifunctions in food has led to the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of raisins, a traditional baking ingredient. Water and 60% ethanol extracts, and raisin juice concentrate (RJC, a commercial food ingredient) were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of ropy-bread-causing Bacillus species. The ability of these additives and raisin paste were tested for antifungal activity in liquid bread model system and bread. In the liquid bread model, concentrations as low as 20 and 36 mg crude extract or RJC per gram media significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the populations of B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, respectively. A significant reduction in the population of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum was achieved at 80 and 470 mg crude extract per gram media, respectively. Bread formulas containing 7.5% of a water extract (equivalent to 70 mg extract per gram dough) or RJC (70 mg/g dough) produced bread that had equivalent mold-free shelf life. The mean mold-free shelf life of the bread containing 7.5% water extract was 18.1 +/- 3.3 d at room temperature while the negative control was mold free for 9.4 +/- 2.4 d. The antifungal efficacy of the extracts in bread was equivalent to 0.24% calcium propionate in 21 d of storage. Doubling the concentration of the extract did not improve the mold-retarding property in bread. The bread containing raisin paste, the percentage of which in dough was equivalent to 15% raisin extract, exhibited a stronger antifungal activity than did the extracts in bread.

  3. Application of ultrasound-assisted thermal processing for preservation and quality retention of liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Zenker, M; Heinz, V; Knorr, D

    2003-09-01

    A continuously working pilot plant-scale prototype was used to evaluate the effects of continuous-flow ultrasound-temperature treatment for bacterial decontamination of model suspensions and various liquid food systems such as milk, fruit, and vegetable juices. Escherichia coli K12 DH 5 alpha and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used as test microorganisms. In addition, treated juices were investigated for damage caused by heat or ultrasound-induced degradation of sensory and nutritional properties after treatment and storage. Changes in color and destruction of heat-labile and slightly oxidizable L-ascorbic acid content were monitored as an index to measure processing effects. Results were assessed with respect to the total energy requirement and compared with those using a conventional, indirect heating method having similar processing conditions. For the bacteriological process evaluation, the temperature- and time-dependent process lethality was used as the basis; for the quality- and energy-related investigations, the degree of bacterial inactivation was used. At identical degrees of bacterial inactivation, the ultrasound-assisted thermal treatments required a lower processing temperature than treatment with conventional thermal processing. However, according to energy balances, the total energy consumption was not reduced compared to conventional heating. Indications for a positive influence on shelf life, with improvements in surface color stability (lightness) and L-ascorbic acid retention, were found among quality parameters of treated orange juice.

  4. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics and food samples by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Memon, Najma; Bhanger, M Iqbal; Khuhawer, M Y

    2005-05-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the analysis of benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, and butyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid by micellar liquid chromatography. After dilution in n-propanol the sample was directly injected onto a Lichrosorb ODS, 5 microm (250 x 4.6 mm ID) column and eluted with aqueous 2% Brij-35 adjusted to pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid:propanol (80:20 v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and UV detection at 254 nm. A linear calibration curve was obtained simultaneously for each component in the range of 50-500 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid and 5-150 microg mL(-1) for the other components; detection limits were within 25-250 ng mL(-1) corresponding to 125-1250 pg per injection (5 microL). The reproducibility in terms of average peak area and average retention time was obtained with coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.2% and 0.5%. The method was applied to analysis of these compounds in cosmetics (shampoos, hand lotions, creams, and bath foam) and food samples.

  5. Simultaneous in-cell derivatization pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of multiclass preservatives in leave-on cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2010-11-15

    An effective one-step sample preparation methodology for the determination of multiclass preservatives in cosmetics has been developed, applying, for the first time to this kind of matrix, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and a very simple, cheap, and fast derivatization procedure: acetylation with acetic anhydride and pyridine. A multifactorial experimental design has been used to evaluate and optimize the main experimental parameters potentially affecting the extraction process. In the final conditions the sample was mixed with Florisil as the dispersing sorbent and extracted with ethyl acetate for 15 min at 120 °C. One of the main goals of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of carrying out direct cosmetic preservative acetylation by simply adding the derivatization reagents into the PLE cell. The extract was then analyzed by GC/MS without any further cleanup or concentration step. The accuracy, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs) were evaluated to assess the performance of the proposed method. Quantitative recoveries were obtained, and relative standard deviation values were lower than 10% in all cases. The obtained LODs ranged from 0.000004% to 0.0001% (w/w), values far below the established restrictions in the European Cosmetics Regulation, making this multicomponent analytical method suitable for routine control. Finally, several cosmetic products such as moisturizing and antiwrinkle creams and lotions, hand creams, sunscreen and after-sun creams, baby lotions, and hair care products were analyzed. All the samples contained several of the target cosmetic ingredients, in some cases at quite high concentrations, although the actual European Cosmetics Regulation was fulfilled in all cases.

  6. The preservability of turkey semen quality during liquid storage in relation to strain and age of males.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Manchisi, A; Rosato, M P

    2008-12-01

    It is difficult to maintain turkey semen quality after in vitro liquid storage and the problem is worsened by animal aging. Little is currently known about the effects of both reproductive period and strain on the preservability of qualitative characteristics of turkey semen during liquid storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reproductive period of two commercial turkey strains on semen quality changes during in vitro storage for upto 48 h at 5 degrees C. Two different periods were considered: first period from 32 to 40 weeks of age and the second one from 44 to 52 weeks. Turkey males from either British United Turkeys (BUT) Big-6 line and Hybrid Large White line (Hybrid) were used. Semen pools of each tom strain were diluted with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) and the motility, viability and membrane integrity of sperm were evaluated at 3, 24 and 48 h of liquid storage at 5 degrees C. The sperm concentration was significantly affected by period (P<0.01) and strain (P<0.05), with best values in first period and in the Hybrid semen. Besides also the motility, viability and membrane integrity during 48 h of storage were better (P<0.05) in the first period compared to the second one for both strains, particularly in Hybrid semen. During storage it was clearly shown in the first period that Hybrid sperm worsened more than the BUT one: in spite of the motility and viability values were at first (3h) higher (P<0.05) in Hybrid semen, after 48 h of storage the motility did not show any significant difference between strains while the viability resulted even better (P<0.05) in BUT semen. In the second period, although the semen quality decreased during the storage with a similar trend for both strains, better (P<0.05) values were found in BUT semen. Our results indicated that the reproductive period affected the quality of turkey semen in a different manner according to the strain. Moreover BUT semen showed a better in vitro storage

  7. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were incubated in variants of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and assessed for kinetic changes of viability (plasma membrane integrity) and intracellular calcium concentration using flow cytometry in combination with propidium iodide and Fluo-3. By this means, it was possible to determine specific effects of bicarbonate and calcium on sperm subpopulations over incubation time. During storage, standard semen parameters remained on a high level. However, flow cytometric analysis of sperm responses to capacitating and control media revealed two opposing effects of storage. There was a loss of response to bicarbonate in part of the live sperm population but an increasing degree of instability in the rest. Assessment of response to capacitating media by flow cytometry appears a markedly more sensitive way of monitoring sperm functionality during storage than the standard semen parameters of motility and viability.

  8. Effects of liquid preservation of sperm on their ability to activate oocytes and initiate preimplantational development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the pig.

    PubMed

    Binh, N T; Van Thuan, N; Miyake, M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of liquid preservation conditions on the ability of pig sperm to activate oocytes, form a male pronucleus, and initiate preimplantational development of embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Porcine ejaculates were preserved at 4, 14, and 24 degrees C for up to 48h, and then damage to the plasma membrane, morphologic changes of the acrosome, and the amount of phospholipase Czeta (PLCzeta) in the sperm were assessed by SYBR-14/propidium iodide staining, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin staining, indirect immunofluorescence, and Western blots, respectively. The proportion of sperm with a disintegrated plasma membrane or damaged acrosome increased in all samples as the duration of preservation increased, although the time courses of the increases varied among preservation temperatures. The immunolocalization and immunoreactivity of PLCzeta in the sperm showed its reduction concurrent with disintegration of the plasma membrane and acrosome. Rates of oocyte activation, male-pronuclear formation, and blastocyst formation after ICSI using sperm preserved for 18h at 24 degrees C (78%, 62%, and 35%, respectively) and for 48h at 14 degrees C (63%, 53%, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher than those of any other sperm sample. We concluded that the damage to the plasma membrane and acrosome, and a sufficient amount of PLCzeta in the sperm head, enhanced successful oocyte activation, fertilization, and early development of the oocytes after ICSI. Moreover, we inferred that appropriate liquid preservation of sperm improved the efficiency of blastocyst production in vitro after ICSI in pigs.

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fragrance allergens, musks, phthalates and preservatives in baby wipes.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria

    2015-03-06

    Baby wipes and wet toilet paper are specific hygiene care daily products used on newborn and children skin. These products may contain complexes mixtures of harmful chemicals. A method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of sixty-five chemical compounds (fragrance allergens, preservatives, musks, and phthalates) in wipes and wet toilet paper for children. These compounds are legislated in Europe according Regulation EC No 1223/2009, being twelve of them banned for their use in cosmetics, and one of them, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC), is banned in products intended for children under 3 years. Also, propyl-, and butylparaben will be prohibited in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area of children under 3 years from April 2015. PLE is a fast, simple, easily automated technique, which permits to integrate a clean-up step during the extraction process reducing analysis time and stages. The proposed PLE-based procedure was optimized on real non-spiked baby wipe samples by means of experimental design to study the influence on extraction of parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, and sorbent type. Under the selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory linearity, and intra-day, and inter-day precision. Recoveries were between 80-115% for most of the compounds with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, twenty real samples were analyzed. Thirty-six of the target analytes were detected, highlighting the presence of phenoxyethanol in all analyzed samples at high concentration levels (up to 0.8%, 800μgg(-1)). Methyl paraben (MeP), and ethyl paraben (EtP) were found in 40-50% of the samples, and the recently banned isobutyl paraben (iBuP) and isopropyl paraben (iPrP), were detected in one and seven samples, respectively, at concentrations between

  10. Optimized Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic Acids and Evaluation of Contamination of These Preservatives in Iranian Foods.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masood; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure followed by HPLC-UV was applied to determine the benzoate and sorbate in foods. The method was optimized for some variables including extraction solvent type and volume, dispersing solvent type and volume, and the effects of salt and pH. Optimum conditions were determined as follows: sample volume, 5 mL; extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, 250 μL; disperser solvent (acetone) volume, 1.2 mL; NaCl amount, 0.75 g/5 mL at pH 4. Sixty samples were analyzed, including 15 doogh, 15 fruit juice, 15 cookie, and 15 tomato paste; benzoic acid was detected in 57 samples (95%) at levels up to 448.1 μg/mL and sorbic acid in 31 samples (51.6%) at levels up to 1369 μg/mL. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ were determined as 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL for benzoate and 0.08 and 0.3 μg/mL for sorbate, respectively. The results showed that these preservatives are commonly used at high levels in yogurt drinks (dooghs) and cookies. Also, the concentration of benzoic acid that was detected in the tomato paste and fruit juice samples was low but may affect children and sensitive persons.

  11. The mystery ingredients: sweeteners, flavorings, dyes, and preservatives in analgesic/antipyretic, antihistamine/decongestant, cough and cold, antidiarrheal, and liquid theophylline preparations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Rawlings, R D; Beaman, D C

    1993-05-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations may contain a variety of excipients ("inert ingredients"). These excipients are generally inactive; however, rare adverse effects caused by excipients have been reported. Information about the excipients in a particular preparation is not readily available. The information about sweeteners, flavorings, dyes, and preservatives for the chewable and liquid preparations of over-the-counter and prescription products of antidiarrhea, cough and cold, antihistamine/decongestant, analgesic/antipyretic, and liquid theophylline medications was collected. Information about excipients in 102 chewable and liquid preparations was compiled. An average preparation contained two sweeteners. Saccharin and sucrose were the most common sweeteners found--each was present in 52 preparations--followed by sorbitol, glucose, fructose, and others. For 36 of the 102 preparations, type of flavoring was not specified. In the remaining preparations, cherry was the most common flavoring, followed by vanilla and lemon. Twenty-one different dyes and coloring agents were used. Red dye No. 40 was the most common (42/102), followed by yellow No. 6 (27/102). Of the eight preservatives used, sodium benzoate and methylparabens were present in 42 and 27 of the preparations, respectively. Tables detailing these excipients and adverse effects reported are presented. The tables should be helpful to physicians in selecting preparations containing different excipients when an adverse reaction occurs. The mandatory labeling of excipients in all pharmaceutical preparations is the only way that physicians and patients can be fully informed.

  12. Determination of phenolic preservatives in gelatin and vacant capsules for medicine use by ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hongzhen; Li, Danli; Wu, Xiaoxian; Tian, Liching

    2005-02-23

    A reliable method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic preservatives parahydroxybenzoic acid, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and pentyl parahydroxybenzoates in gelatin and vacant capsules for medical use has been developed by ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Separation was carried out on a Kromasil C(18) column by isocratic elution using methanol-perchloric acid (pH 2.0; 10 mM) (60:40, v/v) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml min(-1), and detection by UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254 nm. This method has been successfully applied to the routine analyses of these preservatives in the real samples.

  13. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  14. Simultaneous determination of nine UV filters and four preservatives in suncare products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kicheol; Mueller, Jochen; Park, Yong-Bae; Jung, Hong-Rae; Kang, Seok-Ho; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jeung-Bok

    2011-08-01

    HPLC method for quantitative determination of four preservatives and nine UV filters worldwide authorized in commercial suncare product was developed and validated, and then 101 samples of commercial suncare products were analyzed for the UV filters and preservatives using the proposed method. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water containing 0.5% acetic acid using a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min and UV measurements were carried out at 320 nm for UV filters and 254 nm for preservatives. The correlation coefficients of each calibration curves were mostly higher than 0.999. The percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) ranged from 0.97% to 6.1% for five sample aliquots. The recoveries from the spiked solutions were 98-102%. 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) was detected in 96 of 101 commercial suncare products and the concentration was in the range of 3.08-8.16% and 18 samples were found to exceed the 7.5% which has been defined as the maximum allowed concentration in Korea. Methyl paraben was detected in 81 of 101 samples and the next-most often detected preservatives were propyl paraben (25), ethyl paraben (18), and butyl paraben (4). Three samples of 101 suncare products exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (i.e., 0.58-0.79%). The proposed HPLC method allows efficient and simultaneous analysis of preservatives and UV filters suitable for quality control assays of commercial suncare products.

  15. Long-Term Stability of Human Genomic and Human Papillomavirus DNA Stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt Liquid-Based Cytology Media

    PubMed Central

    Agreda, Patricia M.; Beitman, Gerard H.; Gutierrez, Erin C.; Harris, James M.; Koch, Kristopher R.; LaViers, William D.; Leitch, Sharon V.; Maus, Courtney E.; McMillian, Ray A.; Nussbaumer, William A.; Palmer, Marcus L. R.; Porter, Michael J.; Richart, Gregory A.; Schwab, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of storage at 2 to 8°C on the stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. DNA retained the ability to be extracted and PCR amplified for more than 2.5 years in both medium types. Prior inability to detect DNA in archived specimens may have been due to failure of the extraction method to isolate DNA from fixed cells. PMID:23678069

  16. Effect of long-term preservation of basidiomycetes on perlite in liquid nitrogen on their growth, morphological, enzymatic and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Eichlerová, Ivana; Valášková, Vendula; Baldrian, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The macro- and micro-morphological features, mycelial extension rate, enzymatic activities and possible genetic changes were studied in 30 selected strains of basidiomycetes after 10-year cryopreservation on perlite in liquid nitrogen (LN). Comparisons with the same strains preserved by serial transfers on nutrient media at 4°C were also conducted. Production of ligninolytic enzymes and hydrogen peroxide was studied by quantitative spectrophotometric methods, whereas semiquantitative API ZYM testing was used to compare the levels of a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes. Our results show that cryopreservation in LN did not cause morphological changes in any isolate. The vitality of all fungi was successfully preserved and none of the physiological features were lost, even though the extension rate and enzyme activity were slightly affected. Moreover, sequence analysis of eight strains did not detect any changes in their genetic features after cryopreservation. These findings suggest that the perlite-based freezing protocol is suitable for long-term preservation of large numbers of basidiomycetes. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of preservatives with different polarities in beverage samples by dual-phase dual stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-02-22

    A new concept of "dual-phase dual stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)" was proposed to simultaneously extract six preservatives with different polarities (logKo/w values of 1.27-3.41), namely, benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MP), ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (EP), propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PP), and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (BP). The dual-phase dual SBSE apparatus was consisted of two differently coated stir bars, a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (OH-TSO)-coated stir bar that was prepared by sol-gel technique and a C(18) silica (C(18))-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated stir bar that was prepared by adhesion. In dual-phase dual SBSE, the two stir bars with different coatings were placed in the same sample solution for the simultaneous extraction of the target analytes with different polarities, and then the bars were desorbed in the same desorption solvent. The extraction performance of the dual-phase dual SBSE for the six preservatives was evaluated by comparing with the conventional SBSE (individual stir bar) with different coatings, including commercial PDMS, homemade PDMS, C(18)-APTES-OH-TSO, APTES-OH-TSO, and C(18)-PDMS. The experimental results showed that the dual-phase dual SBSE had the highest extraction efficiency for the six target preservatives. Based on this fact, a novel method by combining the dual-phase dual SBSE which was consisted of the APTES-OH-TSO-coated and C(18)-PDMS-coated stir bars with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of six target beverage preservatives in beverages. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for six target preservatives ranged from 0.6 to 2.7 μgL(-1) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.6-9.2% (C(BA,SA)=5 μgL(-1),C(MP)=20 μgL(-1),C(EP,PP,BP)=10 μgL(-1), n=7). The enrichment factors (EFs) were approximately 16-42-fold (theoretical EF was 50-fold

  18. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography for determination of Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Jindong; Pei, Yuning; Long, Tao; Ding, Wen; Xie, Kun

    2012-05-01

    New molecularly imprinted microspheres synthesized by suspension polymerisation using phenylamine and naphthol as mimic template were successfully applied as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction used for the simultaneous determination of four Sudan dyes from preserved beancurd products. The obtained imprinted microspheres showed good recognition and selectivity to the four Sudan dyes in aqueous solution and the affinity could be easily controlled by adjusting the property of the solution. Under the selected experimental condition, the recoveries of the Sudan dyes in preserved beancurds at three spiked levels were ranged between 90.2-104.5% with the relative standard deviation of less than 6.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) based on a signal-to-noise of 3 and 10 were in the range of 0.005-0.009μgg(-1) and 0.015-0.030μgg(-1), respectively. Comparing with alumina and C18-based extraction, the selectivity and repeatability of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) were obviously improved. This method could be potentially applied for the determination of Sudan dyes in complicated food samples.

  19. Simultaneous determination of preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methylparaben and propylparaben) in foodstuffs using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Saad, Bahruddin; Bari, Md Fazlul; Saleh, Muhammad Idiris; Ahmad, Kamarudzaman; Talib, Mohd Khairuddin Mohd

    2005-05-06

    A reversed-phased HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives benzoic (BA) and sorbic acids (SA), methyl- (MP) and propylparabens (PP) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of methanol-acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (35:65) to elute BA, SA and MP and changing the mobile phase composition to methanol-acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (50:50) thereafter. The detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. Under these conditions, separation of the four components was achieved in less than 23 min. Analytical characteristics of the separation such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linear range and reproducibility were evaluated. The developed method was applied to the determination of 67 foodstuffs (mainly imported), comprising soft drinks, jams, sauces, canned fruits/vegetables, dried vegetables/fruits and others. The range of preservatives found were from not detected (nd)--1260, nd--1390, nd--44.8 and nd--221 mg kg(-1) for BA, SA, MP and PP, respectively.

  20. Preservation of Geometrical Integrity of Supersolidus-Liquid-Phase-Sintered SKD11 Tool Steels Prepared with Powder Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K. H.; Hwang, K. S.

    2011-07-01

    The powder injection molded SKD11 tool steels often manifest shape retention problems during supersolidus liquid phase sintering due to the difficulties in controlling the amount of liquid phase. The typical temperature range for the sintering of SKD11 is only 10 K, between 1503 and 1513 K (1230 and 1240 °C), and this narrow sintering range demands a special furnace with very uniform temperature distribution. Through the addition of carbides, in particular TiC, this problem is resolved by enlarging the liquid + γ + carbide region in the phase diagram and by impeding the grain growth with the carbides. The resulting sintering window is broadened to 40 K, between 1513 and 1553 K (1240 and 1280 °C). The relevant mechanisms on the improvement of shape retention are discussed with a focus on the effect of carbide addition on the changes in the phase diagram and the microstructure. A guideline for the selection of effective carbides is also proposed based on the experimental results and the phase diagram analyses.

  1. Harmonium: A pulse preserving source of monochromatic extreme ultraviolet (30–110 eV) radiation for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Grilj, J.; Frassetto, F.; Mewes, L.; Zhang, H.; van Mourik, F.; Poletto, L.; Chergui, M.

