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Sample records for 220rn exhalation rates

  1. Simultaneous determination of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates from building materials used in Central Italy with accumulation chambers and a continuous solid state alpha detector: influence of particle size, humidity and precursors concentration.

    PubMed

    Tuccimei, P; Moroni, M; Norcia, D

    2006-02-01

    A method to determine simultaneously the rates of 222Rn and 220Rn released from building materials quarried in Central Italy is presented. The method makes use of a continuous monitor equipped with a solid state alpha detector, in-line connected to a small accumulation chamber. The effects of chamber leakage and back diffusion on 222Rn free exhalation rate is evaluated. The influence of available exhalation surface, humidity content and precursors concentration on radon and thoron exhalation rates is investigated.

  2. Measurements of 220Rn emanation from rocks.

    PubMed

    Howard, A J; Simsarian, J E; Strange, W P

    1995-12-01

    Alpha-particle and gamma-ray measurements are employed to determine the individual emanation and production rates associated with the thorium radioactive series for thirty-seven rock specimens of approximately 200 cm3 individual volume representing igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic types. These results are combined to establish 220Rn emanating powers for each of these specimens, and a wide range of values is observed. The generally large 220Rn emanation observed for these specimens strongly indicates that non-tortuous diffusion paths are commonly present in the associated structures, which gives more evidence for the existence of well-connected pore networks at the nanometer level in many of the specimens studied. While the results are qualitatively explainable, they are not predictable in terms of the current macroscopic observables. Since 220Rn and 222Rn emanation rates from rock specimens have previously been found to be comparable in magnitude, the relatively fast determination of 220Rn emanation rates described herein (measurements involving 1-h duration) is in reasonable probability indicative of a comparable 222Rn emanation rate: The employment of 220Rn as a convenient screening tool for potentially high 222Rn emanation sources is indicated. PMID:7493809

  3. Measurements of 220Rn emanation from rocks.

    PubMed

    Howard, A J; Simsarian, J E; Strange, W P

    1995-12-01

    Alpha-particle and gamma-ray measurements are employed to determine the individual emanation and production rates associated with the thorium radioactive series for thirty-seven rock specimens of approximately 200 cm3 individual volume representing igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic types. These results are combined to establish 220Rn emanating powers for each of these specimens, and a wide range of values is observed. The generally large 220Rn emanation observed for these specimens strongly indicates that non-tortuous diffusion paths are commonly present in the associated structures, which gives more evidence for the existence of well-connected pore networks at the nanometer level in many of the specimens studied. While the results are qualitatively explainable, they are not predictable in terms of the current macroscopic observables. Since 220Rn and 222Rn emanation rates from rock specimens have previously been found to be comparable in magnitude, the relatively fast determination of 220Rn emanation rates described herein (measurements involving 1-h duration) is in reasonable probability indicative of a comparable 222Rn emanation rate: The employment of 220Rn as a convenient screening tool for potentially high 222Rn emanation sources is indicated.

  4. An instrument for continuous measurement of 220Rn (and 222Rn) using delayed coincidences between 220Rn and 216Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.; Elliott, J.

    1994-05-01

    An instrument has been developed for continuous monitoring of 220Rn. The method of data analysis is based on delayed coincidences between 220Rn and 216Po. The instrument basically consists of a scaler equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to which a scintillation cell (SC) of the flow through type is optically coupled. The scaler is equipped with a pulse output (P/O) port which provides a TTL pulse, +5 V in amplitude and 5 to 10 μs duration for each nuclear event recorded by the SC and its associated electronic circuitry. The P/O port is connected to a 32 bit counter/timer unit operating at 1 MHz which records and stores the time of arrival of pulses. For laboratory use, the counter/timer is connected to the serial port of a laptop PC. However, for field applications, where space and weight pose severe practical limitations, the PC is substituted by an expanded counter/timer unit which incorporates a muprocessor for data analysis, a LCD for data display, and a keypad to key in function instructions. Furthermore, some additional hardware permits the measurement of 220Rn flux density, J( 220Rn) , from soils and other materials. Because total α-particle count, as well as delayed (α - α) coincidence rates are recorded in two separate channels, the method permits the measurement of 222Rn in addition to 220Rn. The method is particularly useful for low concentration levels. The sensitivity of the method primarily depends on the volume of the SC. For a low volume SC (˜0.16 l), a sensitivity of 0.2 h -1/Bq m -3 for 220Rn and 1.4 h -1/Bq m -3 for 222Rn are readily attainable. For a large volume (1.5 l) SC (external PMT used), the sensitivity for 220Rn is ≥ 1.5 h -1/Bq m -3, depending on the SC design and the operating sampling flowrate. (Note: h -1 stands for counts per hour). The above instrument has been used extensively at the National Radon/Thoron Test Facility (NRTTF) of the Elliot Lake Laboratory for routine monitoring of 220Rn levels since 1992. It has

  5. Using 220Rn to calibrate liquid noble gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Yamashita, M.; Takeda, A.; Kishimoto, K.; Moriyama, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we describe 220Rn calibration source that was developed for liquid noble gas detectors. The key advantage of this source is that it can provide 212Bi-212 Po consecutive events, which enables us to evaluate the vertex resolution of a detector at low energy by comparing low-energy events of 212Bi and corresponding higher-energy α-rays from 212Po. Since 220Rn is a noble gas, a hot metal getter can be used when introduced using xenon as the carrier gas. In addition, no long-life radioactive isotopes are left behind in the detector after the calibration is complete; this has clear advantage over the use of 222Rn which leaves longlife radioactivity, i.e., 210Pb. Using a small liquid xenon test chamber, we developed a system to introduce 220Rn via the xenon carrier gas; we demonstrated the successful introduction of 6 × 102 220Rn atoms in our test environment.

  6. Seasonal Variation of Unattached fraction and Equilibrium factor of 222Rn and 220Rn using DRPS/DTPS and Pin -hole cup dosimeters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    222Rn (Radon), 220Rn (Thoron) and their progenies are naturally occurring radionuclides in environment and responsible for the radiological dose to population. The 222Rn, 220Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration (season-wise) in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin- hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor 222Rn concentration was maximum in the rainy season (60 Bqm-3) while 220Rn concentration was maximum in winter season (57 Bqm-3). However EEC of 222Rn and 220Rn has distinct seasonal demeanour than their parent nuclides. The unattached EEC for both 222Rn and 220Rn (EERCU and EETCU) were higher in summer and rainy season as compared to winter season. The equilibrium factor ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) and unattached fraction ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) has been calculated separately. The (0.44 ± 0.04) in the studied area was similar to 0.4 that proposed by UNSCEAR and for (0.05 ± 0.01) it was greater than specified value 0.02 by UNSCEAR. The was higher in summer season as compared to rainy and winter season. Due to very smaller value of , a proper relation has not been observed seasonally. The unattached fraction in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure and absorbed at faster rate into blood then the attached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny. The overall arithmetic mean (rainy, winter and summer seasons) of and were 0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03 respectively. The and were lower in winter season as compared to rainy and summer seasons due to higher value of attached EEC present in winter season. A positive and significant correlation (0.56) has been observed between the and aerosol concentration (Z (cm-3)).

  7. An instrument for measuring equilibrium-equivalent 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations with etched track detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T

    1999-11-01

    To simultaneously measure both 222Rn and 220Rn progeny concentrations, a new type of portable integrating monitor with allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) plastic detectors was developed. The monitor gives the average equilibrium-equivalent 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations (EEC(RN) and EEC(Tn)) during sampling intervals. The detection efficiencies of the alpha particles were calculated by Monte Carlo method. The lower limits of detection for EEC(Rn) and EEC(Tn) are estimated to be 0.57 Bq m(-3) and 0.07 Bq m(-3) for 24 h continuously sampling at a flow rate of 0.8 L min(-1). The measuring results with the new type monitors were confirmed through intercomparison experiments. In a small survey, a rather high 220Rn progeny concentration with an average of 1.73 Bq m(-3) was observed in traditional Japanese dwellings with soil/mud plastered walls. On the other hand, a very high 232Th concentration in soil was reported in China. They suggested that there is a possibility of high 220Rn progeny concentration in both Japan and China.

  8. Precursory Subsurface 222Rn and 220Rn Degassing Signatures of the 2004 Seismic Crisis at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil

    2007-12-01

    Precursory geochemical signatures of radon degassing in the subsurface of the Tenerife Island were observed several months prior to the recent 2004 seismic-volcanic crisis. These premonitory signatures were detected by means of a continuous monitoring of 222Rn and 220Rn activity from a bubbling CO2-rich gas spot located at 2.850 m depth inside a horizontal gallery for groundwater exploitation at Tenerife. Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) on time series of the radon activity was applied to eliminate the radon activity fluctuation due to external variables such as barometric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as well as power supply. Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) was successfully applied to forecast the anomalous seismicity registered in Tenerife Island in 2004. The changes in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio observed after the period of anomalous seismicity might suggest a higher gas flow rate and/or changes in the vertical permeability induced by seismic activity.

  9. Radon and Thoron exhalation rate map in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masahiro, Hosoda; Michikuni, Shimo; Kazuyuki, Minami; Kazutaka, Ejiri; Masato, Sugino; Masahide, Furukawa; Masahiro, Fukushi

    2008-08-07

    Measurements of radon and thoron exhalation rates have been done using the radon and thoron exhalation rate measuring instrument adopting the accumulation method. We obtained the 111 data in the 40 sites of the 14 prefectures in Japan. The arithmetic average value of the radon and thoron exhalation rates by all 111 data were obtained to be 8.6 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} and 0.80 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, respectively, and we have reported the radon and thoron exhalation rates in relation to the geological features. The relation between the exhalation rate and geology was shown that the exhalation rate had an increasing tendency in order of basic rock, neutral rock and acidic rock. We made the nationwide exhalation-rate map using the survey data of exhalation-rate of radon and thoron and the geological distribution map.

  10. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. PMID:26065929

  11. Development of an aerosol chamber for calibration of 220Rn progeny detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes an aerosol chamber system that can be used for calibrations and performance experiments of passive 220Rn progeny detectors. For the purpose of this study, an aerosol generation system using carnauba wax as the aerosol material was mounted into the 220Rn chamber. We used the chamber to measure characteristics of the equilibrium factor (F) of 220Rn and unattached fraction (fp) of 220Rn progeny, which are important parameters for dose estimation. The first experiment showed that continuous and stable generation of the unattached and aerosol-attached 220Rn progeny concentrations was obtained. We observed that the spatial distributions in the chamber of the vertical profiles of the unattached and aerosol-attached 220Rn progeny concentrations were homogeneous, as were the particle number concentration and count median diameter. The values of F and fp and their characteristics observed in this study were in the same range as the values reported from indoor measurements. We found that the characteristics of F and fp were dependent on the aerosol conditions (particle diameter and particle number concentration).

  12. (220)Rn/(222)Rn isotope pair as a natural proxy for soil gas transport.

    PubMed

    Huxol, Stephan; Brennwald, Matthias S; Henneberger, Ruth; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-12-17

    Radon (Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, which is ubiquitous in soil gas. Especially, its long-lived isotope (222)Rn (half-life: 3.82 d) gained widespread acceptance as a tracer for gas transport in soils, while the short-lived (220)Rn (half-life: 55.6 s) found less interest in environmental studies. However, in some cases, the application of (222)Rn as a tracer in soil gas is complex as its concentrations can be influenced by changes of the transport conditions or of the (222)Rn production of the soil material. Due to the different half-lives of (220)Rn and (222)Rn, the distances that can be traveled by the respective isotopes before decay differ significantly, with (220)Rn migrating over much shorter distances than (222)Rn. Therefore, the soil gas concentrations of (220)Rn and (222)Rn are influenced by processes on different length scales. In laboratory experiments in a sandbox, we studied the different transport behaviors of (220)Rn and (222)Rn resulting from changing the boundary conditions for diffusive transport and from inducing advective gas movements. From the results gained in the laboratory experiments, we propose the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn to determine gas transport processes in soils. In a field study on soil gases in the cover soil of a capped landfill we applied the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn in soil gas for the first time and showed the feasibility of this approach to characterize soil gas transport processes.

  13. Dissolved gas 222Rn, 220Rn and 220Rn/222Rn in the Ground Water System of Las Cañadas, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, L.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.; Lopez, D.

    2001-12-01

    Tenerife (2,034 Km2) could be considered as an unique natural-scale laboratory for hydrological studies at oceanic volcanic islands. Thousands of well and galleries have been drilled (1,650 Km) reaching the island volcanic aquifer at different depth and elevations. Cañadas' aquifer is located in the central part of Tenerife and is affected by Teide volcanic-hydrothermal system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration levels of dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn as well as their spatial distribution at Cañadas' aquifer. Dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn were measured at 13 observation sites "galleries" on July and August, 2001. Concentration of these dissolved gases were performed by means of a gas-water exchange membrane and an electrostatic-type alfa detector SARAD RTM2010-2 during 24 hours, allowing to measure alfa particles from its radioactive progeny, 214Po, 216Po and 218Po in hourly basis. Dissolved gas 222Rn concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 67.3 BqL-1, and 220Rn content ranged from 0.06 to 24.5 BqL-1. Median values for dissolved gas 222Rn and 220Rn are 1.7 and 0.64 BqL-1, respectively. Most of the ground waters showed dissolved gas 222Rn concentrations lower than 10 BqL-1, and relatively high levels up to 67.3 y 24.7 BqL-1 where observed at two galleries on the eastern side of Cañadas' aquifer. 220Rn/222Rn ratio ranged from 0.1 to 0.6. A wide range of 222Rn and 220Rn/222Rn ratios were just detected at the recharge zone of Cañadas' aquifer and a more limited range was observed at lower elevations. Teide volcanic-hydrothermal system might be playing a role on this spatial distribution. These results could be useful for hydrological modelling of Cañadas' aquifer and the geochemical monitoring for the seismic-volcanic surveillance of Tenerife.

  14. Radon exhalation rate in south-east Sicily building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, D.; Catalano, R.; Filincieri, R.; Immé, G.; Mangano, G.

    2015-05-01

    One of the main contributions to indoor radon levels is given by the exhalation from building materials. For this reason we performed measurements of radon exhalation rate in materials commonly used in buildings of the eastern Sicily. The measurements were carried out by using solid state nuclear track detectors in diffusion chambers. We report the results obtained for samples of materials used both for building and for decorating dwellings. The obtained values have shown that building materials commonly used in the eastern Sicily have surface exhalation rates ranging between 1.9 and 43.1 mBq m-2h-1 showing higher values for volcanic materials.

  15. CFD based simulation of thoron ((220)Rn) concentration in a delay chamber for mitigation application.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, T K; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Joshi, M; Sapra, B K

    2014-10-01

    The release of (220)Rn gas (conventionally referred to as thoron) is an issue of concern from the radiological point of view for occupational environments pertaining to the thorium fuel cycle. Studies for understanding its release and developing systems to control it are crucial for exposure control research. A thorough study of the "Delay Volume Technique" for mitigation of (220)Rn has been carried out. Experiments have been carried out with (220)Rn source and associated measurement system in a cubical chamber (delay chamber) of 0.5 m(3) volume. For different flow conditions and inlet-outlet positions, (220)Rn transmission factor has been obtained. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been employed for these experimental conditions and the simulated transmission factors have been compared. The results show that the flow and the position of the inlet and outlet play an imperative role in the transportation, mixing and subsequent mitigation of thoron inside the chamber. Predictive capability of CFD technique for such delay volume experiments has been validated in this work. A comparison has been made with uniform mixing model and it is found that the results of simulation differ appreciably from that of uniform mixing model at the tested flow regime.

  16. On the exhalation rate of radon by man

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  18. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  19. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-01

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm-3 to 82.9 Bqm-3 with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm-3. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m2/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m2/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  20. Effect of 220Rn gas concentration distribution on its transmission from a delay chamber: evolving a CFD-based uniformity index.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, T K; Joshi, M; Sahoo, B K; Kanse, S D; Sapra, B K

    2016-03-01

    (220)Rn mitigation can be achieved by delay chamber technique, which relies on the advantage of its short half-life. However, flow rate as well as inlet-outlet position for the delay chamber can have a significant impact on (220)Rn concentration distribution patterns and hence transmission factor. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics simulations to estimate the concentration distribution has been carried out in a chamber of 0.5 m(3) for the combination of six different inlet-outlet positions and five different flow rates. Subsequently, the transmission factor (TF) for the chamber was evaluated and found to be highly dependent on the flow rate and inlet-outlet positions. For ease of scale up, the dependency of TF on the flow rate and the inlet-outlet positions is best summarised by relative transmission factor (RTF), which is the ratio of the TFs for the case of inlet and outlet on different faces to that on the same face.

  1. The Effect of CO2 on the Measurement of 220Rn and 222Rn with Instruments Utilising Electrostatic Precipitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lane-Smith, Derek; Sims, Kenneth

    2013-06-09

    In some volcanic systems, thoron and radon activity and CO2 flux, in soil and fumaroles, show a relationship between (220Rn/222Rn) and CO2 efflux. It is theorized that deep, magmatic sources of gas are characterized by high 222Rn activity and high CO2 efflux, whereas shallow sources are indicated by high 220Rn activity and relatively low CO2 efflux. In this paper we evaluate whether the observed inverse relationship is a true geochemical signal, or potentially an analytical artifact of high CO2 concentrations. We report results from a laboratory experiment using the RAD7 radon detector, known 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thorn), and amore » controllable percentage of CO2 in the carrier gas. Our results show that for every percentage of CO2, the 220Rn reading should be multiplied by 1.019, the 222Rn radon should be multiplied by 1.003 and the 220Rn/222Rn ratio should be multiplied by 1.016 to correct for the presence of the CO2.« less

  2. A 220Rn source for the calibration of low-background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, R. F.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Cervantes, M.; Macmullin, S.; Masson, D.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.

    2016-04-01

    We characterize two 40 kBq sources of electrodeposited 228Th for use in low-background experiments. The sources efficiently emanate 220Rn, a noble gas that can diffuse in a detector volume. 220Rn and its daughter isotopes produce α-, β-, and γ-radiation, which may used to calibrate a variety of detector responses and features, before decaying completely in only a few days. We perform various tests to place limits on the release of other long-lived isotopes. In particular, we find an emanation of < 0.008 atoms/min/kBq (90% CL) for 228Th and (1.53 ± 0.04) atoms/min/kBq for 224Ra. The sources lend themselves in particular to the calibration of detectors employing liquid noble elements such as argon and xenon. With the source mounted in a noble gas system, we demonstrate that filters are highly efficient in reducing the activity of these longer-lived isotopes further. We thus confirm the suitability of these sources even for use in next-generation experiments, such as XENON1T/XENONnT, LZ, and nEXO.

  3. Radon exhalation rates and gamma doses from ceramic tiles.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, R S; Aral, H; Peggie, J R

    1998-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the possible radiological hazard resulting from the use of zircon in glaze applied to tiles used in buildings. The 226Ra content of various stains and glazing compounds was measured using gamma spectroscopy and the 222Rn exhalation rates for these materials were measured using adsorption on activated charcoal. The radon exhalation rates were found to be close to or less than the minimum detectable values for the equipment used. This limit was much lower than the estimated exhalation rates, which were calculated assuming that the parameters controlling the emanation and diffusion of 222Rn in the materials studied were similar to those of soil. This implied that the 222Rn emanation coefficients and/or diffusion coefficients for most of the materials studied were very much lower than expected. Measurements on zircon powders showed that the 222Rn emanation coefficient for zircon was much lower than that for soil, indicating that only a small fraction of the 222Rn produced by the decay of 226Ra was able to escape from the zircon grains. The estimated increase in radon concentration in room air and the estimated external gamma radiation dose resulting from the use of zircon glaze are both much lower than the relevant action level and dose limit.

  4. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from (222)Rn and (220)Rn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m(3), respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m(3). For (222)Rn (f Rn) and (220)Rn (f Tn), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F Rn) and thoron (F Tn) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for (222)Rn (AEDR) and (220)Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a(-1), respectively. The values of (222)Rn/(220)Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. PMID:27289385

  5. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from (222)Rn and (220)Rn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m(3), respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m(3). For (222)Rn (f Rn) and (220)Rn (f Tn), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F Rn) and thoron (F Tn) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for (222)Rn (AEDR) and (220)Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a(-1), respectively. The values of (222)Rn/(220)Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions.

  6. Theoretical considerations regarding the migration of 222Rn and 220Rn from uranium- and thorium-bearing underground environments.

    PubMed

    Bigu, J

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented for partially enclosed uranium- and thorium-bearing subterranean environments, such as tunnels and underground uranium mines. The variables of practical interest considered here are the 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in the wall, and the flux densities of the same radioactive gases in the wall and at the wall/air interface of these underground sites. Calculations have been conducted based on a plane, semi-infinite geometry model (commonly used to predict radiation levels in mines) and a cylindrical (i.e., tunnel) geometry model. The 220Rn flux density, J(220Rn), calculated according to the plane and cylindrical geometries agree with each other within 5% for wall media of porosity equal to or greater than about 2%, even for tunnels of small radii. However, for 222Rn the cylindrical geometry gives values for the 222Rn flux density, J(222Rn), substantially higher (by a factor of 1.4 to approximately 3) than those predicted by the plane semi-infinite geometry. A practical difficulty arises in the experimental verification of the models in underground environments. The results are relevant for predicting radioactivity levels (222Rn, 220Rn, and their progeny) in underground environments such as uranium mines. Health Phys.

  7. On the calibration of a radon exhalation monitor based on the electrostatic collection method and accumulation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    The radon exhalation rate can be obtained quickly and easily from the evolution of radon concentration over time in the accumulation chamber. Radon monitoring based on the electrostatic collection method is not interfered with by (220)Rn. In this paper, we propose that the difference between radon and (218)Po concentrations in the measurement cell of this kind of radon exhalation monitor is the main system error, and it changes with time and different effective decay constants. Based on the results of simulation experiments, we propose that the calibration factor obtained from the suitable experiment cannot completely correct the system error, even if it is useful to reduce the measurement error. The better way for reducing measurement error is to use the new measurement model which we have proposed in recent years.

  8. Assessment of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Egyptian cement.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M

    2004-05-01

    The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays an important role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in local cement types from different Egyptian factories has been measured using a shielded HPGe detector. The average values obtained for 238U, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. On the basis of the hazard index and the radium equivalent concentration, it can be shown that the natural radioactivity of cement samples is not greater than the values permitted in the established standards in other countries. A solid-state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The effective radium content and the exhalation rate are found to vary from 12.75 to 38.52 Bq kg(-1) and 61.19 to 181.39 Bq m(-2) d(-1), respectively.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra. PMID:27074199

  11. Surface-deposition and Distribution of the Radon (222Rn and 220Rn) Decay Products Indoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Tommasino, Luigi

    The exposure to radon (222Rn and 220Rn) decay products is of great concern both in dwellings and workplaces. The model to estimate the lung dose refers to the deposition mechanisms and particle sizes. Unfortunately, most of the dose data available are based on the measurement of radon concentration and the concentration of radon decay products. These combined measurements are widely used in spite of the fact that accurate dose assessments require information on the particle deposition mechanisms and the spatial distribution of radon decay products indoors. Most of the airborne particles and/or radon decay products are deposited onto indoor surfaces, which deposition makes the radon decay products unavailable for inhalation. These deposition processes, if properly known, could be successfully exploited to reduce the exposure to radon decay products. In spite of the importance of the surface deposition of the radon decay products, both for the correct evaluation of the dose and for reducing the exposure, little or no efforts have been made to investigate these deposition processes. Recently, two parallel investigations have been carried out in Rome and at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City respectively, which address the issue of the surface-deposited radon decay products. Even though these investigations have been carried independently, they complement one another. It is with these considerations in mind that it was decided to report both investigations in the same paper.

  12. Do nuclei go pear-shaped? Coulomb excitation of 220Rn and 224Ra at REX-ISOLDE (CERN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheck, M.; Gaffney, L. P.; Butler, P. A.; Hayes, A. B.; Wenander, F.; Albers, M.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Boenig, S.; Bree, N.; Cederkall, J.; Chupp, T.; Cline, D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Grahn, T.; Herzan, A.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D. G.; Joss, D. T.; Kesteloot, N.; Konki, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kroell, Th.; Kwan, E.; Lutter, R.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radeck, D.; Reiter, P.; Reynders, K.; Rigby, S. V.; Robledo, L. M.; Rudigier, M.; Sambi, S.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Stora, T.; Thoele, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M. J.; von Schmid, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wimmer, K.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Wu, C. Y.; Zielinska, M.

    2015-05-01

    The IS475 collaboration conducted Coulomb-excitation experiments with post-accelerated radioactive 220Rn and 224Ra beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The beam particles (Ebeam: 2.83 MeV/u) were Coulomb excited using 60Ni, 114Cd, and 120Sn scattering targets. De-excitation γ-rays were detected employing the Miniball array and scattered particles were detected in a silicon detector. Exploiting the Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA for each nucleus several matrix elements could be obtained from the measured γ-ray yields. The extracted ‹3-||E3||0+› matrix element allows for the conclusion that, while 220Rn represents an octupole vibrational system, 224Ra has already substantial octupole correlations in its ground state. This finding has implications for the search of CP-violating Schiff moments in the atomic systems of the adjacent odd-mass nuclei.

  13. Determining the 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials using liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, W; de Jong, P

    1991-10-01

    A new method for determining the free 222Rn exhalation rate from building materials is described. The sample is enclosed in a container from which the exhaled Rn is continuously purged by nitrogen gas. After 2-3 h, when the Rn level in the container has reached a steady-state concentration, the outflowing Rn is trapped on silica gel at about -190 degrees C. About 16 h after sampling, the silica gel is analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the area exhalation rate. The method described has a good repeatability and reproducibility with coefficients of variation of 7.8% and 8.3%, respectively, at 5 Bq m-2 h-1. The low limit of detection of 11 mBq 222Rn offers the opportunity to quantify the exhalation rate of almost all kinds of building materials. It was found that the air humidity strongly influences the exhalation rates of building material and, therefore, should be controlled. Two typical building materials were investigated. For gypsum, an increase in the exhalation rate with increasing water vapor pressure was found, whereas for concrete, a linear decrease with increasing water vapor pressure was observed. The 222Rn area exhalation rates of 20 Dutch building materials, including some experimental ones, were determined at 50% RH, 20 degrees C, showing a range of less than 0.02-15.8 Bq m-2 h-1. The lowest values were found for natural gypsum board, the highest for phosphogypsum blocks. Building materials containing fly ash gave area exhalation rates comparable to those of similar materials without fly ash.

  14. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). PMID:25194815

  15. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation. PMID:21459585

  16. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation.

  17. Measurement of radon/thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in granite areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Sahoo, S K; Kavasi, N; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Uchida, S

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in different places in Hiroshima Prefecture were measured. Exhalation rates were measured using an accumulation chamber method. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 3 to 37 mBq m(-2) s(-1), while the thoron exhalation rate ranged from 40 to 3330 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The highest radon exhalation rate (37 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and gamma-ray dose rate (92 nGy h(-1)) were found in the same city (Kure City). In Kure City, indoor radon and thoron concentrations were previously measured at nine selected houses using a radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). The indoor radon concentrations varied from 16 to 78 Bq m(-3), which was higher than the average value in Japan (15.5 Bq m(-3)). The indoor thoron concentration ranged from ND (not detected: below a detection limit of approximately 10 Bq m(-3)) to 314 Bq m(-3). The results suggest that radon exhalation rate from the ground is an influential factor for indoor radon concentration.

  18. Use of Activated Charcoal for {sup 220}Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-03-01

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

  19. Influence of humidity on radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    PubMed

    Janik, M; Omori, Y; Yonehara, H

    2014-10-24

    The contributions of radon and thoron from building materials to total radon (thoron) entry rates in dwellings range from almost zero to several percent. It is necessary to measure radon and thoron exhalation rates, among other things, to assess the radiological hazard to human health in a living environment. Brick and granite specimens were used to study the changes of these rates as a function of the relative and absolute humidities. Measurement results showed that radon and thoron exhalation rates change to humidity with the same trends as well as effective dose could be changed by the factor of 2 due to this. PMID:25464185

  20. Influence of humidity on radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    PubMed

    Janik, M; Omori, Y; Yonehara, H

    2014-10-24

    The contributions of radon and thoron from building materials to total radon (thoron) entry rates in dwellings range from almost zero to several percent. It is necessary to measure radon and thoron exhalation rates, among other things, to assess the radiological hazard to human health in a living environment. Brick and granite specimens were used to study the changes of these rates as a function of the relative and absolute humidities. Measurement results showed that radon and thoron exhalation rates change to humidity with the same trends as well as effective dose could be changed by the factor of 2 due to this.

  1. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; El-Bahi, S M; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m2d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples.

  2. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  3. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil.

    PubMed

    Mazur, J; Kozak, K

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions. PMID:24593340

  4. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-01

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4-6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  5. Radioactivity and radon exhalation rates of building materials in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ackers, J G; den Boer, J F; de Jong, P; Wolschrijn, R A

    1985-10-01

    About 140 samples of building materials have been analysed by gamma spectrometry for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 concentrations. The radon exhalation rate was measured from concrete slabs of different composition including fly-ash components. The activity concentrations of materials containing soil products, like clay bricks and concrete, proved to be somewhat lower than those reported in some other European countries. This is probably due to the mainly sedimentary structure of the Dutch soil. The normalized radon exhalation rates were found to be substantially lower for concrete containing fly-ash products than for ordinary concrete.

  6. The Effect of Grain Size on Radon Exhalation Rate in Natural-dust and Stone-dust Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Raj; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    Radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contributes more than 50% of the total dose from the natural sources which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In the present work the dependence of radon exhalation rate on the physical sample parameters of stone dust and natural dust were studied. The samples under study were first crushed, grinded, dried and then passed through sieves with different pore sizes to get samples of various grain sizes (μm). The average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 5.95±2.7 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 286±36 mBqm-2 hr-1 for stone dust, and the average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.02±5.37 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 360±67 mBqm-2 hr-1 for natural dust. The exhalation rate was found to increase with the increase in grain size of the sample. The obtained values of radon exhalation rate for all the samples are found to be under the radon exhalation rate limit reported worldwide.

  7. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  8. A comparative study between the dynamic method and passive can technique of radon exhalation measurements from samples.

    PubMed

    Raj Menon, Sreeja; Sahoo, B K; Balasundar, S; Gaware, J J; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B; Mayya, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between the SSNTD based 'can' technique and active monitors based dynamic method using nine different samples, eight of granite and one of phosphogypsum. Besides radon ((222)Rn) exhalation, thoron((220)Rn) exhalation and (226)Ra and (232)Th content were also measured. The results are: (i) presence of significant thoron exhalation from samples and (ii) observation of thoron interference and leak (~0.05h(-1)) from the 'can' in the SSNTD based 'can' technqiue. The study unequivocally demonstrates the presence of intrinsic uncertainty in SSNTD based 'can' technique. Instead, dynamic method offers a more reliable and faster method. PMID:25770859

  9. A comparative study between the dynamic method and passive can technique of radon exhalation measurements from samples.

    PubMed

    Raj Menon, Sreeja; Sahoo, B K; Balasundar, S; Gaware, J J; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B; Mayya, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between the SSNTD based 'can' technique and active monitors based dynamic method using nine different samples, eight of granite and one of phosphogypsum. Besides radon ((222)Rn) exhalation, thoron((220)Rn) exhalation and (226)Ra and (232)Th content were also measured. The results are: (i) presence of significant thoron exhalation from samples and (ii) observation of thoron interference and leak (~0.05h(-1)) from the 'can' in the SSNTD based 'can' technqiue. The study unequivocally demonstrates the presence of intrinsic uncertainty in SSNTD based 'can' technique. Instead, dynamic method offers a more reliable and faster method.