    2015-01-01

    A tuneable repetition rate extreme ultraviolet source (Harmonium) for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids is presented. High harmonic generation produces 30–110 eV photons, with fluxes ranging from ∼2 × 1011 photons/s at 36 eV to ∼2 × 108 photons/s at 100 eV. Four different gratings in a time-preserving grating monochromator provide either high energy resolution (0.2 eV) or high temporal resolution (40 fs) between 30 and 110 eV. Laser assisted photoemission was used to measure the temporal response of the system. Vibrational progressions in gas phase water were measured demonstrating the ∼0.2 eV energy resolution. PMID:26798833

  2. Hyphenation of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of bromine containing preservatives.

    PubMed

    Bendahl, Lars; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Gammelgaard, Bente; Sturup, Stefan; Nielsen, Camilla

    2006-02-24

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of three bromine-containing preservatives, monitoring the 79Br and 81Br isotopes simultaneously. Due to the efficiency of the 1.7 microm column packing material, the resolution of the test substances was only slightly affected when the linear flow velocity was increased from 0.5 to 1.9 mm s(-1). However, the sensitivity of ICP-MS detection decreased when the linear flow velocity was increased from 0.5 to 1.9 mm s(-1). Analytical figures of merit were determined at an intermediate and at a high linear velocity. The precision was better than 2.2% R.S.D. and regression analysis showed that a linear response was achieved at both flow rates (R2 > 0.9993, n = 36). The analysis time was less than 4.5 min at a flow rate of 50 microL min(-1) and limits of detection and quantification were better than 3.3 and 11 microg BrL(-1), respectively. The analysis time was reduced to 2.7 min when the flow rate was increased to 90 microL min(-1) and limits of detection and quantification were better than 20 and 65 microg BrL(-1), respectively. The method was applied for quantitative analysis of bromine-containing preservatives in commercially available cosmetic products.

  3. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H2O2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm.

  4. Determination of hormones, a plasticizer, preservatives, perfluoroalkylated compounds, and a flame retardant in water samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) is a novel extraction technique commonly applied for the extraction on a specific group of compounds. In this paper, the applicability of ultrasound-assisted DLLME-SFO for multiresidue extraction has been evaluated. A method for the simultaneous extraction of four hormones (17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol and estrone), a plasticizer (bisphenol A), three preservatives (methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkylated compounds (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, from C4 to C8), and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane) has been developed and validated for their extraction from surface water and tap water. Determination was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Recoveries of the target compounds were highly dependent on their log K(ow) values. Linear relationship between recoveries and log K(ow) values was observed for compounds from the same group (hormones, preservatives and perfluoroalkylated carboxylic acids). The lowest recoveries were obtained for the less hydrophobic compounds (estriol (43%), methylparaben (32%), ethylparaben (45%) and the perfluorinated compounds of shorter alkyl chain (C4: 17%, C5: 41% and C6: 57%)). Recoveries of the other pollutants were higher than 80%. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was in the range from 1% to 16%. Method detection limits were in the range 0.001-1.126 µg L(-1), for surface water, and 0.001-1.446 µg L(-1) for tap water. No important matrix effect was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitive determination of organic acid preservatives in juices and soft drinks treated by monolith-based stir cake sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuhua; Nong, Shuyu; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of sorbic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and cinnamic acid (CA) in juices and soft drinks was developed by stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The SCSE based on polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith (PILM) as extractive medium was used to concentrate these three organic acid preservatives. Because hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions co-contributed to the extraction, the PILM-SCSE exhibited a high extractive capability towards analytes. To obtain optimum extraction performance, several SCSE parameters were investigated and discussed, including desorption solvent, pH value, ionic strength in the sample matrix, and the extraction and desorption time. Under the optimized extraction conditions, limits of detection of 0.16, 1.08, and 0.18 μg/L (S/N=3) and quantification limits of 0.52, 3.42, and 0.61 (S/N=10) were obtained for SA, BA, and CA, respectively. The method also showed good linearity and reproducibility, as well as advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and high feasibility. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SA, BA, and CA in real juices and soft drinks, and the recoveries ranged from 63.0 to 107 %.

  6. A fast and efficient determination of amines and preservatives in cough and cold liquid and suspension formulations using a single isocratic ion-pairing high performance [correction of power] liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Paciolla, M D; Jansen, S A; Martellucci, S A; Osei, A A

    2001-08-01

    A single, highly selective ion-pairing reverse phase-high power liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of amines and preservatives in a wide range of Tylenol((R)) liquid and suspension liquid products. As with many OTC products, the challenge is to quantitatively extract the analytes from difficult matrices and specifically analyze them in the presence of various excipients and flavors. Historically, separate analytical methods were used for each class of analytes (acids, bases and neutral compounds). In this method a mobile phase consisting of a buffered ion-pairing agent with acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran was used to separate the charged amines from neutral and acidic compounds on a Phenomenex LUNA C8(2) 75 x 4.6 mm i.d. analytical column with a 3-microm particle size. The analytes include acids (benzoic acid), bases (pseudoephedrine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, doxylamine and diphenhydramine) and a neutral compound (butylparaben). The effects of pH, the chain length of the ion-pairing reagent, ionic strength and organic modifiers on the separation are discussed. The method is linear from 15 to 150% of the target amounts. The optimized method proves to be specific, robust and accurate for the analysis of the compounds.

  7. Determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits by column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dajing; Chen, Bo

    2010-09-01

    A column-switching HPLC method for the determination of neotame in beverages, cakes and preserved fruits was developed. After pre-treatment using a Waters Oasis HLB cartridge, the sample solution was separated on two C(18) columns using a column-switching technique with a six-port valve. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The effects of eluent composition and eluate volume on the retention and elution of neotame on SPE cartridge were investigated. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and has good reproducibility. RSD was lower than 5% (n = 5). The calibration curve of neotame was in the range 5-100 microg/ml with good linearity (r(2) = 0.999). Because neotame was concentrated 10 times from an original sample to a sample solution by solid-phase extraction (SPE), the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.5 mg/kg. The recovery yields of neotame spiked in foods was >92% with a coefficient of variation <3.2%. The proposed column-switching HPLC method can be successfully used to determine neotame in routine inspection work.

  8. Fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhui; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2011-07-15

    A fast and sensitive HPLC method for analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives has been developed. The influence of sample preparation conditions and the composition of the mobile phase and elution mode were investigated to optimize the separation of the eight studied components. Final conditions were 60% methanol and 40% water (v/v) extraction of the cosmetic creams. A C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm) was used as the separation column and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05 mol/L ammonium formate in water (pH=3.0) with gradient elution. The results showed that complete separation of the eight studied components was achieved within 10 min, the linear ranges were 1.0-200 μg/mL for phenol, 0.1-150 μg/mL for sorbic acid, 2.0-200 μg/mL for benzoic acid, 0.5-200 μg/mL for hydroquinone, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben, butyl paraben, and good linear correlation coefficient (≥0.9997) were obtained, the detection limit was in the range of 0.05-1.0 μg/mL, the average recovery was between 86.5% and 116.3%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5.0% (n=6). The method is easy, fast and sensitive, it can be employed to analyze component residues in cosmetic creams especially in a quality control setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine, pholcodine, and paraben preservatives in cough mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, L

    1983-02-01

    The separation and simultaneous determination, by high-performance liquid chromatography, of acetaminophen (I), guaifenesin (II), pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (III), and pholcodine (IV), together with a series of parabens (methyl to butyl, V-VIII) in a cough mixture, has been demonstrated using a chemically bonded octadecylsilane stationary phase with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:2) containing the ion-pairing agent octanesulfonic acid. Retention volumes for the active ingredients were 3.8 ml, 5.4 ml, 9.4 ml, and 15.6 ml for compounds I-IV, respectively. Corrected retention volumes for the parabens [5.4 ml for methyl (V), 9.6 ml for ethyl (VI), 18.5 ml for propyl (VII), and 37.9 ml for butyl (VIII)] showed an exponential relationship with chain length of the esterifying alcohols. Excipients did not interfere with the estimation of any of the compounds, hence pretreatment of the sample was unnecessary. Average recoveries of the active ingredients and of the parabens from laboratory prepared samples were essentially 100% of theoretical with standard deviations of 1.7, 0.3, 1.5, 0.3, 0.3, 3.3, 0.7, and 2.7% for I-VIII, respectively.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of azaarenes and their metabolites in groundwater affected by creosote wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Ondrus, M G; Steinheimer, T R

    1990-06-01

    Polynuclear azaheterocyclic compounds (azaarenes) are nitrogen-containing analogs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The nitrogen atom in the ring system causes these compounds to be slightly polar and considerably more water soluble than related PAHs. A method using a solid-surface sorption technique to extract and concentrate azaarenes and their principle metabolites present in groundwater that contains creosote waste is described. Analyte isolation and concentration is accomplished by solid-phase extraction on n-octadecyl cartridges followed by instrumental determination involving high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations and detection are achieved using flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with ultraviolet and fluorescence photometric detectors connected in series. Fluorescence detection alone is insufficient because the fluorescence response produced by two-ring azaarenes is limited. Short wavelength (229 nm) absorbance detection provides improved sensitivity for these compounds and peak rationing for more definitive identification. In this study, oxygen-containing metabolites of quinoline, isoquinoline, and acridine are detected in groundwater from hazardous waste sites in Pensacola, Florida and St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L are measured. The dependence of measured octanol-water partition coefficients on pH is discussed in the context of the isolation chemistry. As a direct bacterial degradation product of acridine with a relatively long environmental persistence, 9-acridinone may serve as a biogenic marker signaling creosote contamination of groundwater.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of azaarenes and their metabolites in groundwater affected by creosote wood preservatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrus, M.G.; Steinheimer, T.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Polynuclear azaheterocyclic compounds (azaarenes) are nitrogen-containing analogs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The nitrogen atom in the ring system causes these compounds to be slightly polar and considerably more water soluble than related PAHs. A method using a solid-surface sorption technique to extract and concentrate azaarenes and their principle metabolites present in groundwater that contains creosote waste is described. Analyte isolation and concentration is accomplished by solid-phase extraction on n-octadecyl cartridges followed by instrumental determination involving high-performance liquid chromatography. Separations and detection are achieved using flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with ultraviolet and fluorescence photometric detectors connected in series. Fluorescence detection alone is insufficient because the fluorescence response produced by two-ring azaarenes is limited. Short wavelength (229 nm) absorbance detection provides improved sensitivity for these compounds and peak rationing for more definitive identification. In this study, oxygen-containing metabolites of quinoline, isoquinoline, and acridine are detected in groundwater from hazardous waste sites in Pensacola, Florida and St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Concentrations ranging from mg/L to ng/L are measured. The dependence of measured octanol-water partition coefficients on pH is discussed in the context of the isolation chemistry. As a direct bacterial degradation product of acridine with a relatively long environmental persistence, 9-acridinone may serve as a biogenic marker signaling creosote contamination of groundwater.

  12. A comparative study of the effects of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens upon boar semen preserved in liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Pinart, Elisabeth; Domènech, Esther; Bussalleu, Eva; Yeste, Marc; Bonet, Sergi

    2017-02-01

    The present study compares the sperm quality of boar seminal doses artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, and maintained in liquid storage at 15°C for a 9-day period. Seminal doses from 10 sexually mature Piétrain boars were diluted in a Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS)-based extender and infected either with E. coli or C. perfringens, with bacterial loads ranging from 10(1) to 10(7)cfumL(-1). During storage, the changes in sperm quality were determined by assessing pH, sperm viability, sperm motiliy, sperm morphology, sperm agglutination degree, and sperm-bacteria interaction. The infection of seminal doses led to an alkalinization of the medium, which was of higher extend in doses infected with C. perfringens. The effect of contamination on sperm viability and motility relied on bacterial type and load. Therefore, while E. coli was more harmful than C. perfringens in bacterial loads ranging from 10(1) to 10(6)cfumL(-1), the detrimental impact of C. perfringens was more apparent than that of E. coli at a bacterial load of 10(7)cfumL(-1). Despite sperm morphology not being affected by either bacterial type or load, sperm agglutination and sperm-bacteria interaction were characteristic of doses infected with E. coli, and increased concomintantly with bacterial load and along storage period. In conclusion, the effects of infection by E. coli on sperm quality were dependent of both bacterial load and storage period, whereas the effects of C. perfringens were mainly dependent on the bacterial load, with a threshold at 10(7)cfumL(-1) from which the sperm quality of seminal doses was greatly impaired.

  13. Determination of preservative and antimicrobial compounds in fish from Manila Bay, Philippines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Amano, Atsuko; Miller, Todd W; Siringan, Fernando P; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-09-15

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of four paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl) and two antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban) belonging to personal care products (PCPs) in 20 species of fish from Manila Bay (Philippines) was performed. Detection of PCPs with greater frequency indicates the ubiquitous contamination of Manila Bay. Concentrations of total paraben were one order of magnitude higher than the antimicrobials in almost all fish, except in Stolephorus indicus and Leiognathus equulus. A positive correlation was observed between parabens concentration and fish length (r = 0.31-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001) and fish weight (r = 0.28-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001), but not for the antimicrobials. The estimated dietary exposure values of the four parabens in the Philippines through fish is four orders of magnitude lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 10mg/kg/day, but the values of antimicrobials are just half of the ADI of TCS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCPs contamination in fish from Philippines.

  14. A comparison of active ingredients and preservatives between brand name and generic topical glaucoma medications using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kahook, Malik Y; Fechtner, Robert D; Katz, L Jay; Noecker, Robert J; Ammar, David A

    2012-02-01

    This work compares the concentration of active ingredients and preservatives in commonly used brand name versus generic glaucoma medications. Active ingredient and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) concentrations in brand name latanoprost and dorzolamide-timolol were each compared to two generic counterparts using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry at baseline and after exposure to 25°C and 50°C for 30 days. Micro flow imaging was used to quantify particulate material greater than one micron in diameter. Brand name formulations contained active ingredients and BAK in concentrations that were generally in agreement with their package inserts at baseline. The two generic formulations of latanoprost contained baseline levels of active ingredients that were 10% greater than their labeled value. Generic latanoprost formulations had significant loss of active ingredient concentration after exposure to 25°C and 50°C for 30 days. Both generic and brand name dorzolamide-timolol appeared relatively resistant to degradation. BAK concentrations remained stable at 25°C but decreased in some bottles at 50°C. Bottles of both generic medications had higher levels of particulate matter compared to brand name versions. Exposure to temperatures at the high end of the labeled value may lead to a significant decrease in concentration of active ingredients in generic formulations that could influence clinical efficacy. Re-evaluation of intraocular pressure lowering efficacy may be indicated in glaucoma patients switching from brand name to generic formulations.

  15. A simple and fast method for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream by liquid chromatography- electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molognoni, Luciano; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Valese, Andressa Camargo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a simplified extraction and short time of analysis method for the simultaneous determination of natamycin, nisin and sorbic acid in cheeses and cream by reverse phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Full validation was performed according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and method applicability was checked on several samples, aiming to inspect their compliance with regulatory limits. The method was linear in the concentration ranges of 0-10mg kg(-1) (natamycin), 0-25mg kg(-1) (nisin) and 0 20mg kg(-1) (sorbic acid). Samples of the three most consumed types of cheese (fresh, pasta filata and ripened) in Brazil and cream (ultra high temperature and pasteurized, 20-30% fat content) were assessed. A surprising rate of non-compliance was observed, especially among ripened grated cheeses, since 80% of samples were above the maximum limit for sorbic acid with an average concentration of 2766.3±10.8mg kg(-1). Moreover, a major non-compliance for the cream samples was observed. The proposed method can be applied as an efficient tool for the inspection of preservatives in cheeses and cream.

  16. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry using a dispersive-SPE procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Cao, Shurui; Li, Xianliang; Tang, Bobin; Ding, Xiaowen; Xi, Cunxian; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Zhiqiong

    2015-05-01

    A new method combining dispersive-solid phase purification procedure with ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables. The new method not only had the advantages of dispersive-solid phase purification procedure such as high recoveries, easy operation, rapid analysis, little solvent usage and wide analysis range of preservatives, but also had the advantages of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry to be operated in positive mode and negative mode simultaneously. The method was validated for the following representative matrices: radish (tuber), tomato (eggplant fruit), cabbage (leafy), cowpea (bean), cucumber (melon) and so on. Samples were extracted with hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2, v/v), and then detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry after being cleaned up with dispersive-solid phase purification procedure. Significant matrix effects were compensated by using the matrix-matched calibration curves. 18 preservatives showed good linearity over the range of 5.0-100.0 μg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9904-1.000. The limits of detections were in the range of 0.04-4.16 μg/kg and the limits of quantity were in the range of 0.13-13.85 μg/kg. The recoveries of 18 preservatives ranged from 76.0% to 120.0% with the spiked levels of 2, 4 and 10 μg/kg into homogenized vegetables, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.3% to 14.8%. Compared with the reported literatures, the method is more rapid, simple, highly sensitive, reliable and can meet testing requirements of 18 preservative residues in vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of paraben preservatives in mollusks.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    A method for the extraction and determination of seven parabens, esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, widely used as preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, etc., and two chlorinated derivatives (mono- and di-chloro methyl paraben) from mollusk samples was developed by combining matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. MSPD parameters, such as solvent, solid support and clean-up sorbent, were optimized. Besides, since blank problems were observed for some parabens, these were investigated and blanks were tackled by precleaning all sorbents prior to use. Under final conditions, 0.5g of freeze-dried mollusk were dispersed with 1.2g of silica and packed into a cartridge containing 3g of C18, as on-line clean-up sorbent. This cartridge was eluted with 10mL of acetonitrile, evaporated and reconstituted in methanol for analysis. In the validation stage, successful linearity (R(2)>0.999), recoveries (between 71 and 117% for most analytes), precision (RSD lower than 21%) and limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ, lower than 0.4 and 1.4ngg(-1) dry weight respectively) levels were achieved. Finally, the new methodology was applied to mussel, clam and cockle samples. Methyl paraben was above the LOQ in five of the six samples (not found in one clam sample) at concentrations up to 7ngg(-1) dry weight. Ethyl paraben was found above the LOQ in mussel and cockle samples at a concentration level around 0.3ngg(-1). n-Propyl paraben was only above the LOQ in one mussel sample.

  19. Preparation of size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles with a graphene and polymeric ionic liquid coating for the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction of preservatives from vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaling; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Cunxian; Li, Xianliang; Chen, Zhiqiong; Wang, Guoming

    2016-05-27

    Size-controlled magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with 200-1000nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Then Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was synthesized and used as modified QuEChERS adsorbent for the determination of preservatives in vegetables. The size of about 200nm of Fe3O4 in Fe3O4@SiO2@G@PIL was selected as optimum size to clean-up. It not only exerted the nanometer features of magnetic nanoparticles, but also displayed the large specific surface area of graphene (G) and the solvent effects of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs). Various experimental parameters have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a simple, rapid and effective method for the determination of 20 preservatives residues in vegetables was established by modified QuEChERS to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The good linearity with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9972-0.9999 was obtained over the range of 0.02-2.00mg/L for 20 preservatives. The detection limits of the proposed method for 20 preservatives ranged from 0.82 to 6.64μg/kg. The adsorbent was successfully applied for extraction and determination of preservatives in vegetable samples, which thus was time-saving with keeping good clean-up performance.

  20. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used wood species can deteriorate if exposed to conditions that support growth of wood-degrading organisms (see Chap. 14). Wood products can be protected from the attack of decay fungi, harmful insects, or marine borers by applying chemical preservatives. Preservative treatments greatly increase the life of wood structures, thus reducing replacement costs...

  1. Preservation Microfilming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajor, Ladd Z.

    1972-01-01

    Microfilming preserves the library's holdings while creating space for new acquisitions without the need for new library construction and physical expansion. In addition, microfilming protects rare originals from excessive handling, preserves material with permanent research value and makes possible economic demand" reprinting via positive…

  2. Fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-07

    Essential facts [Figure: see text] Fertility preservation involves freezing and storing eggs, sperm, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissue for use in a person's future fertility treatment. Men and women may wish to preserve their fertility for a variety of reasons, including delaying parenthood and allowing treatment of a medical condition that may affect future fertility, including some cancer treatments.

  3. Preservation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

  4. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  5. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model.

  7. Effect of holding of semen and washing of seminal plasma on quality and fertility of Hampshire boar semen preserved at liquid state.

    PubMed

    Chutia, T; Biswas, R K; Tamuli, M K; Deka, B C; Sinha, S; Goswami, J; Banik, S; Kayastha, R B

    2014-03-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the effect on keeping quality of boar semen on holding or not holding at an elevated temperature than that used for preservation when combined with washing or not washing of seminal plasma. Twenty ejaculates, four from each of five Hampshire boars were used to hold for 0 and 4h in GEPS extender at 22°C and subsequently washed (1500×g for 10min) of seminal plasma or left unwashed and preserved at 15°C for 72h after extending with the same extender. The seminal parameters in terms of sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and live spermatozoa with intact acrosome (LIA) were evaluated at 0h-(immediately after extension) and thereafter at 24h intervals. The mean percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher in semen held for 4h than 0h irrespective of washing and significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. Irrespective of preservation period the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than 0h of holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of LIA was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than with 0h holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than in washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held as compared to unheld semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation

  8. Preservation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noriega, Chon A.

    2005-01-01

    One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

  9. Digitizing Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

  10. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  11. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  12. Larynx preservation.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Jean-Louis

    2012-05-01

    Organ preservation, in particular larynx preservation, is a major challenge that has been evaluated during the past 3 decades. This review took in consideration the most recently published articles on this topic. There are no new data on this topic but mainly confirming data. Most of the reports underscored that there was still a place for upfront surgery (either partial or total laryngectomy). Nonsurgical approaches are radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy-based protocols with either induction or concomitant chemotherapy added to radiotherapy (with conventional or accelerated fractionation). Different authors underscored that daily practice must follow carefully the selection of patients and monitoring of treatment when applying protocols evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Larynx preservation is an undisputable advance in larynx cancer management. For early diseases, either surgery (open or endoscopic) or irradiation may control the disease and preserve the larynx function. For advanced cases, chemotherapy-based protocols have been validated, but the best protocol is still to be defined. Importantly some cases still require upfront total laryngectomy. A multidisciplinary approach for decision making is mandatory, whatever the stage.

  13. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  14. Neighborhood Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benin, Shirley

    1984-01-01

    Because of concern about the preservation of the historic character of Stamford (Connecticut), children in a pilot program at an elementary school learned about neighborhood history, sketched houses, researched houses which had been torn down and drew and constructed replicas of them, and learned about renovation and period interior design. (IS)

  15. Simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins and preservatives in multivitamin syrup by validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Stojanka; Stojanović, Biljana; Veljković, Jelena; Prazić-Arsić, Ljiljana; Roglić, Goran; Manojlović, Dragan

    2008-08-22

    HPLC stability-indicating method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of some water-soluble vitamins (ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin-5'-phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, D(+)-panthenol) and two preservatives (methylparaben and sodium benzoate) in multivitamin syrup preparation. Water-soluble vitamins, preservatives and their degradants were separated on Zorbax SB-Aq (C(18)) (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column at an ambient temperature. Combined isocratic and gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of 0.0125 M hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt in 0.1% (m/v) o-phosphoric acid, pH 2.4-2.5 (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at the flow-rate 1 ml min(-1). Starting with solvent A an isocratic elution was performed for 15 min, then the composition was changed to 85% of A and 15% of B during the next 20 min and it was constant for 5 min, then the composition was changed to 70% of A and 30% of B during next 15 min and it was constant for 5 min and finally was changed to 100% of A as at the beginning of the elution. Detection was performed with diode array detector at 210, 230 and 254 nm. Multivitamin syrup preparation was subjected to stress testing (forced degradation) in order to demonstrate that degradants from the vitamins, preservatives and/or product excipients do not interfere with the quantification of vitamins and preservatives. Typical validation characteristics: selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of quantification and limit of detection were evaluated for vitamins and preservatives.

  16. Simultaneous determination of nine preservatives in food by liquid chromatography with the aid of coagulant in the clean-up process.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Jun; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    A simple HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine preservatives in food including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, isopropyl paraben, propyl paraben, isobutyl paraben and butyl paraben. Samples were extracted with 60 v/v% methanol containing poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and sodium hydroxide prior to analysis. PAC, which is normally used as a coagulant, was successfully applied to remove interfering substances from the samples. The method showed good linearity with coefficients of determination higher than 0.999 over the range of 0.2-5 µg ml(-1) for all target preservatives. LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.002-0.008 g kg(-1). Method performance was evaluated in a variety of foods demonstrated to have quantitative recoveries of 81.7-102.5% with satisfactory intra-day precision of < 3.7% and inter-day precision of < 6.5%. The method also demonstrated applicability to real foods containing preservatives.

  17. Multiresidue analytical method for the determination of antimicrobials, preservatives, benzotriazole UV stabilizers, flame retardants and plasticizers in fish using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-06-03

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of emerging pollutants belonging to personal care products (PCPs) (antimicrobials, preservatives), benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) and organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) in fish has been developed using high speed solvent extraction (HSSE) followed by silica gel clean up and ultra fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) analysis. Developed extraction and clean up method yielded good recovery (> 70%) for all the four groups of emerging pollutants, i.e. antimicrobials (78.5-85.6%), preservatives (85.0-89.4%), BUVSs (70.9-112%) and OPCs (81.6-114%; except for TEP - 68.9% and TPeP - 58.1%) with RSDs ranging from 0.7 to 15.4%. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were less than 19.8% and 19.0%, respectively at three spiked levels. The concentrations were given in lipid weight (lw) basis, and the method detection limits were achieved in the lowest range of 0.001-0.006 ng g⁻¹ for two antimicrobials, 0.001-0.015 ng g⁻¹ for four preservatives, 0.0002-0.009 ng g⁻¹ for eight BUVSs and 0.001-0.014 ng g⁻¹ for nine OPCs. Finally, the method was successfully validated as a simple and fast extraction method for the determination of 23 compounds belonging to PCPs, BUVSs and OPCs and applied to the analysis of three species of fish from Manila Bay, the Philippines. Concentrations ranged from 27 to 278 ng g⁻¹ for antimicrobials, 6.61 to 1580 ng g⁻¹ for paraben preservatives, preservatives and four BUVSs, in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryogenic Preservation of Granulocytes and Monocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-25

    plateletpheresis bags and preserved with the granulocyte protocol. All cells were recovered after 3 months storage in liquid nitrogen with 94...phagocytic index. Technical Reports. Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. December 20, 1980. Long...and Callalan, A.B. : Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. Blood 57:592-598, 1981. Arnaout, A.A

  19. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1) using a Hibar(®) Lichrosorb(®) C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL(-1) and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL(-1) respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid.

  20. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 using a Hibar® Lichrosorb® C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL-1 and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL-1 respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  1. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 μm (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  2. Sperm fertility and viability following 48h of refrigeration: evaluation of different extenders for the preservation of bull semen in liquid state.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, A M; Nichi, M; Guasti, P N; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Sá Filho, M F; Maziero, R R; Dell'aqua, J A; Papa, F O

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of different extenders conventionally used for semen cryopreservation to maintain the viability and fertility of cooled bull semen. In Experiment 1, sperm samples obtained from 20 Nellore bulls were preserved at 5°C for 48h using two extenders containing 20% of egg yolk [Tris (TRIS-R) and Botu-Bov(®) (BB)] and another composed of 1% soy lecithin [Botu-Bov(®)-Lecithin (BB-L)] as substitutes for animal origin products. The samples were evaluated at 6, 24 and 48h for plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (ng of TBARS/10(8) cells) and sperm motility parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rate (P/AI) of 973 fixed-time artificially inseminated Nellore cows were compared when cows were inseminated with conventionally cryopreserved semen in TRIS-egg yolk glycerol (TRIS-C Control, n=253) or semen cooled for 48h in TRIS-R (n=233), BB (n=247) or BB-L (n=240). Although none of the extenders used was effective on maintaining total progressive motility and cellular integrity throughout the 48-h of the refrigeration period (P<0.01), BB-L conferred greater protection against oxidative stress (P<0.05) than egg yolk-based medias. The P/AI for semen samples preserved in TRIS-C, TRIS-R, BB and BB-L were 39.92(a), 25.32(b), 26.32(b) and 33.33(ab), respectively. These results demonstrate that the three conventional extenders used for semen cryopreservation do not provide the protection required to maintain bull semen fertility under refrigeration for a 48-h period, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates. However, the use of lecithin-based medium instead of egg yolk results in greater protection against lipid peroxidation, producing P/AI results comparable to those obtained using frozen semen.

  3. Preservatives in moisturizers on the Swedish market.

    PubMed

    Gruvberger, B; Bruze, M; Tammela, M

    1998-01-01

    The presence of 9 common preservatives was investigated in 100 moisturizers by high-performance liquid chromatography. According to the manufacturers/suppliers 88 of the 100 moisturizers contained at least one of the 9 preservatives. This information was erroneous in 9 cases (10.2%). When the moisturizers were investigated for the presence of the 9 preservatives which should not be present in the moisturizers according to the manufacturers/suppliers, at least one of the preservatives was detected in 17 moisturizers (17.0%). Parabens were the most common preservatives. The concentrations of the 9 preservatives did not exceed the maximum concentrations allowed in cosmetics. When a patient with suspected allergic contact dermatitis tests positively to a preservative, the assessment of present clinical relevance requires demonstration of exposure to the sensitizer. This demonstration cannot rely solely on information on the packages or from the manufacturers/suppliers but has often to be supplemented by chemical analysis.

  4. Quality by design based optimization of a high performance liquid chromatography method for assay determination of low concentration preservatives in complex nasal formulations.

    PubMed

    Zakrajšek, Jure; Stojić, Vladimir; Bohanec, Simona; Urleb, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    The effects of seven different chromatographic parameters and five sample preparation parameters in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assay determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in a nasal formulation were evaluated using two fractional factorial experimental designs. The design space of the analytical method was modeled using Umetrics Modde software and the optimal method conditions were predicted. The optimum HPLC chromatographic conditions were obtained using a Luna CN column (150 x 4.6 mm, 3 µm). The results show that mobile phase pH, amount of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and column temperature are the most important factors in obtaining good separation of BKC homologs from an interfering peak. In the sample preparation step, the use of an aqueous solution for dissolving the samples was the most important factor since it eliminated the interfering effect of the active compound. The optimal method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. The use of experimental designs enables obtaining the maximum amount of information with the least possible number of experiments. Such designs are an economical manner in evaluating a variety of different factors and their interactions.

  5. Preservation and analytical procedures for the analysis of chloro-s-triazines and their chlorodegradate products in drinking waters using direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glynda A; Pepich, Barry V; Munch, David J

    2008-08-22

    A direct injection, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the chloro-s-triazine herbicides and their degradates in finished drinking water. The target compounds in the method were selected based on their inclusion in a common mechanism group (CMG) because of their ability to induce a similar toxic effect through a common mechanism of toxicity. The target list includes the chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and propazine) and their dealkylated degradates (desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, and diaminochlorotriazine). Potential matrix effects are minimized by the use of individual isotopically enriched internal standards. Analyte stability in finished chlorinated drinking water samples is ensured through careful selection of proper dechlorinating and antimicrobial reagents and through buffering sample pH. In the absence of proper dechlorination, the target analytes were found to degrade over a short period of time, even under refrigerated storage conditions. The final method has adequate sensitivity to accurately detect all target analytes at or below 0.1 microg/L and displays sufficient precision and robustness to warrant publication as EPA Method 536.

  6. Focus on Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, Mary; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three articles focus on preservation of library materials: profile of Bonnie Jo Cullison, book conservationist at Newberry Library (Chicago, Illinois); planning for preservation (administration, conservation training, microreproduction, library binding, environmental control, research and development, educating public); preservation guide for…

  7. Biocidal treatment and preservation of liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegert, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strict microbiological limit values are the result of damage caused by microorganisms in fuels. With MAR 71, a biocide based on methylenebisoxazolidine, a product is available which has been tested and approved by leading car manufacturers, the mineral oil industry, and NATO. Depending on the degree of microbiological contamination, different decontamination concepts are presented, and recommendations for the treatment of fuels which are contaminated when purchased are given. In order to avoid recontamination, planning principles or the new design of tanks are necessary. The possibility of convenient, economical and regular drainage is a key factor.

  8. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-men [top] ASCO. (2016). ... cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/dating-sex-and-reproduction/fertility-concerns-and-preservation-women [top] National Cancer ...

  9. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  10. Formax Preserved Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Philip

    1978-01-01

    A quick, simple method for preserving bird specimens using borax and a formalin solution is described. Procedures for injecting and mounting the specimens are given along with certain restrictions on preserving specimens. (MA)

  11. Preservation and Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the need for the preservation of both print and non-print library materials. Issues raised include problems of photocopying; deciding what to discard and weed out of collections; special considerations for children's books; jobs for preservation librarians; and the need for good judgment in making preservation decisions. (LRW)

  12. Organizing Preservation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Michele

    This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1)…

  13. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Treesearch

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...

  14. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  15. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  16. Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.

    1986-01-01

    Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed…

  17. Grafts for Ridge Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  18. Hypersensitivity to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to cosmetics, topical medicaments, consumer goods, foods, and industrial products to protect them against microbial spoilage and to protect the consumer against infection. The ideal preservative, both effective and devoid of irritant or sensitizing potential, is still to be discovered. The present paper reviews the most important classes of preservatives, namely parabens, formaldehyde-releasers, and isothiazolinones. The author also discusses newer agents such as Euxyl K 400 and isopropynyl butylcarbamate. Each preservative is described in terms of chemical and physical characteristics, antimicrobial efficacy, exposure, cutaneous adverse reactions, patch testing concentrations, patterns of cross-reactions, and reported rates of sensitization. The history of preservatives goes back to the 1930s, and ironically, the parabens, which the industry has sought to replace with "safer" alternatives, are still the most frequently used biocides in cosmetics and appear to be far less sensitizing than most of the newer agents.

  19. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  20. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  1. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  2. Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

  3. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  4. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  5. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  6. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  7. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  8. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  9. Preservation: Issues and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.

    A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

  10. Oxygenated kidney preservation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Nicholson, Harriet F L; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-03-15

    Improving preservation techniques to minimize injury is of particular importance in organs from marginal donors. Since the introduction of transplantation and routine use of hypothermic temperatures for kidney preservation, there has been much debate on whether it is necessary to add oxygen to support the low level of metabolism under these conditions. Supplementing the kidney with oxygen during hypothermic preservation is not common practice. However, there is evidence to support its application. Oxygen can be added by various techniques such as retrograde persufflation whereby filtered and humidified oxygen is bubbled through the vasculature; under hyperbaric conditions using specialized pressurized chambers; during hypothermic machine perfusion; with the addition of oxygen carriers; and under normothermic conditions. Evidence suggests that oxygenation is particularly beneficial in restoring cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate after kidneys have been subjected to warm or cold ischemic injury. However, under normal conditions, the benefits are less convincing, but the evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions. This overview explores the ways in which oxygen can be administered during preservation in experimental and clinical models of kidney transplantation.

  11. Paints and Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  12. Wood preservative testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  13. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  14. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.36 - Flammable liquids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flammable liquids. 1915.36 Section 1915.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Preservation § 1915.36 Flammable liquids. (a) In all cases when liquid solvents, paint and...

  17. Coatings to reduce wood preservative leaching.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mojgan; Cooper, Paul

    2010-08-15

    The efficiency of semitransparent penetrating stains to reduce leaching of wood preservative components was evaluated. Five commercial wood deck finishes were applied to untreated and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), and copper azole (CA) treated wood, and leachates were collected and analyzed during 3 years of natural weathering exposure in Toronto, Canada. All stains evaluated effectively reduced the cumulative leaching of all inorganic preservative components by about 60% on average. Although most coatings showed significant film degradation starting around 12 months, the reduced leaching persisted even after 3 years. This suggests that temporary protection of wood with a coating during the early stages of use resulted in long-term reduction in preservative leaching potential. A two-week screening leaching test was able to predict the long-term leaching performance of different coatings reasonably well. Cured coating glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid coating viscosity were the most important variables affecting a leaching prediction model. To effectively reduce leaching of preservative components from treated wood, coatings should have Tg low enough to withstand stresses caused by freezing in winter and have adequate viscosity to form a barrier film layer on the wood surface.

  18. Blood Preservation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    stordge. Since dihydroxyacetone ( DHA ) seems a very promising additive for 2,3-DPG preservation, basic studies of metabolism of DHA were carried out. These...Washington,D.C. pp. 285-297. 16. Beutler, E. and Guinto, E. 1972. The metabolism of dihydroxyacetone ( DHA ) by human erythrocytes. Clinical Research...CPD with various additives such as ascorbic acid and dihydroxyacetone , and BAGPM mixing exerted a 2,3-DPG- sparing effect. The studies of the effect of

  19. Enterocins in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haider; Flint, Steve; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2010-06-30

    The Enterococcus genus, a member of the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is found in various environments, but more particularly in the intestines of humans and other animals. Although sometimes associated with pathogenicity these bacteria have many benefits. They have been found in traditional artisanal fermented products, are used as probiotic cultures and nowadays extensively studied for the production of bacteriocins--the enterocins. Many of these enterocins have been found to be active against Listeria monocytogenes, and a few have also been reported to be active even against Gram negative bacteria, an unusual property for the bacteriocins produced by LAB. These properties have resulted in many studies describing the use of enterocins as preservatives in foods of animal and vegetable origin. This review covers the most recent information on the use of enterocins as food preservatives, either produced in-situ by the addition of enterocin producing strains or as external preservatives in the form of purified or semi-purified extracts, to prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. E-space preservation.

    PubMed

    Sonis, Andrew; Ackerman, Marc

    2011-11-01

    To determine the relationship of E-space preservation with lingual holding arches to mandibular permanent second molar impaction. Two hundred consecutively treated patients undergoing nonextraction treatment for incisor crowding were entered into the study. Lower incisor crowding was assessed by the Little Irregularity Index. Treatment involved E-space preservation via a passive lingual arch placed prior to exfoliation of the second primary molar. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were analyzed for any significant relationship of mandibular permanent second molar impaction relative to molar angulation, spacing, growth pattern, and skeletal relationships. Twenty-nine patients had at least one impacted second molar (14.5%). Of a possible 400 mandibular second molars, 34 were determined to be impacted (8.5%). Only the mandibular first molar-second molar angulation was found to be significant (P < .001). Pretreatment intermolar angulation of 24 degrees had a positive predictive value of 1. Impaction of permanent second mandibular molars in patients undergoing nonextraction via E-space preservation with a passive lingual arch is 10 to 20 times more prevalent than that observed in the general population. Risk of impaction is best predicted by the pretreatment intermolar angulation between first and second permanent mandibular molars.

  1. Memoir of fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger G

    2013-01-01

    Fertility preservation has been practiced for at least 50 years using semen banking, pelvic surgery, and radiation shields, but in the past 20 years it has emerged as a rapidly growing subspecialty of reproductive medicine. A dramatic rise in survivorship of young cancer patients and the widespread postponement of family building to the later years of the female reproductive lifespan have been major driving forces. Throughout the history of fertility preservation, low temperature banking has played a pivotal role, first for gametes and later for embryos and immature germ cells, while ovarian transplantation recently began to contribute and spermatogonial stem cell transfer holds future promise for men and prepubertal boys. But there are significant risks with some diseases from reimplanting residual disease, which hopefully can be eliminated by new methods for purging the tissue and germ cell culture. Since all technologies are interim, cryopreservation as a mainstay in this field will likely be swept aside eventually by a stream of progress aimed at managing fertility preservation in vivo.

  2. Allergy to ophthalmic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jison; Bielory, Leonard

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to examine the hypersensitivity reactions to preservatives in topical ophthalmic therapies. Ocular hypersensitivity reactions to different types of preservatives in different chemical classes of topical ophthalmic treatments reviewed in the literature include IgE-mast cell mediated, cell mediated and toxic. Quaternary ammoniums (benzalkonium chloride) are most commonly (8% reported cases in OVID and PubMED based searches) associated with irritant toxic reactions whereas the organomercurials (thimerosal) and the alcohols (chlorobutanol) have the highest association (19% of OVID and 14% of PubMED based searches and 20% of OVID and 11% of PubMED searches), respectively, with allergic responses although the term allergy for the 'alcohols' appears to be actually an irritant effect whereas the organomercurials appear to truly interact with the immune system as neoantigens. A large number of clinical and experimental studies reveal that preservatives in topical ophthalmic medications have been demonstrated to produce effects from inflammation/ hypersensitivity to permanent cytotoxic effects involving all structures of the eye.

  3. Fertility preservation 2

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  4. Preservative treatments for building components

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  5. Preserving in Plastic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  6. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  7. Home-Made Cost Effective Preservation Buffer Is a Better Alternative to Commercial Preservation Methods for Microbiome Research

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Sebastian; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Sommer, Simone

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known. Here, we sampled feces of 11 sheep (Ovis aries sp.) by using swabs and analyzed the effect of air-drying, an inexpensive self-made nucleic acid preservation buffer (NAP), DNA/RNA Shield™, and RNAlater®, each together with freezing (for 10 days) or storing at room temperature (for 10 days) prior to 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial communities. Results revealed that the proportions of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to a bacterial phylum were affected by the preservation treatments, and that alpha diversities [observed OTUs, Shannon index, and phylogenetic diversity (PD)] were lower in all preservation treatments than in samples taken by forensic swabs and immediately frozen which is considered as the favored preservation treatment in the absence of any logistic constraints. Overall, NAP had better preservation qualities than RNAlater® and DNA/RNA Shield™ making this self-made buffer a valuable solution in wildlife microbiome studies. PMID:28197142

  8. Preserving Perishables (Dormavac)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A new commercial product that can preserve perishable commodities for weeks without freezing, so that they can be shipped fresh without the cost of air freight, has been developed by Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. The development benefited from the company's experience in developing the environmental control system for the Lunar Module, which delivered Apollo astronauts to the surface of the moon. Called Dormavac, the system provides a commodity-preserving environment within an aluminum container that can be transported by truck, rail or ship. Dormavac creates a cold-but above freezing-environment with high relative humidity and very low air pressure. The saturated air minimizes commodity weight loss and the air is automatically changed several times an hour to flush away odors and harmful gases released by the commodities. According to company literature, Dormavac significantly extends the transportation life of perishables. For example, pork has a normal cold storage life of about seven days, beef two weeks and tomatoes three weeks; with Dormavac, pork remains fresh for three weeks, beef more than six weeks and tomatoes seven weeks or more. Dormavac is manufactured and marketed by Grumman Allied Industries, Woodbury, New York. In developing the system, Grumman Allied drew upon the technological resources of another company subsidiary, Grumman Aerospace. Engineers who had earlier worked on Lunar Module environmental control brought their know-how and experience to the Dormavac development.

  9. Preserving reptiles for research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  10. Long-term preservation of freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takehito; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-06-01

    Many genetically engineered mice strains have been generated worldwide and sperm preservation is a valuable method for storing these strains as genetic resources. Freeze-drying is a useful sperm preservation method because it requires neither liquid nitrogen nor dry ice for preservation and transportation. We report here successful long-term preservation at 4 °C of mouse spermatozoa freeze-dried using a simple buffer solution (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA, pH 8.0). Offspring with fertility were obtained from oocytes fertilized with freeze-dried spermatozoa from C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mouse strains stored at 4 °C for 3 years. This freeze-drying method is a safe and economical tool for the biobanking of valuable mouse strains.