  10. Radon exhalation rates and effective radium contents of the soil samples in Adapazarı, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuş, Adem; Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this study effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Adapazarı district of Sakarya, Turkey have been measured using LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors by closed-can technique for the first time. The obtained effective radium contents are found to vary from 6.66 to 34.32 Bqkg-1 with a mean value of 18.01 Bqkg-1. The radon exhalation rates measured in terms of mass and area of soil samples are found to vary from 50.35-259.41 mBqkg-1h-1 with a mean value of 136.12 mBqkg-1h-1 and 1035.18-5333.39 mBqm-2h-1 with a mean value of mBqm-2h-1. All the measurements show that the values of radium content are under the safe limit recommended by Organization for Cooperation and Development.

  11. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  12. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  13. Analytical study of radionuclide concentration and radon exhalation rate in market available building materials of Ramsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Vahabi-moghaddam, Masoud; Babakhani, Asad; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2012-07-01

    Samples of structural and covering market available building materials from Ramsar, a northern city of Iran, were analyzed for their radon exhalation rate using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. The radon exhalation rate varied from below the minimum detection limit of 0.01 to 0.31 Bq·m-2·h-1 with an average of 0.08 Bq·m-2·h-1. The 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system. The radionuclides contents varied from below the minimum detectable activity up to 73.5, 169, and 1,350 Bq.kg-1, with the average value of 16 ± 6, 25 ± 11, and 280 ± 101 Bq.kg-1, respectively. It was concluded from the results that some granite samples along with the block sample were the main source of radon exhalation rate, and the mean values of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in building material samples are below the world average values. Therefore, the use of these market available building materials in construction of Ramsar dwellings is considered to be safe for human habitation.

  14. Measuring radon exhalation rate in two cycles avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao

    2013-10-01

    This paper will present a simple method for measuring the radon exhalation rate from the medium surface in two cycles and also avoiding the effects of back-diffusion and chamber leakage. The method is based on a combination of the "accumulation chamber" technique and a radon monitor. The radon monitor performs the measurement of the radon concentration inside the accumulation chamber, and then the radon exhalation rate can be obtained by simple calculation. For reducing the systematic error and the statistical uncertainty, too short of total measurement time is not appropriate, and the first cycle time should be about 70 % of the total measurement. The radon exhalation rate from the medium surface obtained through this method is in good agreement with the reference value. This simple method can be applied to develop and improve the instruments for measuring radon exhalation rate.

  15. Radon concentration in soil gas and radon exhalation rate at the Ravne Fault in NW Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaupotič, J.; Gregorič, A.; Kobal, I.; Žvab, P.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Kochowska, E.; Grzä Dziel, D.

    2010-04-01

    The Ravne tectonic fault in north-west (NW) Slovenia is one of the faults in this region, responsible for the elevated seismic activity at the Italian-Slovene border. Five measurement profiles were fixed in the vicinity of the Ravne fault, four of them were perpendicular and one parallel to the fault. At 18 points along these profiles the following measurements have been carried out: radon activity concentration in soil gas, radon exhalation rate from ground, soil permeability and gamma dose rate. The radon measurements were carried out using the AlphaGuard equipment, and GammaTracer was applied for gamma dose rate measurements. The ranges of the obtained results are as follows: 0.9-32.9 kBq m-3 for radon concentration (CRn), 1.1-41.9 mBq m-2 s-1 for radon exhalation rate (ERn), 0.5-7.4×10-13 m2 for soil permeability, and 86-138 nSv h-1 for gamma dose rate. The concentrations of 222Rn in soil gas were found to be lower than the average for Slovenia. Because the deformation zones differ not only in the direction perpendicular to the fault but also along it, the behaviour of either CRn or ERn at different profiles differ markedly. The study is planned to be continued with measurements being carried out at a number of additional points.

  16. Influence of the porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate of concrete.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem; de Rooij, Mario

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 23 concrete mixtures was varied in five separate series to evaluate the influence of porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate. In each series, a range in porosities is obtained by varying (1) the amount of cement, (2) type of cement (Portland or blast furnace slag cement), (3) the amount of water at a fixed cement level, (4) addition of an air entraining agent, or (5) the amount of recycled aggregates. The porosities ranged from 1% to 16%. The ²²²Rn exhalation rate is normalized to the ²²⁶Ra activity concentration and expressed as the ²²²Rn release factor to eliminate the effect of differences in ²²⁶Ra activity concentrations among the various concrete mixtures. Since most ²²²Rn originates from the cement, a ²²²Rn release factor based on the amount of ²²⁶Ra introduced by the cements appeared to be more adequate. Although the methods to attain the porosities in the concrete mixtures differ widely, this cement-related factor corresponds well with the capillary porosity of the mixtures. Since the water-to-cement ratio of the fresh paste is a good indicator of the capillary porosity, this is the guiding factor in the fabrication of concretes low in ²²²Rn exhalation. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the less capillary pore area will be available from which ²²²Rn can emanate from the mineral matrix into the pore system. The good correlation between the cement-based ²²²Rn release factor and literature data on the internal capillary pore area support the results of this study. PMID:21399427

  17. Measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in different kinds of marbles and granites.

    PubMed

    El-Dine, N W; El-Shershaby, A; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S

    2001-12-01

    Geological materials usually contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become a focus of great attention. These NORM under certain conditions can reach hazardous contamination levels. Some contamination levels may be sufficiently severe that precautions must be taken. The present study deals with 60 geological samples (marble and granite) from both Egyptian and foreign locations. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector in Bq/kg dry weight. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in the samples under investigation ranged from 2.45 +/- 0.07 to 64.44 +/- 1.93 nGy/h for marble and from 41.55 +/- 1.25 to 111.94 +/- 3.36 nGy/h for granite. The radium equivalent activity varied from 5.46 +/- 0.16 to 150.52 +/- 4.52 Bq/kg for marble samples and from 229.52 +/- 6.89 to 92.16 +/- 2.76 Bq/kg for granite. The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated and given. The radon exhalation rates for marble and granite samples were also calculated by using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39). The value of radium exhalation rate varied from 8.0 +/- 2.39 to 30.20 +/- 5.06 Bq/m2/d for marble and 6.89 +/- 1.72 to 25.79 +/- 4.38 Bq/m2/d for granite and the effective radium content was found to vary from 1.700 +/- 0.51 to 6.42 +/- 1.08 Bq/kg for marble and 1.29 +/- 0.32 to 5.63 +/- 0.96 Bq/kg for granite. The values of the radon exhalation rate and effective radium content are found to correspond with the values of uranium concentration measured by the HPGe detector in the corresponding sample.

  18. Measurements of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement used in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, S A; Rahim, A; Hussain, S; Farooq, M

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of activity due to the naturally occurring radionuclide has been carried out in different brands of cement available in Pakistan. The gamma spectra of the collected samples were obtained using high-purity germanium detector and analysed for the presence of 232Th, 238U and 40K. The assessment of radiological hazards due to these radionuclides has also been made. The studies concerning the determination of radon-exhalation rates from these samples of cement were also carried out using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. The range of activity concentrations were found for 226Ra (from 25.10 +/- 1.55 to 52.60 +/- 3.20 Bq kg(-1)), 232Th (from 10.30 +/- 0.65 to 30.40 +/- 1.70 Bq kg(-1)) and 40K (from 17.25 +/- 1.55 to 292.95 +/- 23.05 Bq kg(-1)). The estimated value of radium equivalent concentration was from 11.16 +/- 2.60 to 114.98 +/- 7.11 Bq kg(-1). The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range from 18.54 +/- 1.17 to 52.90 +/- 3.31 nGy h(-1) and 0.09 +/- 0.01 to 0.26 +/- 0.02 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard indices were in the range from 0.11 +/- 0.01 to 0.31 +/- 0.02 and 0.18 +/- 0.01 to 0.45 +/- 0.03, respectively. The radon exhalation rates from different brands of cement were found in the range from 3.3 +/- 0.7 to 8.1 +/- 1.7 mBq kg(-1) h(-1).

  19. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  20. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  1. An investigation of radon exhalation rate and estimation of radiation doses in coal and fly ash samples.

    PubMed

    Mahur, A K; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Meena; Sengupta, D; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-03-01

    Coal is a technologically important material used for power generation. Its cinder (fly ash) is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent atmospheric emission cause the redistribution of toxic radioactive trace elements in the environment. In the present study, radon exhalation rates in coal and fly ash samples from the thermal power plants at Kolaghat (W.B.) and Kasimpur (U.P.) have been measured using sealed Can technique having LR-115 type II detectors. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the samples of Kolaghat power station are also measured. It is observed that the radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples from Kolaghat is higher than from coal samples and activity concentration of radionuclides in fly ash is enhanced after the combustion of coal. Fly ash samples from Kasimpur show no appreciable change in radon exhalation. Radiation doses from the fly ash samples have been estimated from radon exhalation rate and radionuclide concentrations.

  2. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  3. Are exhalation valves on N95 filtering facepiece respirators beneficial at low-moderate work rates: an overview.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    Exhalation valves (EVs) are touted as useful in dissipating humidity, heat, and carbon dioxide from the dead space of N95 filtering facepiece respirators and decreasing exhalation resistance, thereby making the respirator more comfortable and less physiologically demanding. Despite decades of use, there is limited research on the psychophysiological impact of EVs on the wearer at the current, low-moderate work rates of many workers. The available literature indicates that past and current EVs on the market decrease exhalation resistance to a variable degree and may improve dead space heat dissipation and, consequently, the temperature of the skin covered by the respirator. EVs have little substantial effect on dead space humidity, respiratory rate, heart rate, core temperature, speech intelligibility, or dead space oxygen and carbon dioxide levels at the aforementioned work rates. The studies also indicate that EVs may impact comfort and tolerance when N95 filtering facepiece respirators are worn for extended periods or at high work rates. Because comfort and tolerance impact respirator use compliance and, by extension, protection, more research into the psychophysiological impact of EVs on wearers and the development of new EVs tailored for low-moderate work rates are warranted. PMID:22978255

  4. National survey on the natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P; van Dijk, W; van der Graaf, E R; de Groot, T J H

    2006-09-01

    The present study reports on results of a nation-wide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra, Ra, Th, and K and for their Rn exhalation rate. The sampled materials consisted of gypsum products, aerated concrete, sand-lime and clay bricks, mortars and concrete, representing about 95% of the stony building materials used in the construction of Dutch homes. The laboratory analyses were performed according to two well-documented standard procedures, the interlaboratory reproducibility of which is found to be within 5% on average. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a porous inner wall brick to which fly ash was added. The second highest were clay bricks with average Ra and Ra levels around 40 Bq kg. Concrete and mortar show the highest exhalation rates with a fairly broad range of 1 to 13 microBq (kg s). Low natural radioactivity levels are associated with either natural gypsum (products) or gypsum from flue gas desulphurization units, and low exhalation rates with clay bricks. To evaluate the radiological impact the radioactivity concentrations in each sample were combined into a so-called dose factor, representing the absorbed dose rate in a room with a floor, walls and ceiling of 20 cm of the material in question. For that purpose, calculations with the computer codes MCNP, Marmer and MicroShield on the specific absorbed dose rates were incorporated in the paper. The results of these codes corresponded within 6% and average values were calculated at 0.90, 1.10, and 0.080 nGy h per Bq kg for the U series, the Th series, and K, respectively. Model calculations on the external dose rate, based on the incidence of the various building materials in 1,336 living rooms, are in accordance with measured data.

  5. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed. PMID:27601718

  6. Monitoring Exhaled Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Siobal, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    In the past few decades, assessment of exhaled CO2 in both intubated and non-intubated patients has evolved into an essential component in many aspects of patient monitoring. Besides the basic assessment of ventilation, exhaled CO2 monitoring can provide valuable patient safety information and critical physiologic data in regard to the ventilation and perfusion matching in the lungs, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. Despite these important clinical monitoring benefits and widespread availability, exhaled CO2 monitoring is often underutilized. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance and present the extensive body of knowledge to support the use of exhaled CO2 monitoring in various areas of clinical practice. Advanced application concepts and the future development of exhaled CO2 monitoring will also be discussed.

  7. Inspiratory flow rates during hard work when breathing through different respirator inhalation and exhalation resistances.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Karen; Caretti, David; Scott, William; Johnson, Arthur; Koh, Frank

    2006-09-01

    There has been a long-standing debate regarding the adequacy of airflow rates used in respirator certification testing and whether these test flow rates underestimate actual values. This study investigated breath by breath inspiratory peak flow rate, minute ventilation, and instantaneous flow rates of eight young, healthy volunteers walking on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic capacity until exhaustion while wearing an air-purifying respirator with one of eight combinations of inhalation and exhalation resistance. An analysis of variance was performed to identify differences among the eight conditions. Scheffe's post hoc analysis indicated which means differed. The group of conditions with the highest average value for each parameter was identified and considered to represent a worst-case scenario. Data was reported for these conditions. A Gaussian distribution was fit to the data and the 99.9% probability levels determined. The 99.9% probability level for the peak and instantaneous flow rates were 374 L/min and 336 L/min, respectively. The minute ventilation distribution was not Gaussian. Less than 1% of the recorded minute ventilations exceeded 135 L/min. Instantaneous flow rates exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's respirator test standards of 64, 85, and 100 L/min constant flow 91%, 87%, and 82% of the time, respectively. The recorded minute ventilations exceeded the 40 L/min minute ventilation test standard (for tests with a sinusoidal flow pattern) 100% of the time. This study showed that young, healthy respirator wearers generated peak flow rates, minute ventilations, and instantaneous flow rates that consistently exceeded current test standards. Their flow rates should be higher than those of a respirator wearer performing occupational work and could be considered upper limits. Testing respirators and respirator cartridges using a sinusoidal breathing pattern with a minute ventilation of 135 L/min (peak flow rate

  8. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates in man-made tiles used as building materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, K; Hosoda, M; Suwankot, N; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Man-made tiles frequently used in Japan were collected, and activity concentrations and radon ((222)Rn) exhalation rates in these tiles were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built using these tiles were also carried out. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the man-made tiles were 31-170, 35-110 and 260-980 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The (222)Rn exhalation rates in the tiles were 8.8-21 μBq m(-2) s(-1). The ranges of experimental activity concentrations and (222)Rn exhalation rates were almost identical to those of natural rocks used as typical building materials in Japan. The maximum value of effective dose to inhabitants living in houses built with the man-made tiles was 0.14 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the ICRP Publication 103.

  9. Particle concentration in exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.I.; Stampfer, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements were made of the number of concentration of particles in exhaled breath under various conditions of exercise. A laser light scattering particle spectrometer was used to count particles exhaled by test subjects wearing respirators in a challenge environment of clean, dry air. Precautions were taken to ensure that particles were not generated by the respirators and that no extraneous water or other particles were produced in the humid exhaled air. The number of particles detected in exhales air varied over a range from <0.10 to approx. 4 particles/cm/sup 3/ depending upon the test subject and his activity. Subjects at rest exhaled the lowest concentration of particles, whereas exercises producing a faster respiration rate caused increased exhalation of particles. Exhaled particle concentration can limit the usefulness of nondiscriminating, ambient challenge aerosols for the fit testing of highly protective respirators.

  10. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. PMID:25461511

  11. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  12. Natural radioactivity, radon exhalation rates and indoor radon concentration of some granite samples used as construction material in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aykamis, Ahmet S; Turhan, Seref; Aysun Ugur, F; Baykan, Umut N; Kiliç, Ahmet M

    2013-11-01

    It is very important to determine the levels of the natural radioactivity in construction materials and radon exhalation rate from these materials for assessing potential exposure risks for the residents. The present study deals with 22 different granite samples employed as decoration stones in constructions in Turkey. The natural radioactivity in granite samples was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be in the range of 10-187, 16-354 and 104-1630 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radon surface exhalation rate and the radon mass exhalation rate estimated from the measured values of (226)Ra content and material properties varied from 1.3 to 24.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with a mean of 10.5±1.5 Bq m(-2) h(-1) and 0.03-0.64 Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with a mean of 0.27±0.04 Bq kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. Radon concentrations in the room caused from granite samples estimated using a mass balance equation varied from 23 to 461 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 196±27 Bq m(-3). Also the gamma index (Iγ), external indoor annual effective dose (Eγ) and annual effective dose due to the indoor radon exposure (ERn) were estimated as the average value of 1.1±0.1, 0.16±0.02 mSv and 5.0±0.7 mSv, respectively, for the granite samples. PMID:23633647

  13. Natural radioactivity, radon exhalation rates and indoor radon concentration of some granite samples used as construction material in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aykamis, Ahmet S; Turhan, Seref; Aysun Ugur, F; Baykan, Umut N; Kiliç, Ahmet M

    2013-11-01

    It is very important to determine the levels of the natural radioactivity in construction materials and radon exhalation rate from these materials for assessing potential exposure risks for the residents. The present study deals with 22 different granite samples employed as decoration stones in constructions in Turkey. The natural radioactivity in granite samples was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be in the range of 10-187, 16-354 and 104-1630 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radon surface exhalation rate and the radon mass exhalation rate estimated from the measured values of (226)Ra content and material properties varied from 1.3 to 24.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with a mean of 10.5±1.5 Bq m(-2) h(-1) and 0.03-0.64 Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with a mean of 0.27±0.04 Bq kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. Radon concentrations in the room caused from granite samples estimated using a mass balance equation varied from 23 to 461 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 196±27 Bq m(-3). Also the gamma index (Iγ), external indoor annual effective dose (Eγ) and annual effective dose due to the indoor radon exposure (ERn) were estimated as the average value of 1.1±0.1, 0.16±0.02 mSv and 5.0±0.7 mSv, respectively, for the granite samples.

  14. Preliminary Experiments Using a Passive Detector for Measuring Indoor 220Rn Progeny Concentrations with an Aerosol Chamber.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Kranrod, Chutima; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes preliminary experiments using a passive detector for integrating measurements of indoor thoron (²²⁰Rn) progeny concentrations with an aerosol chamber. A solid state nuclear detector (CR-39) covered with a thin aluminum-vaporized polyethylene plate (Mylar film) was used to detect only alpha particles emitted from ²¹²Po due to ²²⁰Rn progeny deposited on the detector surfaces. The initial experiment showed that Mylar film with area density of more than 5 mg cm⁻² was suitable to cut off completely alpha particles of 7.7 MeV from ²¹⁴Po of ²²²Rn progeny decay. In the experiment using the passive detector, it was observed that the net track density increased linearly with an increase of time-integrating ²²⁰Rn progeny concentration. As a result of dividing deposition rates by atom concentrations, the deposition velocity was given as 0.023 cm s⁻¹ for total ²²⁰Rn progeny. The model estimates of deposition velocities were 0.330 cm s⁻¹ for unattached ²²⁰Rn progeny and 0.0011 cm s⁻¹ for aerosol-attached ²²⁰Rn progeny using Lai-Nazaroff formulae. These deposition velocities were in the same range with the results reported in the literature. It was also found that the exposure experiments showed little influence of vertical profiles and surface orientations of the passive detector in the chamber on the detection responses, which was in good agreement with that in the model estimates. Furthermore, it was inferred that the main uncertainty of the passive detector was inhomogeneous deposition of Rn progeny onto its detection surfaces.

  15. Assessment of radium and radon exhalation rate in soil and building material samples using LR-115 plastic track detectors.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Badhan, Komal; Bala, Pankaj

    2013-04-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 TYPE-II) were used to determine the concentration of radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples collected from the different areas of Dharamshala,Himachal Pradesh (India) and in building material samples :" viz. cement, bricks and white marble collected from different locations of India. The radium concentration for the soil samples and building materials variedfrom 16.22Bqkg-1 to 25.44Bqkg-1 and 32.33 Bqkg-1 to 52.26Bqkg-1 with an average value of 22.03 Bqkg-1 and 39.12 Bqkg-1 respectively. The calculated average values of radon exhalation rate in terms of mass (E.) and area (E.) for soil samples and building material samples are (8.59mBqkg-1h-1 and 310.6 mBqm-1h-1) and (15.26mBqkg-1h-1and 551.6 mBqm-2h-1) respectively.

  16. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  17. Concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products measured in outdoor air in various rural zones (Morocco) by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation dose to the rural populations.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Amrane, M; Ouguidi, J

    2010-03-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their progenies were measured in the outdoor air at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). In addition, the radon concentration was continuously measured in one location by using the methods with SSNTDs and AlphaGuard counter. The influence of the geological and meteorological conditions as well as phosphate and building material dust on the radon concentration in the outdoor air of the areas studied was investigated. The committed equivalent doses due to (218)Po and (214)Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of outdoor air by the members of the rural population was estimated.

  18. Low forced expiratory flow rates and forceful exhalation as a cause for arterial gas embolism during submarine escape training: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hartge, Francis J; Bennett, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old male U.S. Navy submariner suffered an arterial gas embolism during pressurized submarine escape training. Routine pretraining medical screening revealed no history of asthma, pneumothorax or recent respiratory infection. Pulmonary function testing and posterioranterior/lateral chest X-ray were normal. He forcefully exhaled at the start of his ascent and developed neurological abnormalities including lightheadedness with lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after surfacing. He fully recovered after a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6. This case represents the first report of an arterial gas embolism since the U.S. Navy resumed pressurized submarine escape training utilizing the Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment suit. We discuss possible contributing factors and propose that his AGE was caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to a combination of low forced expiratory flow rates and an overly forceful exhalation during his ascent. PMID:26591983

  19. Radon exhalation rates from building materials using electret ion chamber radon monitors in accumulators.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Stieff, Frederick

    2009-08-01

    An electret ion chamber (EIC) radon monitor in a sealed accumulator measures the integrated average radon concentration at the end of the accumulation duration. Theoretical equations have been derived to relate such radon concentrations (Bq m(-3) ) to the radon emanation rate (Bq d(-1)) from building materials enclosed in the accumulator. As an illustration, a 4-L sealable glass jar has been used as an accumulator to calculate the radon emanation rate from different granite samples. The radon emanation rate was converted into radon flux (Bq mm(-2) d(-1)) by dividing the emanation rate by surface area of the sample. Fluxes measured on typical, commercially available granites ranged from 20-30 Bq m(-2) d(-1). These results are similar to the results reported in the literature. The lower limit of detection for a 2-d measurement works out to be 7 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Equations derived can also be used for other sealable accumulators and other integrating detectors, such as alpha track detectors.

  20. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents and radon exhalation rate from materials used for construction and decoration in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngachin, M; Garavaglia, M; Giovani, C; Nourreddine, A; Kwato Njock, M G; Scruzzi, E; Lagos, L

    2008-09-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactivity and radon exhalation rate from building materials manufactured in Douala city from geological materials. Nine types of building material were surveyed for their natural radioactivity contents using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K varied from 11.5 to 49 Bq kg(-1), 16 to 37 Bq kg(-1) and 306 to 774 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate in the samples investigated at 1 m above ground level ranged from 28.5 to 66.6 nGy h(-1). External and internal hazard indices were also estimated as defined by the European Commission. The Ra equivalents of the materials studied ranged from 57.5 to 133 Bq kg(-1) and are much smaller than the recommended limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for construction materials for dwellings. Polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (NTDs), type CR-39, were used for measuring the radon concentration from different materials. In fact, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from building materials is important for understanding the individual contribution of each material to the total indoor radon exposure. Samples were hermetically closed in glass vessels and the radon growth was followed as a function of time. The radon exhalation rate was therefore derived from the experimental measurement of alpha-track densities. The radon exhalation varied from (5.77 +/- 0.06) x 10(-5) to (7.61 +/- 0.07) x 10(-5) Bq cm(-2) h(-1) in bricks, from (5.79 +/- 0.05) x 10(-5) to (11.6 +/- 0.12) x 10(-5) in tiles, and was (6.95 +/- 0.03) x 10(-5) Bq cm(-2) h(-1) in concrete. A correlation (correlation coefficient approximately 0.8) was found between radium concentration measured with a HPGe detector and the radon exhalation rate obtained using nuclear track detectors.

  1. Health assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in granites used as building materials in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, M A; El-Samad, O; Rachidi, I

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) of gamma-emissions from radioactive nuclides, (238)U, (226)Ra, (214)Bi, (232)Th, (212)Pb and (40)K, contained in 28 granite types, used as building materials in indoors in Lebanon, were performed on the powdered granites. The concentration of the nuclides, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, in the granites varied from below detection level (BDL) to 494 Bq kg(-1), BDL to 157.2 Bq kg(-1) and BDL to 1776 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (226)Ra concentration equivalents, C(Raeq), were obtained and ranged between 37 and 591 Bq kg(-1), with certain values above the allowed limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). Calculated annual gamma-absorbed dose in air, D(aR), varied from 17.7 to 274.5 (nGy h(-1)). Annual effective dose, E (mSv y(-1)), of gamma radiations related to the studied granites and absorbed by the inhabitants was evaluated. E (mSv y(-1)) ranged from 0.09 to 1.35 mSv y(-1). Some granite types produced E above the allowed limit of 1 mSv y(-1) set by ICRP. Values of (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, E(M) (mBq kg(-1)h(-1))(,) in granite powder were obtained using the CR-39 detector technique. Diffusion factors, f, in 23 granite types were calculated with f ranging between (0.1 ± 0.02)×10(-2) and (6.6 ± 1.01)×10(-2).

  2. Neutron activation analysis of ceramic tiles and its component and radon exhalation rate.

    PubMed

    El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A; Ahmed, F; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel, Z

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of 20 trace elements in several ceramics tiles and ceramic composites used in Egypt were elementally analyzed by neutron activation analysis(NAA) technique. The samples and standard were irradiated with reactor for 4 h (in the Second Research Egyptian Reactor(Et-RR-2)) with thermal neutron flux 5.9 x 10(13) n/(cm2 x s). The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured for several times by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system(HPGe). Also a solid state nuclear track detector(SSNTD) CR-39, was used to measure the emanation rate of radon for these samples. The radium concentrations were found to vary from 0.39-3.59 ppm and the emanation rates were found to vary from (0.728-5.688) x 10(-4) kg/(m2 x s). The elemental analysis of the ceramic tiles and ceramic composites have a great importance in assigning the physical properties and in turn the quality of the material.

  3. In situ measurements of radon levels in water and soil and exhalation rate in areas of Malwa belt of Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit S; Sabharwal, Arvind D

    2011-12-01

    Radon concentration levels in water and soil gas from 36 locations pertaining to some areas of Malwa region of Punjab have been measured on an in situ basis using a continuous active radon detector (AlphaGuard, Model - PQ 2000 PRO, Genitron instruments, Germany). Exhalation rate measurements have also been carried out at these places, using a closed-circuit technique. The radon concentrations in soil and water varied from 1.9 to 16.4 kBq m(-3) and 5.01 to 11.6 kBq m(-3), respectively. The exhalation rate (E (Rn)) ranged between 7.48 and 35.88 mBq m(-2) s(-1) with an average value of 18.17 mBq m(-2) s(-1). Annual dose rates have been calculated for water radon concentrations. The minimum to maximum values of dose rates were found to be 13.42-31.08 μSv y(-1). The recorded values of radon concentration in water are within the safe limit of 11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the US Environment Protection Agency [National Research Council, Risk Assessment of Radon in Drinking Water (Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1999)]. All measurements were made in similar climatic and environmental conditions to ensure minimal variations in meteorological parameters. An intermediate correlation coefficient (0.5) was observed between radon exhalation rates and soil gas values. PMID:22166152

  4. Concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products measured in outdoor air in various rural zones (Morocco) by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation dose to the rural populations.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Amrane, M; Ouguidi, J

    2010-03-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their progenies were measured in the outdoor air at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). In addition, the radon concentration was continuously measured in one location by using the methods with SSNTDs and AlphaGuard counter. The influence of the geological and meteorological conditions as well as phosphate and building material dust on the radon concentration in the outdoor air of the areas studied was investigated. The committed equivalent doses due to (218)Po and (214)Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of outdoor air by the members of the rural population was estimated. PMID:19887516

  5. Somatic and genetic effects of the increase of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere through changes of radon and thoron exhalation rates and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    Somatic and genetic effects of the increase of greenhouse gases are investigated. The exhalation rates of radon and thoron are affected by the climate change through the temperature rise itself, melting of snow and ice and the change of soil moisture, and the lung cancer rate is affected by these changes. On the other hand the greenhouse warming of the troposphere leads to cooling of the stratosphere, which protects the O 3 layer and reduces skin cancer. In the genetic side the temperature rise is harmful for sperm. The Rn increase leads to an increase of chromosome aberrations. Crude estimates of these effects show that the soil moisture effect is probably the largest, but the O 3 protection effect may also be significant.

  6. Aerosol penetration through respirator exhalation valves.

    PubMed

    Bellin, P; Hinds, W C

    1990-10-01

    Exhalation valves are a critical component of industrial respirators. They are designed to permit minimal inward leakage of air contaminants during inhalation and provide low resistance during exhalation. Under normal conditions, penetration of aerosol through exhalation valves is minimal. The exhalation valve is, however, a vulnerable component of a respirator and under actual working conditions may become dirty or damaged to the point of causing significant leakage. Aerosol penetration was measured for normal exhalation valves and valves compromised by paint or fine copper wires on the valve seat. Penetration increased with increasing wire diameter. A wire 250 microns in diameter allowed greater than 1% penetration into the mask cavity. Dirt or paint accumulated on the exhalation valve allowed a similar level of penetration. Work rate had little effect on observed penetration. Penetration decreased significantly with increasing aerosol particle size. The amount of material on the valve or valve seat necessary for significant (greater than 0.5%) inward leakage in a half-mask respirator could be readily observed by careful inspection of the exhalation valve and its seat in good lighting conditions.

  7. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  8. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rahman, Naureen M; Abu Atiya, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for slate tiles and 42 Bq m(-2) d(-1) for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m(-2) d(-1), it would contribute only 18 Bq m(-3) to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilsher, M; Fergusson, W; Milne, D; Wells, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by the lower respiratory tract is viewed as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma and bronchiectasis. NO is a potentially important immune modulator, inhibiting the release of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. As sarcoidosis is characterised by granulomatous airway inflammation, we hypothesised that exhaled NO levels might be raised in sarcoidosis and correlate with the morphological extent and functional severity of disease. Methods: Fifty two patients with sarcoidosis (29 men) of mean age 42 years underwent thin section computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function tests, and measurement of exhaled NO. Results: Exhaled NO levels (median 6.8 ppb, range 2.4–21.8) did not differ significantly from values in 44 control subjects, and were not related to the extent of individual CT abnormalities or the level of pulmonary function impairment. Conclusion: Exhaled NO levels are not increased in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:16244094

  10. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension.

  11. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David A.; Man, Jonathan C.; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P.; Sommerer, K.; Stone, Howard A.; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These “exhaled bioaerosols” may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these “high-producer” individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  12. Fractal and Chaos Analysis for Dynamics of Radon Exhalation from Uranium Mill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Xie, Yanshi

    2016-08-01

    Tailings from mining and milling of uranium ores potentially are large volumes of low-level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with uranium tailings is radon exhalation, which can significantly pose risks to environment and human health. In order to reduce these risks, it is essential to study the dynamical nature and underlying mechanism of radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings. This motivates the conduction of this study, which is based on the fractal and chaotic methods (e.g. calculating the Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension) and laboratory experiments of the radon exhalation rates. The experimental results show that the radon exhalation rate from uranium mill tailings is highly oscillated. In addition, the nonlinear analyses of the time series of radon exhalation rate demonstrate the following points: (1) the value of Hurst exponent much larger than 0.5 indicates non-random behavior of the radon time series; (2) the positive Lyapunov exponent and non-integer correlation dimension of the time series imply that the radon exhalation from uranium tailings is a chaotic dynamical process; (3) the required minimum number of variables should be five to describe the time evolution of radon exhalation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the internal factors, including heterogeneous distribution of radium, and randomness of radium decay, as well as the fractal characteristics of the tailings, can result in the chaotic evolution of radon exhalation from the tailings.

  13. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  14. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    PubMed

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  15. Cardiovascular Biomarkers In Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Cikach, Frank S.; Dweik, Raed A.