  11. Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    2004-10-01

    Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is highly hydrolyzed in the cortex of the same fossil even though both of preservations may be less than 2 microm away. The unique preservation pattern, sharp contrast of preservation in adjacent cells and the exceptional preservation of cytoplasm in the cortex suggest that lightning should play an important role in the preservation of cytoplasm and that cytoplasmic membranes may be more stable than the cell contents. Interpreting the preservation needs knowledge scattering in several formerly unrelated fields of science, including geophysics, botany, biophysics, cytology and microwave fixation technology. This new interpretation of fossilization will shed new light on preservation of cytoplasm and promote cytoplasm fossils from a position of rarity to a position of common research objects available for biological research. The importance of the identification of cytoplasm in fossil lies not in itself but in how much it influences the future research in paleobotany.

  12. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  13. Format-Preserving Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till

    Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

  14. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  15. Advances in corneal preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, R L

    1990-01-01

    The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in

  16. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  17. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  18. Historic Preservation in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

  19. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  20. Preservation and Maintenance of Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Marie T.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of storage and maintenance which confront the map librarian are discussed. Included are the causes of map damage and deterioration, methods of detection and correction, and suggestions of further measures for optimum preservation. Useful guides on preservation and maintenance are cited. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  1. Preservation Methods for Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  2. Building Preservation Knowledge in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ingrid

    The project to translate into Portuguese and disseminate preservation knowledge was part of a broader partnership between the Council on Library and Information Resources, which incorporates the former Commission on Preservation and Access, and a consortium of Brazilian archival, library, and museum institutions. The partnership was intended to…

  3. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  4. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  5. Preservation in the Digital World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    This paper seeks to provide an intellectual rationale for maintaining the centrality of preservation concepts and ethics in an increasingly digital information environment; in other words, while some long-held principles of preservation management may no longer apply, many others are still viable in high-tech situations. Libraries are rearranging…

  6. Historic Preservation in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K.

    2004-01-01

    The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

  7. A simple technique for long-term preservation of leptospires.

    PubMed

    Samir, Ahmed; Wasfy, Momtaz O

    2013-03-01

    The viability of six serovars of Leptospira spp. was studied after long storage at -70°C. The bacteria were either preserved in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) liquid growth medium or in sheep blood added as a cryoprotectant. The viability of the strains was observed on a monthly basis by dark-ground microscopy over a period of 20 months at -70°C. Addition of sheep blood was not significantly advantageous, since leptospires that were stored in EMJH showed a slight increase in number after recovery. The results suggest a very simple and useful technique for long-term preservation of such Leptospira.

  8. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  9. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  10. [Food preservation through combined processes].

    PubMed

    Sala Trepat, F J

    1995-03-01

    Food preservation by combined processes is based on the combination of two or more existing preservation methods with the objective of developing milder preservation procedures. Currently two combined processes (CP) deserve a special attention, the preservation of food by high pressures (HP) and the preservation of food with the combined use of heat and ultrasounds under pressure (Mano-Thermo-Sonication). In the preservation by HP, the food, at room temperature or at very mild temperature, is held during relatively long periods under very high pressures (100-1000 MPa) to inactivate its enzymes and/or microorganisms. This procedure has proved to be effective to inactivate vegetative cells but much less effective to inactivate most enzymes and bacterial spores. Several kinds of food preserved by this method have already been launched into the market. In Mano-Thermo-Sonication (MTS Process) microorganisms and enzymes are inactivated by a combined heat/ultrasounds treatment under pressure. By this method, the lethality of heat treatments at the same temperature is highly increased. Therefore, the intensity of heat treatments can be drastically reduced. Heat resistance of spores is reduced by a factor of 1/10 and that of enzymes and vegetative cells is reduced by a factor of 1/50 approximately. The applicability of this procedure is currently being investigated.

  11. Studies on the stability of preservatives under subcritical water conditions.

    PubMed

    Kapalavavi, B; Marple, R; Gamsky, C; Yang, Y

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this work was to further validate the subcritical water chromatography (SBWC) methods for separation and analysis of preservatives through the evaluation of analyte stability in subcritical water. In this study, the degradation of preservatives was investigated at temperatures of 100-200°C using two different approaches. First, the peak areas obtained by SBWC at high temperatures were compared with those achieved using the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 25°C. In the second approach, several preservatives and water were loaded into a vessel and heated at high temperatures for 30 or 60 min. The heated mixtures were then analysed by GC/MS to determine the stability of preservatives. The t- and F-test on the results of the first approach reveal that the peak areas achieved by HPLC and SBWC are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level, meaning that the preservatives studied are stable during the high-temperature SBWC runs. Although the results of the second approach show approximately 10% degradation of preservatives into mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid and phenol at 200°C, the preservatives studied are stable at 100 and 150°C. This is in good agreement with the validation results obtained by the first approach. The findings of this work confirm that SBWC methods at temperatures up to 150°C are reliable for separation and analysis of preservatives in cosmetic and other samples. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Preserving the heritage of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weart, Spencer

    2002-01-01

    In the 40 years since its creation, the Niels Bohr Library has become the world center for preserving the historical record of modern physics and allied fields, and for helping people show this record to the public

  13. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  14. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  15. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  16. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-11-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report provides a status update documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors.

  17. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2012-01-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors

  18. Mechanical engineering problems in preserving biological objects by temperature lowering.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, Z

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of dangers caused by mechanical refrigerating and liquid nitrogen systems used for low temperature preserving of biological material and safety measures to be adopted. Hazards are caused by moving or protruding parts of the machinery, its hot parts, noise and vibration, work in cold rooms, possible destruction of pressure vessels, refrigerant inflammation or explosion, breathing the refrigerant or its decomposition products, direct contact of the refrigerant with the skin or mucous tissues, depletion of stratospheric ozone or contamination of food-stuffs.

  19. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications.

  20. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  1. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  2. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  3. Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. ); Mahowald, A.P. )

    1992-12-18

    The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

  4. Shape preserving interpolation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.E.

    1985-08-06

    Fast, accurate interpolation algorithms are needed in virtually all areas of high speed scientific computing. As computer power has grown, physical, mathematical and computational models have become more complicated in an attempt to achieve more realistic simulations of the underlying physical processes. These changes have influenced the trends in developing new and more sophisticated interpolation methods. In the past an important criterion used to select an interpolation algorithm was the accuracy of a method as measured by the rate of convergence of the interpolant as the mesh size is decreased to zero. However, in most practical problems one has little or no control over the number and/or location of the data points, and the mesh never tends to zero. Instead, the user demands that the interpolant provide an accurate approximation to ''physical reality'', or at least to his/her perception of that reality. In attempting to increase fidelity to the underlying physical processes, two phrases have come into vogue when describing interpolation methods: ''visually pleasing'' and ''shape preserving''. Visually pleasing means the end result must look ''right'' to the user. While this is a highly desirable goal, it is subjective and has not yet been characterized mathematically. In contrast, shape preserving refers to the preservation of one or more mathematical properties (called shape characteristics) during the interpolation process. These shape characteristics often represent physical properties of the system being modeled. This paper is about shape preserving interpolation methods as applied to solving real-world scientific problems.

  5. Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart

    1990-01-01

    These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

  6. Bibliographic Control of Preservation Photocopies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telerski, R. Michele

    This study examines how American Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries catalog full-volume, monographic, non-cartographic, preservation photocopies and explores the use of full, minimal, or dependent bibliographic records. It analyzes On-line Public Access Catalog (OPAC) records structure for multiple versions materials in terms…

  7. Automating Preservation Information in RLIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Betsy

    1988-01-01

    Examines efforts of the Research Libraries Group to use RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) to support cooperative and individual member library preservation activities. Areas covered include enhancements to make item-specific microform information available and efforts to code information on the physical condition of materials. (30…

  8. A Capital Assets Preservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

  9. Electrochemical Ag+ for preservative use.

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, N; Simonetti, G; Bougnol, F; Scalzo, M

    1992-01-01

    In contact experiments with different experimental conditions, electrochemical Ag+ solutions exhibited better antimicrobial effectiveness against bacteria, a yeast species, and a mold than did analogous silver solutions from inorganic salts. The particular characteristics of electrochemical Ag+, such as the mode of action, effectiveness at low concentrations, and stability, indicate that Ag+ could be used effectively in preservatives. PMID:1476427

  10. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  11. The preservation of tissues for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pegg, David E

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a written version of a lecture given during the celebration of Professor Rudolf Klen's 90th birthday. Dr. Klen played by far the major part in the introduction and the development of Tissue Banking in Europe. His concept of a tissue bank envisaged the storage of all types of cell, tissue and organ that physicians and surgeons might need for the treatment of their patients. There has been much progress towards this goal, but still the final objective remains elusive. This review of the current position starts with the recognition that some tissues are required to comprise or include cells that exhibit all the formal characteristics of life if they are to function as grafts, whereas other tissues do not. For some tissues, the preservation of mechanical properties is crucial: for others it is not. These considerations are crucial for the design of preservation methods for specific tissues: bone tendon and skin can provide useful grafts in the absence of living cells and this may even be true of cardiac valves: the crucial requirement here is that the mechanical properties remain intact. Simply freezing at around -80 degrees C may be sufficient. In contrast, many cell systems, and all metabolizing organs do require healthy cells to function. Cryopreservation is often an effective remedy for isolated cells, for example haemopoietic stem cells, but the damaging effects of the formation of ice are sufficient to rule out this approach for whole vascularised organs and for some tissues too. The damaging mechanisms are discussed, and it is concluded that the site of ice crystallization is crucial. Cartilage has hitherto been recalcitrant, but we have recently developed a method that permits this tissue to be stored at liquid nitrogen temperatures without any ice and with the recovery of living cells and intact mechanical properties after storage. Thus, many methods are available to help develop tissue banking originally envisioned by Dr. Klen.

  12. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  13. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  14. Experience with bioventing at wood-preserving sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.L.; Simpkin, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The nature of the contamination and the regulatory framework of wood-preserving sites are unique. Evaluating and applying bioventing are, therefore, different than at petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Average biodegradation rates measured from in situ respiration tests and operational data at three wood-preserving sites ranged from 2.1 to 6.3 mg/kg soil/day. This is in the low range of rates from published data on bioventing at petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. A significant factor in bioventing at wood-preserving sites is in the physical characteristics of the wastes. The presence of both dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) and light, nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs) at two of the sites required dewatering in conjunction with bioventing to expose the majority of the contamination. The remedial objective at the three sites ranged from reducing contaminant mass, to reducing site risk and reducing contaminant levels so that groundwater would achieve drinking water standards. Full-scale application of bioventing is planned for 1995 at the site with mass reduction as the objective. A long-term bioventing test is being performed at the second site to evaluate the ability of bioventing to reduce levels of carcinogenic compounds, and thus risk. At the third site, bioventing is not included in the final remedy because the changes of achieving the drinking water standards are very small.

  15. Evaluation of freeze fixation as a phytoplankton preservation method for microautoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Paerl, H.W.

    1984-03-01

    Quantitative microautoradiography of marine and freshwater phytoplankton has been hampered by the fact that chemical techniques used to maintain structural integrity cause leakage of isotopically labeled cell constituents. Chemography, poor preservation of structural integrity, and leakage of cell constituents can all be avoided by quick-freezing filtered samples in liquid N/sub 2/ and then freeze-drying them before autoradiographic preparation. Leakage of fixed /sup 14/C and /sup 33/P and preservation of cell shapes and sizes by these preservation techniques are evaluated in diverse marine and freshwater phytoplankton communities.

  16. Eye preservation tectonic graft using glycerol-preserved donor cornea.

    PubMed

    Lin, H-C; Ong, S J; Chao, A-N

    2012-11-01

    To report the surgical outcome of tectonic graft using glycerol-preserved donor corneas to treat perforated keratitis. The medical records were reviewed of all patients treated for perforated keratitis using glycerol-preserved corneas at a single institution between 1 July 2004 and 31 June 2010. The clinical features, precipitating factors, adjuvant therapies, and therapeutic outcomes were analyzed. Success was defined as re-epithelialization of the ocular surface without evisceration. Fourteen eyes from 14 patients (6 male and 8 female) were included. Age ranged from 58 to 84 years (average, 70.71 ± 8.52 years) and the follow-up time ranged from 7 to 56 months (mean, 25.35 ± 16.84 months). The culture results showed five bacterial infections, five cases of fungal keratitis, and one mixed infection; the culture results were negative for three patients. Satisfactory anatomical integrity was obtained in eight grafts (57.14%) that healed with neovascularization. Six grafts (48.85%) showed delayed re-epithelialization and were repaired with conjunctival flaps to maintain ocular surface integrity. Three patients developed secondary glaucoma and received trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation. Thirteen patients had satisfactory anatomical integrity without evisceration or exenteration, while one patient received evisceration at 39-month follow-up because of intractable glaucoma. Glycerol-preserved donor corneas combined with anterior vitrectomy with or without conjunctival flaps may be effective substitutes for evisceration surgery in patients with perforated keratitis.

  17. Scarpa Fascia Preservation in Abdominoplasty: Does It Preserve the Lymphatics?

    PubMed

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    The course of the cutaneous lymphatic collectors of the abdominal wall in relation to the Scarpa fascia is unclear in the literature. Preserving the Scarpa fascia in the lower abdomen to reduce the seroma rate following abdominoplasty has been suggested based on the assumption that the lower abdominal lymphatics run deep to this layer along their entire course. Using the previously described technique, the superficial lymphatic drainage of eight hemiabdomen specimens from four fresh human cadavers was investigated. The upper and lower abdominal collectors originated at the umbilical and midline watershed areas in a subdermal plane by the union of precollectors draining the dermis. In the lower abdomen, the depth of the collectors gradually increased in the subcutaneous fat as they coursed toward the groin. They eventually pierced the Scarpa fascia before draining into the superficial inguinal nodes located deep to this layer. The transition from the supra- to the infra-Scarpa fascia plane occurred within 2 to 3 cm of the inguinal ligament in 95 percent of the collectors. In the four cadavers studied, preserving the Scarpa fascia during abdominoplasty would not preserve the lower abdominal collectors.

  18. Comparison of preservation media and freezing conditions for storage of specimens of faeces.

    PubMed

    Dan, M; Richardson, J; Miliotis, M D; Koornhof, H J

    1989-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term recoverability of bacterial enteropathogens, two freezing conditions (deep-freezing at -70 degrees C and liquid nitrogen) and three preservation media (Cary-Blair, Amies, and buffered glycerol-saline) were tested. These were compared with storage in containers with no preservation medium and refrigeration at 4 degrees C. At 4 degrees C, viability of organisms could not be consistently maintained beyond one month; Cary-Blair medium generally gave the best results and storage without preservation medium was the least efficient. Storage in liquid nitrogen and deep-freezing effectively preserved all organisms except Campylobacter jejuni for the entire period of study (12 months). There was no difference between the various preservation media, or between storage with or without medium. Storage in preservation medium was superior to storage without such supplement for C. jejuni. We conclude that most enteropathogens survive in faecal specimens for as long as 12 months when stored at very low temperatures (-70 degrees C) whether or not preservation media are used.

  19. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  20. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in Iranian doogh.

    PubMed

    Zamani Mazdeh, F; Esmaeili Aftabdari, F; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Z; Shaneshin, M; Torabi, P; Shams Ardekani, M R; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two common preservatives used in Iran, yet use of these preservatives in doogh (Iranian dairy-based drink) is forbidden according to national standards. The aim of this study was to consider the presence of these preservatives in doogh by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The method was performed using a C18 column and detection at 225 nm. The mobile phase contained ammonium acetate buffer (pH = 4.2) and acetonitrile (80:20 v/v). The survey included 130 samples of doogh for identification and quantification of the named preservatives. All samples contained sodium benzoate, but potassium sorbate was detected in only 13% of them. The means of benzoate and sorbate were 21.3 ± 2.7 and 13.3 ± 39.6 mg kg(-1), respectively. The limits of detection were 2 and 40 ng g(-1) for benzoate and sorbate, respectively. Results indicate that sodium benzoate may occur in doogh naturally.

  1. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-07-05

    Here, a large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  2. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-07-05

    Here, a large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  3. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    PubMed

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  4. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, Paul C.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.

    2016-07-05

    Here, a large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  5. Remembering preservation in hippocampal amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2017-01-01

    The lesion-deficit model dominates neuropsychology. This is unsurprising given powerful demonstrations that focal brain lesions can affect specific aspects of cognition. Nowhere is this more evident than in patients with bilateral hippocampal damage. In the last sixty years the amnesia and other impairments exhibited by these patients have helped to delineate the functions of the hippocampus and shape the field of memory. We do not question the value of this approach. However, less prominent are the cognitive processes that remain intact following hippocampal lesions. Here, we collate the piecemeal reports of preservation of function following focal bilateral hippocampal damage, highlighting a wealth of information often veiled by the field’s focus on deficits. We consider how a systematic understanding of what is preserved as well as what is lost could add an important layer of precision to models of memory and the hippocampus. PMID:26361051

  6. [Allergy to cosmetics. II. Preservatives].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    Disinfectants are essential components of body care preparations, household goods and industrial products. They inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. Esters of parahydroxybenzoate acid and products that release small amounts of formaldehyde (Germal 115, Germal II, Dovicil 200, Bronopol, DMDM hydantoine) were most frequently used in the past. In the 1980s, Katon CG (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one + 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) evoked the epidemics of contact dermatitis in Sweden, Finland, Germany, Italy and The Netherlands. In the next years, allergy to another preservative, Euxyl K 400 was dramatically growing. Studies carried out in 11 European countries showed that hypersensitivity increased from 0.7% in 1991 to 3.5% in 2000. It was revealed that not only cosmetics left on the skin sensitize, but also those washable. Apart from preservatives, allergic reactions are induced by emulgators, antioxidants, moisteners, lubricants, stabilizers and stickers.

  7. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  8. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  9. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  11. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  12. Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, James A.

    This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation…

  13. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be...

  14. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  15. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary records in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  16. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open...

  17. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  18. Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisdom, Mark

    This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,…

  19. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  20. LIQUID TARGET

    DOEpatents

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  1. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  2. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  4. Preserving the Collections of Joyner Library: The Preservation Planning Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth H.; Barbour, Gordon; Cotter, Michael; Goering, Lawrence

    This report is structured to educate East Carolina University about library materials preservation. The library-wide preservation program began at Joyner Library in 1993 with the organization of the Preservation and Conservation Department. The planning phase of the preservation program began in 1995 with the appointment of the…

  5. Preservation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Schwabe, Kay; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2010-09-01

    Due to their positive features (e.g., increased penetration of actives, re-enforcement of the lipid barrier and increase in skin hydration), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are used in many dermal formulations. These formulations require preservation, and preservatives can impair the physical stability of disperse systems. Therefore, in this study, the influence of preservatives on the physical stability of Q10-loaded NLC was investigated using 11 different preservative mixtures. Whereas for nanosuspensions, only a limited number of preservatives are known from the literature not affecting their physical stability, a surprisingly high number of seven preservatives could be identified to be suitable for the preservation of NLC dispersions. For Q10-loaded NLC, Hydrolite 5 proved to be the best preservative, as it was found surprisingly to stabilize the NLC dispersion. Based on the data, a preservative classification system is suggested and a mechanistic model describing six key parameters affecting the physical stability of NLC could be developed. As most suitable characterization method to screen for suitable preservatives, light microscopy was identified. By being a simple, fast and cost efficient method, even extensive preservative screening studies can be performed very efficiently.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Is My Network Module Preserved and Reproducible?

    PubMed Central

    Langfelder, Peter; Luo, Rui; Oldham, Michael C.; Horvath, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved) in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix) while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables). Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1) preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2) comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3) preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4) sex differences in human cortical networks, 5) sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/labs/horvath/CoexpressionNetwork/ModulePreservation

  8. Bond orientational order in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization: Bond orientational order in liquids.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases a complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is the most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquids to recognize that a liquid generally has the tendency to have a local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many-body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally explain difficult unsolved problems associated with the liquid state, such as anomalies of water-type liquids (water, Si, Ge, ...), liquid-liquid transition, liquid-glass transition, crystallization and quasicrystal formation, in a unified manner. In other words, we need a new order parameter representing a low local free-energy configuration, which is a bond orientational order parameter in many cases, in addition to a density order parameter for the physical description of these phenomena. Here we review our two-order-parameter model of liquid and consider how transient local structural ordering is linked to all of the above-mentioned phenomena. The relationship between these phenomena is also discussed.

  9. Liquid penetrants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Liquid-penetrant inspection is discussed for surface defects in solids. The principle advantages are considered to be its simplicity and economy. The techniques and penetrants are described along with the developers. Commercially available equipment is also described.

  10. Self-preserving personal care products.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M; Sekar, P; Pasupathi, M; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2017-06-01

    As questions on the safety of some popular preservatives are on the rise, there is a growing interest in developing 'self-preserving' personal care products. Use of multifunctional ingredients/actives with antimicrobial properties has been explored as replacements for conventional preservatives. This study explores the use of combinations of multifunctional actives (MFA) and other cosmetic ingredients in various personal care formulations, to deliver microbiologically safe self-preserving products. Products studied in this study include face wash, gel-based leave-on skin care product and face mask. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of several cosmetic ingredients was determined to identify multifunctional actives with antimicrobial activity. Personal care formulations made with multifunctional actives and other cosmetic ingredients were studied for preservative efficacy by challenging the product with six multiple cycles of microbial challenge. Formulations with combinations of multifunctional actives with antioxidant (AO) and chelators (CHL) were found to work synergistically and were highly efficacious in controlling multiple microbial challenges as observed in the preservative efficacy test (PET) studies. The effective combinations were able to withstand up to six multiple microbial challenges without product degradation. The preservative efficacy profile was similar to control formula containing preservatives. Self-preserving personal care/cosmetic products can be developed which are as efficacious as preserved products by a prudent selection of multifunctional actives, antioxidants and chelators as a part of the formulation. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  12. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  13. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  14. Virtual Environments for Data Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    Data preservation in a wider sense includes also the ability to analyse data of past experiments. Because operation systems, such as Linux and Windows, are evolving rapidly, software packages can be outdated and not usable anymore already a few years after they have been written. Creating an image of the operation system is a way to be able to launch the analysis software on a computing infrastructure independent on the local operation system used. At the same time, virtualization also allows to launch the same software in collaborations across several institutes with very different computing infrastructure. At the François Arago Centre of the APC in Paris we provide user support for virtualization and computing environment access to the scientific community

  15. Update on Dark Sky Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, D. L.

    1998-12-01

    The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at www.darksky.org. There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment, IAU Symposium #196, co-sponsored by the United Nations, IDA, and others, to be held the week of 12 July 1999 in Vienna, Austria. Further information on this meeting (and others) can also be found on the IDA Web site, which also contains many other resources (and links to other web sites) for those interested in the issues.

  16. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under

  17. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; ...

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methodsmore » included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival

  18. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Mary Ellen; CONFINO, Rafael; STEINBERG, Marissa

    2017-01-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  19. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder

    2009-01-01

    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  20. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation.

  1. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.

    PubMed

    Holland, Steven M

    2016-07-19

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325828

  3. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    PubMed

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Liquid Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  5. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, J.; Mantel, C.; Forchhammer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight. There are different methods for brightness preservation for local backlight dimming displays, producing images with different visual characteristics. In this study, we have implemented, analyzed and evaluated several different approaches for brightness preservation, and conducted a subjective study based on rank ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based on the results, guidelines for selecting the perceptually preferred brightness preservation method for local backlight dimming displays are outlined.

  6. Effects of core retrieval, handling, and preservation on hydrate-bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W. J.; Hunter, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Recovery, preservation, storage, and transport of samples containing natural gas hydrate cause changes in the stress conditions, temperature, pressure, and hydrate saturation of samples. Sample handling at the ground surface and sample preservation, either by freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN) or repressurization using methane, provides additional time and driving forces for sample alteration. The extent to which these disturbances alter the properties of the hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) depend on specific sample handling techniques, as well as on the sample itself. HBS recovered during India’s National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 and the 2007 BP Exploration Alaska - Department of Energy - U.S. Geological Survey (BP-DOE-USGS) Mount Elbert (ME) gas hydrate well on the Alaskan North Slope provide comparisons of sample alterations induced by multiple handling techniques. HBS samples from the NGHP and the ME projects were examined using x-ray computed tomography. Mount Elbert sand samples initially preserved in LN have non-uniform short “crack-like” low-density zones in the center that probably do not extend to the outside perimeter. Samples initially preserved by repressurization show fewer “crack-like” features and higher densities. Two samples were analyzed in detail by Lu and coworkers showing reduced hydrate saturations approaching the outer surface, while substantial hydrate remained in the central region. Non-pressure cored NGHP samples show relatively large altered regions approaching the core surface, while pressure-cored-liquid-nitrogen preserved samples have much less alteration.

  7. Macromolecular liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Safinya, C.R.; Safran, S.A. ); Pincus, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Liquids include a broad range of material systems which are of high scientific and technological interest. Generally speaking, these are partially ordered or disordered phases where the individual molecular species have organized themselves on length scales which are larger than simple fluids, typically between 10 Angstroms and several microns. The specific systems reported on in this book include membranes, microemulsions, micelles, liquid crystals, colloidal suspensions, and polymers. They have a major impact on a broad spectrum of technological industries such as displays, plastics, soap and detergents, chemicals and petroleum, and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Feature-Preserving Noise Removal.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Khalid; Jarenwattananon, Nanette N; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2015-09-01

    Conventional image restoration algorithms use transform-domain filters, which separate the noise from the sparse signal among the transform components or apply spatial smoothing filters in real space whose design relies on prior assumptions about the noise statistics. These filters also reduce the information content of the image by suppressing spatial frequencies or by recognizing only a limited set of shapes. Here we show that denoising can be efficiently done using a nonlinear filter, which operates along patch neighborhoods and multiple copies of the original image. The use of patches enables the algorithm to account for spatial correlations in the random field whereas the multiple copies are used to recognize the noise statistics. The nonlinear filter, which is implemented by a hierarchical multistage system of multilayer perceptrons, outperforms state-of-the-art denoising algorithms such as those based on collaborative filtering and total variation. Compared to conventional denoising algorithms, our filter can restore images without blurring them, making it attractive for use in medical imaging where the preservation of anatomical details is critical.

  9. Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation…

  10. Preservation Film: Platform for Digital Access Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Lee

    Preservation efforts for an increasingly digitally oriented future have turned to advanced and improved methods of preservation on microfilm, which has a life expectancy of more than 500 years when properly prepared, stored, and managed, and can support a wide range of digital access systems. Computer controlled cameras can provide significantly…

  11. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  12. Unique preservative tolerance in Tyromyces palustris

    Treesearch

    Frederick Green; Rachel A. Arango; Carol A. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    Fungal tolerance to wood preservatives has been critically important for many years. The tolerance of type cultures to common wood preservatives is, in fact, noted in the AWPA Standards [1]. Gloeophyllum trabeum Mad-617, for example, is particularly tolerant to phenolic and arsenic compounds. One important group of decay fungi that has been studied extensively are...

  13. Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California

    Treesearch

    William F. Elmendorf

    1991-01-01

    The City of Thousand Oaks over the last 20 years has taken aggressive steps to preserve and protect the City's namesake, the oak tree. First adopted in 1972 as an Emergency City Council Proclamation, the City's Oak Tree Ordinance has been considered by some, to be one of the first and toughest municipal native tree preservation ordinances within the State of...

  14. The Preservation Officer's Role in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham-Kruppa, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes the main elements of the library preservation officer's role--planning, administering, and coordinating. Areas in which preservation and collection development staff work together at the University of Texas at Austin are then discussed, including bibliographic review, binding, grant projects, needs assessment, and storage facility…

  15. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  16. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  17. National and International Policies for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, John

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the preservation and conservation of materials in libraries and archives and describes national and international policies that have been developed to deal with preservation problems. Highlights include managerial responsibility; paper-making and book production standards; the role of national libraries; coordination of policies;…

  18. Preservation of Mohave History and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsosie, Michael

    This report represents a project required by the Americans for Indian Opportunity Ambassador Program. The project involved the preservation of Mohave culture for the Mohave tribe, one of four tribes of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation. Preservation requires equal access to information as well as the freedom to disseminate information…

  19. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  20. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to...

  1. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  2. Preservation of hides using low salt methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective, environmentally friendly, economical preservation of hides for shipping to hide processing plants is a major concern to the hides and skins industry. Raw hides are traditionally preserved with a high amount of salt before they are stored and shipped to tanneries to be processed into leat...

  3. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... of September 23, 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the...) Resolve complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission....

  4. Corrosion avoidance with new wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz) as wood preservatives for residential construction has led to concerns about the corrosion performance of fasteners. Information on the effects of these preservatives on the corrosion rate is limited, although Simpson Strong Tie has published a technical bulletin indicating that both ACQ and...

  5. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  6. Preservation and distribution of fungal cultures

    Treesearch

    Karen K. Nakasone; Stephen W. Peterson; Shung-Chang Jong

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining and preserving fungal cultures are essential elements of systematics and biodiversity studies. Because fungi are such a diverse group, several methods of cultivation and preservation are required to ensure the viability and morphological, physiological, and genetic integrity of the cultures over time. The cost and convenience of each method, however, also...

  7. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  8. PRESERVATION OF TRACE METALS IN WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Questions about trace metal preservation are resurfacing because the health effect risks associated with certain metals continue to drive the required reporting limits lower. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used in this study to analyze preservation of samples co...

  9. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  10. Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation…

  11. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  12. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    PubMed Central

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  13. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to the...

  14. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to the...

  15. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced wheat. (b) Canadian-produced wheat may only be commingled with U.S.-produced wheat by the end user, or when loaded onto a conveyance for direct delivery to the...

  16. Problems in the Preservation of Electronic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lim Siew; Ramaiah, Chennupati K.; Wal, Pitt Kuan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the preservation of electronic records. Highlights include differences between physical and electronic records; volume of electronic records; physical media; authenticity; migration of electronic records; metadata; legal issues; improved storage media; and projects for preservation of electronic records. (LRW)

  17. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  18. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  19. Materials ``alchemy'': Shape-preserving chemical transformation of micro-to-macroscopic 3-D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    2010-06-01

    The scalable fabrication of nano-structured materials with complex morphologies and tailorable chemistries remains a significant challenge. One strategy for such synthesis consists of the generation of a solid structure with a desired morphology (a “preform”), followed by reactive conversion of the preform into a new chemistry. Several gas/solid and liquid/solid reaction processes that are capable of such chemical conversion into new micro-to-nano-structured materials, while preserving the macroscopic-to-microscopic preform morphologies, are described in this overview. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another could be considered a modern type of materials “alchemy.”

  20. GENERAL: Preservation of quantum states via a super-Zeno effect on ensemble quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ting-Ting; Luo, Jun; Sun, Xian-Ping; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Following a recent proposal by Dhar et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 100405), we demonstrate experimentally the preservation of quantum states in a two-qubit system based on a super-Zeno effect using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Using inverting radiofrequency pulses and delicately selecting time intervals between two pulses, we suppress the effect of decoherence of quantum states. We observe that preservation of the quantum state |11rangle with the super-Zeno effect is three times more efficient than the ordinary one with the standard Zeno effect.

  1. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  2. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  3. Liquid ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported. PMID:25886321

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of preservative-free and preserved diclofenac and preserved ketorolac eyedrops after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Maca, Saskia M; Amon, Michael; Findl, Oliver; Kahraman, Gunal; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2010-05-01

    To compare the anti-inflammatory efficacy and subjective tolerability of preservative-free and preserved diclofenac 0.1% and preserved ketorolac 0.5% eye drops for prophylaxis and management of inflammation after cataract surgery. Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial. One hundred two patients who underwent small-incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery in an institutional setting were assigned randomly to receive preservative-free diclofenac sodium 0.1% (Voltaren ophtha SDU; Novartis Pharma), preserved diclofenac sodium 0.1% (Voltaren ophtha; Novartis Pharma), or preserved ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% (Acular; Pharm Allergan) eyedrops 4 times daily for 4 weeks after surgery. During the 1-month follow-up, anterior chamber flare and mean foveal thickness were evaluated for objective comparison of the anti-inflammatory effect. Ocular tolerability was assessed by observer-based grading of conjunctival hyperemia and ocular discomfort, as well as obtaining subjective ratings of ocular tolerability on a visual analog scale. Distance and near visual acuity and intraocular pressure served as safety measures. All 3 formulations demonstrated equal anti-inflammatory efficacy as measured by reduction of anterior chamber flare after surgery and prevention of postoperative macular edema. Patients treated with preservative-free diclofenac eyedrops reported significantly better subjective tolerability values (P = .001), were classified as having less ocular discomfort (P < .001), and experienced earlier reduction of postoperative conjunctival hyperemia (P = .029). Anti-inflammatory efficacy was comparable for all 3 agents. However, preservative-free diclofenac 0.1% eyedrops exhibited a significantly better postoperative subjective and objective tolerability when compared with preserved eyedrops containing ketorolac or diclofenac. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions.

    PubMed

    Post, Ivo C J H; de Boon, Wadim M I; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C W A; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-10-15

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed endothelial barrier integrity and viability as function of preservation temperature and perfusion solution, and hypothesized that endothelial cell preservation at subnormothermic conditions using metabolism-supporting solutions constitute optimal preservation conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were preserved at 4-37°C for up to 20 h using Ringer's lactate, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Polysol, or endothelial cell growth medium (ECGM). Following preservation, the monolayer integrity, metabolic capacity, and ATP content were determined as positive parameters of endothelial cell viability. As negative parameters, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell activation were assayed. A viability index was devised on the basis of these parameters. HUVEC viability and barrier integrity was compromised at 4°C regardless of the preservation solution. At temperatures above 20°C, the cells' metabolic demands outweighed the preservation solutions' supporting capacity. Only UW maintained HUVEC viability up to 20°C. Despite high intracellular ATP content, none of the solutions were capable of sufficiently preserving HUVEC above 20°C except for ECGM. Optimal HUVEC preservation is achieved with UW up to 20°C. Only ECGM maintains HUVEC viability at temperatures above 20°C. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological Counseling of Female Fertility Preservation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2015-01-01

    Young cancer patients are increasingly interested in preserving their fertility prior to undergoing gonadotoxic therapies. Although the medical safety and treatment protocols for fertility preservation have been well documented, limited research has addressed the emotional issues which arise in fertility preservation patients. We briefly review the literature on the psychosocial issues in adult female fertility preservation treatment and describe our experiences within this patient population patient. Our findings suggest that several important issues to be addressed during the psychological counseling of adult female fertility preservation patients include: 1) pre-existing psychological distress in patients undergoing treatment, 2) choice of fertility preservation strategy in the face of an uncertain relationship future, 3) decision making regarding use of third party reproduction (e.g., sperm/egg donation, gestational surrogacy), 4) treatment expectations regarding pregnancy and miscarriage, 5) ethical issues related to treatment including the creation, cryopreservation, and disposition of embryos/oocytes, and 6) decision regret from patients who declined fertility preservation. PMID:25996581

  7. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  8. Preserving geomorphic data records of flood disturbances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah; Meade, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    No central database or repository is currently available in the USA to preserve long-term, spatially extensive records of fluvial geomorphic data or to provide future accessibility. Yet, because of their length and continuity these data are valuable for future research. Therefore, we built a public accessible website to preserve data records of two examples of long-term monitoring (40 and 18 years) of the fluvial geomorphic response to natural disturbances. One disturbance was ∼50-year flood on Powder River in Montana in 1978, and the second disturbance was a catastrophic flood on Spring Creek following a ∼100-year rainstorm after a wildfire in Colorado in 1996.Two critical issues arise relative to preserving fluvial geomorphic data. The first is preserving the data themselves, but the second, and just as important, is preserving information about the location of the field research sites where the data were collected so the sites can be re-located and re-surveyed in the future. The latter allows long-term datasets to be extended into the future and to provide critical background data for interpreting future landscape changes. Data were preserved on a website to allow world-wide accessibility and to upload new data to the website as they become available. We describe the architecture of the website, lessons learned in developing the website, future improvements, and recommendations on how also to preserve information about the location of field research sites.

  9. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2013-07-16

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  11. Liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    In contrast to lithium batteries, the electrochromic windows are used under the sunlight, which requires the stability against UV-light, in addition to the usual electrochemical and thermal stabilities. Thus, the selection of the electrode materials and the combination with the electrolytes should be carefully performed in terms of stability requirements. Recently many reports in relation to those subjects were published. Therefore only fundamental properties of liquid electrolytes required for the electrochromic research are reviewed in this chapter.

  12. Scientific Data Preservation, Copyright and Open Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouron, Philippe

    The purpose of this paper is to sum up the terms of a discussion about the legal aspects of scientific data preservation. This discussion was presented at the Marseille workshop organized on November 14th. This paper is only a basis for forthcoming works about the main project of preserving scientific data (PREDONx). The paper is focused on intellectual property rights, such as copyright or patent, and their effect on the use of scientific data. Open Science appears to be the best way to ensure the preservation, but also the publication, of scientific data.

  13. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  14. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  16. [Joint-preserving surgical options in osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Christofilopoulos, P

    2012-03-14

    Joint-preserving surgery aims to correct the mechanical disbalances leading to the inhomogenous load distribution across joint lines, potentially leading to osteoarthritis. The possibilities of axial corrections at the knee have been known for years. A better pathophysiologic understanding of the disbalances leading to coxarthrosis has, more recently, allowed for the development of joint-preserving approaches, for instance in situations of excessive (impingement) or insufficient (dysplastic) femoro-acetabular coverage. On the opposite, in the absence of a mechanical defect, or if osteoarthritis is already present, joint-preserving surgery has little chances of success.

  17. Devitalization of Transgenic Seed That Preserves DNA and Protein Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Barry W.; Cai, Charles Q.; Embrey, Shawna K.; Herman, Rod A.; Song, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology companies have been asked to provide intact transgenic seed to regulatory agencies as reference materials for evaluating transgene and protein detection methods (PCR and immunoassay). Due to intellectual-property and product-stewardship considerations, submission of devitalized seed prior to regulatory approval is preferable in any given country. Commonly used devitalization procedures, such as heating or autoclaving, degrade the protein and/or DNA rendering the seed unfit as a reference material for these tests. A novel method for devitalizing seed was developed that involves hydration, freezing in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilization. The devitalization method described here was found to preserve the transgenic DNA and protein in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize (Zea mays) seed allowing its use as a reference material for evaluating detection methods. PMID:19183799

  18. Effect of Preservation Periods and Subcultures on Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Lee, Je-O; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Won-Ho; Choi, Sung-Keun; Shrestha, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Effects of various preservation periods and subcultures on fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated using EFCC C-10995 single ascospore strains. Fruiting body formation by original strains was profuse when preserved at 4℃ for 5~6 months. Fruiting from subcultures was stable till second to sixth subcultures, after which it decreased sharply. The more the colony color of subcultures changed, the less the fruiting bodies formed. Liquid inoculum preparation of single ascospore strains in the same or separate broths did not affect fruiting body formation. Similarly, two strains C-10995-3 and C-10995-6 in different numbers during liquid inoculum preparation produced similar fruiting bodies. PMID:24039498

  19. Successful transplantation of rat hearts subjected to extended cold preservation with a novel preservation solution.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Hirokata, Gentaro; Shibasaki, Susumu; Fukumori, Daisuke; Haga, Sanae; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Michitaka; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Todo, Satoru

    2012-06-01

    Since prolonged cold preservation of the heart deteriorates the outcome of heart transplantation, a more protective preservation solution is required. We therefore developed a new solution, named Dsol, and examined whether Dsol, in comparison to UW, could better inhibit myocardial injury resulting from prolonged cold preservation. Syngeneic heterotopic heart transplantation in Lewis rats was performed after cold preservation with UW or Dsol for 24 or 36 h. In addition to graft survival, myocardial injury, ATP content, and Ca(2+) -dependent proteases activity were assessed in the 24-h preservation group. The cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after 24-h cold preservation was assessed. Dsol significantly improved 7-day graft survival after 36-h preservation. After 24-h preservation, Dsol was associated with significantly faster recovery of ATP content and less activation of calpain and caspase-3 after reperfusion. Dsol diminished graft injury significantly, as revealed by the lower levels of infarction, apoptosis, serum LDH and AST release, and graft fibrosis at 7-day. Dsol significantly inhibited Ca(2+) overload during cold preservation. Dsol inhibited myocardial injury and improved graft survival by suppressing Ca(2+) overload during the preservation and the activation of Ca(2+) -dependent proteases. Dsol is therefore considered a better alternative to UW to ameliorate the outcome of heart transplantation.

  20. Development studies on determination of preservatives decomposition products.

    PubMed

    Zabrzewska, Beata; Chyła, Anna; Bogdan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are chemical substances whose role is to protect medicinal products against harmful changes caused by microorganisms. They are added to sterile medicinal products, such as eye drops and multidose solutions for injections, as well as to non-sterile products, such as water oral solutions, creams, gels, suppositories and capsules with liquid content. The most commonly used preservatives include: benzyl alcohol, butyl, ethyl, methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoates and their sodium salts. In medicinal products benzyl alcohol slowly oxidizes to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid while esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrolyze to p-hydroxybenzoic acid. HPLC methods were elaborated for identification and quantitative determination of the parabens, benzyl alcohol, active substances as well as their impurities in pharmaceuticals: oral solutions Amertil and Efforil (contain cetirizine hydrochloride or etilefrine hydrochloride and parabens), eye drops Difadol (contains diclofenac sodium and benzyl alcohol) and cream Tenasil (contains terbinafine hydrochloride and benzyl alcohol). The HPLC systems consisted of columns: Supelcosil LC-DP, Inertsil ODS-3 or Discovery HS F5 and three mobile phases mixtures of acetonitrile with buffers of various pH (3, 5 and 7) in proportions 45 : 55 (v/v). These systems have been characterized with appropriate selectivity (all the Rs values > 2) and sensitivity (LOD approx. 0.01 microg/mL). They also demonstrated satisfactory precision and a linear dependence between the analyte content and the peak area.