    2014-01-01

    With each breath we exhale, thousands of molecules are expelled in our breath giving individuals a “breath-print” that can tell a lot about them and their state of health. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as the new frontier in medical testing. The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century have arguably witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the constituents of exhaled breath and the development of the field of breath analysis and testing. Thanks to major breakthroughs in new technologies (infrared, electrochemical, chemiluminescence, and others) and the availability of mass spectrometers, the field of breath analysis has made considerable advances in the 21st century. Several methods are now in clinical use or nearly ready to enter that arena. Breath analysis has the potential to offer relatively inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive methods for detecting and/or monitoring a variety of diseases. Breath analysis also has applications in fields beyond medicine, including environmental monitoring, security and others. This review will focus on exhaled breath as a potential source of biomarkers for medical applications with specific attention to applications (and potential applications) in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22824108

  16. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  17. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  18. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit. PMID:22244194

  19. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit.

  20. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  1. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  2. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  3. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  4. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method. PMID:23798709

  5. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method.

  6. Exhaled breath volatile biomarker analysis for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Changsong; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Chaofu; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2015-08-01

    Compared with other types of cancer, thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased rapidly worldwide in the past few decades. In recent years, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers have been studied, but these biomarkers have neither specificity nor good positive predictive value. Exhaled breath analysis is a recently developed convenient and noninvasive method for screening and diagnosing the disease. In this study, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Exhaled breath was collected from 64 patients with histologically confirmed cases of thyroid disease (including 39 individuals with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 individuals with nodular goiters) and 32 healthy volunteers. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were performed to process the final data. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between nodular goiter patients and normal controls, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and normal controls, and papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and nodular goiter patients; 7, 7, and 3 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. Breath analysis may provide a new, noninvasive, and directly qualitative method for the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease. PMID:25666355

  7. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  8. Exhaled aerosol transmission of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in the ferret.

    PubMed

    Koster, Frederick; Gouveia, Kristine; Zhou, Yue; Lowery, Kristin; Russell, Robert; MacInnes, Heather; Pollock, Zemmie; Layton, R Colby; Cromwell, Jennifer; Toleno, Denise; Pyle, John; Zubelewicz, Michael; Harrod, Kevin; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yushi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected 'donor' ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa.

  9. Radon exhalation from sub-slab aggregate used in home construction in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lauren; Lee, Jaeyoung; Sadi, Baki; Chen, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes has been shown to result in an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The two largest contributors to indoor radon are radon in soil gas, formed from the rocks and soil surrounding the home, and building materials such as aggregate. This study measured the surface radon exhalation rates for 35 aggregate samples collected from producers across Canada. The radon exhalation rates ranged from 2.3 to 479.9 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with a mean of 80.7±112 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Using a simple, conservative analysis, the aggregate contribution to radon concentrations in an unfinished basement was determined. The maximum estimated radon concentration was 32.5±2.7 Bq m(-3), or ~16 % of the Canadian Radon Guideline. It can be concluded that under normal conditions radon exhalation from aggregate contributes very little to the total radon concentration in indoor air.

  10. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  11. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  12. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  13. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of open-circuit apparatus with air flowing at...

  14. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  15. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  16. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  17. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  20. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  1. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  2. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  3. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  4. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the...

  7. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  8. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  9. Detection of Torque teno virus DNA in exhaled breath by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chikasue, Kumiko; Kimura, Miyuki; Ikeda, Kazuyuki; Ohnishi, Takuma; Kawanishi, Satoshi; Iio, Tomoe; Kataoka, Mikio; Arao, Yujiro

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV) or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20) of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC) samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20) and 35% (7/20) positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40) of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room. PMID:23093057

  10. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  11. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  12. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested. PMID:27076001

  13. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  14. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  15. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children: a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Sardón Prado, Olaia; Reverté Bover, Conrado; Gartner, Silvia; Korta Murua, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article is an academic review of the application in children of the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We outline the joint American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations for online measurement of FENO in both cooperating children and children unable to cooperate, offline measurement with uncontrolled exhalation flow rate, offline measurement with controlled exhalation flow rate using a dynamic flow restrictor, and offline measurement during tidal breathing in children unable to cooperate. This is followed by a review of the normal range of values for single-breath online measurements obtained with a chemiluminescence FENO analyzer (geometric mean, 9.7 parts per billion [ppb]; upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 25.2 ppb). FENO values above 17 ppb have a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% for predicting asthma of an eosinophilic phenotype. We discuss the response of FENO values to anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of this marker in the management of asthma. Results obtained with chemiluminescence and portable electrochemical analyzers are compared. The portable devices offer the possibility--in children over 5 years of age--of accurate and universal monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, an emerging marker of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma that facilitates diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of response to therapy.

  16. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children: a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation].

    PubMed

    Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Sardón Prado, Olaia; Reverté Bover, Conrado; Gartner, Silvia; Korta Murua, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article is an academic review of the application in children of the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We outline the joint American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations for online measurement of FENO in both cooperating children and children unable to cooperate, offline measurement with uncontrolled exhalation flow rate, offline measurement with controlled exhalation flow rate using a dynamic flow restrictor, and offline measurement during tidal breathing in children unable to cooperate. This is followed by a review of the normal range of values for single-breath online measurements obtained with a chemiluminescence FENO analyzer (geometric mean, 9.7 parts per billion [ppb]; upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, 25.2 ppb). FENO values above 17 ppb have a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 80% for predicting asthma of an eosinophilic phenotype. We discuss the response of FENO values to anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of this marker in the management of asthma. Results obtained with chemiluminescence and portable electrochemical analyzers are compared. The portable devices offer the possibility--in children over 5 years of age--of accurate and universal monitoring of exhaled nitric oxide concentrations, an emerging marker of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma that facilitates diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of response to therapy. PMID:18221726

  17. Natural radioactivity in and radon exhalation from Finnish building materials.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, R

    1984-06-01

    A total of 369 samples of Finnish building materials were tested for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations. The rate of radon exhalation was measured from 19 samples of material and 34 dwellings were tested for their room air ventilation rate and radon concentration. The mean values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations in ballast materials for concrete production were 34.2 Bq X kg-1, 39.0 Bq X kg-1 and 964 Bq X kg-1, with standard deviations of 18.7 Bq X kg-1, 19.5 Bq X kg-1 and 265 Bq X kg-1, respectively. The activity concentrations were higher in clay bricks than in concrete, the mean values being 79.8 Bq X kg-1, 61.6 Bq X kg-1 and 986 Bq X kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 15-cm-thick concrete, slag-aggregate concrete and by-product gypsum were 0.38 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), 0.15 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), and 0.06 (Bq X m-2 X h-1)/(Bq X kg-1), respectively. The ventilation rates in dwellings varied between 0.27 and 1.99 air changes per h, the mean value being 0.60 h-1, and the corresponding steady state radon concentrations in room air varied from 17.0 to 149 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of concrete and from 11.2 to 61.9 Bq X m-3 in blocks of flats made of brick.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure. PMID:16493632

  19. Influencing effect of heat-treatment on radon emanation and exhalation characteristic of red mud.

    PubMed

    Sas, Zoltán; Szántó, János; Kovács, János; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products is important for members of numerous industrial sectors. However, though the benefits of reuse are evident from an economical point of view, some compounds in these materials can have a negative effect on users' health. In this study, the radon emanation and exhalation features of red mud were surveyed using heat-treatment (100-1200 °C). As a result of the 1200°C-treated samples, massic radon exhalation capacity reduced from 75 ± 10 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) to 7 ± 4 mBq kg(-1) h(-1), approximately 10% of the initial exhalation rate. To find an explanation for internal structural changes, the porosity features of the heat-treated samples were also investigated. It was found that the cumulative pore volume reduced significantly in less than 100 nm, which can explain the reduced massic exhalation capacity in the high temperature treated range mentioned above. SEM snapshots were taken of the surfaces of the samples as visual evidence for superficial morphological changes. It was found that the surface of the high temperature treated samples had changed, proving the decrement of open pores on the surface.

  20. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  1. Radon exhalation from Libyan soil samples measured with the SSNTD technique.

    PubMed

    Saad, A F; Abdallah, R M; Hussein, N A

    2013-02-01

    Radon concentrations in soil samples collected from the cities of Benghazi and Al-Marj, located in northeastern Libya, were measured using the sealed-can technique based on the CR-39 SSNTDs. Mass and areal radon exhalation rates, radium content and radon concentration contribute to indoor radon, and annual effective doses were determined. The results indicate mostly normal rates, but there were some higher levels of radon concentration and emanation in samples collected from Al-Marj and one sample from Benghazi.

  2. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  3. Metabolic rate meter and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. I.; Ruderman, I. W. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the dynamic metabolic rate of a human or animal. The ratio of the exhaled carbon dioxide to a known amount of C(13)02 introduced into the exhalation is determined by mass spectrometry. This provides an instantaneous measurement of the carbon dioxide generated.

  4. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  5. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  6. Association between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children.

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, D; Smolinska, A; Jöbsis, Q; Rosias, P P R; Muris, J W M; Dallinga, J W; van Schooten, F J; Dompeling, E

    2016-02-19

    The relationship between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children is unclear. To explore the association between inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (fractional nitric oxide (FeNO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cytokines/chemokines) and asthma control. To assess whether exhaled inflammatory markers are able to discriminate between children with persistently controlled/uncontrolled asthma. 96 asthmatic children were followed-up in a one-year observational study. Every 2 months, the following parameters were assessed: asthma control, FeNO, lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), exhaled VOCs, and cytokines/chemokines in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Random Forest was used to analyse the relationship between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control. For each model, patients were randomly selected for a training set and validation set. To assess the accuracy of the classification models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves) were generated. No significant association was found between the exhaled inflammatory markers (FeNO, markers in EBC, VOCs) and asthma control (area under the ROC-curve 49%). However, 15 exhaled VOCs could discriminate between subgroups of children with persistently controlled and uncontrolled asthma during all clinical visits (area under the ROC-curve 86%). Adding FeNO and markers in EBC to this model, did not lead to a more accurate classification (area under the ROC-curve 87%). There was no association between exhaled inflammatory markers and asthma control in children. However, children with persistently controlled or uncontrolled asthma during the 12 month study period could be discriminated by a set of VOCs.

  7. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  8. Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, M.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.

    2012-08-01

    We performed a radiometric survey for evaluating the natural radioactivity and the related potential hazard level both outdoor and indoor a mine tunnel. The mine is located in a zone of uranium enrichment in the Western Alps (Italy). At first, a γ-ray spectrometry survey of the area surrounding the mine was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, spectrometric measurements were performed in the tunnel and rock samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The results point to significant heterogeneity in uranium concentration and consequently in the absorbed dose rate spatial distribution. Spectrometric results in situ and in the laboratory, together with radon air concentration measurements, were used to infer the radon specific exhalation and flow from the mine rocks. The specific exhalation is positively related to the activity concentration of uranium.

  9. Quantification of methane in humid air and exhaled breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D; Spanel, P

    2010-05-15

    In selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, analyses of humid air and breath, it is essential to consider and account for the influence of water vapour in the media, which can be profound for the analysis of some compounds, including H(2)CO, H(2)S and notably CO(2). To date, the analysis of methane has not been considered, since it is known to be unreactive with H(3)O(+) and NO(+), the most important precursor ions for SIFT-MS analyses, and it reacts only slowly with the other available precursor ion, O(2) (+). However, we have now experimentally investigated methane analysis and report that it can be quantified in both air and exhaled breath by exploiting the slow O(2) (+)/CH(4) reaction that produces CH(3)O(2) (+) ions. We show that the ion chemistry is significantly influenced by the presence of water vapour in the sample, which must be quantified if accurate analyses are to be performed. Thus, we have carried out a study of the loss rate of the CH(3)O(2) (+) analytical ion as a function of sample humidity and deduced an appropriate kinetics library entry that provides an accurate analysis of methane in air and breath by SIFT-MS. However, the associated limit of detection is rather high, at 0.2 parts-per-million, ppm. We then measured the methane levels, together with acetone levels, in the exhaled breath of 75 volunteers, all within a period of 3 h, which shows the remarkable sample throughput rate possible with SIFT-MS. The mean methane level in ambient air is seen to be 2 ppm with little spread and that in exhaled breath is 6 ppm, ranging from near-ambient levels to 30 ppm, with no significant variation with age and gender. Methane can now be included in the wide ranging analyses of exhaled breath that are currently being carried out using SIFT-MS.

  10. MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR VOLATILE METABOLIC BIOMARKERS IN EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing biomarker methodology to interpret spot biological measurements and their linkage to previous environmental pollutants exposures for individuals. This work explores the use of a promising biological media, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), which contains trapped...

  11. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  12. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  13. Generation and control of thoron emanated from lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Tokonami, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of a thoron ((220)Rn) flowthrough source made of a commercially available lantern mantle. This (220)Rn source is easy to construct and operate and has a negligible radon ((222)Rn) gas generated when the air was passed through the source. We studied the (220)Rn concentration generated from the lantern mantles in terms of the variability in concentration associated with both the total weight of the lantern mantles used in the source and the air flow rate used in the experimental chamber. We found that the concentration of (220)Rn generated in air ranged from 0.9 to 150 kBq m(-3) and exponentially depended on the absolute humidity. The (220)Rn concentration increased linearly with increasing total weight of the lantern mantles, but variations in the rate of air flow passed through the source had no influence on the observed (220)Rn concentration.

  14. Assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile cancer biomarkers based on their physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Anton; Mochalski, Pawel; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Broza, Yoav Y; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have been linked with cancer. Towards this end, we evaluate various physicochemical properties, such as ‘breath:air’ and ‘blood:fat’ partition coefficients, of 112 VOCs that have been suggested over the past decade as potential markers of cancer. With these data, we show that the cancer VOC concentrations in the blood and in the fat span over 12 and 8 orders of magnitude, respectively, in order to provide a specific counterpart concentration in the exhaled breath (e.g., 1 ppb). This finding suggests that these 112 different compounds have different storage compartments in the body and that their exhalation kinetics depends on one or a combination of the following factors: (i) the VOC concentrations in different parts of the body; (ii) the VOC synthesis and metabolism rates; (iii) the partition coefficients between tissue(s), blood and air; and (iv) the VOCs’ diffusion constants. Based on this analysis, we discuss how this knowledge allows modeling and simulating the behavior of a specific VOC under different sampling protocols (with and without exertion of effort). We end this review by a brief discussion on the potential role of these scenarios in screening and therapeutic monitoring of cancer. PMID:24566039

  15. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  16. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity. PMID:26453064

  17. The Clinical Potential of Exhaled Breath Analysis For Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Blake, Donald Ray; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Summary Various compounds in present human breath have long been loosely associated with pathological states (including acetone smell in uncontrolled diabetes). Only recently, however, the precise measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosolized particles was made possible at extremely low concentrations by advances in several analytical methodologies, described in detail in the international literature and each suitable for specific subsets of exhaled compounds. Exhaled gases may be generated endogenously (in the pulmonary tract, blood, or peripheral tissues), as metabolic byproducts of human cells or colonizing micro-organisms, or may be inhaled as atmospheric pollutants; growing evidence indicates that several of these molecules have distinct cell-to-cell signaling functions. Independent of origin and physiological role, exhaled VOCs are attractive candidates as biomarkers of cellular activity/metabolism, and could be incorporated in future non-invasive clinical testing devices. Indeed, several recent studies reported altered exhaled gas profiles in dysmetabolic conditions and relatively accurate predictions of glucose concentrations, at least in controlled experimental conditions, for healthy and diabetic subjects over a broad range of glycemic values. Optimization of this methodology and validation in large-scale trials under a wider range of conditions is needed to determine its true potential to transition into practical clinical use. PMID:22410396

  18. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  19. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  20. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  1. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  3. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  4. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  5. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  6. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  7. Associations of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Jixuan; Lu, Wei; He, Jintong; Zhang, Runbo; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could reflect underlying inflammatory and oxidative stresses, which play important roles in pathogenetic pathways of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, epidemiologic evidence was limited. We conducted a study in Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort of 3649 community participants to investigate the association between eCO, FeNO and MetS in both cross-sectional and prospective ways. The results showed that higher eCO and FeNO were associated cross-sectionally with a higher prevalence of MetS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for MetS at baseline were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.35) associated with per log eCO and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.30) associated with per log FeNO. During a follow-up of 3 years, 358/2181 new developed MetS cases were identified. Compared with lowest quartile of eCO and FeNO, the multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.48 (1.06 to 2.06) related to the highest quartile of eCO. These findings remained consistent across sex but not smoking status, eCO was only associated with MetS in non-smokers when stratified by smoking status. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that eCO and FeNO were independently and positively associated with the prevalence of MetS cross-sectionally, while only eCO was positively related with the incidence of MetS prospectively. PMID:27076211

  8. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 25 mm. (1 inch) water-column height. (c) The exhalation resistance of pressure-demand apparatus shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches) water-column height. (d) The static pressure (at zero flow) in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches)...

  9. Partitioned Exhaled Nitric Oxide to Non-Invasively Assess Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, James L.; George, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness. Chronic repetitive bouts of acute inflammation lead to airway wall remodeling and possibly the sequelae of fixed airflow obstruction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive molecule synthesized by NO synthases (NOS). NOS are expressed by cells within the airway wall and functionally, two NOS isoforms exist: constitutive and inducible. In asthma, the inducible isoform is over expressed, leading to increased production of NO, which diffuses into the airway lumen, where it can be detected in the exhaled breath. The exhaled NO signal can be partitioned into airway and alveolar components by measuring exhaled NO at multiple flows and applying mathematical models of pulmonary NO dynamics. The airway NO flux and alveolar NO concentration can be elevated in adults and children with asthma and have been correlated with markers of airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies which specifically address the clinical potential of partitioning exhaled NO for diagnosis, managing therapy, and predicting exacerbation are needed. PMID:18718562

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  11. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  12. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p < 0.01 for isoprene and acetone, p = 0.011 for methanol; PTR

  13. [Verification of exhaled air temperature and heat flux in respiratory diseases as useful biomarker].

    PubMed

    Ito, Wataru; Chihara, Junichi

    2008-12-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diffuse panbronchiolitis are syndromes associated with chronic airway inflammation. In the conventional definition of inflammation, local pyrexia at the site of inflammation should be observed. However, there are very few reports that have evaluated the "heat" in inflammatory respiratory diseases. We considered that the evaluation of allergic airway inflammation such as asthma might be possible by measuring the exhaled air temperature, and devised an original device that stabilizes the flow rate, which is a very important factor for the direct measurement of heat. Moreover, an expiratory heat flux meter, which can detect a change in air temperature more precisely and immediately, was also incorporated into our original device. As a result, we succeeded in the measurement and evaluation of the heat flux and air temperature in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, and, further, the air temperature was straightforwardly evaluated by a portable spirometer including a temperature sensor. These findings suggest that the heat flux and temperature of exhaled air can be used to objectively monitor airway inflammation noninvasively, and assist in the diagnosis/monitoring of inflammatory respiratory diseases, including asthma.

  14. Exhalation of respiratory viruses by breathing, coughing, and talking.

    PubMed

    Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Oliver, Brian G; Blazey, Angus J; Argent, Elizabeth; Newsome, Timothy P; Rawlinson, William D; Tovey, Euan R

    2009-09-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information about the generation of virus aerosols by infected subjects. The exhaled aerosols generated by coughing, talking, and breathing were sampled in 50 subjects using a novel mask, and analyzed using PCR for nine respiratory viruses. The exhaled samples from a subset of 10 subjects who were PCR positive for rhinovirus were also examined by cell culture for this virus. Of the 50 subjects, among the 33 with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, 21 had at least one virus detected by PCR, while amongst the 17 asymptomatic subjects, 4 had a virus detected by PCR. Overall, rhinovirus was detected in 19 subjects, influenza in 4 subjects, parainfluenza in 2 subjects, and human metapneumovirus in 1 subject. Two subjects were co-infected. Of the 25 subjects who had virus-positive nasal mucus, the same virus type was detected in 12 breathing samples, 8 talking samples, and in 2 coughing samples. In the subset of exhaled samples from 10 subjects examined by culture, infective rhinovirus was detected in 2. These data provide further evidence that breathing may be a source of respirable particles carrying infectious virus.

  15. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  16. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  17. Study on the sampling of methadone from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Böttcher, Michael; Eriksen, Paul; Franck, Johan; Palmskog, Göran

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed at develop and validate the procedure for collecting exhaled breath for drug testing. Patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment were recruited for the study. Methadone levels were measured using liquid chromatography- electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. The sampling device was based on a 47-mm C(18) filter and used under pressure to aid flow through the filter. The mouth was rinsed before sampling, and the device was constructed to protect against any saliva contamination. Methadone was present in breath samples before and after the daily intake of methadone. The mean (± SD) pre-dose level was found to be 135 ± 109 pg/min (n = 48, median 121). The exhaled methadone increased after dose intake. Saliva levels of methadone were high in comparison with exhaled breath levels. Saliva contamination was suspected in about 10% of the collected samples. Similar results were obtained using 1, 3, and 10 min sampling times. The inter- and intraindividual variability were found to be similar and in the order of 50%. Alternative sampling using XAD-2 beads and solid-phase microextraction fiber was found to be possible and enables sampling with low back pressure and with no need for pump assistance. The presented results confirm that breath testing is a new possibility for the detection of drugs of abuse.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen diving affects exhaled molecular profiles in men.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, P J A M; van Hulst, R A; Kulik, W; Brinkman, P; Houtkooper, A; Sterk, P J

    2014-07-01

    Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are associated with respiratory pathophysiology. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen exposure (hyperoxia) generates a distinguishable VOC pattern. This study aimed to test this hypothesis in oxygen-breathing divers. VOCs in exhaled breath were measured in 10 male divers before and 4h after diving to 9msw (190kPa) for 1h. During the dive they breathed 100% oxygen or air in randomized order. VOCs were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to air dives, after oxygen dives there was a significant increase in five VOCs (predominately methyl alkanes). Furthermore, a strong, positive correlation was found between increments in 2,4-dimethyl-hexane and those of 4-ethyl-5-methyl-nonane. Although non-submerged hyperoxia studies on VOCs have been performed, the present study is the first to demonstrate changes in exhaled molecular profiles after submerged oxygen diving. The pathophysiological background might be attributed to either a lipid peroxidation-induced pathway, an inflammatory pathway, or to both.

  19. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  20. Levels of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Retired Coal Miners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Joung Oh; Lee, Kyung Myung; Kim, Ji Hong; Choi, Byung-Soon

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled inorganic dusts, such as coal, can cause inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, known as pneumoconiosis. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis depends on morphological changes by radiological findings and functional change by pulmonary function test (PFT) . Unfortunately, current diagnostic findings are limited only to lung fibrosis, which is usually irreversibly progressive. Therefore, it is important that research on potential and prospective biomarkers for pneumoconiosis should be conducted prior to initiation of irreversible radiological or functional changes in the lungs. Analytical techniques using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) or exhaled gas are non-invasive methods for detection of various respiratory diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers, such as EBC pH or fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) , and pneumoconiosis among 120 retired coal miners (41 controls and 79 pneumoconiosis patients) . Levels of EBC pH and FENO did not show a statistically significant difference between the pneumoconiosis patient group and pneumoconiosis patients with small opacity classified by International Labor Organization (ILO) classification. The mean concentration of FENO in the low percentage FEV1 (< 80%) was lower than that in the high percentage (80% ≤) (p = 0.023) . The mean concentration of FENO in current smokers was lower than that in non smokers (never or past smokers) (p = 0.027) . Although there was no statistical significance, the levels of FENO in smokers tended to decrease, compared with non smokers, regardless of pneumoconiosis. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between the level of EBC pH or FENO and radiological findings or PFT. The effects between exhaled biomarkers and pneumoconiosis progression, such as decreasing PFT and exacerbation of radiological findings, should be monitored. PMID:24278541

  1. 42 CFR 84.200 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.200 Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements....

  2. 42 CFR 84.200 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.200 Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements....

  3. Dispersal of exhaled air and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, E; Nielsen, P V

    2002-09-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposure in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins. Numerical simulations support the experiments. Air exhaled through the mouth can lock in a thermally stratified layer, if the vertical temperature gradient in breathing zone height is sufficiently large. With exhalation through the nose, exhaled air flows to the upper part of the room. The exhalation flow from both nose and mouth is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person standing nearby. The stratification of exhaled air breaks down if there is physical movement in the room. As movement increases, the concentration distribution in the room will move towards a fully mixed situation. The protective effect of the boundary layer flow around the body of a moving person disappears at low speed, and is reduced for a seated person placed nearby due to horizontal air movements, which can also cause rebreathing of exhaled air for the seated person. The results indicate that the effect of the exhalation flow is no acute problem in most normal ventilation applications. However, exhalation and local effects caused by movement may be worth considering if one wishes to contain contaminants in certain areas, as in the case of tobacco smoking, in hospitals and clinics, or in certain industries.

  4. Trace Analysis in End-Exhaled Air Using Direct Solvent Extraction in Gas Sampling Tubes: Tetrachloroethene in Workers as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Braunsdorf, Pia-Paulin

    2014-01-01

    Simple and cost-effective analytical methods are required to overcome the barriers preventing the use of exhaled air in routine occupational biological monitoring. Against this background, a new method is proposed that simplifies the automation and calibration of the analytical measurements. End-exhaled air is sampled using valveless gas sampling tubes made of glass. Gaseous analytes are transferred to a liquid phase using a microscale solvent extraction performed directly inside the gas sampling tubes. The liquid extracts are analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped, as usual, with a liquid autosampler, and liquid standards are used for calibration. For demonstration purposes, the method's concept was applied to the determination of tetrachloroethene in end-exhaled air, which is a biomarker for occupational tetrachloroethene exposure. The method's performance was investigated in the concentration range 2 to 20 μg tetrachloroethene/L, which corresponds to today's exposure levels. The calibration curve was linear, and the intra-assay repeatability and recovery rate were sufficient. Analysis of real samples from dry-cleaning workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethene and from nonexposed subjects demonstrated the method's utility. In the case of tetrachloroethene, the method can be deployed quickly, requires no previous experiences in gas analysis, provides sufficient analytical reliability, and addresses typical end-exhaled air concentrations from exposed workers. PMID:24772171

  5. Exhaling a budesonide inhaler through the nose results in a significant reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray in patients having asthma with rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, W A

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid is used routinely in the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. Although inhaled corticosteroids in therapeutic doses are unlikely to result in systemic side effects, there is as yet skepticism about their routine and prolonged use. The aim of this study was to determine whether budesonide inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, when exhaled through the nose could result in a reduction in the dose requirement of budesonide metered nasal spray in patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis. This study was an open, parallel, comparative, crossover trial in which 49 young patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis were divided into two groups and administered either a combination of budesonide metered dose inhaler with a budesonide nasal spray or a budesonide inhaler alone, which was to be exhaled through the nose. Both groups were later crossed over and weekly symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates were monitored during each phase of the study. Finally, patients who volunteered from both groups were instructed to note the reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray while using a budesonide inhaler and exhaling it through the nose. The results of this study reveal that when a budesonide inhaler is exhaled through the nose, it results in an improvement in symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates, which were significantly less than those obtained in the group using both a budesonide nasal spray and a metered dose inhaler. In addition, exhaling budesonide through the nose results in a 40.1% reduction in the dose requirement of a budesonide nasal spray, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001).

  6. Influence of exhaled air on inhalation exposure delivered through a directed-flow nose-only exposure system.

    PubMed

    Moss, O R; James, R A; Asgharian, B

    2006-01-01

    In order to conserve material that is available in limited quantities, "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems have at times been run at flow rates close to the minute ventilation of the animal. Such low-flow-rate conditions can contribute to a decrease of test substance concentration in inhaled air; near the animal nose, exhaled air and the directed flow of exposure air move in opposite directions. With a Cannon "directed-flow" nose-only exposure system (Lab Products, Maywood, NJ), we investigated the extent to which exposure air plus exhaled air can be inhaled by an animal. A mathematical model and a mechanical simulation of respiration were adopted to predict for a male Fischer 344 rat the concentration of test substance in inhaled air. The mathematical model was based on the assumption of instantaneous mixing. The mechanical simulation of respiration used a Harvard respirator. When the system was operated at an exposure air flow rate greater than 2.5 times the minute ventilation of the animal, the concentration of test substance in the inhaled air was reduced by less than 10%. Under these conditions, the circular jet of air exiting the exposure air delivery tube tended to reach the animal's nose with little dispersion. For exposure air flow rates less than 2 times the minute ventilation, we predict that the interaction of exhaled air and exposure air can be minimized by proportionally reducing the delivery tube diameter. These findings should be applicable to similar "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems.

  7. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  8. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol. PMID:25767612

  9. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A; Corley, Richard A; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.

  10. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  11. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.

  12. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treatmore » the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.« less

  13. [Evaluation of the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Moes, Alicja; Chadzyński, Radosław; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    In spite of intensified antitobacco campaigns and decrease in social acceptance for smoking it is still an important issue. In prevention there is a need to make smokers and non-smoking people aware of a level of exposure to tobacco smoke. One of the objective methods to evaluate this exposition is to measure a concentration of the carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The aim of our study was to evaluate the indication of carbon monoxide in exhaled air. The research was based on examination of 67 patients admitted to admission room in SP CSK, Warsaw. The level of carbon monoxide was measured with Smokerlyzer device in 56 cases (34 women, 22 men). Everyone in this group answered questions concerning a reason of admission to hospital, concomitant diseases, and addiction to smoking and ways of fight against the addiction as far as smokers are concerned. Current smokers answered also questions about their attitude to smoking and filled in Fagerström and Schneider tests. In a group of 67 patients 11 were not able to proceed the test with Smokerlyzer, 5 (45.5%) due to dyspnea, 4 (36.4%) due to lack of a verbal contact. In the group of 56 investigated patients 20 (35.7%) have never smoked, 32 (57.1%) were ex-smokers and 4 (7.1%) were current smokers. 3 (75%) of the smokers have tried to give up smoking 3 times on average. In the Fagerström test their mean came to 3.5 points, what indicates a low level of addiction. The Schneider test averaged out 8 points, what indicates a good motivation to give up smoking. The average of concentration of carbon monoxide in exhaled air came to 8 ppm (1.87% Hb) in this group. In the group of non-smoking patients the level of carbon monoxide came to 1.4 ppm (0.67%Hb). In the group of nonsmoking patients exposed to the tobacco smoke, the level of carbon monoxide came to 3 ppm (1.15%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The increased CO level in exhaled air is usually caused by smoking cigarettes and exposure to

  14. Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

  15. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  16. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  17. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  18. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  19. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  20. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  1. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  2. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  3. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  4. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  5. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma. PMID:27456161

  6. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  7. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  8. Gas analysis of human exhalation by tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Moskalenko, Konstantin L.

    1993-02-01

    Results of the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) to determining the trace gas components of human exhalation are presented. The analyzer is specially developed to measure both carbon oxides (CO and CO2) in expired air. A few results illuminating possible applications of TDLs in high-sensitivity medical diagnostics have been obtained. For nonsmokers, expired concentrations of CO are slightly higher than those in inhaled air. The specific surplus value seems to be independent of the ambient atmospheric CO content. The surplus CO content increases by more than an order of magnitude just after intensive exercises, e.g., jogging. For smokers, the pharmacokinetic of abundant CO removal from the organism could be investigated by this technique, which provides quick and reliable measurements of smoking status. Breath-holding synchronous measurements of CO and CO2 in exhalation demonstrate behavior that is different with breath-holding time. The method seems useful for the investigation of phenomena such as molecular pulmonary diffusion through the alveolar-capillary membrane and an organism's adaptation to oxygen shortage. Prospects for the development and application of diode laser spectroscopy to trace gas analysis in medicine are also discussed.