  1. Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lv, C; Hou, J; Xie, W; Cheng, H

    2015-10-01

    To understand formaldehyde residue in cosmetics, an investigation on formaldehyde release from eight preservatives (methenamine - MA, paraformaldehyde - PF, poly(p-toluenesulfonamide-co-formaldehyde) -PTSAF, quaternium-15 - QU, imidazolidinyl urea - IU, diazolidinyl urea - DU, dimethyloldimethyl hydantoin - DMDM and bronopol - BP) under various conditions was performed. The concentration of released formaldehyde was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The amounts of formaldehyde release were in the order of PF > DU > DMDM ≈ QU ≈ IU > MA > BP > PTSAF. The releasing amounts of formaldehyde were the highest in the presence of aqueous matrices for the releasers except QU and IU, and the releasing effect was also relative to pH. More formaldehyde was released with longer storage time and higher temperature. Furthermore, all preservatives in cosmetic matrices released fewer amounts of formaldehyde than in pure aqueous or organic matrices, and the formaldehyde-releasing amounts were also cosmetic specific. Formaldehyde release was dependent on the matrix, pH, time and mainly temperature, and the releasing effect was also cosmetic specific. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Meta-analysis of subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy vs pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Wan, Mei-Hua; Szatmary, Peter; Bharucha, Shameena; Gomatos, Ilias; Nunes, Quentin M; Xia, Qing; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-05-28

    To investigate the differences in outcome following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD). Major databases including PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library were searched for comparative studies between patients with PPPD and SSPPD published between January 1978 and July 2014. Studies were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Secondary outcomes included operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pancreatic fistula, postoperative hemorrhage, intraabdominal abscess, wound infection, time to starting liquid diet, time to starting solid diet, period of nasogastric intubation, reinsertion of nasogastric tube, mortality and hospital stay. The pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eight comparative studies recruiting 650 patients were analyzed, which include two RCTs, one non-randomized prospective and 5 retrospective trial designs. Patients undergoing SSPPD experienced significantly lower rates of DGE (OR = 2.75; 95%CI: 1.75-4.30, P < 0.00001) and a shorter period of nasogastric intubation (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 0.77-4.58, P < 0.00001), with a tendency towards shorter time to liquid (WMD = 2.97, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.09) and solid diets (WMD = 3.69, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.08) as well as shorter inpatient stay (WMD = 3.92, 95%CI: -0.37-8.22; P = 0.07), although these latter three did not reach statistical significance. PPPD, however, was associated with less intraoperative blood loss than SSPPD [WMD = -217.70, 95%CI: -429.77-(-5.63); P = 0.04]. There were no differences in other parameters between the two approaches, including operative time (WMD = -5.30, 95%CI: -43.44-32.84; P = 0

  3. Meta-analysis of subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy vs pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Wan, Mei-Hua; Szatmary, Peter; Bharucha, Shameena; Gomatos, Ilias; Nunes, Quentin M; Xia, Qing; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differences in outcome following pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD). METHODS: Major databases including PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library were searched for comparative studies between patients with PPPD and SSPPD published between January 1978 and July 2014. Studies were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was delayed gastric emptying (DGE). Secondary outcomes included operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pancreatic fistula, postoperative hemorrhage, intraabdominal abscess, wound infection, time to starting liquid diet, time to starting solid diet, period of nasogastric intubation, reinsertion of nasogastric tube, mortality and hospital stay. The pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model. RESULTS: Eight comparative studies recruiting 650 patients were analyzed, which include two RCTs, one non-randomized prospective and 5 retrospective trial designs. Patients undergoing SSPPD experienced significantly lower rates of DGE (OR = 2.75; 95%CI: 1.75-4.30, P < 0.00001) and a shorter period of nasogastric intubation (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 0.77-4.58, P < 0.00001), with a tendency towards shorter time to liquid (WMD = 2.97, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.09) and solid diets (WMD = 3.69, 95%CI: -0.46-7.83; P = 0.08) as well as shorter inpatient stay (WMD = 3.92, 95%CI: -0.37-8.22; P = 0.07), although these latter three did not reach statistical significance. PPPD, however, was associated with less intraoperative blood loss than SSPPD [WMD = -217.70, 95%CI: -429.77-(-5.63); P = 0.04]. There were no differences in other parameters between the two approaches, including operative time (WMD = -5.30, 95%CI

  4. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.14 Historic preservation. (a) The Development Area...

  5. Preserving electronic records: Not the easiest task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, Fynnette

    1993-01-01

    The National Archives and Records Administration has had a program for accessioning, describing, preserving and providing reference service to the electronic records (machine-readable records) created by Federal agencies for more than twenty years. Although there have been many changes in the name of the office, its basic mission has remained the same: to preserve and make available those records created by Federal agencies that the National Archives has determined to have value beyond the short-term need of the originating agency. A phrase that was once coined for a preservation conference still applies: the National Archives, when it decides to accept the transfer of records into its custody, is committing itself to preserving these records for perpetuity.

  6. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  7. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  8. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update

    PubMed Central

    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment. Patients affected by other nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis can also benefit from fertility preservation treatments. Age-related infertility can also be overcome by cryopreserving gametes or embryos. The only established methods for fertility preservation in male patients are sperm cryopreservation in postpubertal age and experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation in prepubertal age. In adult women, oocyte cryopreservation is the preferred option, whereas ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only possibility for prepubertal girls. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed through a multidisciplinary approach that involves gynecologists, urologists, oncologists, pediatricians, and professionals in the field of medically assisted reproduction to work in coordination to provide patients with counseling and comprehensive information about fertility issues. PMID:23197873

  9. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  10. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  11. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-25

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  12. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  13. Color-preserving daytime radiative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the temperature of a structure, while preserving its color under sunlight. The cooling effect persists in the presence of considerable convective and conductive heat exchange and for different solar absorptances.

  14. Preservation of musical memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Crystal, H A; Grober, E; Masur, D

    1989-12-01

    An 82 year old musician with Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed a preserved ability to play previously learned piano compositions from memory while being unable to identify the composer or titles of each work. He also showed a preserved ability to learn the new skill of mirror reading while being unable to recall or recognise new information. Both anterograde and retrograde procedural memory may be relatively spared in AD.

  15. Preservation of musical memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, H A; Grober, E; Masur, D

    1989-01-01

    An 82 year old musician with Alzheimer's disease (AD) showed a preserved ability to play previously learned piano compositions from memory while being unable to identify the composer or titles of each work. He also showed a preserved ability to learn the new skill of mirror reading while being unable to recall or recognise new information. Both anterograde and retrograde procedural memory may be relatively spared in AD. PMID:2614438

  16. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  17. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  18. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-07-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption.

  19. Innovations in food preservation in pastoral zones.

    PubMed

    Jans, C; Mulwa Kaindi, D W; Meile, L

    2016-11-01

    Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste. However, modern preservation procedures are difficult to adapt to the lifestyles of pastoralists and so are rarely implemented or accepted. Innovations should therefore focus on improving existing accepted procedures by promoting synergistic combinations to compensate for the disadvantages of these traditional techniques and ensure the quality of the raw material right up until consumption. Drying and spontaneous fermentation are key preservation techniques among pastoralists that serve as opportunities for innovation and can be shared across pastoral communities. Further potential for innovation lies in the unique, largely uncharacterised, microflora biodiversity of fermented products. The characterisation, safety assessment and conservation of these microorganisms are needed to develop locally adapted starter cultures that retain or improve on the desired characteristics of the finished product. Careful sensitisation of stakeholders, the study of social acceptance and capacitybuilding at all levels are required to achieve the sustainable implementation of such innovations, which will contribute to enhanced food security and safety.

  20. Preservation of cardiomyocytes from the adult heart.

    PubMed

    Abi-Gerges, Najah; Pointon, Amy; Pullen, Georgia F; Morton, Michael J; Oldman, Karen L; Armstrong, Duncan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Pollard, Christopher E

    2013-11-01

    Cardiomyocytes represent one of the most useful models to conduct cardiac research. A single adult heart yields millions of cardiomyocytes, but these cells do not survive for long after isolation. We aimed to determine whether inhibition of myosin II ATPase that is essential for muscle contraction may preserve fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. Using inhibitors of the myosin II ATPase, blebbistatin and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), we preserved freshly isolated fully differentiated adult primary cardiomyocytes that were stored at a refrigerated temperature. Specifically, preserved cardiomyocytes stayed viable for a 2-week period with a stable expression of cardiac genes and retained the expression of key markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, voltage-clamp, action potential, calcium transient and contractility studies confirmed that the preserved cardiomyocytes are comparable to freshly isolated cells. Long-term exposure of preserved cardiomyocytes to four tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib malate, dasatinib, sorafenib tosylate and imatinib mesylate, revealed their potential to induce cardiac toxicity that was manifested with a decrease in contractility and induction of cell death, but this toxicity was not observed in acute experiments conducted over the time course amenable to freshly prepared cardiomyocytes. This study introduces the concept that the inhibition of myosin II ATPase safeguards the structure and function of fully differentiated adult cardiomyocytes. The fact that these preserved cardiomyocytes can be used for numerous days after preparation makes them a robust and versatile tool in cardiac research and allows the investigation of long-term exposure to novel drugs on cardiomyocyte function. © 2013.

  1. Changing paradigms in organ preservation and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fadwa; Dua, Anahita; Cronin, David C

    2015-04-01

    Shortage of donor organs has increased consideration for use of historically excluded grafts. Ex-vivo machine perfusion is an emerging technology that holds the potential for organ resuscitation and reconditioning, potentially increasing the quality and number of organs available for transplantation. This article aims to review the recent advances in machine perfusion and organ preservation solutions. Flow and pressure-based machine perfusion has shown improved kidney graft function and survival, especially among expanded criteria donors. Pressure-based machine perfusion is demonstrating promising results in preservation and resuscitation of liver, pancreas, heart, and also lung grafts. August 2014 marked Food and Drug Administration approval of XPS XVIVO Perfusion System (XVIVO Perfusion Inc., Englewood, Colorado, USA), a device for preserving and resuscitating lung allografts initially considered unsuitable for transplantation. Although there is no consensus among physicians about the optimal preservation solution, adding antiapoptotic and cell protective agents to preservation solutions is an interesting research area that offers potential to improve preservation. Ex-vivo machine perfusion of solid organs is a promising method that provides the opportunity for resuscitation and reconditioning of suboptimal grafts, expanding the number and quality of donor organs.

  2. Candidates for larynx preservation: the next step?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Nonsurgical treatment approaches to enable larynx preservation in patients who would otherwise undergo laryngectomy have evolved over recent years. Randomized trials have demonstrated that concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is more effective than doublet cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (PF)-based induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy in enabling larynx preservation. However, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy is also associated with more toxicities than induction PF followed by radiotherapy. The triplet induction regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF) is more effective than PF and is now considered to be the standard induction chemotherapy regimen for future larynx preservation trials. Manipulating the postinduction treatment regimen may help to improve larynx preservation rates, and possibly survival, and the use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy plus the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab has been investigated in this setting. Determining the most effective treatment approach for larynx preservation will involve conducting a trial comparing concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy with sequential TPF induction chemotherapy followed by either radiotherapy or cetuximab plus radiotherapy. Collaboration among international groups is required to assess which approach would be most beneficial in terms of larynx function preservation, disease control, and survival.

  3. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M

    1984-03-01

    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  4. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J. R. C.; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H′). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H′. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H′. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar & pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer. PMID:25384534

  5. Optimization of preservation and processing of sea anemones for microbial community analysis using molecular tools.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana; Coelho, Francisco J R C; Peixe, Luísa; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-11-11

    For several years, knowledge on the microbiome associated with marine invertebrates was impaired by the challenges associated with the characterization of bacterial communities. With the advent of culture independent molecular tools it is possible to gain new insights on the diversity and richness of microorganisms associated with marine invertebrates. In the present study, we evaluated if different preservation and processing methodologies (prior to DNA extraction) can affect the bacterial diversity retrieved from snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community fingerprints were used as proxy to determine the bacterial diversity retrieved (H'). Statistical analyses indicated that preservation significantly affects H'. The best approach to preserve and process A. viridis biomass for bacterial community fingerprint analysis was flash freezing in liquid nitrogen (preservation) followed by the use of a mechanical homogenizer (process), as it consistently yielded higher H'. Alternatively, biomass samples can be processed fresh followed by cell lyses using a mechanical homogenizer or mortar &pestle. The suitability of employing these two alternative procedures was further reinforced by the quantification of the 16S rRNA gene; no significant differences were recorded when comparing these two approaches and the use of liquid nitrogen followed by processing with a mechanical homogenizer.

  6. Preservatives and fragrances in selected consumer-available cosmetics and detergents.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Kerem; Johnsson, Stina; Lind, Marie-Louise; Boman, Anders; Lidén, Carola

    2011-05-01

    Preservatives and fragrances are important and frequent skin sensitizers, found in a wide range of products intended for personal and occupational use. To examine the use of preservatives and fragrances in certain cosmetics and detergents on the market. The product types studied were shampoos, hair conditioners, liquid soaps, wet tissues, washing-up liquids, and multi-purpose cleaners. Ingredient labels of 204 cosmetic products and ingredient data sheets of 97 detergents, available on company websites, were examined. The preservatives most frequently identified were phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, sodium benzoate, propylparaben, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Parabens were found in 44% of cosmetics and 9% of detergents; formaldehyde-releasers in 25% of cosmetics and 8% of detergents; and isothiazolinones in 23% of cosmetics and 28% of detergents. The fragrances most frequently identified were linalool, limonene, hexyl cinnamal, butylphenyl methylpropional, and citronellol. Eighty-eight per cent of the products contained fragrances, and any of the 26 fragrances requiring labelling were found in half of the cosmetics and one-third of the detergents. Several preservatives and fragrances with well-known skin-sensitizing potential were common in the examined product types. Such products may be used several times a day by consumers and workers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. 78 FR 46374 - Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION RIN 3133-AE16 Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program AGENCY: National Credit Union.... SUMMARY: The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) recognizes the importance of minority credit... Minority Depository Institution Preservation Program to encourage the preservation of Minority...

  8. Database Design for Preservation Project Management: The California Newspaper Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Lynne M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a database designed to manage a serials preservation project in which issues from multiple repositories are gathered and collated for preservation microfilming. Management information, added to bibliographic and holdings records, supports the production of reports tracking preservation activity. (Author)

  9. Liquid air mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device for mixing liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen to form liquid air. The mixing device consists of a tube for transferring liquid oxygen positioned within a tube for transferring liquid nitrogen. Supply vessels for liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are equally pressurized and connected to the appropriate tubes. Liquid oxygen and nitrogen flow from the supply vessels through the respective tubes and are mixed to form liquid air upon exiting the outlets of the tube. The resulting liquid air is transferred to a holding vessel.

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  11. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE EFFECT OF HYPOTHERMIC AND CRYOGENIC PRESERVATION ON ENGINEERED NEURAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Day, Adam George Edward; Bhangra, Kulraj Singh; Murray-Dunning, Celia; Stevanato, Lara; Phillips, James

    2017-09-06

    This study explored different approaches to preserve Engineered Neural Tissue (EngNT), a stabilised cellular collagen hydrogel containing columns of aligned Schwann cells for nervous system repair. The ability to preserve EngNT without disrupting cellular and extracellular components and structures is important for clinical translation and commercialisation. Stabilised cellular gels and EngNT constructs were preserved under various conditions and cell survival assessed using live/dead microscopy and metabolic assay. Optimal survival was recorded in hypothermic (4ºC) conditions for 2-3 days using Hibernate®-A media, and, for longer term cryogenic storage (liquid nitrogen), using a mixture of 60% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media (DMEM), 30% foetal calf serum (FCS) and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Functionality and structure of preserved EngNT was assessed in co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which indicated that alignment of Schwann cells and the ability of EngNT to support and guide neuronal regeneration were not disrupted. The identification of conditions that preserve EngNT will inform development of storage and transport methodologies to support clinical and commercial translation of this technology and other therapies based on cellular hydrogels.

  13. Bacterial contamination of preserved and non-preserved metal working fluids.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Sascha; Fluri, Alexandra; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2005-01-01

    Metal working fluids (MWFs) are important facilities for certain industrial processes. Besides their advantage concerning the effective technical applicability it is disadvantageous that they are excellent culture media for bacterial and fungal growth and may therefore act as an infectious source for employees getting in contact with them. As a matter of prevention most of MWFs are nowadays treated with preservatives to eliminate the contamination of possible human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Own investigations were concerned with the objectives of the actual and long-term study of the bacterial contamination of preserved and non-preserved MWFs from different MWF systems, the development of a standardized bacterial biotope in non-preserved MWFs and its efficacy to eliminate bacteria which caused infectious diseases in humans, the development of bacterial resistance against preservatives in preserved MWFs and the occurrence of infections and allergies in employees working with MWFs. Our results show: high numbers of different bacteria can be found in non-preserved as well as preserved MWFs; bacteria with a possible human pathogenic potential (category 2, TRBA 466) could almost exclusively be found in preserved MWFs. Those bacteria besides others were able to develop resistance against biocides and could therefore be detected in preserved MWFs for weeks and months; non-preserved MWFs develop stable bacterial biotopes which can be controlled by an artificial inoculation of bacteria. Those biotopes are able to eliminate bacteria which induce infectious diseases in humans; there are only very few data published concerning MWF caused infections or allergies. According to our results of a questionnaire 10% of employees getting in contact with MWFs, complain skin irritations/reactions. There was no difference working with preserved or non-preserved MWFs nor a clear cut correlation to the MWF contact. These data may motivate for more intensive epidemiological studies in

  14. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  15. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  16. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  17. Preservation of Chytridiomycota in culture collections.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Frank H; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon E; Porter, David; Boyle, Donna G; Hyatt, Alex D

    2007-02-01

    Methods for the preservation of fungi in the Chytridiomycota in culture collections are reviewed in this paper. The Chytridiomycota can be preserved with varying degrees of success using a number of different protocols including cryopreservation. The survival of fungi in the Chytridiomycota is sensitive to environmental factors such as lack of moisture, high temperatures, high osmotic potential, and availability of oxygen, all of which must be considered in designing preservation methods. The age of the culture at the initiation of preservation appears to be a particularly important determinant of viability. Recently, commonly used methods for preservation of other groups of fungi have been modified to improve the survival of the Chytridiomycota in culture collections. High rates of survival have been reported after cryopreservation of aerobic and anaerobic chytrids in 10 % glycerol or dimethyl sulphoxide as cryoprotectants. The rates of freezing and thawing must be carefully controlled in the methods for cryopreservation considered in this review. Further research on increasing long-term survival rates and morphological, physiological and genetic stability of Chytridiomycota at low temperatures is necessary.

  18. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2015-07-20

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  19. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  20. Ophthalmic preservatives: focus on polyquaternium-1.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Maurizio; Crider, Julie Y; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-11-01

    Ophthalmic preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1), are critical for the inhibition of growth of microbial contaminants in multi-dose bottles of topical medications. These antimicrobial agents must have a high efficacy against pathogenic organisms, while maintaining a favorable tolerability and safety profile. This review focuses on the ophthalmic preservative PQ-1. For comparison purposes, the most commonly used preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), is also discussed. This survey focuses primarily on data collected during the past 10 years. Effective drug delivery requires more than just an active ingredient that achieves its desired biological effect on end-target tissues. In addition, drugs must be stable in the containers that they are stored in, and must possess minimal undesired local and systemic side effects that can cause patients to decrease their adherence. In addressing these concerns, specifically in topical ophthalmic drops, one must take into account the active ingredients, vehicle components and preservatives. Medications with fewer adverse effects may lead to enhanced adherence to therapy; therefore, the induction of such adverse outcomes must be considered by physicians when treating patients with chronic ocular disease. Although BAK will continue to be used in ophthalmic medications, due to its familiarity and compatibility with a broad range of topical ocular formulations, PQ-1 is certainly a viable alternative in the preservative formulary armamentarium.

  1. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  2. Methods of Hearing Preservation during Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ahmed; El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Recent advances in surgical techniques and electrode design have made residual hearing preservation during cochlear implantation (CI) possible, achievable, and desirable. Objectives  The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding methods used for hearing preservation during CI surgery. Data Synthesis  We performed a search in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases, and Cochrane Library, using the keywords CI, hearing preservation, CI electrode design, and CI soft surgery. We fully read about 15 studies that met the criteria described in "study selection". The studies showed that several factors could contribute to possible cochlear damage during or after CI surgery and must be kept in mind; mechanical damage during electrode insertion, shock waves in the perilymph fluid due to implantation, acoustic trauma due to drilling, loss of perilymph and disruption of inner ear fluid homeostasis, potential bacterial infection, and secondary intracochlear fibrous tissue formation. The desire to preserve residual hearing has led to the development of the soft-surgery protocols with its various components; avoiding entry of blood into the cochlea and the use of hyaluronate seem to be reasonably supported, whereas the use of topical steroids is questionable. The site of entry into the cochlea, electrode design, and the depth of insertion are also important contributing factors. Conclusion  Hearing preservation would be useful for CI patients to benefit from the residual low frequency, as well as for the children who could be candidate for future regenerative hair cell therapy.

  3. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  4. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  5. Antimicrobial preservative effectiveness of natural peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kamysz, Wojciech; Turecka, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The constantly growing resistance of microbes to drugs and other substances which fight microbial infections leads to search for new antimicrobial substances. Among substances which attract the scientists attention are antimicrobial peptides. Such compounds are quite common in nature and belong to the most important elements of the innate immune system of all living organisms. Numerous antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from insects, amphibians, mammals, plants and bacterial species. In this study we investigated the in vitro activity of two animal peptides, citropin 1.1 and protegrin 1 alone and in combination against microbial strains proposed for the evaluation of preservatives: Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The results of the antimicrobial preservative effectiveness were compared to the values received for benzalkonium chloride, popular preservative of medicines and cosmetics.

  6. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L; Hendricks, Jonathan R; Jarrard, Richard D; Marques, Antonio C; Collins, Allen G; Lieberman, Bruce S

    2007-10-31

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (approximately 505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period.

  7. Privacy-preserving backpropagation neural network learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2009-10-01

    With the development of distributed computing environment , many learning problems now have to deal with distributed input data. To enhance cooperations in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving two-party distributed algorithm of backpropagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the other. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets.

  8. Exceptionally Preserved Jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Halgedahl, Susan L.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Marques, Antonio C.; Collins, Allen G.; Lieberman, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarians represent an early diverging animal group and thus insight into their origin and diversification is key to understanding metazoan evolution. Further, cnidarian jellyfish comprise an important component of modern marine planktonic ecosystems. Here we report on exceptionally preserved cnidarian jellyfish fossils from the Middle Cambrian (∼505 million years old) Marjum Formation of Utah. These are the first described Cambrian jellyfish fossils to display exquisite preservation of soft part anatomy including detailed features of structures interpreted as trailing tentacles and subumbrellar and exumbrellar surfaces. If the interpretation of these preserved characters is correct, their presence is diagnostic of modern jellyfish taxa. These new discoveries may provide insight into the scope of cnidarian diversity shortly after the Cambrian radiation, and would reinforce the notion that important taxonomic components of the modern planktonic realm were in place by the Cambrian period. PMID:17971881

  9. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  10. Honey as a natural preservative of milk.