  9. Exhaled methyl nitrate as a noninvasive marker of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Novak, B J; Blake, D R; Meinardi, S; Rowland, F S; Pontello, A; Cooper, D M; Galassetti, P R

    2007-10-01

    Recent technical advances allow detection of several hundred volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human exhaled air, many of which reflect unidentified endogenous pathways. Our group has previously estimated plasma glucose levels in healthy adults during a standard oral glucose tolerance test via exhaled VOC analysis. As a result of the metabolic characteristics of hyperglycemia in the diabetic (low insulin and increased free fatty acids and ketones), we hypothesized that different exhaled VOC profiles may be present in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) during spontaneous hyperglycemia. Exhaled methyl nitrate strongly correlated specifically with the acute, spontaneous hyperglycemia of T1DM children. Eighteen experiments were conducted among 10 T1DM children. Plasma glucose and exhaled gases were monitored during either constant euglycemia (n = 5) or initial hyperglycemia with gradual correction (n = 13); all subjects received i.v. insulin and glucose as needed. Gas analysis was performed on 1.9-liter breath samples via gas chromatography using electron capture, flame ionization, and mass selective detection. Among the approximately 100 measured exhaled gases, the kinetic profile of exhaled methyl nitrate, commonly present in room air in the range of 5-10 parts per trillion, was most strongly statistically correlated with that of plasma glucose (P = 0.003-0.001). Indeed, the kinetic profiles of the two variables paralleled each other in 16 of 18 experiments, including repeat subjects who at different times displayed either euglycemia or hyperglycemia. PMID:17895380

  10. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels among Malaysian male smokers with nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ng Chong; Ann, Anne Yee Hway

    2012-01-01

    We studied the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 107 male smoking staff at a university hospital. We measured their exhaled CO using a piCO+ Smokerlyzer and diagnosed nicotine dependence using a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The optimal cut-off value for exhaled CO was determined. The correlation between exhaled CO level and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was also assessed. The mean exhaled CO level among subjects with nicotine dependence (15.78 ppm) was significantly higher than subjects without nicotine dependence (9.62 ppm). The cut-off value used to identify smokers with nicotine dependence was set at 10 ppm (specificity = 0.721, sensitivity = 0.731, positive predictive value = 0.817 and negative predictive value = 0.617). Psychometric properties were stable with various durations of smoking. Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND scores (Pearson's rho = 0.398, p = 0.01). Our findings show exhaled CO can be used to identify nicotine dependence among adult Malaysian male smokers.

  11. Analysis of breath, exhaled via the mouth and nose, and the air in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianshu; Pysanenko, Andriy; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-09-01

    Analyses have been performed, using on-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), of the breath of three healthy volunteers, as exhaled via the mouth and the nose and also of the air in the oral cavity during breath hold, each morning over a period of one month. Nine trace compounds have been quantified and concentration distributions have been constructed. Of these compounds, the levels of acetone, methanol and isoprene are the same in the mouth-exhaled and the nose-exhaled breath; hence, we deduce that these compounds are totally systemic. The levels of ammonia, ethanol and hydrogen cyanide are much lower in the nose-exhaled breath than in the mouth-exhaled breath and highest in the oral cavity, indicating that these compounds are largely generated in the mouth with little being released at the alveolar interface. Using the same ideas, both the low levels of propanol and acetaldehyde in mouth-exhaled breath appear to have both oral and systemic components. Formaldehyde is at levels in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and the oral cavity that are lower than that of the ambient air and so its origin is difficult to ascertain, but it appears to be partially systemic. These results indicate that serious contamination of alveolar breath exhaled via the mouth can occur and if breath analysis is to be used to diagnose metabolic disease then analyses should be carried out of both mouth- and nose-exhaled breath to identify the major sources of particular trace compounds.

  12. Why inhaling salt water changes what we exhale.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Wiwik; Thomas, Matthew; Clarke, Robert; Klibanov, Alexander M; Langer, Robert; Katstra, Jeffrey; Fuller, Gerald G; Griel, Lester C; Fiegel, Jennifer; Edwards, David

    2007-03-01

    We find that inhaling salt water diminishes subsequently exhaled biomaterial in man and animals due to reversible stabilization of the airway lining fluid (ALF)/air interface as a novel potential means for control of the spread of airborne infectious disease. The mechanism of this phenomenon relates to charge shielding of mucin or mucin-like macromolecules that consequently undergo gelation; this gelation alters the physical properties of the ALF surface and reduces its breakup. Cations in the nebulized solution and apparent surface viscoelasticity of the ALF (more than any other ALF intrinsic physical property) appear to be responsible for the reduced tendency of the ALF to disintegrate into very small droplets. We confirm these effects in vivo and show their reversibility through nebulization of saline solutions to anesthetized bull calves.

  13. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  14. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  15. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  16. Radon exhalation of cementitious materials made with coal fly ash: Part 2--testing hardened cement-fly ash pastes.

    PubMed

    Kovler, K; Perevalov, A; Levit, A; Steiner, V; Metzger, L A

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in measuring radionuclides and radon concentrations in fly ash (FA), cement and other components of building products is due to the concern about health hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The paper focuses on studying the influence of FA on radon exhalation rate (radon flux) from cementitious materials. In the previous part of the paper the state of the art was presented, and the experiments for testing raw materials, Portland cement and coal fly ash, were described. Since the cement and FA have the most critical role in the radon release process relative to other concrete constituents (sand and gravel), and their contribution is dominant in the overall radium content of concrete, tests were carried out on cement paste specimens with different FA contents, 0-60% by weight of the binder (cement+FA). It is found that the dosage of FA in cement paste has a limited influence on radon exhalation rate, if the hardened material is relatively dense. The radon flux of cement-FA pastes is lower than that of pure cement paste: it is about approximately 3 mBq m(-2) s(-1) for cement-FA pastes with FA content as high as 960 kg m(-3).

  17. Exhaled breath condensate pH and exhaled nitric oxide in allergic asthma and in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ojoo, J; Mulrennan, S; Kastelik, J; Morice, A; Redington, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that the pH of airway lining fluid may regulate the fractional exhaled concentration of nitric oxide (FENO) in respiratory disease. Methods: FENO, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and EBC concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (NO2/NO3) were compared in 12 subjects with stable asthma, 18 with stable cystic fibrosis (CF), and 15 healthy control subjects. Eight of the CF patients were studied on a separate occasion at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation. Results: FENO was significantly greater in asthmatic subjects than in control subjects (mean 35 v 9 ppb, p<0.001). EBC pH, however, was similar in the asthmatic and control groups (median 5.82 v 6.08, p = 0.23). Levels of NO2/NO3 were on average higher in EBC samples from asthmatic subjects, but the difference was not significant. In patients with stable CF both the FENO (mean 4 ppb, p<0.001) and EBC pH (median 5.77, p = 0.003) were lower than in the control group. Levels of EBC NO2/NO3 (median 29.9 µM; p = 0.002) in patients with stable CF, in contrast, were significantly higher than in control subjects. During CF exacerbations, EBC pH was further reduced (median 5.30, p = 0.017) but FENO and NO2/NO3 were unchanged. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a dissociation between EBC pH and FENO in inflammatory airways disease. PMID:15618578

  18. Evaluation of Airway Inflammation in Compost Workers Exposed to Bioaerosols Using Exhaled Breath Condensate and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; van Kampen, V; Deckert, A; Neumann, H-D; Buxtrup, M; Willer, E; Felten, C; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J

    2015-01-01

    Occupational bioaerosol exposures are capable to cause respiratory diseases. We studied the relationship between exposure to bioaerosols and biomarkers' concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 119 bioaerosol-exposed compost workers taking into account atopy and smoking habits. Atopy was classified according to specific IgE concentrations to common inhalant allergens (sx1). Bioaerosol exposure was estimated according to job title, duration of employment, results of ambient monitoring at the workplaces, and shift time worked under protection of filtered air supply. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and acid-base balance (pH) in EBC and FeNO were assessed in 59 never-smoking (NS) and 60 smoking (S) compost workers. We found that atopic subjects were equally distributed among NS and S (n=16 each). Levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in workers considered highly exposed to bioaerosols than in low exposed workers (86.6 (66.1; 128.8) pg/mL vs. 74.4 (56.3; 96.7) pg/mL, p=0.047). No associations could be observed between exposures and biomarkers concerning compost workers in total, but there were some in atopic workers (duration of employment and FeNO: r=0.376, p=0.041; filtered air supply and FeNO: r=-0.335, p=0.071). Smokers had significantly lower pH values compared to NS (non-atopic, p=0.041; atopic p=0.050). In conclusion, EBC and FeNO might be useful tools for monitoring of inflammation due to bioaerosol exposures, especially in atopic subjects. Besides smoking also atopy should be considered when investigating airway inflammation.

  19. Conditions of early chemical processing of matter - Explosive exhalations of supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic stratifications of supernova exhalations are discussed, with reference to a number of theoretical estimates. Particular attention is given to the theoretical models of the major chemical zones of explosive exhalation of isotopes of Mg, Si, and Ti in intermediate size supernovae. The contribution of supernova exhalations to oxygen anomalies in the solar system is also discussed within the framework of the theoretical models of Clayton et al. (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981). The initial stratigraphy of the major elements in the explosive exhalation of a progenitor star of 25 solar mass is illustrated in a graph, on the basis of the theoretical estimates of Waver et al. (1978), and Weaver and Woolsey (1980).

  20. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  1. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will explore historical and newly emerging methods for the collection and analysis of exhaled breath for use in environmental exposure assessment studies. We will discuss their applicability and limitations with respect to environmental research. Particular em...

  2. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to isoflurane by measurement of isoflurane exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Tortosa, J A; Ibarra, I; Luna, A; Periago, J F

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between isoflurane environmental concentrations in operating rooms and the corresponding isoflurane concentration in the exhaled air of the operating personnel at the end of the exposure has been investigated. Isoflurane was retained in an adsorbent cartridge and after thermal desorption the concentration was estimated by gas chromatography. Significant correlation between environmental and exhaled air isoflurane concentrations allowed the establishment of a biological exposure index and biological exposure limits corresponding to proposed atmospheric threshold values.

  3. Effects of immersion in cool water on lung-exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Krasney, J. A.; DeRoberts, D.; Farhi, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Lung nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to relax airway and vascular smooth muscle at rest and during exercise. As a cold environment is a common cause of respiratory distress, lung exhaled NO was measured during skin and core body cooling at rest and during a progressive cycle exercise. Ten healthy male subjects were immersed in water at a water temperature (Tw) which was thermal neutral (35 degrees C) at 30 degrees C Tw, at which only skin temperature is decreased; and at 20 degrees C Tw, at which the core temperature is decreased (0.05 degrees C). At rest, V(O), and V(E) increased while exhaled NO concentration [NO] and the rate of expiration of NO (V(NO)) decreased with decreased Tw. V(O2) and ventilation (V(E)) increased with workload (W) and the values at all Tw were not different, whereas, [NO] decreased with W and the values during exercise were progressively less at all Ws as Tw declined. These results indicate that lung NO output is reduced in a graded fashion during body cooling at rest and during exercise. This suggests that lower lung NO may contribute to airway obstruction in cold environments and NO may contribute to regulation of lung heat and water exchange.

  4. Effects of immersion in cool water on lung-exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, D R; Krasney, J A; DeRoberts, D

    1999-01-01

    Lung nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to relax airway and vascular smooth muscle at rest and during exercise. As a cold environment is a common cause of respiratory distress, lung exhaled NO was measured during skin and core body cooling at rest and during a progressive cycle exercise. Ten healthy male subjects were immersed in water at a water temperature (Tw) which was thermal neutral (35 degrees C) at 30 degrees C Tw, at which only skin temperature is decreased; and at 20 degrees C Tw, at which the core temperature is decreased (0.05 degrees C). At rest, V(O), and V(E) increased while exhaled NO concentration [NO] and the rate of expiration of NO (V(NO)) decreased with decreased Tw. V(O2) and ventilation (V(E)) increased with workload (W) and the values at all Tw were not different, whereas, [NO] decreased with W and the values during exercise were progressively less at all Ws as Tw declined. These results indicate that lung NO output is reduced in a graded fashion during body cooling at rest and during exercise. This suggests that lower lung NO may contribute to airway obstruction in cold environments and NO may contribute to regulation of lung heat and water exchange.

  5. The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23958488

  6. An intercomparison done at NIRS, Japan on continuous monitors for measuring ²²⁰Rn concentration.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An intercomparison for continuous monitors that measure thoron ((220)Rn) concentration was carried out using a (220)Rn chamber of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan; eleven (220)Rn monitors (four types) from nine laboratories were evaluated. The (220)Rn detection principle was the same for the eleven instruments and one reference instrument, which were commercially available silicon semiconductor detectors using an electrostatic collection method. The intercomparison results showed that there was a negative deviation of more than 30% in measured (220)Rn concentrations given by the laboratories relative to the reference values, which were obtained by making a decay-correction during the travel of (220)Rn through the sampling assembly (sample tube, filter and drying unit) and using a calibration factor. In order to elucidate the reason for this and then to investigate factors that affect the (220)Rn concentration measured with the monitors. As a result, it was necessary to make the decay-correction, in particular, when using a drying unit with a large inner volume and to use the calibration factor in order to better estimate the (220)Rn concentration. It was also found to be better to determine a calibration factor inherent to an individual monitor, because the calibration factor values ranged from 0.75 to 2.32, depending on the flow rate of the monitor pump (0.37-1.02 L min(-1)). It was concluded from this study that a periodical calibration of the monitor and a check of the monitor flow rate during measurements are necessary to maintain a consistent quality level of the (220)Rn measurement. PMID:26497806

  7. An intercomparison done at NIRS, Japan on continuous monitors for measuring ²²⁰Rn concentration.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An intercomparison for continuous monitors that measure thoron ((220)Rn) concentration was carried out using a (220)Rn chamber of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan; eleven (220)Rn monitors (four types) from nine laboratories were evaluated. The (220)Rn detection principle was the same for the eleven instruments and one reference instrument, which were commercially available silicon semiconductor detectors using an electrostatic collection method. The intercomparison results showed that there was a negative deviation of more than 30% in measured (220)Rn concentrations given by the laboratories relative to the reference values, which were obtained by making a decay-correction during the travel of (220)Rn through the sampling assembly (sample tube, filter and drying unit) and using a calibration factor. In order to elucidate the reason for this and then to investigate factors that affect the (220)Rn concentration measured with the monitors. As a result, it was necessary to make the decay-correction, in particular, when using a drying unit with a large inner volume and to use the calibration factor in order to better estimate the (220)Rn concentration. It was also found to be better to determine a calibration factor inherent to an individual monitor, because the calibration factor values ranged from 0.75 to 2.32, depending on the flow rate of the monitor pump (0.37-1.02 L min(-1)). It was concluded from this study that a periodical calibration of the monitor and a check of the monitor flow rate during measurements are necessary to maintain a consistent quality level of the (220)Rn measurement.

  8. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.; Milyaev, Varerii A.

    2002-11-01

    The application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air in biomedical diagnostics is discussed. The principle of operation and the design of a laser analyser for studying the composition of exhaled air are described. The results of detection of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air, including clinical studies, which demonstrate the diagnostic possibilities of the method, are presented.

  9. Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

    2013-12-01

    Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination.

  10. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) zinc-lead-silver deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; Seal, Robert R.; Breit, George N.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-10-28

    This report draws on previous syntheses and basic research studies of sedimentary exhalative (sedex) deposits to arrive at the defining criteria, both descriptive and genetic, for sedex-type deposits. Studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins have also been used to select defining criteria. The focus here is on the geologic characteristics of sedex deposit-hosting basins that contain greater than 10 million metric tons of zinc and lead. The enormous size of sedex deposits strongly suggests that basin-scale geologic processes are involved in their formation. It follows that mass balance constraints of basinal processes can provide a conceptual underpinning for the evaluation of potential ore-forming mechanisms and the identification of geologic indicators for ore potential in specific sedimentary basins. Empirical data and a genetic understanding of the physicochemical, geologic, and mass balance conditions required for each of these elements are used to establish a hierarchy of quantifiable geologic criteria that can be used in U.S. Geological Survey national assessments.  In addition, this report also provides a comprehensive evaluation of environmental considerations associated with the mining of sedex deposits.

  11. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological

  12. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, G; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F

    2009-03-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces. Thus, disease caused by R. equi has been regarded as an opportunistic infection of environmental origin and not a contagious disease. In this study, we report the exhalation of virulent R. equi from the respiratory tract of naturally infected foals. A handheld air-monitoring system was used to recover virulent R. equi from the exhaled breath of foals, and the concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air was compared to the concentration in environmental air samples taken from the holding pens and lane areas on farms. R. equi strains carrying the vapA gene of the virulence plasmid were detected by using colony blotting and DNA hybridization techniques in cultures of exhaled air from 67% (37/55) of foals tested. The concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air from foals was significantly higher than that in environmental air (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria exhaled by clinically healthy or diseased foals. The high concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria in exhaled air suggested that aerosol transmission between foals is possible and may have a significant impact on the prevalence of R. equi pneumonia on farms. The air sampling technique described is potentially useful as a noninvasive method for the detection and quantification of virulent R. equi in the respiratory tract of foals.

  13. Exhaled breath condensate pH is increased after moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Riediker, Michael; Danuser, Brigitta

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with inflammatory diseases has a decreased pH. This could make EBC-pH an interesting tool for studying work-related inflammatory processes, provided that normal work activities would not interfere with the results. We consequently tested whether EBC-pH was influenced by moderate exercise. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking subjects exercised for 30 min on a treadmill by walking at 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. Four EBC samples were obtained: one to learn the technique, one before exercise, one immediately after exercise, and one 60 min later. EBC-pH was significantly increased after exercise compared to before (mean of 8.27 vs. 8.20, p = 0.001). It remained significantly increased after 60 min (8.25, p = 0.02). The increase was strongest for the subjects with lowest pH. All pH measures were significantly correlated with each other. Light physical activity increases EBC-pH. The persistence of this increase after the end of the exercise poses a serious challenge if one wants to use this technique for health surveys or for diagnostic purposes. It could prevent the observation of a lowered EBC-pH that results from an inflammatory response.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  15. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air: a source of error, a paradox and its resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Stefan; Kronseder, Angelika; Karrasch, Stefan; Neff, Petra A.; Haaks, Matz; Koczulla, Andreas R.; Reinhold, Petra; Nowak, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in exhaled air has been reported to be elevated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but results are inconsistent and difficult to reproduce. As H2O2 occurs in ambient air, we examined its association with exhaled H2O2 in human subjects. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 12 COPD patients and nine healthy control subjects was collected either with an inhalation filter (efficiency 81%) or without. Ambient air condensate (AAC) was collected in parallel and samples were analysed for H2O2. Additionally, ambient H2O2 was recorded by an atmospheric measuring device (online fluorometric measurement). H2O2 concentration in AAC was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in EBC. AAC variations were concordant with the data from the atmospheric measuring instrument. In both subjects' groups, the inhalation filter reduced H2O2 values (p<0.01). Despite generally low levels in exhaled air, analysis by a mathematical model revealed a contribution from endogenous H2O2 production. The low H2O2 levels in exhaled air are explained by the reconditioning of H2O2-containing inhaled air in the airways. Inhaled H2O2 may be one factor in the heterogeneity and limited reproducibility of study results. A valid determination of endogenous H2O2 production requires inhalation filters. PMID:27730191

  18. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC.

  19. Exhaled nasal nitric oxide output is reduced in humans at night during the sleep period.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Daniel J; Giraud, George D; Sippel, Jeffrey M; Edwards, Chad; Chan, Benjamin; Holden, William E

    2007-04-16

    The physiologic function of nasal nitric oxide (NO) release is unknown. In prior experiments, topical NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on nasal mucosa reduced exhaled nasal NO output and caused daytime sleepiness. We hypothesized that nasal NO output is reduced at night during the sleep period. We measured exhaled nasal NO concentration and minute ventilation and calculated nasal NO output in humans over 24 h. Daytime awake NO output was greater than NO output at night during sleep or transient wakefulness. Exhaled NO concentration decreased during sleep along with minute ventilation. A daytime voluntary reduction in minute ventilation also decreased nasal NO output but exhaled NO concentration increased. Nasal NO output was not changed by body position. We conclude that exhaled nasal NO output is decreased at night due to decreased mass flow of NO into nasal air in addition to decreased minute ventilation. Our findings suggest a role of nasal NO in sleep or in the physiologic processes accompanying sleep.

  20. Diagnostic Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using a Novel Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Branco, Daniela R.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    As many as 3000 chemicals are reported to be found in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. Present state of the art techniques used for analysis of exhaled human breath include mass spectrometry based methods, infrared spectroscopic sensors, electro chemical sensors and semiconductor oxide based testers. Some of these techniques are commercially available but are somewhat limited in their specificity and exhibit fairly high probability of false alarm. Here, we present the results of our most recent study which demonstrated a novel application of a terahertz high resolutions spectroscopic technique to the analysis of exhaled human breath, focused on detection of ethanol in the exhaled breath of a person which consumed an alcoholic drink. This technique possesses nearly ``absolute'' specificity and we demonstrated its ability to uniquely identify ethanol, methanol, and acetone in human breath. This project is now complete and we are looking to extend this method of chemical analysis of exhaled human breath to a broader range of chemicals in an attempt to demonstrate its potential for biomedical diagnostic purposes.

  1. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise?

    PubMed

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  2. Cannabinoids in Exhaled Breath following Controlled Administration of Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Beck, Olof; Gorelick, David A.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), and cannabinol (CBN) were measured in breath following controlled cannabis smoking to characterize the time course and window of detection of breath cannabinoids. METHODS Exhaled breath was collected from chronic (≥4 times per week) and occasional (

  3. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-09-26

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath.

  4. Spirometry filters can be used to detect exhaled respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alicia B; Mourad, Bassel; Tovey, Euan; Buddle, Lachlan; Peters, Matthew; Morgan, Lucy; Oliver, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses are very common in the community and contribute to the burden of illness for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, including acute exacerbations. Traditional sampling methods are invasive and problematic to repeat. Accordingly, we explored whether respiratory viruses could be isolated from disposable spirometry filters and whether detection of viruses in this context represented presence in the upper or lower respiratory tract. Discovery (n  =  53) and validation (n  =  49) cohorts were recruited from a hospital outpatient department during two different time periods. Spirometry mouthpiece filters were collected from all participants. Respiratory secretions were sampled from the upper and lower respiratory tract by nasal washing (NW), sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). All samples were examined using RT-PCR to identify a panel of respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza virus 1, 2 & 3, and human metapneumovirus). Rhinovirus was quantified using qPCR. Paired filter-NW samples (n  =  29), filter-sputum samples (n  =  24), filter-BAL samples (n  =  39) and filter-NW-BAL samples (n  =  10) provided a range of comparisons. At least one virus was detected in any sample in 85% of participants in the discovery cohort versus 45% in the validation cohort. Overall, 72% of viruses identified in the paired comparator method matched those detected in spirometry filters. There was a high correlation between viruses identified in spirometry filters compared with viruses identified in both the upper and lower respiratory tract using traditional sampling methods. Our results suggest that examination of spirometry filters may be a novel and inexpensive sampling method for the presence of respiratory viruses in exhaled breath. PMID:27669334

  5. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients.

  6. Application of thermal desorption to the biological monitoring of organic compounds in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Periago, J F; Prado, C; Ibarra, I; Tortosa, J

    1993-12-24

    We have developed a thermal desorption-gas chromatographic method for the analysis of organic compounds in exhaled breath air, to be used in the biological monitoring of environmental exposure. The exhaled breath sampler is based on the concentration of compounds present in alveolar air in a solid sorbent material. Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl-ether), an inhaled anaesthetic used widely in surgery, and styrene, used in boat construction and the manufacture of fibreglass-reinforced plastics, are partially eliminated from the body in exhaled breath, samples of which can therefore be used to monitor biological exposure to these two organic compounds. Recoveries were tested in controlled atmospheres of isoflurane or styrene, with Chromosorb 106 or Tenax, respectively, as the adsorbent. We also investigated the influence of relative humidity, an important factor in breath sampling, on adsorption.

  7. Dynamic Nanoparticle-Based Flexible Sensors: Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma from Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Nicole; Lavie, Ofer; Paz, Moran; Segev, Yakir; Haick, Hossam

    2015-10-14

    Flexible sensors based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated into a dynamic cross-reactive diagnostic sensing array. Each bending state of the GNP-based flexible sensor gives unique nanoparticle spatial organization, altering the interaction between GNP ligands and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which increases the amount of data obtainable from each sensor. Individual dynamic flexible sensor could selectively detect parts per billion (ppb) level VOCs that are linked with ovarian cancers in exhaled breath and discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples, but do not relate to ovarian cancer per se. Strain-related response successfully discriminated between exhaled breath collected from control subjects and those with ovarian cancer, with data from a single sensor being sufficient to obtain 82% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors, such as tobacco consumption and comorbidities. The approach raises the hope of achieving an extremely simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnostic procedure for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26352191

  8. Storage conditions for stability of offline measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide after collection for epidemiologic research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is valuable for the assessment of airway inflammation. Offline measurement of FeNO has been used in some epidemiologic studies. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO after collection has not been fully clarified. In this study, the effects of storage conditions on the stability of FeNO measurement in exhaled air after collection for epidemiologic research were examined. Methods Exhaled air samples were collected from 48 healthy adults (mean age 43.4 ± 12.1 years) in Mylar bags. FeNO levels in the bags were measured immediately after collection. The bags were then stored at 4°C or room temperature to measure FeNO levels repeatedly for up to 168 hours. Results In the bags stored at room temperature after collection, FeNO levels were stable for 9 hours, but increased starting at 24 hours. FeNO levels remained stable for a long time at 4°C, and they were 99.7% ± 7.7% and 101.3% ± 15.0% relative to the baseline values at 24 and 96 hours, respectively. When the samples were stored at 4°C, FeNO levels gradually decreased with time among the subjects with FeNO ≥ 51 ppb immediately after collection, although there were almost no changes among the other subjects. FeNO levels among current smokers increased even at 4°C, although the values among ex-smokers decreased gradually, and those among nonsmokers remained stable. The rate of increase was significantly higher among current smokers than among nonsmokers and ex-smokers from 9 hours after collection onwards. Conclusions Storage at 4°C could prolong the stability of FeNO levels after collection. This result suggests that valid measurements can be performed within several days if the samples are stored at 4°C. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO levels differed in relation to initial FeNO values and cigarette smoking. PMID:23116255

  9. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  10. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  11. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  12. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H2S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H2S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. METHODS We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H2S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). RESULTS Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na2S (0.005–0.20 mg kg−1, i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1–5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg−1 dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H2S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H2S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H2S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na2S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H2S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H2S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na2S. CONCLUSION Exhaled H2S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na2S. PMID:20565454

  13. Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-09-01

    As many as 3500 chemicals are reported in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. This experiment demonstrated a method of breath analysis utilizing a high resolution spectroscopic technique for the detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in the exhaled breath of a person who consumed alcohol. This technique is applicable to a wide range of polar molecules. For select species, unambiguous detection in a part per trillion dilution range with a total sample size in a femtomol range is feasible. It compares favorably with other methods of breath analysis.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Korovesi, I; Kotanidou, A; Papadomichelakis, E; Livaditi, O; Sotiropoulou, C; Koutsoukou, A; Marczin, N; Orfanos, S E

    2016-03-02

    The inflammatory influence and biological markers of prolonged mechanical-ventilation in uninjured human lungs remains controversial. We investigated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mechanically-ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of lung injury or sepsis at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Exhaled NO and CO were assessed in 27 patients, without lung injury or sepsis, who were ventilated with 8 ml kg(-1) tidal volumes under zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n  =  12) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (PEEP group, n  =  15). Exhaled NO and CO was analysed on days 1, 3 and 5 of mechanical ventilation and correlated with previously reported markers of inflammation and gas exchange. Exhaled NO was higher on day 3 and 5 in both patient groups compared to day 1: (PEEP group: 5.8 (4.4-9.7) versus 11.7 (6.9-13.9) versus 10.7 (5.6-16.6) ppb (p  <  0.05); ZEEP group: 5.3 (3.8-8.8) versus 9.8 (5.3-12.4) versus 9.6 (6.2-13.5) ppb NO peak levels for days 1, 3 and 5, respectively, p  <  0.05). Exhaled CO remained stable on day 3 but significantly decreased by day 5 in the ZEEP group only (6.3 (4.3-9.0) versus 8.1 (5.8-12.1) ppm CO peak levels for day 5 versus 1, p  <  0.05). The change scores for peak exhaled CO over day 1 and 5 showed significant correlations with arterial blood pH and plasma TNF levels (r s  =  0.49, p  =  0.02 and r s  =  -0.51 p  =  0.02, respectively). Exhaled NO correlated with blood pH in the ZEEP group and with plasma levels of IL-6 in the PEEP group. We observed differential changes in exhaled NO and CO in mechanically-ventilated patients even in the absence of manifest lung injury or sepsis. These may suggest subtle pulmonary inflammation and support application of real time breath analysis for molecular monitoring in critically ill patients.

  15. Detection of ammonia in exhaled breath for clinical diagnosis- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafare, Mawahib; Dennis, J. O.; Md Khir, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents ammonia gas as a biomarker for different clinical conditions when it exceeds the normal concentration in the exhaled breath. In peculiar, detection of ammonia in human breath has the effort to investigate various practicabilities inclusive those comprising the kidneys, liver and bacterial infection of either the stomach or mouth. Laser spectroscopy, gas chromatography, photo-acoustic spectroscopy, chemical ionization, and chemical sensing are used to measure and detect ammonia gas from exhaled breath. These methods and techniques are discussed in terms of their response time and the minimum concentration detectable. Furthermore, the benefits and importance of these methods and their limitation and drawback are highlighted.

  16. The relationships among Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus exposure, exhaled nitric oxide, and exhaled breath condensate pH levels in atopic asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated.A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment.The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children.A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor. PMID:27684812

  17. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-04-01

    {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m{sup {minus}3} (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m{sup {minus}3} for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the {sup 222}Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of {sup 220}Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the {sup 220}Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the {sup 222}Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of {sup 220}Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for {sup 222}Rn but weak for {sup 220}Rn. The effective dose rates for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher.

  18. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  19. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.77 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.77 Section 84.77 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY...

  2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny; Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan; Boumans, Marie-Louise; Stobberingh, Ellen; Boots, Agnes; Roekaerts, Paul; Bergmans, Dennis; van Schooten, Frederik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The diagnostic standard is based on clinical criteria and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exhaled breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for rapid diagnosis of diseases and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can differentiate diseased from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath can be used as a non-invasive monitoring tool for VAP. One hundred critically ill patients with clinical suspicion of VAP underwent BAL. Before BAL, exhaled air samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-tof-MS). The clinical suspicion of VAP was confirmed by BAL diagnostic criteria in 32 patients [VAP(+)] and rejected in 68 patients [VAP(−)]. Multivariate statistical comparison of VOC profiles between VAP(+) and VAP(−) revealed a subset of 12 VOCs that correctly discriminated between those two patient groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% ± 13.5% and 73.0% ± 11.8%, respectively. These results suggest that detection of VAP in ICU patients is possible by examining exhaled breath, enabling a simple, safe and non-invasive approach that could diminish diagnostic burden of VAP. PMID:26608483

  3. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde as a matter of effect of exposure to airpollution in children with asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the adverse effects of oxidative stress related to air pollution is limited by the lack of biological markers of dose to the lungs. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) malondialdehyde as a biomarker of exposure to traffic-r...

  4. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and...

  5. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Ronny; Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan; Boumans, Marie-Louise; Stobberingh, Ellen; Boots, Agnes; Roekaerts, Paul; Bergmans, Dennis; van Schooten, Frederik Jan

    2015-11-26

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The diagnostic standard is based on clinical criteria and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exhaled breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for rapid diagnosis of diseases and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can differentiate diseased from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath can be used as a non-invasive monitoring tool for VAP. One hundred critically ill patients with clinical suspicion of VAP underwent BAL. Before BAL, exhaled air samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-tof-MS). The clinical suspicion of VAP was confirmed by BAL diagnostic criteria in 32 patients [VAP(+)] and rejected in 68 patients [VAP(-)]. Multivariate statistical comparison of VOC profiles between VAP(+) and VAP(-) revealed a subset of 12 VOCs that correctly discriminated between those two patient groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% ± 13.5% and 73.0% ± 11.8%, respectively. These results suggest that detection of VAP in ICU patients is possible by examining exhaled breath, enabling a simple, safe and non-invasive approach that could diminish diagnostic burden of VAP.

  6. Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

  7. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  8. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  9. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-12-01

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  10. Viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chio, C P; Jou, L J; Liao, C M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size on indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection. The target cell-limited model with delayed virus production was adopted to strengthen the inner mechanisms of virus infection on human epithelial cell. The particle number and volume involved in the viral kinetics were linked with Wells-Riley mathematical equation to quantify the infection risk. We investigated population dynamics in a specific elementary school by using the seasonal susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model. We found that exhaled pulmonary bioaerosol of sneeze (particle diameter <10 microm) have 10(2)-fold estimate higher than that of cough. Sneeze and cough caused risk probabilities range from 0.075 to 0.30 and 0.076, respectively; whereas basic reproduction numbers (R(0)) estimates range from 4 to 17 for sneeze and nearly 4 for cough, indicating sneeze-posed higher infection risk. The viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size for sneeze affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection since date post-infection 1-7. This study provides direct mechanistic support that indoor influenza virus transmission can be characterized by viral kinetics in human upper respiratory tracts that are modulated by exhaled droplet size. Practical Implications This paper provides a predictive model that can integrate the influenza viral kinetics (target cell-limited model), indoor aerosol transmission potential (Wells-Riley mathematical equation), and population dynamic model [susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model] in a proposed susceptible population. Viral kinetics expresses the competed results of human immunity ability with influenza virus generation. By linking the viral kinetics and different exposure parameters and environmental factors in a proposed school setting with five age groups, the influenza infection risk can be estimated. On the other hand, we implicated

  11. Viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chio, C P; Jou, L J; Liao, C M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size on indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection. The target cell-limited model with delayed virus production was adopted to strengthen the inner mechanisms of virus infection on human epithelial cell. The particle number and volume involved in the viral kinetics were linked with Wells-Riley mathematical equation to quantify the infection risk. We investigated population dynamics in a specific elementary school by using the seasonal susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model. We found that exhaled pulmonary bioaerosol of sneeze (particle diameter <10 microm) have 10(2)-fold estimate higher than that of cough. Sneeze and cough caused risk probabilities range from 0.075 to 0.30 and 0.076, respectively; whereas basic reproduction numbers (R(0)) estimates range from 4 to 17 for sneeze and nearly 4 for cough, indicating sneeze-posed higher infection risk. The viral kinetics and exhaled droplet size for sneeze affect indoor transmission dynamics of influenza infection since date post-infection 1-7. This study provides direct mechanistic support that indoor influenza virus transmission can be characterized by viral kinetics in human upper respiratory tracts that are modulated by exhaled droplet size. Practical Implications This paper provides a predictive model that can integrate the influenza viral kinetics (target cell-limited model), indoor aerosol transmission potential (Wells-Riley mathematical equation), and population dynamic model [susceptible - exposed - infected - recovery (SEIR) model] in a proposed susceptible population. Viral kinetics expresses the competed results of human immunity ability with influenza virus generation. By linking the viral kinetics and different exposure parameters and environmental factors in a proposed school setting with five age groups, the influenza infection risk can be estimated. On the other hand, we implicated

  12. Post-operative elimination of sevoflurane anesthetic and hexafluoroisopropanol metabolite in exhaled breath: Pharmacokinetic models for assessing liver function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sevoflurane (SEV), a commonly used anesthetic agent for invasive surgery, is directly eliminated via exhaled breath and indirectly by metabolic conversion to inorganic fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is also eliminated in the breath. We studied the post-operativ...

  13. Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous VOCs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and ...

  14. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  15. Development of a novel graphene/polyaniline electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Xu, Hui

    2015-05-22

    In this work, we introduced a novel graphene/polyaniline (G/PANI) electrodeposited coating for on-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (IT-SPME) for the first time. The G/PANI coating was prepared on the internal surface of stainless steel tube by a facile in-situ electrodeposition method. The morphology and formation of the composite coating were confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Some important experimental parameters that could affect the extraction and separation such as the coating thickness, internal diameter of tube, sampling flow rate as well as sample volume were optimized. The extraction performance of the IT-SPME coating was evaluated systematically. The coating exhibited enhanced mechanical stability, long lifespan, large specific surface area and good biocompatibility compared with polyaniline coating. The on-line IT-SPME method showed higher enrichment efficiency, faster analysis speed and higher automation level than off-line manual mode. Six aldehydes were determined simultaneously with low limits of detection of 0.02-0.04nmolL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)≥0.9920). The method has been applied successfully for the determination of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates with good recovery (70-120%) and satisfied reproducibility (relative standard deviation: 1.1-11.9%). This on-line IT-SPME method provides a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehydes with approving sensitivity in human exhaled breath condensates.

  16. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development. PMID:27414793

  17. Assessment of airway inflammation by exhaled breath condensate and impedance due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2009-09-01

    Avoiding oxidative stress in the airways is important for the treatment of respiratory disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is often difficult to decide whether GERD is causing airway inflammation or whether an airway disease is complicated by GERD. Measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is performed by cooling and collecting the airway lining fluid contained in exhaled air. A decrease of pH and an increase of the 8-isoprostane concentration in EBC have been observed in patients with mild to moderate asthma accompanied by GERD. There are still problems to be overcome before EBC can be used clinically, but pH and 8-isoprostane may be promising objective markers of airway inflammation due to GERD. The disease concept and diagnosis of GERD are constantly advancing, including the development of impedance methods. It is expected that treatment will be based on the latest diagnostic knowledge of GERD associated with respiratory disease and on monitoring of airway inflammation.

  18. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  19. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks.

    PubMed

    Milton, Donald K; Fabian, M Patricia; Cowling, Benjamin J; Grantham, Michael L; McDevitt, James J

    2013-03-01

    The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza. We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask) in two size fractions ("coarse">5 µm, "fine"≤5 µm) from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus. Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19) fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2) and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180). Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3) reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction). Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples. Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.

  20. Inflammatory Markers in Blood and Exhaled Air after Short-Term Exposure to Cooking Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking fumes contain aldehydes, alkanoic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds. The inhalation of cooking fumes entails a risk of deleterious health effects. The aim of this study was to see if the inhalation of cooking fumes alters the expression of inflammatory reactions in the bronchial mucosa and its subsequent systemic inflammatory response in blood biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers stayed in a model kitchen on two different occasions for 2 or 4h. On the first occasion, there was only exposure to normal air, and on the second, there was exposure to controlled levels of cooking fumes. On each occasion, samples of blood, exhaled air, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were taken three times in 24h and inflammatory markers were measured from all samples. Results: There was an increase in the concentration of the d-dimer in blood from 0.27 to 0.28mg ml–1 on the morning after exposure to cooking fumes compared with the levels the morning before (P-value = 0.004). There was also a trend of an increase in interleukin (IL)-6 in blood, ethane in exhaled air, and IL-1β in EBC after exposure to cooking fumes. In a sub-analysis of 12 subjects, there was also an increase in the levels of ethane—from 2.83 parts per billion (ppb) on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 3.53 ppb on the morning after exposure (P = 0.013)—and IL-1β—from 1.04 on the morning before exposure to cooking fumes to 1.39 pg ml–1 immediately after (P = 0.024). Conclusion: In our experimental setting, we were able to unveil only small changes in the levels of inflammatory markers in exhaled air and in blood after short-term exposure to moderate concentrations of cooking fumes. PMID:23179989

  1. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  2. Radon in soil gas--exhalation tests and in situ measurements.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, A; Rosen, B

    1985-10-01

    Radon in soil can move into buildings resulting in high radon daughter concentrations. The foundation of a dwelling should be adapted to the radon "risk" which is determined by the radon concentration and the air permeability of the soil. Different measuring procedures are discussed in this paper, both in situ measurements of radon content and laboratory tests on radon exhalation from different types of soils at different water contents. PMID:4081740

  3. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:23840530

  4. Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Gunnare, Sara; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-02-10

    Various hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons during the last decades. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood and breath for exposure biomonitoring of HFCs. We compared data on blood and exhaled air from a series of experiments where healthy volunteers were exposed to vapors of four commonly used HFCs; 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. All four HFCs had similar toxicokinetic profiles in blood with a rapid initial increase and an apparent steady-state reached within a few minutes. For all HFCs, the inhalation uptake during exposure was low (less than 6%), most of which was exhaled post-exposure. No metabolism could be detected and only minor amounts were excreted unchanged in urine. The observed time courses in blood and breath were well described by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Simulations of 8-h exposures show that the HFC levels in both blood and breath drop rapidly during the first minutes post-exposure, whereafter the decline is considerably slower and mainly reflects washout from fat tissues. We conclude that blood and exhaled air can be used for biological exposure monitoring. Samples should not be taken immediately at the end of shift but rather 20-30 min later.

  5. Both bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide are reduced with extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Gabriele; Chetta, Alfredo; Simonazzi, Anna; Tzani, Panayota; Aiello, Marina; Olivieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is the only inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) available as both extrafine and nonextrafine hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the different patterns of lung deposition of two HFA BDP formulations are associated with a different effect on bronchial and alveolar NO. This was a prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. After a 2-week placebo run-in period without ICSs, asthmatic patients were randomized to extrafine BDP, 100 μg, b.i.d. or nonextrafine BDP, 250 μg, b.i.d. for two 2-week periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Fourteen patients (5 men) with a mean age 37 years and mean baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) of 83% of predicted were analyzed. Exhaled bronchial NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in both treatment groups when compared with the last week of run-in period, whereas alveolar NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced only with extrafine BDP. Moreover, extrafine BDP was superior to nonextrafine BDP in both parameters (p < 0.05). Extrafine but not nonextrafine BDP HFA formulation lowers both bronchial and alveolar exhaled NO in asthmatic patients. ICS distribution throughout the whole bronchial tree could be important in patients who do not gain optimal control of inflammation with conventional nonextrafine ICS.

  6. Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Frank; Schiller, Amanda; Ehehalt, Robert; Greule, Markus; Hartmann, Jan; Polag, Daniela

    2016-01-29

    Mammalian formation of methane (methanogenesis) is widely considered to occur exclusively by anaerobic microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately one third of humans, depending on colonization of the gut by methanogenic archaea, are considered methane producers based on the classification terminology of high and low emitters. In this study laser absorption spectroscopy was used to precisely measure concentrations and stable carbon isotope signatures of exhaled methane in breath samples from 112 volunteers with an age range from 1 to 80 years. Here we provide analytical evidence that volunteers exhaled methane levels were significantly above background (inhaled) air. Furthermore, stable carbon isotope values of the exhaled methane unambiguously confirmed that this gas was produced by all of the human subjects studied. Based on the emission and stable carbon isotope patterns of various age groups we hypothesize that next to microbial sources in the gastrointestinal tracts there might be other, as yet unidentified, processes involved in methane formation supporting the idea that humans might also produce methane endogenously in cells. Finally we suggest that stable isotope measurements of volatile organic compounds such as methane might become a useful tool in future medical research diagnostic programs.

  7. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  8. Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Gunnare, Sara; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-02-10

    Various hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons during the last decades. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood and breath for exposure biomonitoring of HFCs. We compared data on blood and exhaled air from a series of experiments where healthy volunteers were exposed to vapors of four commonly used HFCs; 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. All four HFCs had similar toxicokinetic profiles in blood with a rapid initial increase and an apparent steady-state reached within a few minutes. For all HFCs, the inhalation uptake during exposure was low (less than 6%), most of which was exhaled post-exposure. No metabolism could be detected and only minor amounts were excreted unchanged in urine. The observed time courses in blood and breath were well described by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Simulations of 8-h exposures show that the HFC levels in both blood and breath drop rapidly during the first minutes post-exposure, whereafter the decline is considerably slower and mainly reflects washout from fat tissues. We conclude that blood and exhaled air can be used for biological exposure monitoring. Samples should not be taken immediately at the end of shift but rather 20-30 min later. PMID:24296009

  9. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogliaghi, S.; Krasney, J. A.; Pendergast, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  10. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pogliaghi, S; Krasney, J A; Pendergast, D R

    1997-02-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  11. Stable carbon isotopes in exhaled breath as tracers for dietary information in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Baier, Leonie; Speakman, John R; Siemers, Björn M

    2008-07-01

    The stable carbon isotope ratio of exhaled CO(2) (delta(13)C(breath)) reflects the isotopic signature of the combusted substrate and is, therefore, suitable for the non-invasive collection of dietary information from free-ranging animals. However, delta(13)C(breath) is sensitive to changes in ingested food items and the mixed combustion of exogenous and endogenous substrates. Therefore, experiments under controlled conditions are pivotal for the correct interpretation of delta(13)C(breath) of free-ranging animals. We measured delta(13)C(breath) in fasted and recently fed insectivorous Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) to assess the residence time of carbon isotopes in the pool of metabolized substrate, and whether delta(13)C(breath) in satiated individuals levels off at values similar to the dietary isotope signature (delta(13)C(diet)) in insect-feeding mammals. Mean delta(13)C(breath) of fasted individuals was depleted by -5.8 per thousand (N=6) in relation to delta(13)C(diet). After feeding on insects, bats exchanged 50% of carbon atoms in the pool of metabolized substrates within 21.6+/-10.5 min, which was slower than bats ingesting simple carbohydrates. After 2 h, delta(13)C(breath) of satiated bats levelled off at -2.6 per thousand below delta(13)C(diet), suggesting that bats combusted both exogenous and endogenous substrate at this time. A literature survey revealed that small birds and mammals metabolize complex macronutrients at slower rates than simple macronutrients. On average, delta(13)C(breath) of fasting birds and mammals was depleted in (13)C by -3.2+/-2.0 per thousand in relation to delta(13)C(diet). delta(13)C(breath) of satiated animals differed by -0.6+/-2.3 per thousand from delta(13)C(diet) when endogenous substrates were not in isotopic equilibrium with exogenous substrates and by +0.5+/-1.8 per thousand (N=6 species) after endogenous substrates were in isotopic equilibrium with exogenous substrates.

  12. Tracking the oxidative kinetics of carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids in the house sparrow using exhaled 13CO2.

    PubMed

    McCue, M D; Sivan, O; McWilliams, S R; Pinshow, B

    2010-03-01

    Clinicians commonly measure the (13)CO(2) in exhaled breath samples following administration of a metabolic tracer (breath testing) to diagnose certain infections and metabolic disorders. We believe that breath testing can become a powerful tool to investigate novel questions about the influence of ecological and physiological factors on the oxidative fates of exogenous nutrients. Here we examined several predictions regarding the oxidative kinetics of specific carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids in a dietary generalist, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). After administering postprandial birds with 20 mg of one of seven (13)C-labeled tracers, we measured rates of (13)CO(2) production every 15 min over 2 h. We found that sparrows oxidized exogenous amino acids far more rapidly than carbohydrates or fatty acids, and that different tracers belonging to the same class of physiological fuels had unique oxidative kinetics. Glycine had a mean maximum rate of oxidation (2021 nmol min(-1)) that was significantly higher than that of leucine (351 nmol min(-1)), supporting our prediction that nonessential amino acids are oxidized more rapidly than essential amino acids. Exogenous glucose and fructose were oxidized to a similar extent (5.9% of dose), but the time required to reach maximum rates of oxidation was longer for fructose. The maximum rates of oxidation were significantly higher when exogenous glucose was administered as an aqueous solution (122 nmol min(-1)), rather than as an oil suspension (93 nmol min(-1)), supporting our prediction that exogenous lipids negatively influence rates of exogenous glucose oxidation. Dietary fatty acids had the lowest maximum rates of oxidation (2-6 nmol min(-1)), and differed significantly in the extent to which each was oxidized, with 0.73%, 0.63% and 0.21% of palmitic, oleic and stearic acid tracers oxidized, respectively.

  13. Dependence of exhaled breath composition on exogenous factors, smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants*

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, P; Filipiak, A; Bajtarevic, A; Ager, C; Denz, H; Hilbe, W; Jamnig, H; Hackl, M; Dzien, A; Amann, A

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive disease monitoring on the basis of volatile breath markers is a very attractive but challenging task. Several hundreds of compounds have been detected in exhaled air using modern analytical techniques (e.g. proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and have even been linked to various diseases. However, the biochemical background for most of compounds detected in breath samples has not been elucidated; therefore, the obtained results should be interpreted with care to avoid false correlations. The major aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on the composition of exhaled breath. Additionally, the potential origin of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is discussed focusing on diet, environmental exposure and biological pathways based on other’s studies. Profiles of VOCs detected in exhaled breath and inspired air samples of 115 subjects with addition of urine headspace derived from 50 volunteers are presented. Samples were analyzed with GC-MS after preconcentration on multibed sorption tubes in case of breath samples and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in the case of urine samples. Altogether 266 compounds were found in exhaled breath of at least 10% of the volunteers. From these, 162 compounds were identified by spectral library match and retention time (based on reference standards). It is shown that the composition of exhaled breath is considerably influenced by exposure to pollution and indoor-air contaminants and particularly by smoking. More than 80 organic compounds were found to be significantly related to smoking, the largest group comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons (29 dienes, 27 alkenes and 3 alkynes). On the basis of the presented results, we suggest that for the future understanding of breath data it will be necessary to carefully investigate the potential biological origin of volatiles, e.g., by means of analysis of tissues, isolated cell lines or other body fluids. In

  14. Exhaled breath analysis in suspected cases of non-small-cell lung cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Corradi, M; Poli, D; Banda, I; Bonini, S; Mozzoni, P; Pinelli, S; Alinovi, R; Andreoli, R; Ampollini, L; Casalini, A; Carbognani, P; Goldoni, M; Mutti, A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and is still the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. There is a considerable interest in finding diagnostic methods in the disease's earliest stages. A complementary approach to imaging techniques could be provided by exhaled breath gas phase and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis. The aim of this study was to quantify various biomarkers in the exhaled breath gas phase and EBC in suspected cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study involved 138 subjects with suspected lung cancer, 71 of whom had a subsequent diagnosis of NSCLC. The diagnostic power of a combination of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-EBC, and exhaled pentane, 2-methyl pentane, hexane, ethyl benzene, heptanal, trans-2-nonenal in distinguishing NSCLC and non-NSCLC subjects was poor-to-fair (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.68), similar to that of smoking history alone (expressed as pack-years, AUC = 0.70); a further improvement was observed when smoking history was combined with exhaled compounds (AUC = 0.80). The diagnostic power was increased in those patients with little or no past smoke exposure (AUC = 0.92) or where past smoke exposure was up to 30 pack-years (AUC = 0.85). Exhaled substances had a good accuracy in discriminating suspected cancerous cases only in those subjects with a modest smoking history (≤ 30 pack-years), but the inclusion of other exhaled biomarkers may increase the overall accuracy, regardless of tobacco smoke.

  15. Surfactant Protein A in Exhaled Endogenous Particles Is Decreased in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lärstad, Mona; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Per; Bake, Björn; Larsson, Sven; Ljungström, Evert; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled, endogenous particles are formed from the epithelial lining fluid in small airways, where surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in pulmonary host defense. Based on the knowledge that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) starts in the small airway epithelium, we hypothesized that chronic inflammation modulates peripheral exhaled particle SP-A and albumin levels. The main objective of this explorative study was to compare the SP-A and albumin contents in exhaled particles from patients with COPD and healthy subjects and to determine exhaled particle number concentrations. Methods Patients with stable COPD ranging from moderate to very severe (n = 13), and healthy non-smoking subjects (n = 12) were studied. Subjects performed repeated breath maneuvers allowing for airway closure and re-opening, and exhaled particles were optically counted and collected on a membrane using the novel PExA® instrument setup. Immunoassays were used to quantify SP-A and albumin. Results COPD patients exhibited significantly lower SP-A mass content of the exhaled particles (2.7 vs. 3.9 weight percent, p = 0.036) and lower particle number concentration (p<0.0001) than healthy subjects. Albumin mass contents were similar for both groups. Conclusions Decreased levels of SP-A may lead to impaired host defense functions of surfactant in the airways, contributing to increased susceptibility to COPD exacerbations. SP-A in exhaled particles from small airways may represent a promising non-invasive biomarker of disease in COPD patients. PMID:26656890

  16. Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Cameron E; Akber, Riaz A; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Martin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation from the ground surface depends upon a number of variables such as the 226Ra activity concentration and its distribution in soil grains; soil grain size; soil porosity, temperature and moisture; atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature. In this study, 222Rn exhalation flux density measurements within and around the Ranger uranium mine in northern Australia were performed to investigate the effect of these variables within a tropical region. Measurements were taken at the waste rock dumps, ore stockpiles, mine pits, and at sites where effluent water with elevated 226Ra concentration has been spray irrigated over land, as well as at sites outside the mine. The sites selected represented a variety of geomorphic regions ranging from uranium-bearing rocks to ambient soils. Generally, wet season rains reduced 222Rn exhalation but at a few sites the onset of rains caused a step rise in exhalation flux densities. The results show that parameters such as 226Ra activity concentration, soil grain size and soil porosity have a marked effect on 222Rn flux densities. For similar geomorphic sites, 226Ra activity concentration is a dominant factor, but soil grain size and porosity also influence 222Rn exhalation. Surfaces with vegetation showed higher exhalation flux densities than their barren counterparts, perhaps because the associated root structure increases soil porosity and moisture retention. Repeated measurements over one year at eight sites enabled an analysis of precipitation and soil moisture effects on 222Rn exhalation. Soil moisture depth profiles varied both between seasons and at different times during the wet season, indicating that factors such as duration, intensity and time between precipitation events can influence 222Rn flux densities considerably.

  17. Separately measuring radon and thoron concentrations exhaled from soil using AlphaGUARD and liquid scintillation counter methods.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Y; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Tokonami, S; Fukuhori, N; Janik, M

    2010-10-01

    It was shown that radon and thoron concentrations exhaled from soil were separately measured using the AlphaGUARD and liquid scintillation counter (LSC) methods. The thoron concentrations from the RAD 7 were used to create the conversion equation to calculate thoron levels with the AlphaGUARD. However, the conversion factor was found to depend on the air flow rate. When air containing thoron of ∼60 kBq m(-3) was fed to the scintillation cocktail, thoron and thoron progeny could not be measured with the LSC method. The radon concentration of about 10 kBq m(-3) was measured with three methods, first with the LSC method and then with two AlphaGUARDs (one in the diffusion mode and the other in the flow mode (0.5 l min(-1))). There were no significant differences between these results. Finally, it was shown that the radon and thoron concentrations in air could be measured with the AlphaGUARD and LSC methods. PMID:20837602

  18. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  19. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    PubMed

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF. PMID:27188907

  20. Radon in atmospheric studies: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the isotopes of radon in space and time, their physical characteristics, and their behavior in the dynamics of the atmosphere have presented challenges for many decades. /sup 220/Rn, /sup 222/Rn and their daughters furnish a unique set of tracers for the study of transport and mixing processes in the atmosphere. Appropriate applications of turbulent diffusion theory yield general agreement with measured profiles. Diurnal and seasonal variations follow patterns set by consideration of atmospheric stability. /sup 222/Rn has been used successfully in recent studies of nocturnal drainage winds and cumulus convection. Good results have been obtained using /sup 222/Rn and its long-lived /sup 210/Pb daughter as tracers in the study of continent-to-ocean and ocean-to-continent air mass trajectories, /sup 220/Rn (thoron) because of its short half-life of only 55 seconds has been used to measure turbulent diffusion within the first few meters of the earth's surface and to study the influence of meteorological variables on the rate of exhalation from the ground. Radon daughters attach readily to atmospheric particulate matter which makes it possible to study these aerosols with respect to size spectra, attachment characteristics, removal by gravitation and precipitation, and residence times in the troposphere. The importance of ionization by radon and its daughters in the lower atmosphere and its effect on atmospheric electrical parameters is well known. Knowledge of the mobility and other characteristics of radon daughter ions has led to applications in the study of atmospheric electrical environments under fair weather and thunderstorm conditions and in the formation of condensation nuclei. The availability of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and atmospheric measurement systems can be expected to add much to our understanding of radon and its daughters as trace components of the atmospheric environment in the years ahead.

  1. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation), 40 (normoventilation), and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation). As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A) ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B) ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation) was 11.5 (0.8) ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8) ppm during hyperventilation (p < 0.01) and increased to 11.9 (0.8) ppm during hypoventilation (p < 0.01). eCO changes were less pronounced than the correspondent etCO2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase). Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p < 0.01), while environmental CO levels did not affect eCO measurement. Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice PMID:20030802

  2. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath.

  3. Increased exhaled cysteinyl-leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in aspirin-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Adam; Montuschi, Paolo; Kharitonov, Sergei; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) has not yet been clearly elucidated, although eicosanoid metabolites appear to play an important role. We hypothesized that levels of eicosanoids in exhaled air condensate are abnormal in patients with AIA and that they change in patients receiving steroid therapy. We measured cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and also 8-isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress, by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate from patients with AIA (17 steroid naive; mean age, 41 +/- 23 years; FEV(1), 63%pred), 26 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) (11 steroid naive; mean age, 47 +/- 18 years; FEV(1), 69%pred), and 16 healthy subjects (mean age, 45 +/- 17 years; FEV(1), 93%pred). Cys-LTs were significantly higher in steroid-naive patients with AIA compared with steroid-naive patients with ATA and healthy subjects (152.3 +/- 30.4 and 36.6 +/- 7.1 versus 19.4 +/- 2.8 pg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Steroid-naive patients with AIA also had higher levels of 8-isoprostane than normal subjects (131.8 +/- 31.0 versus 21.9 +/- 4.5 pg/ml; p < 0.05). There were significantly lower levels of both cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes in steroid-treated patients with AIA. There was no difference in either the PGE(2) or LTB(4) level between the patient groups. This is the first study to show that cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes are elevated in expired breath condensate of steroid-naive patients with AIA, and that cys-LTs are decreased in steroid-treated patients. Exhaled PGE(2) levels are not reduced, so that it is unlikely that a deficiency of PGE(2) is an important mechanism, whereas exhaled LTB(4) levels are unchanged, indicating an abnormality beyond 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:12153961

  4. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  5. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  6. The mathematical analysis of breath alcohol profiles generated during breath exhalation.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, R G

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical analysis of time domain data provides a useful tool for evaluating biological and instrumental systems. Breath alcohol profile measurements generated during exhalation constitute biological signals that can be subjected to a variety of mathematical treatments. The present paper discusses the application of a variety of mathematical procedures to breath alcohol profiles. These mathematical procedures include model approximation, data smoothing, integration, differentiation, and fourier transformation. The different mathematical procedures provide insight into the physiology of breath alcohol measurement and suggest forensic as well as instrumental applications.

  7. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  8. Characterization of exhaled breath particles collected by an electret filter technique.

    PubMed

    Tinglev, Åsa Danielsson; Ullah, Shahid; Ljungkvist, Göran; Viklund, Emilia; Olin, Anna-Carin; Beck, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol particles that are present in exhaled breath carry nonvolatile components and have gained interest as a specimen for potential biomarkers. Nonvolatile compounds detected in exhaled breath include both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The aim of this study was to study particles collected with a new, simple and convenient filter technique. Samples of breath were collected from healthy volunteers from approximately 30 l of exhaled air. Particles were counted with an optical particle counter and two phosphatidylcholines were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, phosphatidylcholines and methadone was analysed in breath from patients in treatment with methadone and oral fluid was collected with the Quantisal device. The results demonstrated that the majority of particles are  <1 μm in size and that the fraction of larger particle contributes most to the total mass. The phosphatidylcholine PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) dominated over PC(16 : 0/18 : 1) and represented a major constituent of the particles. The concentration of the PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) homolog was significantly correlated (p  <  0.001) with total mass. From the low concentration of the two phosphatidylcholines and their relative abundance in oral fluid a major contribution from the oral cavity could be ruled out. The concentration of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) in breath was positively correlated with age (p  <  0.01). An attempt to use PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator for methadone was not successful, as the large intra-individual variability between samplings even increased after normalization. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that exhaled breath sampled with the filter device represents a specimen corresponding to surfactant. The possible use of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator was supported and deserves further investigations. We propose that the direct and selective collection of the breath aerosol particles is a promising strategy

  9. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  10. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  11. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of endogenous isoprene in the human body, if any, is unclear because previous research is inconsistent and mechanistic evidence for the biologic function of isoprene is lacking. Given previous evidence that exhaled isoprene is elevated in systemic inflammatory states, we hypothesized that exhaled isoprene would be positively associated with a breath biomarker of airway inflammation, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We examined relationships of exhaled breath isoprene with FENO and with outdoor ozone given that ozone chemically reacts with isoprene and has been positively associated with FENO in past studies. Sixteen elderly subjects were followed with ≤12 weekly exhaled hydrocarbon and FENO collections at the subjects’ retirement community. Outdoor ozone concentrations were measured continuously on site. Mixed-effects regression analyses tested relations of FENO with isoprene, and FENO and isoprene with ozone, adjusted for temperature. We found FENO was inversely associated with isoprene, and this was not confounded by ozone. Isoprene was inversely related to ozone. FENO was positively related to ozone and this relation was not confounded by isoprene. In contrast to hypothesized relations, we conclude that exhaled isoprene is inversely associated with FENO as well as outdoor ozone, which suggests possible protective ozone-scavenging functions of endogenous isoprene. Findings may indicate chemical reactions of isoprene oxidation by ozone and by hydroxyl radicals in the presence of O2 that is dependent on NO concentration. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in additional studies of human subjects, particularly as they apply to FENO monitoring in asthma. PMID:23999846

  12. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments. PMID:17761360

  13. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  14. Endogenous CO monitoring in exhalation with tunable diode lasers: applications to clinical and biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; D'yachenko, Alexander I.

    1999-07-01

    Middle IR tunable diode lasers were applied to studies of pulmonary excretion of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO). Variations of the CO content level in exhaled air of healthy nonsmokers were investigated for different environmental conditions with the applied laser technique. Correlation of the obtained data with atmospheric CO contamination and elevated oxygen content were studied as well as diurnal variations of the endogenous CO in exhalation was observed. Criteria for correct conditions of the endogenous CO detection in breath could be derive don this basis. Developed laser approach and methods were applied for the analysis of the excreted CO level in different diseases like bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia and hepatitis. Laser based close-to-real-time monitoring of the endogenous CO elimination with breath in the course of different dynamic tests was demonstrated to be informative in studies of blood oxygen transport and pH variations in tissues for different challenges tests in human physiology.

  15. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  16. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers.

  17. pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sophie; Hellgren, Johan

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a new method to assess nasal pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate in adults. The study included 19 healthy, non-smoking, adult volunteers without current upper respiratory disease, COPD or asthma. Expiratory breath condensate (EBC) was collected from the nose and mouth respectively. A Jaeger breath condenser was fitted with a transparent facemask and during oral sampling it was fitted with a mouthpiece. The condensates were bubbled with argon gas for 10 minutes to reduce carbon dioxide and the samples were analysed immediately using a calibrated glass electrode and a portable pH-meter. The mean pH in the nasal EBC was 7.0 +/- 0.5 and in oral EBC 6.9 +/- 0.7 (p = 0.6). The nasal EBC-pH was well in agreement with data from previous studies, which measured pH directly on the nasal mucosa with an electrode. In conclusion, this paper describes a method to measure pH in nasal exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in healthy adults during tidal breathing. The nasal EBC-pH related well to previous data from intranasal pH measurements suggesting that nasal EBC-pH could have a role in monitoring pH alterations in the nasal mucosa such as nasal inflammation.