    PubMed

    Krushna, N S A; Kowsalya, A; Radha, S; Narayanan, R B

    2007-05-01

    The anti-bacterial property and preservative nature of honey has been studied by evaluating the role of hydrogen peroxide in these properties, against bacterial strains isolated and identified from pasteurized milk samples. The antibacterial property of honey examined by agar incorporation assay and turbidometry, indicated a concentration dependent inhibition of bacterial growth in all catalase negative strains in comparison with catalase positive strains, highlighting a probable role of hydrogen peroxide. Samples of commercial milk stored at 40C in presence of honey were shown to inhibit opportunistic bacterial growth better compared to samples stored without honey. Due to the bactericidal property of hydrogen peroxide and its preservative nature, honey which is chiefly a combination of various sugars and hydrogen peroxide, can be used a preservative of milk samples.

  11. Toward privacy-preserving JPEG image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hang; Wang, Jingyue; Wang, Meiqing; Zhong, Shangping

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a privacy-preserving retrieval scheme for JPEG images based on local variance. Three parties are involved in the scheme: the content owner, the server, and the authorized user. The content owner encrypts JPEG images for privacy protection by jointly using permutation cipher and stream cipher, and then, the encrypted versions are uploaded to the server. With an encrypted query image provided by an authorized user, the server may extract blockwise local variances in different directions without knowing the plaintext content. After that, it can calculate the similarity between the encrypted query image and each encrypted database image by a local variance-based feature comparison mechanism. The authorized user with the encryption key can decrypt the returned encrypted images with plaintext content similar to the query image. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only provides effective privacy-preserving retrieval service but also ensures both format compliance and file size preservation for encrypted JPEG images.

  12. Preservation and function of heterologous aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, A. J.; Meade, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Heterologous aortic valves are used in many clinics as replacements for diseased human aortic and mitral valves. These valves possess all the advantages of homologous aortic valves and are more easily available to the surgeon. The heterologous valve also provides a greater choice of valve size than does the homograft; this can be of importance when replacing the mitral valve. Heterograft valves, like homografts, are usually preserved for periods ranging from a few days to a few months before insertion into a patient. Four methods of preservation, described, are currently in use. This study compares the effects of these four methods of preservation when pig valves are transplanted into the dog's aorta. Images PMID:5576535

  13. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  14. Sequence Compaction to Preserve Transition Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Liu, C.L.

    2002-12-12

    Simulation-based power estimation is commonly used for its high accuracy despite excessive computation times. Techniques have been proposed to speed it up by compacting an input sequence while preserving its power-consumption characteristics. We propose a novel method to compact a sequence that preserves transition frequencies. We prove the problem is NP-Complete, and propose a graph model to reduce it to that of finding a heaviest weighted trail on a directed graph, along with a heuristic utilizing this model. We also propose using multiple sequences for better accuracy with even shorter sequences. Experiments showed that power dissipation can be estimated with an error of only 2.3 percent, while simulation times are reduced by 10. Proposed methods effectively preserve transition frequencies and generated solutions that are very close to an optimal. Experiments also showed that multiple sequences granted more accurate results with even shorter sequences.

  15. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  16. Optimization of cosmetic preservation: water activity reduction.

    PubMed

    Kerdudo, A; Fontaine-Vive, F; Dingas, A; Faure, C; Fernandez, X

    2015-02-01

    Preservation of cosmetics is a prerequisite for industrialization, and among the proposed solutions, self-preserved cosmetics are of great interest. One key influencing parameter in self-preservation is water activity; its reduction can help to fight against microbial growth in cosmetic products. This work presents a study on the influence of humectants on water activity and its consequence on the preservation of cosmetic formulations. First, water-humectants mixtures were considered. The influence of glycol and glycerin content, glycol chemical structure, glycerin purity and formulation process on the water activity of the binary mixture was studied. Molecular modelling was performed for a better understanding of the impact of glycol chemistry. Then, the results were applied to five different cosmetic formulations to get optimized products. Challenge test on five strains was carried out in that sense. We showed that the higher the humectants concentration, the lower the water activity. Glycol chemical structure also influenced water activity: propan-1,2-diol was more efficient than propan-1,3-diol, certainly because of a better stabilization in water of propan-1,2-diol as shown by DFT calculation. A drop by drop introduction of glycol in water favoured aw reduction. The best water activity loss was 6.6% and was reached on the cream formulation whose preservation was improved as evidenced by challenge test. Fabrication process as well as humectants concentration were shown to influence water activity. The hydroxyl group positions as well as the presence of an alkyl group on the glycol carbon chain impacted water binding as suggested by DFT calculation. Reducing aw improved the preservation of a cosmetic cream, inhibiting or slowing down the growth of bacteria and fungi. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Avian genetic stock preservation: an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    2006-02-01

    There are different types of poultry genetic resources including mutants, inbred lines, specialized/selected stocks, standard breeds, and elite commercial pure lines. These resources differ in their degree of value to the poultry industry. There is considerable concern within poultry breeding companies about the continuing losses of these genetic resources, particularly as this loss seems to have escalated over the past decade. Varied genetic stocks can provide fundamental information regarding gene function, genetic interactions, and genetic pathways. This information is important for efficient improvement of commercial poultry performance. Equally important is the role of these genetic resources in teaching and the education of students and future researchers. Currently, the only practical preservation method for birds in the poultry industry involves live bird conservation. Flocks of elite commercial stocks are maintained at multiple locations, providing insurance against disease outbreak and the possibility of quarantine restrictions. The current cryopreservation methods apply only to sperm. Thus, the W chromosome and the mitochondria, which are contributed by the female gamete, cannot be preserved. Cryopreserved semen shows considerable variation in both fertility and hatchability rates, not only among lines, but also among males within lines. The biological basis for this variation is unknown, and there is concern that the use of cryopreserved semen may result in unintended selection and loss of genetic variability. Cryopreservation cannot be applied in the poultry breeding industry until methodologies are developed that produce high viability for both male and female avian preserved gametes. More research is needed in the areas of sources of variation in viability following freeze/thaw, female gamete cryopreservation, and embryo preservation. Because there are currently no appropriate methods of cryopreservation available to the poultry industry, the long

  18. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  19. Preserving Dark Skies: Do Astronomers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. R.; Crawford, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    Ground based telescopes are, even in this era of planetary missions and space telescopes, the dominant source of data on solar system objects. Yet many of the premier observing sites in the world are threatened by increasing artificial light that is scattered into the sky - light pollution. World class observing sites such as Mt. Wilson have long since lost the ability to do cutting edge faint object science and observatories in Southern Arizona have been recently threatened - the Canoa Ranch development being the most recent example. Yet there are actions that can be taken to preserve dark skies, not only for astronomy, but also for the benefit of all humanity. Lead by astronomers, effective outdoor lighting codes have been produced and adopted by many jurisdictional authorities. Advocacy organizations such as the International Dark-sky Association (IDA) distribute educational material on how to preserve dark skies through good outdoor lighting practices. Other institutions, such as the National Park Service, are realizing that dark skies are an integral part of the wilderness experience and are taking steps to preserve the quality of their skies. However, the primary beneficaries of dark sky preservation efforts, namely the ground based astronomical community, have largely failed to become involved in efforts to preserve dark skies. For example, only a few percent of the membership of the American Astronomical Society is active in light pollution work or is even a member of IDA. In this presentation, Iwe will outline what is being done locally to preserve dark skies througout the world. In addition, some observations on the level of support from the astronomical community will be offered.

  20. Moesin functionality in hypothermic liver preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Lindell, Susanne L; Kowalski, Chris; Mangino, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how expression and functionality of the cytoskeletal linker protein moesin is involved in hepatic hypothermic preservation injury. Mouse livers were cold stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and reperfused on an isolated perfused liver (IPL) device for one hour. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) and human or murine sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) were cold stored and rewarmed to induce hypothermic preservation injury. The cells were transfected with: wild type moesin, an siRNA duplex specific for moesin, and the moesin mutants T558D and T558A. Tissue and cell moesin expression and its binding to actin were determined by Western blot. Liver IPL functional outcomes deteriorated proportional to the length of cold storage, which correlated with moesin disassociation from the actin cytoskeleton. Cell viability (LDH and WST-8) in the cell models progressively declined with increasing preservation time, which also correlated with moesin disassociation. Transfection of a moesin containing plasmid or an siRNA duplex specific for moesin into HepG2 cells resulted in increased and decreased moesin expression, respectively. Overexpression of moesin protected while moesin knock-down potentiated preservation injury in the HepG2 cell model. Hepatocytes expressing the T558A (inactive) and T558D (active) moesin binding mutants demonstrated significantly more and less preservation injury, respectively. Cold storage time dependently caused hepatocyte detachment from the matrix and cell death, which was prevented by the T558D active moesin mutation. In conclusion, moesin is causally involved in hypothermic liver cell preservation injury through control of its active binding molecular functionality.

  1. Liquid-liquid-solid transition in viscoelastic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid-solid transitions (LLST) are known to occur in confined liquids, exist in supercooled liquids and emerge in liquids driven from equilibrium. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations claim many successes in forecasting the phenomena. The transitions are also studied in the framework of thermodynamics based methods and minimalistic models. In here, the proposed approach is derived in the framework of continuum and includes spatial and temporal dynamic heterogeneities; the approach is meant to capture the material behavior at small scales. We conjecture that the liquid-like and solid-like behaviors are dissimilar enough for the two to be governed by different constitutive relations. In this way, we gain additional degree of freedom, which is found essential when predicting the transitional phenomena. As a result, we derive the LLST criteria for liquids in equilibrium, during steady flow and at transient conditions. Lastly, we forecast short-lived LLSTs in human blood during cardiac cycle. PMID:23429528

  2. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  3. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  4. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  5. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1991-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. We present a simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  6. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  8. Debating the biological reality of modelling preservation.

    PubMed

    ter, Steeg P F; Ueckert, J E

    2002-03-01

    Predictive food microbiology is a rapidly developing science and has made great advances. The aim is to debate a number of issues in modelling preservation: (1) inoculum and prehistory effects on lag times and process susceptibility; (2) mechanistic vs. empirical modelling; and (3) concluding remarks (the Species concept, methodology and biovariability). Increasing the awareness in these issues may bridge the gap between the complex reality in food microbial physiology and the application potential of predictive models. The challenge of bringing integrated preservation or risk analysis further and developing ways to truly model and link biological susceptibility distributions from raw ingredients via process survival to outgrowth probabilities in the final product remains.

  9. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  10. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  11. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  12. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  16. Recent trends in preservative treatments for timber bridges

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker

    2004-01-01

    An overview of wood preservatives currently used for timber bridges is presented through a series of case studies from different regions of the United States. New wood species and preservative treatment options for timber bridges have made choosing the appropriate preservative more complicated. The compatibility of wood species and preservative treatment is often...

  17. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  18. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  19. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  20. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  1. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  2. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  3. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  4. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  5. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  6. 15 CFR 270.330 - Moving and preserving evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving and preserving evidence. 270... an Investigation; and Protection of Information Preservation of Evidence § 270.330 Moving and preserving evidence. (a) A Team and NIST will take all necessary steps in moving and preserving...

  7. 43 CFR 15.12 - Closing of Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing of Preserve. 15.12 Section 15.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.12 Closing of Preserve. The Preserve may be closed to public use in the event of emergency...

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  9. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  10. Environmental preservation demand: Altruistic, bequest, and intrinsic motives

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Thompson, C.Y. )

    1993-01-01

    When the demand for environmental preservation is not explicitly revealed in markets, motivating attitudes toward environmental preservation become important. A survey approach allows revelation and measurement of demand for environmental preservation. Indices which measure the altruistic, bequest, intrinsic, and option to use motives and other attitudes are utilized as determinants in a model that measures the demand for environmental preservation. Demand is more likely with greater preservation motives. Preservation demand also depends on individual preferences for economic development, perceptions of affordability and responsibility for preservation of the wetlands. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Vitality and genetic fidelity of white-rot fungi mycelia following different methods of preservation.

    PubMed

    Voyron, Samuele; Roussel, Sophie; Munaut, Françoise; Varese, Giovanna C; Ginepro, Marco; Declerck, Stephan; Filipello Marchisio, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Basidiomycetes present specific problems with regard to their preservation, because most of them do not form resistant propagules in culture but exist only as mycelium. Usually these fungi can only be preserved by serial transfer on agar (labour-intensive procedures that can increase the danger of variation or loss of physiological or morphological features), or cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (expensive). Cryopreservation at -80 degrees C and lyophilisation could be good alternatives. In this work we set up and tested six protocols of cryopreservation at -80 degrees C, and 12 protocols of lyophilisation on 15 isolates of white-rot fungi (WRF) belonging to 10 species. The tested protocols were mainly characterized by the use of different growth media, protectants, time and number of perfusion with protectants and finally by the typology and origin of the samples to be cryopreserved (mycelium/agar plug, whole colony) or to lyophilise (mycelium/agar plug, mycelium fragment, whole colony). Cryopreservation and lyophilisation outcomes were checked, at morphological (macro- and microscopic features), physiological (growth rate and laccase, Mn-independent and Mn-dependent peroxidases activities) and genetic level (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms analysis - AFLP). Vitality of all fungi was successfully preserved by all cryopreservation protocols at -80 degrees C, and by two lyophilisation methods. Our results showed that cryopreservation at -80 degrees C did not produce morphological changes in any isolate, while two isolates were affected by lyophilisation. None of the physiological features were lost, even though growth rate and enzyme activities were somehow influenced by all preservation methods. AFLP analysis showed that only the two isolates that varied in their morphology after lyophilisation produced a different DNA fingerprint pattern in comparison with that obtained before lyophilisation. These findings provide evidence that cryopreservation at -80

  12. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  13. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed. PMID:27446721

  14. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.... Rehabilitation of buildings within the Development Area, which, according to the Plan and the Historic... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  15. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  16. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32 Section 910.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  17. Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

  18. Public demand for preserving local open space.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2006-01-01

    Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space...

  19. Advances in organ preservation for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Pleass, Henry C

    2016-08-04

    Organ transplantation provides the best available therapy for a myriad of medical conditions, including end-stage renal disease, hepatic failure and type I diabetes mellitus. The current clinical reality is, however, that there is a significant shortage of organs available for transplantation with respect to the number of patients on organ waiting lists. As such, methods to increase organ supply have been instituted, including improved donor management, organ procurement and preservation strategies, living organ donation, transplantation education and the increased utilization of donation after circulatory death and expanded criteria donors. In particular, especially over the last decade, we have witnessed a significant change in the way donor organs are preserved, away from static cold storage methods to more dynamic techniques centred on machine perfusion (MP). This review highlights the current state and future of organ preservation for transplantation, focusing on both abdominal and thoracic organs. In particular, we focus on MP preservation of renal, hepatic, pancreatic, cardiac and lung allografts, also noting relevant advances in Australasia. MP of organs after procurement holds considerable promise, and has the potential to significantly improve graft viability and function post-transplantation, especially in donors in whom acceptance criteria have been expanded.

  20. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of Historic Places,” issued by the National Park Service, to identify sites, buildings, structures,...

  1. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Funding, Site Selection, and Facilities Management § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of Historic Places,” issued by the National Park Service, to identify sites, buildings, structures,...

  2. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The…

  3. 76 FR 59191 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ...This Report and Order establishes protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. The Commission adopts three basic protections that are grounded in broadly accepted Internet norms, as well as our own prior decisions. First, transparency: fixed and mobile broadband providers must disclose the network management practices, performance characteristics,......

  4. Preservation For and By the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimberg, June

    1973-01-01

    The American the Beautiful Fund (ABF) has for the past eight years been supporting imaginative urban design, the preservation of green spaces, and the protection of the character of small towns and vanishing Americana through staff assistance and modest seed grants. (JA)

  5. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  6. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

  7. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  8. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, Bill; Hooten, Gwen

    2016-05-01

    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  9. A laboratory evaluation of core preservation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Auman, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a laboratory study of the effectiveness of available state-of-the-art core preservation materials. The ability of the core sealing material to prevent post-preservation changes in fluid saturations may have a profound effect on subsequent laboratory measurements. Native-state (oil-cut) cores are often considered the best source of certain in-situ reservoir properties. Employing fluid saturations or relative permeability data from a core of this type, that has been altered due to the core drying out before measurements can be made, can significantly alter the results of a reservoir engineering study or simulation. Considering the expense involved in obtaining, storing and analyzing a native-state core, and the purpose for which it was cut, knowing exactly what materials can adequately preserve a core until laboratory measurements are made is critical and should not be overlooked. In this laboratory study, saturated Berea Sandstone core plugs were preserved in a number of commonly employed sealing materials. The sealed plugs were then stored in a humidity controlled environment and periodically weighed to ascertain the degree of change that had occurred in the saturation of the plug. In addition, this paper discusses and suggests procedures for applying recommended sealing materials.

  10. Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Data Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Privacy-preserving data mining is an important issue in the areas of data mining and security. In this paper, we study how to conduct association...rule mining, one of the core data mining techniques, on private data in the following scenario: Multiple parties, each having a private data set, want to

  11. Biomarker Preservation Potential of Subsurface Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T. C.; Harris, R. L.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Pedersen, K. A.; Colwell, F. S.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Bakermans, C.

    2016-05-01

    If surface life emerged on Mars it may have succumbed to a Gaian bottleneck, whereas subsurface life would have continued to grow and evolve sheltered in rocks with sub-freezing saline pore water and their remains preserved in excavated rock.

  12. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  13. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  14. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-03

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  15. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  16. Preservation treatment for wood bridge application

    Treesearch

    Jake Bigelow; Stan Lebow; Carol A. Clausen; Lowell Greimann; Terry J. Wipf

    2009-01-01

    Timber can often be a cost-effective construction material for new bridges. The durability of the bridge greatly depends on proper attention to construction details and fabrication, as well as proper preservative treatment before, during, and after construction. Material repair and replacement costs for bridges are a considerable expense for highway agencies. To...

  17. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 910.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... significance because of both its ceremonial role in the life of the nation and its social and economic role in... the Corporation sets forth the adopted policy of the Corporation on historic preservation and...

  18. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  19. Preserving the 'Athens of Indiana' through Digitization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helling, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Describes a digitization project at the public library in Crawfordsville, Indiana that was designed to preserve their local history collection. Highlights include damage to the collection from fire, termites, use, and age; selecting a scanner and software; creating databases; and making information accessible on the Web. (LRW)

  20. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Treesearch

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  1. Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission left on the Moon a silicon disc inscribed with microscopic recreations of messages from 73 countries. NanoArk Corporation of Fairport, New York, built on that NASA technology to develop a fire and water resistant archiving innovation that provides cost savings and security in preserving documents. Since its launch, NanoArk has grown from 2 to 10 employees.

  2. [Heritage Education: Teaching a Preservation Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Suzanne B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on heritage education, the goal of which is to introduce the historic built environment directly into elementary and secondary school curriculums. Kathlyn Hatch discusses how heritage education's linkage with historic preservation can help students relate to society. Earl Jones assesses the status of heritage education,…

  3. Preservation of bacteria in natural polymers.

    PubMed

    Krumnow, April A; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Olsen, Eric; Globa, Ludmila; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2009-08-01

    A new inexpensive and simple method for preserving microorganisms has been developed. Natural polymers of acacia gum and pullulan were used to preserve model bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis via immobilization and storage under various conditions. Formulation of E. coli and B. subtilis in acacia gum significantly increased the viability of both cultures during desiccation at 40 degrees C as well as during the storage at various temperatures and relative humidity. In the ranges of temperatures and humidity used in experiments, the high humidity affected the viability of E. coli more than high temperature. Thermodynamic parameters for E. coli thermal degradation were used for quantification of results and characterization of the preservation process. Viability of B. subtilis in acacia gum polymer was not significantly changed during the storage in the temperature and humidity experiments. The number of viable B. subtilis recovered after storage in pullulan, and in PBS under various humidity conditions was 1-2 logs less in comparison with the number of cells before storage. It was found that acacia gum provides better protection than pullulan for both bacteria during the preservation process.

  4. Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

  5. Preservation Planning Project Study Team. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Libraries.

    This final report is a product of a comprehensive 14-month Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the University of Pittsburgh Libraries, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies. The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  6. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  7. Preservation Microfiche: A Matter of Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chace, Myron B.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses standards for converting library materials to a microfiche format and addresses the question of whether microfiche standards take preservation concerns into account. Reformatting, layout, corrections, additions, and bibliographic guides in microfiche are considered, and standards activities of the American Library Association (ALA) and…

  8. Long-Term Information Preservation and Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

  9. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  10. Wood preservatives : choosing the right one

    Treesearch

    Matt Humphries; Stan Lebow; David Moses

    2009-01-01

    If you are having trouble choosing the right wood preservative system for your application, you are not alone. Dozens of products are available, some older types have gone out of use, others may be completely inappropriate for your application. As designers, specifiers and builders, you need to understand key information to be able to navigate through all of these...

  11. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  12. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  13. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  14. BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

  15. Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

  16. Polynuclear azaarenes in wood preservative wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Giam, C.S.

    1984-05-01

    Polynuclear azaarenes in a creosote-pentachlorophenol wood preservative wastewater were analyzed. The total concentration of azaarenes was determined to be 1300 mg kg/sup -1/. Potential adverse effects of these compounds on environmental quality and health suggest a need to develop analytical protocols for measuing azaarenes in hazardous wastes.