  18. Factors affecting exhaled carbon monoxide levels in coffeehouses in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahcebasi, Talat; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor air quality and factors affecting expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a coffeehouse environment. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 16 randomly selected coffeehouses in Duzce, Turkey, during November 2007 to March 2008. A total of 547 people, average age 46.72 ± 17.03 (19-82) years, participated. The selected coffeehouses were divided into four groups: (1) smoking, (2) nonsmoking, (3) old-style and (iv) new-style coffeehouses. Prior to entering the coffeehouse, exhaled CO levels in smokers (mean 21.17 ± 6.73 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly higher than those for nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). Measurements taken after 2 hours in the coffeehouse also showed significantly higher CO concentrations for smokers (22.72 ± 5.31 ppm), compared to nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). It was determined that CO levels inside coffee shops were above the WHO guidelines. Exhaled CO levels in nonsmokers are influenced by the ambient CO levels as a result of the use of cigarettes in coffeehouses in addition to the structure of coffeehouses. PMID:20858650

  19. Study of the exhaled acetone in type 1 diabetes using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Reyes, Adonis; Horsten, Roland C; Urbach, H Paul; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    The acetone concentration exhaled in the breath of three type 1 diabetes patients (two minors and one adult) and one healthy volunteer is studied using a quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system. Using the acetone signature between 1150 and 1250 cm(-1) and a multiline fitting method, the concentration variations on the order of parts per billion by volume were measured. Blood glucose and ketone concentrations in blood measurements were performed simultaneously to study their relation with acetone in exhaled breath. We focus on personalized studies to better understand the role of acetone in diabetes. For each volunteer, we performed a series of measurements over a period of time, including overnight fastings of 11 ± 1 h and during ketosis-hyperglycemia events for the minors. Our results highlight the importance of performing personalized studies because the response of the minors to the presence of ketosis was consistent but unique for each individual. Also, our results emphasize the need for performing more studies with T1D minors, because the acetone concentration in the breath of the minors differs, with respect to those reported in the literature, which are based on adults.

  20. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (<30 Da) with low proton affinity and collision-induced dissociation efficiency, which are usually poorly visible by conventional ion trap mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  1. Venous gas emboli and exhaled nitric oxide with simulated and actual extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Blogg, S Lesley; Lindholm, Peter; Gennser, Mikael; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-10-01

    The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness (DCI) after similar decompressions. In contrast, no DCI symptoms have been reported from past or current space activities. Twenty subjects were studied using Doppler ultrasound to detect any VGE during decompression to 386hPa, where they remained for up to 6h. Subjects were supine to simulate weightlessness. A large number of VGE were found in one subject at rest, who had a recent arm fracture; a small number of VGE were found in another subject during provocation with calf contractions. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were found that can be related to either simulated EVA or actual EVA (studied in a parallel study on four cosmonauts). We conclude that weightlessness appears to be protective against DCI and that exhaled NO is not likely to be useful to monitor VGE.

  2. Lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in healthy unsedated African infants

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Diane; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Smith, Emilee; Czövek, Dorottya; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Population-appropriate lung function reference data are essential to accurately identify respiratory disease and measure response to interventions. There are currently no reference data in African infants. The aim was to describe normal lung function in healthy African infants. Methods Lung function was performed on healthy South African infants enrolled in a birth cohort study, the Drakenstein child health study. Infants were excluded if they were born preterm or had a history of neonatal respiratory distress or prior respiratory tract infection. Measurements, made during natural sleep, included the forced oscillation technique, tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath washout measures. Results Three hundred sixty-three infants were tested. Acceptable and repeatable measurements were obtained in 356 (98%) and 352 (97%) infants for tidal breathing analysis and exhaled nitric oxide outcomes, 345 (95%) infants for multiple breath washout and 293 of the 333 (88%) infants for the forced oscillation technique. Age, sex and weight-for-age z score were significantly associated with lung function measures. Conclusions This study provides reference data for unsedated infant lung function in African infants and highlights the importance of using population-specific data. PMID:26134556

  3. Dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma emission spectrometry for the detection of acetone in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Dong-Xue; Yu, Yong-Liang; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is a predominant volatile organic compound (VOC) in the exhaled breath and a promising biomarker for diabetes and ketoacidosis. A non-thermal micro-plasma generated in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used as a radiation source for the excitation of gaseous acetone followed by its quantification with optical emission spectrometry (OES). Gaseous acetone can be directly sampled, while liquid acetone is evaporated by heated tungsten coil and then introduced into the DBD micro-plasma by a helium carrier flow for performing optical emission and detection at a 519 nm emission line. In the present study, the exhaled breath is collected and transferred into aqueous medium for sampling. With a sampling volume of 7 μL in a micro-drop, a linear range of 40-1600 mg L(-1) is obtained along with a detection limit of 44 ng and a precision of 5.7% RSD. The present system is successfully applied to the determination of breath acetone for both diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. PMID:26695309

  4. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Hanh; Duong-Thi-Ly, Huong; Thom, Vu Thi; Pham-Thi-Hong, Nhung; Dinh, Long Doan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong; Craig, Timothy John; Duong-Quy, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. Conclusion The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. PMID

  5. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich, Hanh; Duong-Thi-Ly, Huong; Thom, Vu Thi; Pham-Thi-Hong, Nhung; Dinh, Long Doan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong; Craig, Timothy John; Duong-Quy, Sy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam), were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT), and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years) were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05). FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004). Five of the 32 subjects (15.6%) had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP). In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05). The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of treatment (17±8 ppb vs 26±25 ppb; P<0.05). Significant correlations between inhaled corticosteroid doses and FENO levels occurred at 1 and 3 months (r=0.415, P=0.007; r=0.396, P=0.010; respectively). There were no correlations between FENO levels, ACT, and daily use of salbutamol. After 3 months, asthma remained uncontrolled in 22.2% of children. Conclusion The measurement of FENO levels is a useful and feasible tool to predict clinical, biological, and asthma control in Vietnamese children.

  6. A follow-up study on indoor 222Rn, 220Rn their decay product concentrations in a mineralised zone of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, B S; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Prabhjot; Saini, Komal; Singh, Surinder; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K

    2016-03-01

    A follow-up study was taken up in a mineralised zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, to investigate high values of radon concentrations reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, the concentrations of indoor radon, thoron and their decay products have been measured using the newly developed radon/thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS), respectively. The measurements have been carried out in 75 dwellings of 14 different villages where the previous studies were carried out using bare SSNTD technique. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly due to thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12 to 157±73 Bq m(-3) and 44±11 to 240±125 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10 to 63 and 1 to 5 Bq m(-3), respectively. PMID:26184660

  7. Effect of Inhaled Budesonide on Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-6 in Exhaled Breath Condensate of Asthmatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chun-Hua; Liao, Ji-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Ni; Li, Xue-Ying; Wang, Guang-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of asthmatic patients are limited. This study was to determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment on IL-4 and IL-6 in the EBC of asthmatic patients. Methods: In a prospective, open-label study, budesonide 200 μg twice daily by dry powder inhaler was administered to 23 adult patients with uncontrolled asthma (mean age 42.7 years) for 12 weeks. Changes in asthma scores, lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF], forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity [FEF50], forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate) and the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-6 in EBC were measured. Results: Both asthma scores and lung function parameters were significantly improved by ICS treatment. The mean IL-4 concentration in the EBC was decreased gradually, from 1.92 ± 0.56 pmol/L before treatment to 1.60 ± 0.36 pmol/L after 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05) and 1.54 ± 0.81 pmol/L after 12 weeks of treatment (P < 0.01). However, the IL-6 concentration was not significantly decreased. The change in the IL-4 concentration was correlated with improvements in mean FEV1, PEF and FEF50 values (correlation coefficients −0.468, −0.478, and −0.426, respectively). Conclusions: The concentration of IL-4 in the EBC of asthmatic patients decreased gradually with ICS treatment. Measurement of IL-4 in EBC could be useful to monitor airway inflammation in asthmatics. PMID:26996478

  8. Comparison of exhaled nitric oxide and cardiorespiratory indices between nasal and oral breathing during submaximal exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Itoh, T; Miyamura, M; Nishino, H

    1997-10-01

    In order to examine the origin and role of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air during exercise, exhaled NO outputs of 8 healthy human subjects were compared using different breathing methods, through the mouth or nose, at two intensities of bicycle exercise. The concentration of NO in the exhaled air and ventilatory gas exchange variables were measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer and a mixing chamber method, respectively. The concentration and total output of NO in the expired air was significantly higher under nasal breathing than under oral breathing for both exercise intensities, whereas no significant difference was observed in cardiorespiratory variables between them. NO output increased significantly when exercise intensity was increased from unloaded (0 W) to 60 W under nasal breathing, but not under oral breathing. A negative correlation among subjects was found between NO output and minute ventilation in both breathing methods only for unloaded exercise. Data indicate that nasal airways have a large contribution, at least 50% of total NO output in the exhaled air during nasal breathing, but this nasal NO may have no further modulation on respiratory function during submaximal exercise by healthy humans.

  9. Use of exhaled breath condensate endpoints for examination of Body Mass Index as a susceptibility factor to diesel exhaust.

    EPA Science Inventory

    High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...

  10. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M.; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R.; Southern, Kevin W.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15–0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6–3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection. PMID:27730156

  11. Instant effects of changing body positions on compositions of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may depend not only on biochemical or pathologic processes but also on physiological parameters. As breath sampling may be done in different body positions, effects of the sampling position on exhaled VOC concentrations were investigated by means of real-time mass spectrometry. Breaths from 15 healthy volunteers were analyzed in real-time by PTR-ToF-MS-8000 during paced breathing (12/min) in a continuous side-stream mode. We applied two series of body positions (setup 1: sitting, standing, supine, and sitting; setup 2: supine, left lateral, right lateral, prone, and supine). Each position was held for 2 min. Breath VOCs were quantified in inspired and alveolar air by means of a custom-made algorithm. Parallel monitoring of hemodynamics and capnometry was performed noninvasively. In setup 1, when compared to the initial sitting position, normalized mean concentrations of isoprene, furan, and acetonitrile decreased by 24%, 26%, and 9%, respectively, during standing and increased by 63%, 36%, and 10% during lying mirroring time profiles of stroke volume and pET-CO2. In contrast, acetone and H2S concentrations remained almost constant. In setup 2, when compared to the initial supine position, mean alveolar concentrations of isoprene and furan increased significantly up to 29% and 16%, respectively, when position was changed from lying on the right side to the prone position. As cardiac output and stroke volume decreased at that time, the reasons for the observed concentrations changes have to be linked to the ventilation/perfusion ratio or compartmental distribution rather than to perfusion alone. During final postures, all VOC concentrations, hemodynamics, and pET-CO2 returned to baseline. Exhaled blood-borne VOC profiles changed due to body postures. Changes depended on cardiac stroke volume, origin, compartmental distribution and physico-chemical properties of the substances. Patients' positions and

  12. Traffic-related air pollutants and exhaled markers of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Molini M; Chillrud, Steven N; Deepti, K C; Ross, James M; Kinney, Patrick L

    2013-02-01

    Exposures to ambient diesel exhaust particles have been associated with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations in children; however, epidemiologic evidence linking short-term exposure to ambient diesel exhaust particles with airway inflammation is limited. We conducted a panel study with asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents to characterize associations between ambient diesel exhaust particle exposures and exhaled biological markers of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Over four weeks, exhaled breath condensate was collected twice a week from 18 asthmatics and 18 nonasthmatics (ages 14-19 years) attending two New York City schools and analyzed for pH and 8-isoprostane as indicators of airway inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Air concentrations of black carbon, a diesel exhaust particle indicator, were measured outside schools. Air measurements of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and fine particulate matter were obtained for the closest central monitoring sites. Relationships between ambient pollutants and exhaled biomarkers were characterized using mixed effects models. Among all subjects, increases in 1- to 5-day averages of black carbon were associated with decreases in exhaled breath condensate pH, indicating increased airway inflammation, and increases in 8-isoprostane, indicating increased oxidative stress. Increases in 1- to 5-day averages of nitrogen dioxide were associated with increases in 8-isoprostane. Ozone and fine particulate matter were inconsistently associated with exhaled biomarkers. Associations did not differ between asthmatics and nonasthmatics. The findings indicate that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may increase airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress in urban youth and provide mechanistic support for associations documented between traffic-related pollutant exposures and respiratory morbidity.

  13. An Overview of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Devika R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease and is characterized by lung inflammation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is thought to reflect the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation, and is an easy, non-invasive test that has held promise in providing additional objective data. However, not all studies have shown a clinical benefit in the use of FeNO to guide management of asthma in children. This review will describe the results of the most recent studies examining the use of FeNO in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in infants, pre-school-aged children and in school-aged children. It will aid the clinician in providing a clinical context in which FeNO may be most useful in treating pediatric asthma. PMID:26757849

  14. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate: a review of collection, processing and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grob, N M; Aytekin, M; Dweik, R A

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a potential rich source for countless biomarkers that can provide valuable information about respiratory as well as systemic diseases. EBC has been studied in a variety of diseases including allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although numerous biomarkers have been discovered and studied in EBC, the methods of collection and biomarker detection have not been fully standardized. While leaving standardization methods up to individual labs for the present time is optimal for the continued discovery of new biomarkers in EBC, this decreases the reproducibility and generalizability of the findings. In this review we will discuss specific biomarkers studied in specific diseases as well as some of the related technical issues including collection, processing and analysis. PMID:21386165

  15. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  16. Exhaled breath condensate: a promising source for biomarkers of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis. PMID:23365513

  17. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  18. Investigation of human biomarkers in exhaled breath by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitras, D. C.; Giubileo, G.; Puiu, A.

    2005-06-01

    The paper underlines the importance of breath tests in medicine and the potential of laser techniques to measure in-vivo and in real time human biomarkers. The presence of trace amounts of gases or the metabolites of a precursor in exhaled air could be linked to kidney or liver malfunction, asthma, diabetes, cancer, ulcers or neurological disorders. The measurement of some human biomarkers (ethylene, ammonia), based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods, insure very high sensitivity and selectivity. The technical characteristics of this instrument were measured to determine the detection limits (sub-ppb for ethylene). The results of ethylene release following lipid peroxidation initiated by X-ray irradiation or ingestion of radioactive compounds are presented. The possibility to extend this technique for measurement of breath ammonia levels in patients with end-stage renal disease while they are undergoing hemodialysis is discussed.

  19. [Proteomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate for diagnosis of pathologies of the respiratory system].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Fedorchenko, K Yu; Ryabokon, A M; Starodubtseva, N L; Popov, I A; Zavialova, M G; Anaev, E C; Chuchalin, A G; Varfolomeev, S D; Nikolaev, E N

    2015-01-01

    Study of the proteomic composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), is a promising non-invasive method for the diagnosis of the respiratory tract diseases in patients. In this study the EBC proteomic composition of the 79 donors, including patients with different pathologies of the respiratory system has been investigated. Cytoskeletal keratins type II (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and cytoskeletal keratins the type I (9, 10, 14, 15, 16) were invariant for all samples. Analyzing the frequency of occurrence of proteins in different groups of examined patients, several categories of protein have been recognized: found in all pathologies (Dermcidin, Alpha-1-microglobulin, SHROOM3), found in several pathologies (CSTA, LCN1, JUP, PIP, TXN), and specific for a single pathology (PRDX1, Annexin A1/A2). The EBC analysis by HPLC-MS/MS can be used to identify potential protein markers characteristic for pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PRDX1) and pneumonia (Annexin A1/A2).

  20. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-12-01

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values. PMID:26582819

  1. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Zietkowski, Ziemowit; Skiepko, Roman; Tomasiak, Maria M; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB) and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. PMID:17973986

  2. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  3. The identification of hypoxia biomarkers from exhaled breath under normobaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Sean W; Geier, Brian A; Fan, Maomian; Rinehardt, Sage; Watts, Brandy S; Drummond, Leslie A; Preti, George; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2015-12-01

    Pilots have reported experiencing in-flight hypoxic-like symptoms since the inception of high-altitude aviation. As a result, the need to monitor pilots, in-flight, for the onset of hypoxic conditions is of great interest to the aviation community. We propose that exhaled breath is an appropriate non-invasive medium for monitoring pilot hypoxic risk through volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis. To identify changes in the exhaled breath VOCs produced during periods of reduced O2 levels, volunteers were exposed to simulated flight profiles, i.e. sea level for 5 min, O2 levels found at elevated altitudes for 5 min or placebo and 5 min at 100% O2 recovery gas, using a modified flight mask interfaced with a reduced O2 breathing device. During the course of these test events, time series breath samples from the flight mask and pre/post bag samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven compounds (pentanal, 4-butyrolactone, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methylheptane and 2-heptanone) were found to significantly change in response to hypoxic conditions. Additionally, the isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, was found to increase following the overall exposure profile. This study establishes an experimental means for monitoring changes in VOCs in response to hypoxic conditions, a computational workflow for compound analysis via the Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab and MatLab(©) software and identifies potential volatile organic compound biomarkers of hypoxia exposure. PMID:26505091

  4. Cancerous glucose metabolism in lung cancer-evidence from exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Tali; Alkoby-Meshulam, Layah; Herbig, Jens; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Gai Mor, Naomi; Bar, Jair; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cells prefer hyperglycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon is used through the FDG-PET scans, and may affect the exhaled volatile signature. This study investigates the volatile signature in lung cancer (LC) before and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to determine if tumor cells' hyperglycolysis would affect the volatile signature. Blood glucose levels and exhaled breath samples were analyzed before the OGTT, and 90 min after, in both LC patients and controls. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Twenty-two LC patients (age 66.6  ±  12.7) with adenocarcinoma (n  =  14), squamous (n  =  6), small cell carcinoma (n  =  2), and twenty-one controls (age 54.4  ±  13.7; 10 non-smokers and 11 smokers) were included. All LC patients showed a hyperglycolytic state in their FDG-PET scans. Both baseline and post OGTT volatile signatures discriminate between the groups. The OGTT has a minimal effect in LC (a decrease in m/z 54 by 39%, p v  =  0.0499); whereas in the control group, five masses (m/z 64, 87,88, 142 and 161) changed by  -13%, -49%, -40% and  -29% and 46% respectively. To conclude, OGTT has a minimal effect on the VOC signature in LC patients, where a hyperglycolytic state already exists. In contrast, in the control group the OGTT has a profound effect in which induced hyperglycolysis significantly changed the VOC pattern. We hypothesized that a ceiling effect in cancerous patients is responsible for this discrepancy. PMID:27272440

  5. Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

  6. Exhaled volatile organic compounds for phenotyping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-invasive phenotyping of chronic respiratory diseases would be highly beneficial in the personalised medicine of the future. Volatile organic compounds can be measured in the exhaled breath and may be produced or altered by disease processes. We investigated whether distinct patterns of these compounds were present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and clinically relevant disease phenotypes. Methods Breath samples from 39 COPD subjects and 32 healthy controls were collected and analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subjects with COPD also underwent sputum induction. Discriminatory compounds were identified by univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate analysis: 1. principal component analysis; 2. multivariate logistic regression; 3. receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Comparing COPD versus healthy controls, principal component analysis clustered the 20 best-discriminating compounds into four components explaining 71% of the variance. Multivariate logistic regression constructed an optimised model using two components with an accuracy of 69%. The model had 85% sensitivity, 50% specificity and ROC area under the curve of 0.74. Analysis of COPD subgroups showed the method could classify COPD subjects with far greater accuracy. Models were constructed which classified subjects with ≥2% sputum eosinophilia with ROC area under the curve of 0.94 and those having frequent exacerbations 0.95. Potential biomarkers correlated to clinical variables were identified in each subgroup. Conclusion The exhaled breath volatile organic compound profile discriminated between COPD and healthy controls and identified clinically relevant COPD subgroups. If these findings are validated in prospective cohorts, they may have diagnostic and management value in this disease. PMID:22916684

  7. Complete surgical resection of lung tumor decreases exhalation of mutated KRAS oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kordiak, Jacek; Szemraj, Janusz; Hamara, Katarzyna; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Nowak, Dariusz

    2012-09-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains extracellular DNA that may originate from pathological lesions of the respiratory tract and can be a genetic marker of pulmonary malignancy. We tested whether complete surgical excision of lung cancer will decrease exhalation of mutated KRAS oncogene. Fifty seven patients with clinical diagnosis of lung cancer and detectable KRAS mutations in pre-surgery EBC-DNA were qualified for surgical treatment. Point mutations at codon 12 of KRAS oncogene were detected using mutant-enriched PCR technique in DNA from pre-surgery blood, EBC collected before, 7 and 30 days after surgery and from specimens of resected tumor and normal pulmonary parenchyma. The ratio of mutated to wild type KRAS DNA (R mut/wild KRAS) was calculated for each specimen after electrophoresis and densitometry of the final amplification and digestion product. In 46 patients non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in 11 benign lesion (BL) were confirmed. All blood and tumor specimens were positive for KRAS mutations, while 41 specimens of normal pulmonary parenchyma were negative. In NSCLC patients pre-surgery EBC R mut/wild KRAS of 0.20 ± 0.03 decreased by 1.3- and 3.7-times (p < 0.001) at 7th and 30th day and 10 EBC specimens at day 30th became negative. The highest R mut/wild KRAS was found in NSCLC specimens - 1.36 ± 0.29 while the lowest in pulmonary parenchyma - 0.02 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001). R mut/wild KRAS in EBC did not correlate with the blood and cancer ratios. Determination of mutated KRAS oncogene in EBC can be potentially helpful in the follow-up of surgical treatment of pulmonary malignancy. PMID:22795503

  8. Exhaled CO2 Parameters as a Tool to Assess Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching during Neonatal Resuscitation in a Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Elliott Shang-shun; Cheung, Po-Yin; O'Reilly, Megan; LaBossiere, Joseph; Lee, Tze-Fun; Cowan, Shaun; Bigam, David L.; Schmölzer, Georg Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), partial pressure of exhaled CO2 (PECO2), and volume of expired CO2 (VCO2) can be continuously monitored non-invasively to reflect pulmonary ventilation and perfusion status. Although ETCO2 ≥14mmHg has been shown to be associated with return of an adequate heart rate in neonatal resuscitation and quantifying the PECO2 has the potential to serve as an indicator of resuscitation quality, there is little information regarding capnometric measurement of PECO2 and ETCO2 in detecting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survivability in asphyxiated neonates receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods Seventeen newborn piglets were anesthetized, intubated, instrumented, and exposed to 45-minute normocapnic hypoxia followed by apnea to induce asphyxia. Protocolized resuscitation was initiated when heart rate decreased to 25% of baseline. Respiratory and hemodynamic parameters including ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, heart rate, cardiac output, and carotid artery flow were continuously measured and analyzed. Results There were no differences in respiratory and hemodynamic parameters between surviving and non-surviving piglets prior to CPR. Surviving piglets had significantly higher ETCO2, PECO2, VCO2, cardiac index, and carotid artery flow values during CPR compared to non-surviving piglets. Conclusion Surviving piglets had significantly better respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during resuscitation compared to non-surviving piglets. In addition to optimizing resuscitation efforts, capnometry can assist by predicting outcomes of newborns requiring chest compressions. PMID:26766424

  9. Metabolic analyzer. [for measuring metabolic rate and breathing dynamics of human beings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Perry, C. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the measurement of metabolic rate and breathing dynamics in which inhaled and exhaled breath are sensed by sealed, piston-displacement type spirometers. These spirometers electrically measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled breath. A mass spectrometer analyzes simultaneously for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor. Computation circuits are responsive to the outputs of the spirometers, mass spectrometer, temperature, pressure and timing signals and compute oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute volume and respiratory exchange ratio. A selective indicator provides for read-out of these data at predetermined cyclic intervals.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years). EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin). The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2). The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1). Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P < 0.01). At rest pH of the CO2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt) by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise. PMID:20156744

  11. A selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry study of ammonia in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Wang, Tianshu; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    A study has been carried out, involving three healthy volunteers, of the ammonia levels in breath exhaled via the mouth and via the nose and in the static oral cavity using on-line, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), obviating the problems associated with sample collection of ammonia. The unequivocal conclusion drawn is that the ammonia appearing in the mouth-exhaled breath of the three volunteers is largely generated in the oral cavity and that the ammonia originating at the alveolar interface in the lungs is typically at levels less than about 100 parts-per-billion, which is a small fraction of the total breath ammonia. This leads to the recommendation that exhaled breath analyses should focus on nose-exhaled breath if the objective is to use breath analysis to investigate systemic, metabolic disease.

  12. [A sigh increases motivation for difficult and monotonous tasks: The effect of one-time voluntary brief exhalation on relief and achievement needs].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kana; Yamamoto, Yumi; Sugamura, Genji

    2016-06-01

    We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological "resetter/rebooter." Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief--suggesting that a "sigh of refresh" is a voluntary but a "sigh of relief" is an involuntary response. PMID:27476263

  13. Exhaled breath profiling using broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy in healthy children and children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van Mastrigt, E; Reyes-Reyes, A; Brand, K; Bhattacharya, N; Urbach, H P; Stubbs, A P; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2016-04-08

    Exhaled breath analysis is a potential non-invasive tool for diagnosing and monitoring airway diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrochemical sensor arrays are the main techniques to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We developed a broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy technique for VOC detection and identification. The objective of this study was to assess the repeatability of exhaled breath profiling with broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy and to explore the clinical applicability by comparing exhaled breath samples from healthy children with those from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). Healthy children and children with stable asthma or stable CF, aged 6-18 years, were included. Two to four exhaled breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by quantum cascade laser spectroscopy to detect VOCs with an absorption profile in the wavenumber region between 832 and 1262.55 cm(-1). We included 35 healthy children, 39 children with asthma and 15 with CF. Exhaled breath VOC profiles showed poor repeatability (Spearman's rho  =  0.36 to 0.46) and agreement of the complete profiles. However, we were able to discriminate healthy children from children with stable asthma or stable CF and identified VOCs that were responsible for this discrimination. Broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy detected differences in VOC profiles in exhaled breath samples between healthy children and children with asthma or CF. The combination of a relatively easy and fast method and the possibility of molecule identification makes broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy attractive to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of volatiles in exhaled breath.

  14. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate appears to be an unsuitable specimen type for the detection of influenza viruses with nucleic acid-based methods.

    PubMed

    St George, Kirsten; Fuschino, Meghan E; Mokhiber, Katharine; Triner, Wayne; Spivack, Simon D

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is an airway-derived specimen type that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of asthma, cancer, and other disorders. The presence of human genomic DNA in this sample type has been proven, but there have been no reports on its utility for the detection of respiratory pathogens. The suitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of influenza virus was investigated, as an indication of its potential as a specimen type for respiratory pathogen discovery work. Matched exhaled condensates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 18 adult volunteers. Eleven cases were positive for influenza A virus, and one was positive for influenza B virus. All swab samples tested positive in real-time amplification assays, but only one exhaled condensate, an influenza A positive sample with a very high viral load, tested positive in the real-time RT-PCR assay. Most of the positive nasopharyngeal swab samples inoculated for virus culture also tested positive, whereas influenza virus was not grown from any of the exhaled condensate specimens. It was concluded that influenza viruses are not readily detectable with culture or nucleic acid-based techniques in this sample type, and that exhaled breath condensate may not be suitable for respiratory pathogen investigations with molecular methods. PMID:19733195

  16. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  17. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Matthew R; Bakhirkin, Yury; Wysocki, Gerard; Tittel, Frank K

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is an important biomarker in asthma and other respiratory disorders. The optical performance of a NOCO(2) sensor employing integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) with a quantum cascade laser operating at 5.22 microm capable of real-time NO and CO(2) measurements in a single breath cycle is reported. A NO noise-equivalent concentration of 0.4 ppb within a 1-sec integration time is achieved. The off-axis ICOS sensor performance is compared to a chemiluminescent NO analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO(2) absorption capnograph. Differences between the gas analyzers are assessed by the Bland-Altman method to estimate the expected variability between the gas sensors. The off-axis ICOS sensor measurements are in good agreement with the data acquired with the two commercial gas analyzers. This work demonstrates the performance characteristics and merits of mid-infrared spectroscopy for exhaled breath analysis.

  18. Performance of an exhaled nitric oxide and carbon dioxide sensor using quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Matthew R; Bakhirkin, Yury; Wysocki, Gerard; Tittel, Frank K

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is an important biomarker in asthma and other respiratory disorders. The optical performance of a NOCO(2) sensor employing integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) with a quantum cascade laser operating at 5.22 microm capable of real-time NO and CO(2) measurements in a single breath cycle is reported. A NO noise-equivalent concentration of 0.4 ppb within a 1-sec integration time is achieved. The off-axis ICOS sensor performance is compared to a chemiluminescent NO analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO(2) absorption capnograph. Differences between the gas analyzers are assessed by the Bland-Altman method to estimate the expected variability between the gas sensors. The off-axis ICOS sensor measurements are in good agreement with the data acquired with the two commercial gas analyzers. This work demonstrates the performance characteristics and merits of mid-infrared spectroscopy for exhaled breath analysis. PMID:17614742

  19. Exhaled Breath Analysis Using Electronic Nose in Cystic Fibrosis and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G.; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Jensen, Peter Ø.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Nielsen, Kim G.

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled breath samples. Principal component reduction and discriminant analysis were used to construct internally cross-validated receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Breath profiles of CF and PCD patients differed significantly from healthy controls p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively. Profiles of CF patients having a chronic P. aeruginosa infection differed significantly from to non-chronically infected CF patients p = 0.044. We confirmed the previously established discriminative power of exhaled breath analysis in separation between healthy subjects and patients with CF or PCD. Furthermore, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup of pulmonary infections before the establishment of a chronic infection. PMID:25542036

  20. Detection of p53 gene mutations in exhaled breath condensate of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Christian; Kuhn, Hartmut; Toepfer, Katja; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Schauer, Joachim; Wirtz, Hubert

    2004-02-01

    Early diagnosis of lung carcinoma is greatly desired. A potential source of early information regarding the process of cancerisation in the airways is exhaled breath condensate (EBC). The direct approach to detecting cancerisation is examining DNA from the area of chronic damage, i.e. airways and lung parenchyma. We therefore investigated DNA in EBC of patients with NSCLC and healthy volunteers. Human DNA was amplified by PCR in exhaled breath condensate and used to detect p53 mutations. A PCR of the beta-actin gene fragment was used to detect human DNA in each of the EBC samples. In 65.7% of the samples, the beta-actin gene was found. Extracted DNA as well as native EBC were equally suited as starting material for amplification. Mutations of the p53 gene were investigated in all EBC samples of NSCLC patients. p53 exons 5-8 were amplified using nested PCR and subsequently sequenced. Mutations were found in four of the patients (n=11; 36.4%) while no mutation was found in volunteers (n=10). Mutations detected in EBC were also compared with those of corresponding tumor tissue. Different point mutations in EBC and tumor tissue were revealed in all cases. Our findings demonstrate that exhaled breath condensate may be used for analysis of somatic gene mutations in an area of direct tobacco-related DNA damage. PMID:14739043

  1. Exhaled breath analysis in childhood rheumatic disorders--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hendel, N; Akmatov, M K; Hamel, J; Vogelberg, C; Pessler, F

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO50) and deaerated exhaled breath condensate pH (dEBCpH) as non-invasive markers of subclinical airway inflammation in pediatric patients with rheumatologic disorders. We determined FENO50 and dEBCpH in a prospective study spanning at least 12 months, comprising 85 pediatric patients with rheumatologic disorders, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, n  =  63), chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO, n  =  6), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n  =  3), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM, n  =  1) and other rheumatic disorders (n  =  12). dEBCpH was determined once in a group of children without evidence of rheumatologic or pulmonary disease (controls, n  =  90). Findings were correlated with results of pulmonary function tests. Atopic sensitization was assessed by RAST or skin prick test in 76 patients. Atopic sensitization was detected in 34% (26/76) of patients. Neither FENO50 nor dEBCpH correlated with disease activity, but intermediately (20-35 ppb) or highly elevated (>35 ppb) levels were observed at least once in 26 patients (31%), 19 of whom had atopic sensitization. Median dEBCpH did not differ between cases and controls (8.05 versus 8.02; p  =  0.48). Median dEBCpH decreased slightly over the study period (p  =  0.02), whereas FENO50 values did not change significantly (p  =  0.89). There were several patients with significantly abnormal dEBCpH values that could not be readily explained by diagnosis, higher disease activity, medications, or atopic sensitization. Thus, there were no consistent abnormalities in FENO50 or dEBCpH in this cohort of Caucasian patients with relatively stable rheumatologic disorders, but there were some patients with abnormal values of unknown significance. PMID:27093271

  2. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  3. Particulate Oxidative Burden as a Predictor of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Maikawa, Caitlin L.; Weichenthal, Scott; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Dobbin, Nina A.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Evans, Greg; Liu, Ling; Goldberg, Mark S.; Pollitt, Krystal J. Godri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have provided strong evidence that fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) can exacerbate asthmatic symptoms in children. Pro-oxidant components of PM2.5 are capable of directly generating reactive oxygen species. Oxidative burden is used to describe the capacity of PM2.5 to generate reactive oxygen species in the lung. Objective: In this study we investigated the association between airway inflammation in asthmatic children and oxidative burden of PM2.5 personal exposure. Methods: Daily PM2.5 personal exposure samples (n = 249) of 62 asthmatic school-aged children in Montreal were collected over 10 consecutive days. The oxidative burden of PM2.5 samples was determined in vitro as the depletion of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (ascorbate and glutathione) from a synthetic model of the fluid lining the respiratory tract. Airway inflammation was measured daily as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Results: A positive association was identified between FeNO and glutathione-related oxidative burden exposure in the previous 24 hr (6.0% increase per interquartile range change in glutathione). Glutathione-related oxidative burden was further found to be positively associated with FeNO over 1-day lag and 2-day lag periods. Results further demonstrate that corticosteroid use may reduce the FeNO response to elevated glutathione-related oxidative burden exposure (no use, 15.8%; irregular use, 3.8%), whereas mold (22.1%), dust (10.6%), or fur (13.1%) allergies may increase FeNO in children with versus children without these allergies (11.5%). No association was found between PM2.5 mass or ascorbate-related oxidative burden and FeNO levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 with elevated glutathione-related oxidative burden was associated with increased FeNO. Citation: Maikawa CL, Weichenthal S, Wheeler AJ, Dobbin NA, Smargiassi A, Evans G, Liu L, Goldberg MS, Godri Pollitt KJ. 2016. Particulate oxidative burden

  4. Chlorartinite, A Volcanic Exhalation Product Also Found in Industrial Magnesia Screed

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto,K.; Dinnebier, R.; Schlecht, T.

    2006-01-01

    The volcanic exhalation product chlorartinite, [Mg{sub 2}(CO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)(OH)]Cl{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, has recently been found to be a minor, and in some samples a major, component of magnesia floors for industrial use. In order to be able to perform quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method, its crystal structure was determined from high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data by the global optimization technique of simulated annealing and Rietveld refinement. The final R{sub p} and R{sub wp} values are 5.23% and 6.56%, respectively. Chlorartinite crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group R3c (No. 161), with a = 23.14422 (16) {angstrom}, c = 7.22333 (5) {angstrom}, V = 3350.84 (5) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 18. The building units of chlorartinite consist of MgO{sub 6} octahedra forming 15-membered puckered rings which are interconnected by CO{sub 3} triangular moieties. The rings are stacked to form a honeycomb-like three-dimensional framework structure with large isolated channels. Within the channels, free chlorine atoms and disordered water molecules are located.

  5. Malondialdehyde in Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Marker of Oxidative Stress in Different Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, M. L.; Novelli, F.; Costa, F.; Malagrinò, L.; Melosini, L.; Bacci, E.; Cianchetti, S.; Dente, F. L.; Di Franco, A.; Vagaggini, B.; Paggiaro, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is a noninvasive method to investigate pulmonary oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde (MDA). Subjects and Methods. We measured MDA levels in EBC in a large number of patients (N = 194) with respiratory diseases: asthma (N = 64), bronchiectasis (BE, N = 19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, N = 73), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, N = 38). Fourteen healthy nonsmoking subjects were included as controls. Results. Excluding IPF subjects, MDA levels were significantly higher in all disease groups than in control group. MDA was significantly higher in COPD than asthmatic and BE subjects. Among asthmatics, corticosteroids-treated subjects had lower MDA levels than untreated subjects. COPD subjects showed an inverse correlation between MDA concentrations and FEV1% (rho:  −0.24, P < .05). Conclusions. EBC-MDA is increased in subjects with chronic airway disorders, particularly in COPD, and it is related to FEV1 reduction. PMID:21772668

  6. Analysis of exhaled breath for diagnosing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, M; Tisch, U; Jeries, R; Amal, H; Hakim, M; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Zimmerman, D; Israel, O; Amiga, E; Doweck, I; Haick, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are wide-spread cancers that often lead to disfigurement and loss of important functions such as speech and ingestion. To date, HNSCC has no adequate method for early detection and screening. Methods: Exhaled breath samples were collected from 87 volunteers; 62 well-defined breath samples from 22 HNSCC patients (larynx and pharynx), 21 patients with benign tumours (larynx and pharynx) and 19 healthy controls were analysed in a dual approach: (i) chemical analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and (ii) breath-print analysis using an array of nanomaterial-based sensors, combined with a statistical algorithm. Results: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified ethanol, 2-propenenitrile and undecane as potential markers for HNSCC and/or benign tumours of the head and neck. The sensor-array-based breath-prints could clearly distinguish HNSCC both from benign tumours and from healthy states. Within the HNSCC group, patients could be classified according to tumour site and stage. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a breath test for a specific, clinically interesting application: distinguishing HNSCC from tumour-free or benign tumour states, as well as for staging and locating HNSCC. The sensor array used here could form the basis for the development of an urgently needed non-invasive, cost-effective, fast and reliable point-of-care diagnostic/screening tool for HNSCC. PMID:24983369

  7. Exhaled breath condensate for lung cancer protein analysis: a review of methods and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sarah A; Haefliger, Simon; Harris, Benjamin; Pavlakis, Nick; Clarke, Stephen J; Molloy, Mark P; Howell, Viive M

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is considered one of the most aggressive human cancers, with a 5 year overall survival of 10-15%. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is ideal; however, it is still uncertain as to what technique will prove successful in the systematic screening of high-risk populations, with the strongest evidence currently supporting low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has recently been proposed as an alternative low risk and non-invasive screening method to investigate early-stage neoplastic processes in the airways. However, there still remains a relative paucity of lung cancer research involving EBC, particularly in the measurement of lung proteins that are centrally linked to pathogenesis. Considering the ease and safety associated with EBC collection, and advances in the area of mass spectrometry based profiling, this technology has potential for use in screening for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. This review will examine proteomics as a method of detecting markers of neoplasia in patient EBC with a particular emphasis on LC, as well as discussing methodological challenges involving in proteomic analysis of EBC specimens. PMID:27380020

  8. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  9. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m-3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m-2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  10. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Godinho Netto, Antonio Carlos Maneira; dos Reis, Túlio Gonçalves; Matheus, Cássia Franco; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry) and FeNO measurements. Results Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable), 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2%) and 33 had normal results (76.7%). The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002). Conclusion We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. PMID:27274212

  11. Inhaled today, not gone tomorrow: pharmacokinetics and environmental exposure of volatiles in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, J

    2011-09-01

    The chemical analysis of exhaled breath gas to assess state of health or identify disease biomarkers has gained growing interest in recent years, with advances in new technologies providing scientists and physicians with a powerful analytical arsenal with which to tackle pertinent issues. The application of these methods for pharmacokinetic studies, however, has received less attention despite its enormous potential in this field. For instance, breath gas analysis may be employed to characterize uptake and distribution within the body of exogenous volatile compounds, either from a pharmaceutical point of view, or in relation to environmental inhalation exposure. Both of these topics can benefit greatly from utilizing breath gas complementarily or as a surrogate to blood as an analytical medium, since breath sampling is non-invasive, inexhaustible, and is achievable with a frequency far exceeding that which is feasible for blood. However, because of the efficiency with which certain exogenous compounds are reflected in breath, this can also often be a significant source of confounding variables that require consideration in routine breath gas analyses. This paper provides an overview of the possibilities of breath gas analysis for pharmacokinetics and environmental exposure investigations and discusses the presence of exogenous compounds in standard breath analyses and their repercussions in terms of erroneous data interpretation.

  12. Hydrogen sulphide in exhaled breath: a potential biomarker for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gourab Dutta; De, Anulekha; Som, Suman; Jana, Subhra; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-06-01

    There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria. Subsequently, by analyzing the excretion kinetics of breath H2S, we found a missing link between breath H2S and SIBO when HBT often fails to diagnose SIBO. Moreover, breath H2S can track the precise evolution of SIBO, even after the eradication of bacterial overgrowth. Our findings suggest that the changes in H2S in the bacterial environment may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIBO and the breath H2S as a potential biomarker for non-invasive, rapid and precise assessment of SIBO without the endoscopy-based microbial culture of jejunal aspirates, and thus may open new perspectives into the pathophysiology of SIBO in IBS subjects. PMID:27163246

  13. Domestic airborne black carbon and exhaled nitric oxide in children in NYC.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Alexandra G; Chillrud, Steven N; Mellins, Robert B; Acosta, Luis M; Miller, Rachel L; Quinn, James W; Yan, Beizhan; Divjan, Adnan; Olmedo, Omar E; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Kinney, Patrick L; Perera, Frederica P; Jacobson, Judith S; Goldstein, Inge F; Rundle, Andrew G; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    Differential exposure to combustion by-products and allergens may partially explain the marked disparity in asthma prevalence (3-18%) among New York City neighborhoods. Subclinical changes in airway inflammation can be measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). FeNO could be used to test independent effects of these environmental exposures on airway inflammation. Seven- and eight-year-old children from neighborhoods with lower (range 3-9%, n=119) and higher (range 11-18%, n=121) asthma prevalence participated in an asthma case-control study. During home visits, FeNO was measured, and samples of bed dust (allergens) and air (black carbon; BC) were collected. Neighborhood built-environment characteristics were assessed for the 500 m surrounding participants' homes. Airborne BC concentrations in homes correlated with neighborhood asthma prevalence (P<0.001) and neighborhood densities of truck routes (P<0.001) and buildings burning residual oil (P<0.001). FeNO concentrations were higher among asthmatics with than in those without frequent wheeze (≥4 times/year) (P=0.002). FeNO concentrations correlated with domestic BC among children without seroatopy (P=0.012) and with dust mite allergen among children with seroatopy (P=0.020). The association between airborne BC in homes and both neighborhood asthma prevalence and FeNO suggest that further public health interventions on truck emissions standards and residual oil use are warranted. PMID:22377682

  14. Correlation between Eicosanoids in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, Adam; Piotrowski, Wojciech; Marczak, Jerzy; Ciebiada, Maciej; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly used as a new and non-invasive method to study airway inflammation. In this study we have compared the concentrations of lipid mediators in EBCwith concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We included 37 patients undergoing bronchoscopy (12 sarcoidosis, 12 COPD, 6 lung cancer, 5 chronic cough, 1 Wegener’s granulomatosis, 1 sclerodermia). Patients were not allowed to have exacerbation or any change in concomitant medication for at least 4 weeks prior to the study. In all patients, EBC was collected immediately prior to the bronchoscopy. The levels of cys-LTs, LTB4, 8-isoprostane were significantly higher in BALF compared to EBC (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 for cys-LTs, LTB4, 8-isoprostane respectively). Moreover, there was a strong positive correlation between both leukotriene B4 and 8-isoprostane in BALF and EBC (r = 0.53 and r = 0.79, p < 0.01, respectively) in patients with sarcoidosis and COPD but there was no correlation between eicosanoids BALF and EBC in patients with chronic cough and lung cancer. This is the first study to compare EBC and BALF in different lung diseases which demonstrated significant correlations between the levels of eicosanoids in BALF and EBCin patientswith COPD and sarcoidosis. EBC may be useful inmeasuring inflammation in several inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:21734340

  15. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m‑3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m‑2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  16. Conductivity in Exhaled Breath Condensate from Subjects with Emphysema and Type ZZ alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Jan; Fumagalli, Marco; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of biomarkers in biological samples from the lung has long been employed. Upon cooling water vapor present in exhaled breath, variable amounts of droplets of condensate (EBC) containing volatile and non-volatile compounds may be easily and non-invasively obtained from patients of any age.Objective of the present study was to compare the level of EBC conductivity determined for cohorts of individuals with different inflammatory lung disorders with that of healthy never-smoking individuals.The conductivity in EBC of PiZZ-Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients with a diagnosis of emphysema (PiZZ-AATD) was 3 fold lower than in spouse controls (54.5 ± 11.6 vs 165.3 ± 10.7 μS/cm). Non-PiZZ emphysema patients had conductivity in EBC of 59.6 ± 5.8 μS/cm and patients with sarcoidosis without airflow obstruction had EBC conductivity of 178,8 ± 6,2 μS/cm, 
not significantly different (p = 0.5) from healthy controls. Conductivity in serial EBC samples from patients with PiZZ-AATD emphysema and healthy controls was stable in 6 different samples collected over a period of 14 months. We conclude that conductivity values in EBC can be used as a correction factor for dilution of non-volatile components in EBC.

  17. Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, L.; Fuoco, F. C.; Marini, S.; Buonanno, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study short-term respiratory effects due to the exposure to cooking-generated aerosols were assessed through a marker of airway inflammation (exhaled Nitric Oxide, eNO). The exposure of 43 non-atopic, non-smoking women in terms of particle number and surface area concentration was monitored during their normal cooking activities through hand-held aerosol monitors. Women using gas (n = 23) and electric (n = 20) stoves were considered in the survey. Surface area particle doses deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs (mm2) received by each woman were measured as well as their levels of eNO concentration. Associations between woman exposure to cooking-generated aerosol and short-term changes of eNO were found. In particular, women using electric stoves reported a statistically significant eNO reduction during the cooking sessions, whereas an increase in eNO was measured in women using gas stoves. The results support the potential link between short-term exposures to cooking-generated particles and women's respiratory inflammation responses.

  18. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25971714

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide as a marker of lung involvement in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malerba, M; Ragnoli, B; Buffoli, L; Radaeli, A; Ricci, C; Lanzarotto, F; Lanzini, A

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease associated with a variety of systemic manifestations, including large and small airway involvement. The latter is most often a subclinical one, and requires expensive and invasive diagnostic approaches. Nitric oxide (NO) can be detected non-invasively in the exhaled air (eNO) and be considered as a surrogate marker of airway inflammation. eNO tested at multiple expiratory flows can be used to distinguish the alveolar concentration of NO (CalvNO) from the total amount of fractional eNO (FeNO). The aim of our study is to compare FeNO and concentration of alveolar nitric oxide (CalvNO) levels and to assess their relationship with pulmonary involvement in Crohn's patients differing in clinical stage and therapeutic regimens versus a group of healthy subjects. Thirty Crohn's patients not showing clinical evidence of pulmonary diseases and 21 non-smoking, non-atopic healthy controls were enrolled. FeNO (14.9±10.2 ppb vs 10.1±6.3 ppb, p=0.049) and CalvNO (4.4±2.2 ppb vs 2.6±1.9; p=0.006) values were found to be significantly higher in Crohn's patients than in healthy controls. Both FeNO and CalvNO correlated positively with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. In conclusion, our results for FeNO and CalvNO confirm the presence of subclinical pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease. eNO measurement may be of clinical value in the follow-up of Crohn's patients. PMID:22230422

  20. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received.

  1. Assessment of nanoparticles and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Marie-Desvergne, Caroline; Dubosson, Muriel; Touri, Léa; Zimmermann, Eric; Gaude-Môme, Marcelline; Leclerc, Lara; Durand, Catherine; Klerlein, Michel; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Chanez, Pascal; Mossuz, Véronique Chamel

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft engine exhaust increases the number concentration of nanoparticles (NP) in the surrounding environment. Health concerns related to NP raise the question of the exposure and health monitoring of airport workers. No biological monitoring study on this profession has been reported to date. The aim was to evaluate the NP and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a non-invasive biological matrix representative of the respiratory tract. EBC was collected from 458 French airport workers working either on the apron or in the offices. NP exposure was characterized using particle number concentration (PNC) and size distribution. EBC particles were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Multi-elemental analysis was performed for aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) EBC contents. Apron workers were exposed to higher PNC than administrative workers (p  <  0.001). Workers were exposed to very low particle sizes, the apron group being exposed to even smaller NP than the administrative group (p  <  0.001). The particulate content of EBC was brought out by DLS and confirmed with SEM-EDS, although no difference was found between the two study groups. Cd concentrations were higher in the apron workers (p  <  0.001), but still remained very low and close to the detection limit. Our study reported the particulate and metal content of airport workers airways. EBC is a potential useful tool for the non-invasive monitoring of workers exposed to NP and metals. PMID:27409350

  2. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism.

  3. Increase of exhaled nitric oxide in children exposed to low levels of ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Nickmilder, Marc; de Burbure, Claire; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Sylviane, Carbonnelle; Dumont, Xavier; Xavier, Dumont; Bernard, Alfred; Alfred, Bernard; Derouane, Alain; Alain, Derouane

    2007-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce lung function impairment and airways inflammation during episodes of photochemical smog. The aim of the present study was to assess the inflammatory effect of ambient O3 in healthy children using nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) as a noninvasive test. The study was performed on 6 groups of children (n = 11-15), aged 6.5 to 15 yr, who attended summer camps in rural areas of the south of Belgium in 2002. Ambient O3 concentrations continuously monitored in the camps ranged from 48 to 221 microg/m3 (1-h maximal concentration). Children remained outdoors during the experimental days, doing various recreational activities but no sports. Lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) and eNO were measured twice in each child in the morning and in the evening. While lung function tests did not show any consistent pattern of decrease at these O3 levels, a highly significant increase in eNO was found in all subjects from an ambient 1-h O3 level of 167 microg/m3. A multivariate analysis did not reveal any influence of age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the children. The threshold for this O3-induced increase in eNO estimated benchmark dose analysis was 135 microg/m3 for 1-h exposure and 110 microg/m3 for 8-h exposure. These observations suggest that ambient ozone produces early inflammatory changes in the airways of children at levels slightly below current air quality standards. PMID:17365589

  4. The effect of inhaled chromium on different exhaled breath condensate biomarkers among chrome-plating workers.

    PubMed

    Caglieri, Andrea; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Andreoli, Roberta; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Chromium is corrosive, cytotoxic, and carcinogenic for humans and can induce acute and chronic lung tissue toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate Cr levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed to Cr(VI) and to assess their relationship with biochemical changes in the airways by analyzing EBC biomarkers of oxidative stress, namely, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). EBC samples were collected from 24 chrome-plating workers employed in a chrome-plating plant both before and after the Friday work shift and before the work shift on the following Monday. Cr-EBC levels increased from the beginning (5.3 microg/L) to the end of Friday (6.4 microg/L) but were considerably lower on Monday morning (2.8 microg/L). A similar trend was observed for H2O2-EBC levels (which increased from 0.36 microM to 0.59 microM on Friday and were 0.19 microM on Monday morning) and MDA-EBC levels (which increased from 8.2 nM to 9.7 nM on Friday and were 6.6 nM on Monday). Cr-EBC levels correlated with those of H2O2-EBC (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) and MDA-EBC (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), as well as with urinary Cr levels (r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that EBC is a suitable matrix that can be used to investigate both Cr levels and biomarkers of free radical production sampling the epithelial-lining fluid of workers exposed to Cr(VI).

  5. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  6. Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Boman, Peter; Björ, Bodil; Olin, Anna-Carin; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April–6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 μg/m3 (range 4.1–42.3), and that of O3 was 75.0 μg/m3 (range: 51.3–106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 μg/m3 (range: 4.7–31.3), NOx was 82.1 μg/m3 (range: 13.3–165.3), and NO was 65 μg/m3 (range: 8.7–138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0–14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4–14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children. PMID:27338437

  7. Relationships Between Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Atopy Profiles in Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-Nyung; Park, In-Su; Choi, Chang-Hee; Bauer, Siegfried; Harmin, Samuel; Seo, Sung Chul; Choi, Ic Sun; Choung, Ji Tae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels are associated with atopy profiles in terms of mono-sensitization and poly-sensitization in asthmatic children. Methods A total of 119 children underwent an assessment that included FeNO measurements, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and measurement of blood eosinophil count, serum total IgE, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). We also examined sensitization to five classes of aeroallergens (house dust mites, animal danders, pollens, molds, and cockroach) using skin prick testing. The children were divided into three groups according to their sensitization profiles to these aeroallergens (non-sensitized, mono-sensitized, and poly-sensitized). Results The geometric means (range of 1 SD) of FeNO were significantly different between the three groups (non-sensitized, 18.6 ppb [10.0-34.7 ppb]; mono-sensitized, 28.8 ppb [16.6-50.1 ppb]; and poly-sensitized, 44.7 ppb [24.5-81.3 ppb], P=0.001). FeNO levels were correlated with serum total IgE concentrations, peripheral blood eosinophilia, and serum ECP levels to different degrees. Conclusions FeNO levels vary according to the profile of atopy, as determined by positive skin prick test results to various classes of aeroallergens. FeNO is also moderately correlated with serum total IgE, blood eosinophilia, and serum ECP. These results suggest that poly-sensitized asthmatic children may have the highest risk of airway inflammation. PMID:23638314

  8. Exhaled NO Among Inner-city Children in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Divjan, Adnan; Mellins, Robert B.; Canfield, Stephen M.; Rosa, Maria Jose; Chew, Ginger L.; Rundle, Andrew; Goldstein, Inge F.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a biomarker of airway inflammation for cohort studies of asthma. Objectives To assess the association between FeNO and asthma symptoms among seven-year old children living in an inner-city community. To test the association between ETS exposure (previous and current) and FENO among these children. Methods As part of a longitudinal study of asthma, children recruited in Head Start centers at age 4 years had offline FeNO and lung function testing at age 7 years. Children with allergen specific IgE (≥0.35 IU/ml) at age 7 were considered seroatopic. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at ages 4 and 7 was assessed by questionnaire. Results Of 144 participating children, 89 had complete questionnaire data and achieved valid FeNO and lung function tests. Children with reported wheeze in the previous 12 months (n=19) had higher FeNO than those without wheeze (n=70) (geometric means 17.0 vs. 11.0ppb, p=0.005). FeNO remained significantly associated with wheeze (p=0.031), after adjusting for seroatopy and FEV1 in multivariable regression. FeNO at age 7 was positively associated with domestic ETS exposure at age 4 (29%)(β=0.36, p=0.015) but inversely associated with ETS exposure at age 7 (16%) (β= −0.74, p<0.001). Conclusions Given its association with current wheeze, independent of seroatopy and lung function, FeNO provides a relevant outcome measure for studies in inner-city communities. While compelling, the positive association between ETS exposure at age 4 and a marker of airway inflammation at age 7 should be confirmed in a larger study. PMID:20936992

  9. The Influence of Living Near Roadways on Spirometry and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Elementary Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Wheeler, Amanda; Mahmud, Mamun; Frescura, Anna Maria; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Nethery, Elizabeth; Liu, Ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how this relates to airway inflammation. Objective We assessed the effects of living near local residential roadways based on objective indicators of ventilatory function and airway inflammation. Methods We estimated ambient air pollution, resolved to the level of the child’s neighborhood, using a land-use regression model for children 9–11 years of age. We also summed the length of roadways found within a 200-m radius of each child’s neighborhood. We had measurements of both air pollution exposure and spirometry for 2,328 children, and also had measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) for 1,613 of these children. Results Each kilometer of local roadway within a 200-m radius of the home was associated with a 6.8% increase in eNO (p = 0.045). Each kilometer of any type of roadway (local, major, highway) was also associated with an increase in eNO of 10.1% (p = 0.002). Each microgram per cubic meter increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 3.9% increase in eNO (p = 0.058) and 0.70% decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed as a percentage of predicted (p = 0.39). Associations between roadway density and both forced expired volume in 1 sec and FVC were negative but not statistically significant at p < 0.05. Conclusion Traffic from local neighborhood roadways may cause airway inflammation as indicated by eNO. This may be a more sensitive indicator of adverse air pollution effects than traditional measures of ventilatory function. PMID:18941589

  10. Gene Expression in Relation to Exhaled Nitric Oxide Identifies Novel Asthma Phenotypes with Unique Biomolecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Brian D.; Tedrow, John R.; Milosevic, Jadranka; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Wu, Wei; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Kaminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Although asthma is recognized as a heterogeneous disease associated with clinical phenotypes, the molecular basis of these phenotypes remains poorly understood. Although genomic studies have successfully broadened our understanding in diseases such as cancer, they have not been widely used in asthma studies. Objectives To link gene expression patterns to clinical asthma phenotypes. Methods We used a microarray platform to analyze bronchial airway epithelial cell gene expression in relation to the asthma biomarker fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 155 subjects with asthma and healthy control subjects from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Measurements and Main Results We first identified a diverse set of 549 genes whose expression correlated with FeNO. We used k-means to cluster the patient samples according to the expression of these genes, identifying five asthma clusters/phenotypes with distinct clinical, physiological, cellular, and gene transcription characteristics—termed “subject clusters” (SCs). To then investigate differences in gene expression between SCs, a total of 1,384 genes were identified that highly differentiated the SCs at an unadjusted P value < 10−6. Hierarchical clustering of these 1,384 genes identified nine gene clusters or “biclusters,” whose coexpression suggested biological characteristics unique to each SC. Although genes related to type 2 inflammation were present, novel pathways, including those related to neuronal function, WNT pathways, and actin cytoskeleton, were noted. Conclusions These findings show that bronchial epithelial cell gene expression, as related to the asthma biomarker FeNO, can identify distinct asthma phenotypes, while also suggesting the presence of underlying novel gene pathways relevant to these phenotypes. PMID:25338189

  11. Particle size concentration distribution and influences on exhaled breath particles in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Wu, Chieh-Liang; Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47-2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001-4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH₂O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (≤ 5 cmH₂O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration.

  12. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in a population-based study of Southern California Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Linn, William S; Rappaport, Edward B; Berhane, Kiros T; Bastain, Tracy M; Avol, Edward L; Gilliland, Frank D

    2009-01-01

    Background Determinants of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) need to be understood better to maximize the value of FeNO measurement in clinical practice and research. Our aim was to identify significant predictors of FeNO in an initial cross-sectional survey of southern California schoolchildren, part of a larger longitudinal study of asthma incidence. Methods During one school year, we measured FeNO at 100 ml/sec flow, using a validated offline technique, in 2568 children of age 7–10 yr. We estimated online (50 ml/sec flow) FeNO using a prediction equation from a separate smaller study with adjustment for offline measurement artifacts, and analyzed its relationship to clinical and demographic characteristics. Results FeNO was lognormally distributed with geometric means ranging from 11 ppb in children without atopy or asthma to 16 ppb in children with allergic asthma. Although effects of atopy and asthma were highly significant, ranges of FeNO for children with and without those conditions overlapped substantially. FeNO was significantly higher in subjects aged > 9, compared to younger subjects. Asian-American boys showed significantly higher FeNO than children of all other sex/ethnic groups; Hispanics and African-Americans of both sexes averaged slightly higher than non-Hispanic whites. Increasing height-for-age had no significant effect, but increasing weight-for-height was associated with decreasing FeNO. Conclusion FeNO measured offline is a useful biomarker for airway inflammation in large population-based studies. Further investigation of age, ethnicity, body-size, and genetic influences is needed, since they may contribute to substantial variation in FeNO. PMID:19379527

  14. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Philip, Binu K.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of {sup 14}C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor

  15. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; Lockey, James; Ryan, Patrick; Bernstein, David I; Villareal, Manuel; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Schaffer, Chris; Lemasters, Grace

    2013-09-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and other indoor environmental characteristics on eNO levels in seven-year-olds with and without a physician-diagnosis of asthma. The study included 158 children recruited from a birth cohort study, and 32 were physician-diagnosed as asthmatic. The relationship between eNO levels and exposures to home dust streptomycetes, endotoxin, and molds was investigated. Streptomycetes and endotoxin were analyzed both as loads and concentrations in separate models. Dog, cat, and dust mite allergens also were evaluated. In the multivariate exposure models, high streptomycetes loads and concentrations were significantly associated with a decrease in eNO levels in asthmatic (p<0.001) but not in healthy children. The presence of dog allergen, however, was associated with increased levels of eNO (p=0.001). Dust endotoxin was not significant. The relationship between eNO and indoor exposure to common outdoor molds was u-shaped. In non-asthmatic children, none of the exposure variables was significantly associated with eNO levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a significant association between microbial components in the indoor environment and eNO levels in asthmatic children. This study demonstrates the importance of simultaneously assessing multiple home exposures of asthmatic children to better understand opposing effects. Common components of the indoor Streptomyces community may beneficially influence airway inflammation.

  16. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)–DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)–DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI). PMID:17047732

  17. Genetic Variation of the Alpha Subunit of the Epithelial Na+ Channels Influences Exhaled Na+ in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Wheatley, Courtney M.; Baker, Sarah E.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ Channels (ENaC) are located on alveolar cells and are important in β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated lung fluid clearance through the removal of Na+ from the alveolar airspace. Previous work has demonstrated that genetic variation of the alpha subunit of ENaC at amino acid 663 is important in channel function: cells with the genotype resulting in alanine at amino acid 663 (A663) demonstrate attenuated function when compared to genotypes with at least one allele encoding threonine (T663, AT/TT). We sought to determine the influence of genetic variation at position 663 of ENaC on exhaled Na+ in healthy humans. Exhaled Na+ was measured in 18 AA and 13 AT/TT subjects (age=27±8 vs. 30±10yrs., ht.=174±12 vs. 171±10cm., wt=68±12 vs. 73±14kg., BMI=22±3 vs. 25±4kg/m2, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively). Measurements were made at baseline and at 30, 60 and 90 minutes following the administration of a nebulized β2-agonist (albuterol sulfate, 2.5mg diluted in 3ml normal saline). The AA group had a higher baseline level of exhaled Na+ and a greater response to β2-agonist stimulation (baseline= 3.1±1.8 vs. 2.3±1.5mmol/l; 30min-post= 2.1±0.7 vs. 2.2±0.8mmol/l; 60min-post= 2.0±0.5 vs. 2.3±1.0mmol/l; 90min-post= 1.8±0.8 vs. 2.6±1.5mmol/l, mean±SD, for AA and AT/TT, respectively, p<0.05). The results are consistent with the notion that genetic variation of ENaC influences β2-adrenergic receptor stimulated Na+ clearance in the lungs, as there was a significant reduction in exhaled Na+ over time in the AA group. PMID:21889619

  18. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers. PMID:24473505

  19. Assessment of smoking behaviour in the dental setting. A study comparing self-reported questionnaire data and exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

    PubMed

    Frei, Marc; Engel Brügger, Odette; Sendi, Pedram; Reichart, Peter A; Ramseier, Christoph A; Bornstein, Michael M

    2012-06-01

    The present study validated the accuracy of data from a self-reported questionnaire on smoking behaviour with the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) level measurements in two groups of patients. Group 1 included patients referred to an oral medicine unit, whereas group 2 was recruited from the daily outpatient service. All patients filled in a standardized questionnaire regarding their current and former smoking habits. Additionally, exhaled CO levels were measured using a monitor. A total of 121 patients were included in group 1, and 116 patients were included in group 2. The mean value of exhaled CO was 7.6 ppm in the first group and 9.2 ppm in the second group. The mean CO values did not statistically significantly differ between the two groups. The two exhaled CO level measurements taken for each patient exhibited very good correlation (Spearman's coefficient of 0.9857). Smokers had a mean difference of exhaled CO values of 13.95 ppm (p < 0.001) compared to non-smokers adjusted for the first or second group. The consumption of one additional pack year resulted in an increase in CO values of 0.16 ppm (p = 0.003). The consumption of one additional cigarette per day elevated the CO measurements by 0.88 ppm (p < 0.001). Based on these results, the correlations between the self-reported smoking habits and exhaled CO values are robust and highly reproducible. CO monitors may offer a non-invasive method to objectively assess current smoking behaviour and to monitor tobacco use cessation attempts in the dental setting.