  17. BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

  18. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  19. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  20. Ridge preservation: does it actually work?

    PubMed

    Darby, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Post-extraction the alveolus undergoes modelling which reduces height and width. This may present a problem for subsequent crown and bridge or implant therapy. Ridge preservation is the use of grafts and/or membranes to try to minimize the loss of the alveolar ridge. Extraction sockets have been filled with autogenous, allogenic and alloplastic materials. Membranes or soft tissue were used to contain the graft. More recently biodegradable sponges and materials coated in growth factors have been tested. Studies have primarily looked at either maintenance of vertical and horizontal dimensions or the healing of the socket and how much of the graft material is incorporated into the newly formed bone. Irrespective of method or materials, there seems to be some maintenance of the alveolus. Bone fill seems to occur in preserved extraction sockets, but in most cases with a high percentage of residual graft particles. In general, there is a lack of evidence to show that ridge preservation aids in correct 3-D implant placement, maintains hard and soft tissue volume over a prolonged period of time or for success and survival of implants placed into ridge preserved sockets. Still the most effective way to maintain ridge volume is to keep the natural tooth.

  1. Language Preservation and Human Resources Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorne, Joyce A.

    Those who work in the field of preserving Native American languages are an assortment of individuals who come to the work as a central career (linguists), through family heritage (fluent speakers), or through a developed passion (language learners). This paper examines the field from the perspective of R. Wayne Pace, Phillip C. Smith, and Gordon…

  2. Model for the New Millennium: Preserving Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezmierski, Virginia E.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding higher education and community building in the context of the effect on human behavior of the information technology revolution. Suggests the need for a new model which will seek to preserve a community that is open, just, disciplined, and caring by refocusing on mission, resisting change for its own sake,…

  3. Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedinger, Theresa

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,…

  4. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item…

  5. Preserving History in a Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  6. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  7. Forestland social values and open space preservation.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig; Brian. Garber-Yonts

    2004-01-01

    Concerns have grown about the loss of forestland to development, leading to both public and private efforts to preserve forestland as open space. These lands comprise social values-ecological, scenic, recreation, and resource protection values-not typically reflected in market prices for land. When these values are present, it is up to public and private agencies to...

  8. Micro-Preservation: Conserving the Small Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert; DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions and outlines procedures for the preservation of the resources of a small library. Brief sections discuss environment (temperature, humidity, housekeeping, light); library binding; simple in-house repairs; other protective measures (enclosures, microfilming); the care of unique objects; and disaster planning. A 21-item…

  9. Preservation and Conservation in the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedinger, Theresa

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the necessity of preservation and conservation activities in school libraries to save materials such as school newspapers, programs of events, censorship records, board activities, yearbooks, and student projects. Topics discussed include brittle, deteriorating paper; monitoring the physical environment, including heat, light, humidity,…

  10. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  11. Mass preserving registration for heart MR images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm.

  12. Digital Storytelling: Preserving a Cultural Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how digital photography could be an effective cultural preservation enabler. On July 1, 2007, with initial funding from Research in Motion and Merit Travel and support of more than 300 family and friends, the author and his team arrived in the small town of Monduli, Tanzania with the purpose of teaching digital…

  13. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  14. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  15. Preservation Education for the Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2017-01-01

    Students participate in historic preservation projects that fall along a continuum of student participation. Adults and students need to work to push more projects to be student led rather than students working for adults. A variety of example projects are presented and show how they fall on the continuum. In addition, an example of projects that…

  16. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E; Olsen, Maia E; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Holdaway, Richard N; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-07-07

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes.

  17. Digitizing Technologies for Preservation. SPEC Kit 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne, Comp.; Wilson, Rebecca, Comp.

    The Association of Research Libraries distributed a survey to its 119 member libraries to assess the use of state-of-the-art digital technologies as a preservation method. Libraries were asked to report detailed data on all projects designed specifically to: (1) enhance images of faded or brittle originals, (2) provide access to digital images…

  18. Volume-preserving maps with an invariant.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A.; Meiss, J. D.

    2002-06-01

    Several families of volume-preserving maps on R(3) that have an integral are constructed using techniques due to Suris. We study the dynamics of these maps as the topology of the two-dimensional level sets of the invariant changes. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  20. Digital Storytelling: Preserving a Cultural Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how digital photography could be an effective cultural preservation enabler. On July 1, 2007, with initial funding from Research in Motion and Merit Travel and support of more than 300 family and friends, the author and his team arrived in the small town of Monduli, Tanzania with the purpose of teaching digital…

  1. Current Concepts in Hip Preservation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kelly L.; Cook, P. Christopher; Geisler, Paul R.; Yen, Yi-Meng; Giordano, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Successful treatment of nonarthritic hip pain in young athletic individuals remains a challenge. A growing fund of clinical knowledge has paralleled technical innovations that have enabled hip preservation surgeons to address a multitude of structural variations of the proximal femur and acetabulum and concomitant intra-articular joint pathology. Often, a combination of open and arthroscopic techniques are necessary to treat more complex pathomorphologies. Peri- and postoperative recovery after such procedures can pose a substantial challenge to the patient, and a dedicated, thoughtful approach may reduce setbacks, limit morbidity, and help optimize functional outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant scientific and review articles through December 2014 using the search terms hip preservation, labrum, surgical dislocation, femoroacetabular impingement, postoperative rehabilitation, peri-acetabular osteotomy, and rotational osteotomy. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to locate additional references of interest. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Hip preservation procedures and appropriate rehabilitation have allowed individuals to return to a physically active lifestyle. Conclusion: Effective postoperative rehabilitation must consider modifications and precautions specific to the particular surgical techniques used. Proper postoperative rehabilitation after hip preservation surgery may help optimize functional recovery and maximize clinical success and patient satisfaction. PMID:26733593

  2. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The…

  3. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  4. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  5. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de présenter les résultats préliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problèmes à résoudre pour conserver à très basse température des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryopréservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explorée pour augmenter la durée de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrôler la compatibilité donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isolées à la température de l'azote liquide, actuellement

  6. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Singapore: frequency of sensitization to 11 common preservatives 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Suzanne; Leow, Yung Hian; Goh, Chee Leok; Goon, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are indispensable agents used to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination of cosmetics, personal care products, domestic preparations, and industrial products. We evaluated patch-test data at the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from 2006 to 2011 to identify the trends in preservative contact allergies. All patients with suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested to 4 preservatives within the modified European standard series. Patients were also tested with 7 preservatives from our special series if clinically indicated. Three thousand one hundred seventy-seven patients were tested to preservatives in the standard series. Sensitization frequencies were all greater than 1%: parabens (2.58%), methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (1.75%), quaternium 15 (1.43%), and methyldibromoglutaronitrile (1.2%). There was no change in trends in sensitization frequencies from 2006 to 2011, with no increase in sensitization frequency to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. The sensitization frequencies for methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol and diazolidinylurea were 2.03% and 1.37%, respectively, and remained less than 1% for bronopol, imidazolidinyl urea, and 2-phenoxyethanol. A rate of 0% was seen for 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin and formaldehyde; 9.4% of positive patch-test results became positive only at day 7. Preservatives are common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. This should be considered when introducing new preservatives into the market. Day 7 readings are important to detect late reactions.

  7. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear. The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP. From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires. Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37–81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250–615) min and 800 (400–5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4

  8. Locality-preserved maximum information projection.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chen, S; Hu, Z; Zheng, W

    2008-04-01

    Dimensionality reduction is usually involved in the domains of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Linear projection of features is of particular interest for dimensionality reduction since it is simple to calculate and analytically analyze. In this paper, we propose an essentially linear projection technique, called locality-preserved maximum information projection (LPMIP), to identify the underlying manifold structure of a data set. LPMIP considers both the within-locality and the between-locality in the processing of manifold learning. Equivalently, the goal of LPMIP is to preserve the local structure while maximize the out-of-locality (global) information of the samples simultaneously. Different from principal component analysis (PCA) that aims to preserve the global information and locality-preserving projections (LPPs) that is in favor of preserving the local structure of the data set, LPMIP seeks a tradeoff between the global and local structures, which is adjusted by a parameter alpha, so as to find a subspace that detects the intrinsic manifold structure for classification tasks. Computationally, by constructing the adjacency matrix, LPMIP is formulated as an eigenvalue problem. LPMIP yields orthogonal basis functions, and completely avoids the singularity problem as it exists in LPP. Further, we develop an efficient and stable LPMIP/QR algorithm for implementing LPMIP, especially, on high-dimensional data set. Theoretical analysis shows that conventional linear projection methods such as (weighted) PCA, maximum margin criterion (MMC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and LPP could be derived from the LPMIP framework by setting different graph models and constraints. Extensive experiments on face, digit, and facial expression recognition show the effectiveness of the proposed LPMIP method.

  9. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  10. Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Chen, Wen-Chen; Padilla, Willie J

    2013-04-26

    We present an experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell, we are able to modify the absorption by 30% at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4% in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e., a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  11. Intact preservation of environmental samples by freezing under an alternating magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Xiao, Nan; Hirose, Takehiro; Sugeno, Masaya; Ohwada, Norio; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-04-01

    The study of environmental samples requires a preservation system that stabilizes the sample structure, including cells and biomolecules. To address this fundamental issue, we tested the cell alive system (CAS)-freezing technique for subseafloor sediment core samples. In the CAS-freezing technique, an alternating magnetic field is applied during the freezing process to produce vibration of water molecules and achieve a stable, super-cooled liquid phase. Upon further cooling, the temperature decreases further, achieving a uniform freezing of sample with minimal ice crystal formation. In this study, samples were preserved using the CAS and conventional freezing techniques at 4, -20, -80 and -196 (liquid nitrogen) °C. After 6 months of storage, microbial cell counts by conventional freezing significantly decreased (down to 10.7% of initial), whereas that by CAS-freezing resulted in minimal. When Escherichia coli cells were tested under the same freezing conditions and storage for 2.5 months, CAS-frozen E. coli cells showed higher viability than the other conditions. In addition, an alternating magnetic field does not impact on the direction of remanent magnetization in sediment core samples, although slight partial demagnetization in intensity due to freezing was observed. Consequently, our data indicate that the CAS technique is highly useful for the preservation of environmental samples.

  12. Determination of halonitromethanes and haloacetamides: an evaluation of sample preservation and analyte stability in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2012-06-08

    Simultaneous quantitation of 6 halonitromethanes (HNMs) and 5 haloacetamides (HAAms) was achieved with a simplified liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stability tests showed that brominated tri-HNMs immediately degraded in the presence of ascorbic acid, sodium sulphite and sodium borohydride, and also reduced in samples treated with ammonium chloride, or with no preservation. Both ammonium chloride and ascorbic acid were suitable for the preservation of HAAms. Ammonium chloride was most suitable for preserving both HNMs and HAAms, although it is recommended that samples be analysed as soon as possible after collection. While groundwater samples exhibited a greater analytical bias compared to other waters, the good recoveries (>90%) of most analytes in tap water suggest that the method is very appropriate for determining these analytes in treated drinking waters. Application of the method to water from three drinking water treatment plants in Western Australia indicating N-DBP formation did occur, with increased detections after chlorination. The method is recommended for low-cost, rapid screening of both HNMs and HAAms in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preservation of protein in marine systems: Hydrophobic and other noncovalent associations as major stabilizing forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Reno T.; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2001-05-01

    - The fate of proteins during early diagenesis was investigated in environments with low mineral content to assess preservation mechanisms other than mineral sorption. Preservation was examined in anoxic, organic-rich sediments of Mangrove Lake, a marine environment located in Bermuda, and for particulate material generated during oxic decay of diatoms. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) treatment tested the hypothesis that proteins may undergo modification reactions with glucose to form advanced-glycation end products (AGEs). A small but significant release (additional 14%) of proteins was observed after PTB treatment in surficial sediments, indicating that some aggregations can proceed through an α-dicarbonyl intermediate of the AGE pathway. Size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography with protein fluorescence, absorbance, and evaporative light-scattering detector measurements under native (phosphate or bicarbonate buffers) and denaturing (guanidine · HCl, urea, or acetonitrile) conditions point to the importance of hydrophobic and other noncovalent interactions in the stabilization of proteinaceous material in the environment. Soluble aggregates of substantial, relative molecular mass ( Mr ≳ 10 6) appear to be formed early in the diagenetic sequence. The preferential preservation of very high Mr, multisubunit phytoplankton proteins in sediments suggests that such aggregations confer resistance to degradation. Alternatively, some of the proteinaceous material may represent that fraction of organic matter that is highly prone to aggregations. Extended incubations (18 h; 37°C) with trypsin and proteinase-K showed that much of the aggregates that could be extracted are receptive to proteolytic cleavage. Buffer-, surfactant-, and NaOH-extractable aggregates comprised most of the acid-hydrolyzable proteinaceous material in detritus and surficial sediments but <35% in 9.7-m-deep sediments, suggesting additional mechanisms for preservation might be in

  14. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  15. [Contact allergy to preservatives contained in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the type of allergy to preservatives contained in cosmetics and to assess the usefulness of the composition of allergens included in a standard series for the diagnosis of occupational contact allergy used to date. The frequency of contact allergy to the standard series of preservatives (thimerosal, Euxyl K 400, formaldehyde, Kathon CG, Quaternium 15, parabens) was assayed in a group of 1937 subsequent patients referred to the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in L6di and examined in the years 2000-2005. The frequency and type of allergy to preservatives of a cosmetic series in a group of 113 patients with poor tolerance of cosmetics were also investigated. Allergy to thimerosal was found in 11.8% of patients tested with a standard series; to formaldehyde in 4.9%; and to Euxyl K 400 in 3.7%. Quaternium and parabens were less allergenic (0.8 and 0.3%, respectively). In the group of 113 patients subjected to patch test with a cosmetic series, allergy, i.e. at least one positive patch test, was observed in 49 (43.4%) patients. Of the 27 preservatives contained in cosmetics, 16 induced positive reaction to chemical compounds. Euxyl K 400 proved to be the basic allergenic preservative of this series, and induced allergy in 21 (18.6%) patients, whereas 17.7% of patients reacted to thimerosal. Only allergy to thimerosal applied to 8 persons, and 7 of them showed inflammatory lesions only on the face. Less allergic biocides were cocamidopropyl betaine (7.1%), Kathon CG (7.1%), Bronopol (5.3%), Germall II (4.4%), triethanolamine (3.5%), Germall 115 (2.6%), DMDM hydantoin (2.6%), Grotan BK (1.8%), sodium-2-pyridinethiol-1-oxide (1.8%), clioquinol (0.9%), Quaternium 15 (0.9%), and dimethylaminopropylamine (0.9%). The results of our study confirmed observations of other authors that allergy to preservatives present in numerous industrial products, especially Euxyl K 400, is still a growing problem. Like many other researchers, we are

  16. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, digitalpreservation.gov) that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  17. In vitro effects of preserved or preservative-free antiglaucoma medications on human complement system.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Catherine; Hamard, Pascale; Cholley, Béatrice; Haeffner-Cavaillon, Nicole; Baudouin, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    Antiglaucoma drugs have been associated with conjunctival and trabecular inflammatory cell infiltrates. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of antiglaucoma medications on the complement system, an early mediator of the inflammatory response. Human serum was first treated with a classical or alternative pathway activator (aggregated human IgG or zymosan, respectively) in the presence or the absence of preservative-free or benzalkonium (BAK)-preserved antiglaucoma drugs. CH50 assay was then performed to assess the functional activity of residual complement in treated serum. In the absence of complement activator, the antiglaucoma drugs tested in this study were all devoid of intrinsic complement-activating potency. Preserved and preservative-free carteolol as well as preserved latanoprost did not worsen or prevent complement activation induced by zymosan or aggregated IgG. Unexpectedly, both preserved and unpreserved timolol and betaxolol significantly counteracted the effects of complement activators. Timolol prevented activation triggered by both IgG and zymosan to the same extent (24% to 29%), despite the presence of BAK in the preserved formulation. Betaxolol was twice as effective at preventing the effect of IgG (34% to 37%) than that of zymosan (14%), regardless of the presence of BAK. However, BAK itself strongly aggravated complement activation by both activators. Carteolol, timolol, betaxolol and latanoprost did not activate complement system. On the contrary, the beta-blockers timolol and betaxolol exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by preventing complement activation. The deleterious effect of benzalkonium seems to have been neutralized within the preserved eyedrops through a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Our study suggests that inflammatory signs in glaucoma patients should not be attributed to complement activation by antiglaucoma drugs.

  18. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  19. Privacy Preservation in Distributed Subgradient Optimization Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lou, Youcheng; Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang; Yi, Peng

    2017-07-31

    In this paper, some privacy-preserving features for distributed subgradient optimization algorithms are considered. Most of the existing distributed algorithms focus mainly on the algorithm design and convergence analysis, but not the protection of agents' privacy. Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in applications involving sensitive information. In this paper, we first show that the distributed subgradient synchronous homogeneous-stepsize algorithm is not privacy preserving in the sense that the malicious agent can asymptotically discover other agents' subgradients by transmitting untrue estimates to its neighbors. Then a distributed subgradient asynchronous heterogeneous-stepsize projection algorithm is proposed and accordingly its convergence and optimality is established. In contrast to the synchronous homogeneous-stepsize algorithm, in the new algorithm agents make their optimization updates asynchronously with heterogeneous stepsizes. The introduced two mechanisms of projection operation and asynchronous heterogeneous-stepsize optimization can guarantee that agents' privacy can be effectively protected.

  20. Privacy preserving RBF kernel support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoran; Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data.

  1. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Giaquinto, Joseph; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug}

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  2. Privacy Preserving RBF Kernel Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is challenging but important for healthcare research. Methods for privacy-preserving data dissemination based on the rigorous differential privacy standard have been developed but they did not consider the characteristics of biomedical data and make full use of the available information. This often results in too much noise in the final outputs. We hypothesized that this situation can be alleviated by leveraging a small portion of open-consented data to improve utility without sacrificing privacy. We developed a hybrid privacy-preserving differentially private support vector machine (SVM) model that uses public data and private data together. Our model leverages the RBF kernel and can handle nonlinearly separable cases. Experiments showed that this approach outperforms two baselines: (1) SVMs that only use public data, and (2) differentially private SVMs that are built from private data. Our method demonstrated very close performance metrics compared to nonprivate SVMs trained on the private data. PMID:25013805

  3. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ismar de Souza; Novas, Fernando E; Agnolín, Federico L; Isasi, Marcelo P; Freitas, Francisco I; Andrade, José A

    2015-06-02

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China.

  4. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  5. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  6. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  7. Techniques and Results for Open Hip Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Haughom, Bryan; Stover, Michael D.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is the most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg–Calve–Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy. PMID:26649292

  8. A Mesozoic bird from Gondwana preserving feathers

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Isasi, Marcelo P.; Freitas, Francisco I.; Andrade, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of birds in the Mesozoic of Gondwana is mostly based on isolated and often poorly preserved specimens, none of which has preserved details on feather anatomy. We provide the description of a fossil bird represented by a skeleton with feathers from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana (NE Brazil). The specimen sheds light on the homology and 3D structure of the rachis-dominated feathers, previously known from two-dimensional slabs. The rectrices exhibit a row of rounded spots, probably corresponding to some original colour pattern. The specimen supports the identification of the feather scapus as the rachis, which is notably robust and elliptical in cross-section. In spite of its juvenile nature, the tail plumage resembles the feathering of adult individuals of modern birds. Documentation of rachis-dominated tail in South American enantiornithines broadens the paleobiogeographic distribution of basal birds with this tail feather morphotype, up to now only reported from China. PMID:26035285

  9. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Joana C; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic functioning in ASD (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, we analyzed the performances of both groups in a PI paradigm with manipulation of the level of typicality. In both experiments, we observed significant effects of trial and group but no trial by group interactions, which we interpreted as robust evidence of preserved PI (build up effect) that indicated the preservation of semantic mechanisms of encoding and retrieval.

  10. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Preserving idealism in global health promotion.

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I

    2010-12-01

    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history.

  12. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  13. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    Another method for encapsulating bacteria for use in biodegradation of gasoline involves a complex process using gellan gum (Moslemy et al. 2002). Many...and train- ing, involve complex formulations, do not involve a broad spectrum of bacteria , and are limited in their applications. Basic preservation...re- placement of water occur spontaneously in a single process. The method is reversible, and the solid polymer can be safely removed from bacteria

  14. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  15. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  16. Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-13

    Cryptographic Techniques for Privacy Preserving Identity John Bethencourt Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Berkely,Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences ,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Copyright © 2011, by the author(s). All rights reserved. Permission to make digital or

  17. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  18. Archiving and Preservation in Electronic Libraries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    that is those libraries that are moving toward provision of materials in electronic form, have been swept up in this attitude as well. But, electronic...for consistency within the presentation and are not indicative of general consensus within the community. Born digital - materials that are created...preservation Digitalpreservation - keeping the bits and bytes safe and unaltered for a long period of time Digitization - converting materials in non

  19. Energy preserving QMF for image processing.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jian-ao; Wang, Yonghui

    2014-07-01

    Implementation of new biorthogonal filter banks (BFB) for image compression and denoising is performed, using test images with diversified characteristics. These new BFB’s are linear-phase, have odd lengths, and with a critical feature, namely, the filters preserve signal energy very well. Experimental results show that the proposed filter banks demonstrate promising performance improvement over the filter banks of those widely used in the image processing area, such as the CDF 9/7.

  20. Mass Preserving Registration for Heart MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for non-rigid registration between two doubly-connected regions. Our algorithm is based on harmonic analysis and the theory of optimal mass transport. It assumes an underlining continuum model, in which the total amount of mass is exactly preserved during the transformation of tissues. We use a finite element approach to numerically implement the algorithm. PMID:16685954