  20. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  2. Methodological implications in pH standardization of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; Berresheim, H; Beine, A; Sucker, K; Brüning, T; Bünger, J

    2015-09-01

    The variable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is one of the main confounding factors of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurements. There have been many attempts at identifying the optimal approach to displace CO2 as a way to gain reproducible and valid pH values in EBC samples. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of pH and pCO2 in untreated, neat EBC samples and, after deaeration, to reevaluate the standardization of CO2 as a means to obtain valid pH values. A further aim was to evaluate the impact of deaeration on the acid-base balance in EBC samples. EBC was collected from seven female and 31 male subjects. The pH and pCO2 values immediately determined in untreated, neat EBC samples were strongly correlated (rp = -0.723, p <  0.0001). This correlation was not observed after deaeration with argon (rs = 0.264, p = 0.109). Based on a regression function for the pH/pCO2 relationship, the calculated pH at a pCO2 of 5.33 kPa was 6.07 (IQR 5.99, 6.20). No significant difference was observed between the pH measured in neat EBC samples and those calculated after deaeration with regression function and measured neat pCO2. Our data suggest that pCO2 is the most important confounder of pH measurement in EBC samples and, when adjusting for pCO2, the acid-base balance of EBC samples is not significantly influenced by the process of deaeration. Furthermore, measurement with a blood-gas analyzer and standardization of pH for pCO2 allows sensitive assaying of EBC samples. Therefore, this method provides a basis for detection of even small changes in airway pH due to inhalative exposure or respiratory disease. PMID:25972098

  3. Exhaled IL-8 in systemic lupus erythematosus with and without pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nielepkowicz-Goździńska, Agnieszka; Fendler, Wojciech; Robak, Ewa; Kulczycka-Siennicka, Lilianna; Górski, Paweł; Pietras, Tadeusz; Brzeziańska, Ewa; Antczak, Adam

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with the disease activity score and pulmonary function of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without pulmonary fibrosis. Thirty-four SLE patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled and evaluated using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, systemic lupus activity measure (SLAM), assessing BALF and EBC. IL-8 levels in BALF and EBC samples were measured with an enzyme-immunosorbent assay kit. The mean (±SEM) IL-8 concentrations in BALF and EBC were higher in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (34.84 ± 95.0 vs. 7.65 ± 21.22 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 3.82 ± 0.52 pg/m vs. 1.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively). SLE patients had increased percentage of neutrophils in BALF when compared with control group (1.00 ± 5.99 vs. 0.00 ± 0.56 %, p = 0.0003). Pulmonary fibrosis in HRCT was found in 50 % of SLE patients. The disease activity scored by SLAM was significantly higher and total lung capacity was significantly lower in SLE patients with pulmonary fibrosis (8.00 ± 3.17 vs. 6.00 ± 2.31, p = 0.01; 88.00 ± 28.29 vs. 112.00 ± 21.08 % predicted, p = 0.01, respectively). In SLE patients with pulmonary fibrosis, correlations were found between SLAM and IL-8 concentration in BALF, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (r = 0.65, p = 0.006; r = -0.53, p = 0.035; r = -0.67, p = 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. An increased concentration of IL-8 according to BALF could be considered as a useful biomarker of SLE activity and pulmonary fibrosis in SLE.

  4. Association among fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide, bronchodilator response and inhaled corticosteroid type

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan W; Downey, Kim; Snow, Nadia; Dell, Sharon; Smith, W Gary

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide (FeNO) is a known marker of airway inflammation and a topic of recent investigation for asthma control in children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among FeNO and bronchodilator response measured by spirometry and types of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: A one-year review of children tested with spirometry and FeNO in a regional pediatric asthma centre was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 183 children were included (mean [± SD] age 12.8±2.8 years). Fluticasone was used most commonly (n=66 [36.1%]), followed by ciclesonide (n=50 [27.3%]). Most children (n=73 [39.9%]) had moderate persistent asthma. Increased FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after bronchodilator adjusted for allergic rhinitis, parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.08 [95% CI 0.04 to 0.12]; P<0.001). Similarly, FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25–75) after bronchodilator adjusted for parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.13 [95% CI 0.01 to 0.24]; P=0.03). FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean-adjusted FeNO was lowest in fluticasone users compared with no ICS (mean difference 18.6 parts per billion [ppb] [95% CI 1.0 to 36.2]) and there was no difference in adjusted FeNO level between ciclesonide and no ICS (5.9 ppb [95% CI −9.0 to 20.8]). CONCLUSION: FeNO levels correlated with bronchodilator response in a regional pediatric asthma centre. However, FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean adjusted FeNO varied according to ICS type, suggesting a difference in relative efficacy between ICS beyond their dose equivalents. PMID:25874734

  5. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-11-19

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  6. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, 10 healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to ICS (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours postadministration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 × 10(6) pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours postadministration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second over forced vital capacity did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered.

  7. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  8. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  9. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  10. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV.

  11. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Belser, Jessica A.; Veguilla, Vic; Zeng, Hui; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Maines, Taronna R.

    2015-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection) and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections. PMID:25969995

  12. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma.

  13. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R.; Cooper, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, ten healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to inhaled corticosteroids (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours post administration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 X106 pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours post administration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered. PMID:26155923

  14. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  15. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results. PMID:26670078

  16. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-01

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes. PMID:26243705

  17. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs.

    Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  18. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe) Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-01-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  19. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-01

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes.

  20. Direct measurement technique for determining ventilation rate in the deposit-feeding clam Macoma nasuta (bivalvia, tellinaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, D.T.; Lee, H.

    1989-01-01

    An exposure chamber, the 'clambox', was developed to measure ventilation rate, sediment processing rate, and efficiency of pollutant uptake by Macoma nasuta, Conrad, a surface-deposit-feeding clam. Clams, collected from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, USA, were cemented into a hole in a piece of rubber dental dam so that the inhalant siphons were separated by a membrane. The dental dam was then clamped between two glass chambers. The inhalant and exhalant siphons were thus diirected into separate chambers of the device so that the amount of water or feces discharged into the exhalant camber provided direct measure ventilation rate and sediment processing rate, respectively. The short-term pattern was for ventilation to be intermittently interrupted, essentially ceasing for 12 to 120 min, followed by a short period of active ventilation and then a resumption of the normal rate.

  1. A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, D.; Neerincx, A. H.; Mandon, J.; Zhang, J.; Boerkamp, M.; Mink, J.; Cristescu, S. M.; Hekkert, S. te Lintel; Harren, F. J. M.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a compact prototype near-infrared DBR laser-based spectrometer employing off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. The spectrometer is capable of simultaneous detection of acetylene (C2H2) and CO2 at 1,529.2 nm as well as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at 1,533.5 nm. The detection limits of 8 ppbv for C2H2 and 80 ppbv for HCN are achieved for the acquisition time of 1 s. The setup has been tested for online measurements of C2H2 in exhaled breath of a smoking subject and HCN resulting from the metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in vitro. Further improvements of the performance of the spectrometer are discussed.

  2. Academic exam stress and depressive mood are associated with reductions in exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Smith, Noelle B; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular and immune health. Stress and depression have been linked to a reduction in serum NO. In this study, we examined the effect of academic exam stress on the fraction of NO in exhaled air (FeNO) and spirometric lung function in 41 healthy college students. Participants completed assessments at mid-semester as well as in the early and late phase of an academic exam period. Negative affect, depressive mood, and salivary cortisol were elevated during exams, whereas FeNO and lung function decreased. Higher depressive mood was associated with lower FeNO, whereas higher negative affect was associated higher FeNO across time. These findings provide initial evidence that depression and prolonged stress can alter FeNO and lung function in healthy individuals, which could have adverse consequences for cardiovascular, airway, and immune health.

  3. Mesoporous WO3 Nanofibers with Protein-Templated Nanoscale Catalysts for Detection of Trace Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Joon; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Hakim, Meggie; Tuller, Harry L; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-06-28

    Highly selective detection, rapid response (<20 s), and superior sensitivity (Rair/Rgas> 50) against specific target gases, particularly at the 1 ppm level, still remain considerable challenges in gas sensor applications. We propose a rational design and facile synthesis concept for achieving exceptionally sensitive and selective detection of trace target biomarkers in exhaled human breath using a protein nanocage templating route for sensitizing electrospun nanofibers (NFs). The mesoporous WO3 NFs, functionalized with well-dispersed nanoscale Pt, Pd, and Rh catalytic nanoparticles (NPs), exhibit excellent sensing performance, even at parts per billion level concentrations of gases in a humid atmosphere. Functionalized WO3 NFs with nanoscale catalysts are demonstrated to show great promise for the reliable diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27166639

  4. The analysis of linear and monomethylalkanes in exhaled breath samples by GC×GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hengerics Szabó, Alexandra; Podolec, Peter; Ferenczy, Viktória; Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Soják, Ladislav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Višňovský, Jozef; Bierhanzl, Václav; Čabala, Radomír; Amann, Anton

    2015-01-26

    A new arrangement of the INCAT (inside needle capillary adsorption trap) device with Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 as sorbent materials was applied for sampling, preconcentration and injection of C6C19n-alkanes and their monomethyl analogs in exhaled breath samples. For the analysis both GC-MS/MS and GC×GC-FID techniques were used. Identification of the analytes was based on standards, measured retention indices and selective SRM transitions of the individual isomers. The GC-MS/MS detection limits were in the range from 2.1 pg for n-tetradecane to 86 pg for 5-methyloctadecane. The GC×GC-FID detection limits ranged from 19 pg for n-dodecane to 110 pg for 3-methyloctane. PMID:25531871

  5. Detection of the EGFR mutation in exhaled breath condensate from a heavy smoker with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Takigawa, Nagio; Ochi, Nobuaki; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Noujima, Daisuke; Chen, Yan Yan; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-09-01

    A 61-year-old male smoker (40 pack-years) presented with right chest pain. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a cavitary mass in the right lower lobe. A transbronchial biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma. We examined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). The DNA extracted from his EBC showed a deletion mutation in exon 19. Subsequently, the del E746-A750 mutation in exon 19 in a transbronchial tissue specimen was confirmed. Although he underwent whole-brain irradiation against multiple brain metastases, he had paralysis of the left side of the body and his performance status was 3. The patient was treated with gefitinib. He had marked tumor regression and no symptoms. Although only a small percentage of heavy smokers with squamous cell carcinoma harbor EGFR mutations, they probably benefit from EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR mutation status in the patients having such clinical features might be examined. PMID:21684624

  6. Visualization of exhaled hydrogen sulphide on test paper with an ultrasensitive and time-gated luminescent probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Shijiang; Wang, Jianping; Han, Guangmei; Yang, Linlin; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent chemosensors for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are of great interest because of the close association of H2S with our health. However, current probes for H2S detection have problems such as low sensitivity/selectivity, poor aqueous-solubility or interference from background fluorescence. This study reports an ultrasensitive and time-gated "switch on" probe for detection of H2S, and its application in test paper for visualization of exhaled H2S. The complex probe is synthesized with a luminescent Tb(3+) centre and three ligands of azido (-N3) substituted pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, giving the probe high hydrophilicity and relatively fast reaction dynamics with H2S because there are three -N3 groups in each molecule. The introduced -N3 group as a strong electron-withdrawing moiety effectively changes the energy level of ligand via intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and thus breaks the energy transferring from ligand to lanthanide ion, resulting in quenching of Tb(3+) luminescence. On addition of H2S, the -N3 group can be reduced to an amine group to break the process of ICT, and the luminescence of Tb(3+) is recovered at a nanomolar sensitivity level. With a long lifetime of luminescence of Tb(3+) centre (1.9 ms), use of a time-gated technique effectively eliminates the background fluorescence by delaying fluorescence collection for 0.1 ms. The test paper imprinted by the complex probe ink can visualize clearly the trace H2S gas exhaled by mice.

  7. Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Suitable Matrix to Assess Lung Dose and Effects in Workers Exposed to Cobalt and Tungsten

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; De Palma, Giuseppe; Manini, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Corradi, Massimo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a fluid formed by cooling exhaled air, can be used as a suitable matrix to assess target tissue dose and effects of inhaled cobalt and tungsten, using EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of pulmonary oxidative stress. Thirty-three workers exposed to Co and W in workshops producing either diamond tools or hard-metal mechanical parts participated in this study. Two EBC and urinary samples were collected: one before and one at the end of the work shift. Controls were selected among nonexposed workers. Co, W, and MDA in EBC were analyzed with analytical methods based on mass spectrometric reference techniques. In the EBC from controls, Co was detectable at ultratrace levels, whereas W was undetectable. In exposed workers, EBC Co ranged from a few to several hundred nanomoles per liter. Corresponding W levels ranged from undetectable to several tens of nanomoles per liter. A parallel trend was observed for much higher urinary levels. Both Co and W in biological media were higher at the end of the work shift in comparison with preexposure values. In EBC, MDA levels were increased depending on Co concentration and were enhanced by coexposure to W. Such a correlation between EBC MDA and both Co and W levels was not observed with urinary concentration of either element. These results suggest the potential usefulness of EBC to complete and integrate biomonitoring and health surveillance procedures among workers exposed to mixtures of transition elements and hard metals. PMID:15345342

  8. Inter- and intra-subject variability of kinetics of airway exhalation and deposition of particulate matter in indoor polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Longo, Sonia; Poli, Diana; Tagliaferri, Sara; Corradi, Massimo; Renzulli, Francesco Saverio; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    PM(2.5) generated by indoor combustion activities can contribute significantly to personal PM exposure. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a device specifically designed to study the kinetics of particle exhalation and the percentage of airway particle deposition (%DEP) in polluted indoor environments (welding fumes, environmental tobacco smoke - ETS) and (2) to assess the intra- and inter-subject variability of the signal. The device was tested on 14 subjects exposed to welding fumes and 10 subjects exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), performing repeated measures at different environmental PM concentrations. The intra-subject variability of the signal for particles with diameter 0.3-1.0 μm showed a geometric mean of %CV always below 6%, despite the values of %DEP. In the welding fume study, the increase in airborne 0.5-1.0 μm PM concentrations between the consulting room and production department was explainable in terms of increased density due to the metallic composition of particles. The %DEP of 0.3-1.0 μm ETS particles decreased with airborne PM concentration due to the technical limits of a laser particle counter and the perturbation induced by the physical characteristics of ETS PM. However, also at those extreme conditions, the signal remained repeatable and the individual susceptibility to PM remained substantially unaltered. In conclusion, the versatility and portability of our device, together with the repeatability of the signal, confirmed that the kinetics of exhaled particles and %DEP could be routinely measured in polluted environments and used to define individual susceptibility to airborne particles.

  9. Visualization of exhaled hydrogen sulphide on test paper with an ultrasensitive and time-gated luminescent probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Shijiang; Wang, Jianping; Han, Guangmei; Yang, Linlin; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent chemosensors for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are of great interest because of the close association of H2S with our health. However, current probes for H2S detection have problems such as low sensitivity/selectivity, poor aqueous-solubility or interference from background fluorescence. This study reports an ultrasensitive and time-gated "switch on" probe for detection of H2S, and its application in test paper for visualization of exhaled H2S. The complex probe is synthesized with a luminescent Tb(3+) centre and three ligands of azido (-N3) substituted pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, giving the probe high hydrophilicity and relatively fast reaction dynamics with H2S because there are three -N3 groups in each molecule. The introduced -N3 group as a strong electron-withdrawing moiety effectively changes the energy level of ligand via intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and thus breaks the energy transferring from ligand to lanthanide ion, resulting in quenching of Tb(3+) luminescence. On addition of H2S, the -N3 group can be reduced to an amine group to break the process of ICT, and the luminescence of Tb(3+) is recovered at a nanomolar sensitivity level. With a long lifetime of luminescence of Tb(3+) centre (1.9 ms), use of a time-gated technique effectively eliminates the background fluorescence by delaying fluorescence collection for 0.1 ms. The test paper imprinted by the complex probe ink can visualize clearly the trace H2S gas exhaled by mice. PMID:27291706

  10. Cytokine profiling in exhaled breath condensate after exercise challenge in asthmatic children with post-exercise symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Bojo, Magdalena; Brzozowska, Agnieszka; Koczkowska, Magdalena; Sielski, Piotr; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Rafał; Janas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Markers of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) correlate with lung function impairment, airway remodeling and different aspects of the disease such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Aim of the study was to determine the cytokine profile in EBC of children with asthma after an exercise treadmill challenge in order to obtain clinically useful information about mechanisms of EIB; also, to assess correlations between cytokine concentrations in EBC and clinical characteristics of the patients. Material and methods The study population consisted of 25 randomly selected children, aged 8 to 19 years, with asthma and EIB symptoms despite the use of control medications. Patients on the day of the study visit underwent fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement (FeNO) and baseline spirometry, performed an exercise treadmill challenge (ETC), and EBC samples were obtained at the end of the ETC. Results In asthmatic children with positive ETC, monocyte hemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-16 adjusted to pre-EBC forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were significantly higher compared to children with negative ETC (p = 0.022 and p = 0.017 respectively). After adjustment to pre-EBC FEV1 other cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, MIG, TNF-α) were not related to post-exercise changes in FEV1. Conclusions We observed a specific inflammatory profile in the airways of asthmatic children with bronchoconstriction induced by exercise. The concentration of cytokines in EBC depended on the post-exercise decrease in FEV1, which was measured by the area under the curve (AUC). MCP-1 and IL-16, adjusted to pre-EBC FEV1, were significantly higher in children with a positive exercise challenge compared to those with a negative one. PMID:27478459

  11. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  12. Comparison of the Levels of Infectious Virus in Respirable Aerosols Exhaled by Ferrets Infected with Influenza Viruses Exhibiting Diverse Transmissibility Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a major public health burden to communities around the world by causing respiratory infections that can be highly contagious and spread rapidly through the population. Despite extensive research on influenza viruses, the modes of transmission occurring most often among humans are not entirely clear. Contributing to this knowledge gap is the lack of an understanding of the levels of infectious virus present in respirable aerosols exhaled from infected hosts. Here, we used the ferret model to evaluate aerosol shedding patterns and measure the amount of infectious virus present in exhaled respirable aerosols. By comparing these parameters among a panel of human and avian influenza viruses exhibiting diverse respiratory droplet transmission efficiencies, we are able to report that ferrets infected by highly transmissible influenza viruses exhale a greater number of aerosol particles and more infectious virus within respirable aerosols than ferrets infected by influenza viruses that do not readily transmit. Our findings improve our understanding of the ferret transmission model and provide support for the potential for influenza virus aerosol transmission. PMID:23658443

  13. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  14. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Miguet, Serge; Ginestet, Chantal

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We propose to simulate an artificial four-dimensional (4-D) CT image of the thorax during breathing. It is performed by deformable registration of two CT scans acquired at inhale and exhale breath-hold. Materials and methods: Breath-hold images were acquired with the ABC (Active Breathing Coordinator) system. Dense deformable registrations were performed. The method was a minimization of the sum of squared differences (SSD) using an approximated second-order gradient. Gaussian and linear-elastic vector field regularizations were compared. A new preprocessing step, called a priori lung density modification (APLDM), was proposed to take into account lung density changes due to inspiration. It consisted of modulating the lung densities in one image according to the densities in the other, in order to make them comparable. Simulated 4-D images were then built by vector field interpolation and image resampling of the two initial CT images. A variation in the lung density was taken into account to generate intermediate artificial CT images. The Jacobian of the deformation was used to compute voxel values in Hounsfield units. The accuracy of the deformable registration was assessed by the spatial correspondence of anatomic landmarks located by experts. Results: APLDM produced statistically significantly better results than the reference method (registration without APLDM preprocessing). The mean (and standard deviation) of distances between automatically found landmark positions and landmarks set by experts were 2.7(1.1) mm with APLDM, and 6.3(3.8) mm without. Interexpert variability was 2.3(1.2) mm. The differences between Gaussian and linear elastic regularizations were not statistically significant. In the second experiment using 4-D images, the mean difference between automatic and manual landmark positions for intermediate CT images was 2.6(2.0) mm. Conclusion: The generation of 4-D CT images by deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT images is

  15. Is It Possible to Predict Pulmonary Complications and Mortality in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients from Pre-Transplantation Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Köktürk, Nurdan; Yıldırım, Fatma; Aydoğdu, Müge; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Yeğin, Zeynep Arzu; Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Suyanı, Elif; Kıvılcım Oğuzülgen, İpek; Türköz Sucak, Gülsan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chemo/radiotherapy-induced free oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen derivatives contribute to the development of early and late transplantation-related pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. It has been proposed that an increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level indicates oxidative stress and inflammation in the airways. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the pre-transplantation FeNO levels in HSCT patients and to search for its role in predicting post-transplantation pulmonary complications and mortality. Materials and Methods: HSCT patients were included in the study prospectively between October 2009 and July 2011. Pre-transplantation FeNO levels were measured with a NIOX MINO® device prior to conditioning regimens. All patients were monitored prospectively for post-transplantation pulmonary complications with medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and pulmonary function tests. Results: A total of 56 patients (33 autologous, 23 allogeneic) with mean age of 45±13 years were included in the study, among whom 40 (71%) were male. Pre-transplantation FeNO level of the whole study group was found to be 24±13 (mean ± standard deviation) parts per billion (ppb). The FeNO level in allogeneic HSCT recipients was 19±6 ppb while it was 27±15 ppb in autologous HSCT recipients (p=0.042). No significant correlation was found between the pre-transplantation chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols and baseline FeNO levels (p>0.05). Post-transplantation pulmonary toxicity was identified in 12 (21%) patients and no significant relationship was found between baseline FeNO levels and pulmonary toxicity. The survival rate of the whole study group for 1 year after transplantation was 70%. No significant relationship was identified between baseline FeNO values and survival (FeNO 19±7 ppb in patients who died and 26±15 ppb in the survivors; p=0.114). Conclusion

  16. Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate Are Not Predictive for Pulmonary Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Results of a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van Horck, Marieke; Alonso, Ariel; Wesseling, Geertjan; de Winter—de Groot, Karin; van Aalderen, Wim; Hendriks, Han; Winkens, Bjorn; Rijkers, Ger; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronically inflamed airways, and inflammation even increases during pulmonary exacerbations. These adverse events have an important influence on the well-being, quality of life, and lung function of patients with CF. Prediction of exacerbations by inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) combined with early treatment may prevent these pulmonary exacerbations and may improve the prognosis. Aim To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a set of inflammatory markers in EBC to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF. Methods In this one-year prospective observational study, 49 children with CF were included. During study visits with an interval of 2 months, a symptom questionnaire was completed, EBC was collected, and lung function measurements were performed. The acidity of EBC was measured directly after collection. Inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were measured using high sensitivity bead based flow immunoassays. Pulmonary exacerbations were recorded during the study and were defined in two ways. The predictive power of inflammatory markers and the other covariates was assessed using conditionally specified models and a receiver operating characteristic curve (SAS version 9.2). In addition, k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm was applied (SAS version 9.2). Results Sixty-five percent of the children had one or more exacerbations during the study. The conditionally specified models showed an overall correct prediction rate of 55%. The area under the curve (AUC) was equal to 0.62. The results obtained with the KNN algorithm were very similar. Conclusion Although there is some evidence indicating that the predictors outperform random guessing, the general diagnostic accuracy of EBC acidity and the EBC inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MIF is low. At present it is not possible to

  17. Rat models of acute lung injury: exhaled nitric oxide as a sensitive, noninvasive real-time biomarker of prognosis and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Li, Wenli; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2013-08-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has received increased attention in clinical settings because this technique is easy to use with instant readout. However, despite the simplicity of eNO in humans, this endpoint has not frequently been used in experimental rat models of septic (endotoxemia) or irritant acute lung injury (ALI). The focus of this study is to adapt this method to rats for studying ALI-related lung disease and whether it can serve as instant, non-invasive biomarker of ALI to study lung toxicity and pharmacological efficacy. Measurements were made in a dynamic flow of sheath air containing the exhaled breath from spontaneously breathing, conscious rats placed into a head-out volume plethysmograph. The quantity of eNO in exhaled breath was adjusted (normalized) to the physiological variables (breathing frequency, concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide) mirroring pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. eNO was examined on the instillation/inhalation exposure day and first post-exposure day in Wistar rats intratracheally instilled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or single inhalation exposure to chlorine or phosgene gas. eNO was also examined in a Brown Norway rat asthma model using the asthmagen toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The diagnostic sensitivity of adjusted eNO was superior to the measurements not accounting for the normalization of physiological variables. In all bioassays - whether septic, airway or alveolar irritant or allergic, the adjusted eNO was significantly increased when compared to the concurrent control. The maximum increase of the adjusted eNO occurred following exposure to the airway irritant chlorine. The specificity of adjustment was experimentally verified by decreased eNO following inhalation dosing of the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amoniguanidine. In summary, the diagnostic sensitivity of eNO can readily be applied to spontaneously breathing, conscious rats without any intervention or anesthesia. Measurements are definitely

  18. Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide at work and at home: a new tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Hagemeyer, Olaf; Marek, Eike; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whereas serial measurements of lung function at work and at home are a well-known diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA), little is known about the serial measurements of non-invasive parameters such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). A 51-year-old baker with variable shortness of breath without relation to work was examined for suspected OA. Skin prick test showed weak sensitizations to wheat and rye flour (without sensitizations to environmental allergens) that were corroborated by in vitro testing (CAP class 3). Baseline FEV1 of 58% predicted and a decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after placebo (sugar powder) of 17% did not allow inhalational challenge testing. The patient performed daily measurements of FEV1 and eNO for about a month during a holiday at home and at work. Whereas symptoms and FEV1 did not show differences between holidays and work periods, eNO showed a clear increase from below 10 ppb to a maximum of 75 ppb. A diagnosis of baker's asthma was made, and the patient quit his job immediately after medical advice. A year afterwards, the patient was still taking asthma medication, but his symptoms had improved, FEV1 had increased to 73% predicted, and eNO was 25 ppb. We conclude that serial measurements of eNO at home and at work may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of OA. PMID:25252906

  19. Increased angiogenic factors in exhaled breath condensate of children with severe asthma - New markers of disease progression?

    PubMed

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Litwiniuk, Malgorzata; Krejner, Alicja; Zagorska, Wioletta; Grzela, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Asthma progression is associated with airway remodeling and neo-vascularization. However, role of angiogenesis in these changes remains unclear and available data still incomplete. In this pilot study we verify usefulness of proteome profiler assay in screening of angiogenesis-related factors in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) collected from children with asthma. EBC samples from patients with mild or severe asthma and healthy controls were tested using protein array. In EBC samples from patients with severe asthma we have found large quantities of several angiogenesis regulators, including thrombospondin (TSP)-1, angiogenin, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1. Small amounts of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also present. In contrast to them, in EBC from mild asthma group we have detected TSP-1 and small quantities of Ang-2. EBC samples from healthy controls contained only TSP-1. Our preliminary report suggests that, since increased amounts of angiogenesis-related factors in EBC seem to correlate with asthma severity, they may be considered as convenient non-invasive markers of disease progression. However, further research is necessary. PMID:27578480

  20. Specific Metabolome Profile of Exhaled Breath Condensate in Patients with Shock and Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fermier, Brice; Blasco, Hélène; Godat, Emmanuel; Bocca, Cinzia; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Emond, Patrick; Andres, Christian R.; Laffon, Marc; Ferrandière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shock includes different pathophysiological mechanisms not fully understood and remains a challenge to manage. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may contain relevant biomarkers that could help us make an early diagnosis or better understand the metabolic perturbations resulting from this pathological situation. Objective: we aimed to establish the metabolomics signature of EBC from patients in shock with acute respiratory failure in a pilot study. Material and methods: We explored the metabolic signature of EBC in 12 patients with shock compared to 14 controls using LC-HRMS. We used a non-targeted approach, and we performed a multivariate analysis based on Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to differentiate between the two groups of patients. Results: We optimized the procedure of EBC collection and LC-HRMS detected more than 1000 ions in this fluid. The optimization of multivariate models led to an excellent model of differentiation for both groups (Q2 > 0.4) after inclusion of only 6 ions. Discussion and conclusion: We validated the procedure of EBC collection and we showed that the metabolome profile of EBC may be relevant in characterizing patients with shock. We performed well in distinguishing these patients from controls, and the identification of relevant compounds may be promising for ICC patients. PMID:27598216

  1. Exhaled breath condensate detects baseline reductions in chloride and increases in response to albuterol in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Morgan, Wayne J; Cassuto, Nicholas A; Foxx-Lupo, William T; Daines, Cori L; Morgan, Mary A; Phan, Hanna; Snyder, Eric M

    2013-01-01

    Impaired ion regulation and dehydration is the primary pathophysiology in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. A potential application of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is to assess airway surface liquid ionic composition at baseline and in response to pharmacological therapy in CF. Our aims were to determine if EBC could detect differences in ion regulation between CF and healthy and measure the effect of the albuterol on EBC ions in these populations. Baseline EBC Cl(-), DLCO and SpO2 were lower in CF (n = 16) compared to healthy participants (n = 16). EBC Cl(-) increased in CF subjects, while there was no change in DLCO or membrane conductance, but a decrease in pulmonary-capillary blood volume in both groups following albuterol. This resulted in an improvement in diffusion at the alveolar-capillary unit, and removal of the baseline difference in SpO2 by 90-minutes in CF subjects. These results demonstrate that EBC detects differences in ion regulation between healthy and CF individuals, and that albuterol mediates increases in Cl(-) in CF, suggesting that the benefits of albuterol extend beyond simple bronchodilation.

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate Detects Baseline Reductions in Chloride and Increases in Response to Albuterol in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Courtney M.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Cassuto, Nicholas A.; Foxx-Lupo, William T.; Daines, Cori L.; Morgan, Mary A.; Phan, Hanna; Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired ion regulation and dehydration is the primary pathophysiology in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. A potential application of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is to assess airway surface liquid ionic composition at baseline and in response to pharmacological therapy in CF. Our aims were to determine if EBC could detect differences in ion regulation between CF and healthy and measure the effect of the albuterol on EBC ions in these populations. Baseline EBC Cl−, DLCO and SpO2 were lower in CF (n = 16) compared to healthy participants (n = 16). EBC Cl− increased in CF subjects, while there was no change in DLCO or membrane conductance, but a decrease in pulmonary-capillary blood volume in both groups following albuterol. This resulted in an improvement in diffusion at the alveolar-capillary unit, and removal of the baseline difference in SpO2 by 90-minutes in CF subjects. These results demonstrate that EBC detects differences in ion regulation between healthy and CF individuals, and that albuterol mediates increases in Cl− in CF, suggesting that the benefits of albuterol extend beyond simple bronchodilation. PMID:24367235

  3. Detection of malignant pleural mesothelioma in exhaled breath by multicapillary column/ion mobility spectrometry (MCC/IMS).

    PubMed

    Lamote, Kevin; Vynck, Matthijs; Van Cleemput, Joris; Thas, Olivier; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Meerbeeck, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is predominantly caused by previous asbestos exposure. Diagnosis often happens in advanced stages restricting any therapeutic perspectives. Early stage detection via breath analysis was explored using multicapillary column/ion mobility spectrometry (MCC/IMS) to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of MPM patients in comparison to former occupational asbestos-exposed and non-exposed controls. Breath and background samples of 23 MPM patients, 22 asymptomatic former asbestos (AEx) workers and 21 healthy non-asbestos exposed persons were taken for analysis. After background correction, we performed a logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regression to select the most important VOCs, followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPM patients were discriminated from both controls with 87% sensitivity, 70% specificity and respective positive and negative predictive values of 61% and 91%. The overall accuracy was 76% and the area under the ROC-curve was 0.81. AEx individuals could be discriminated from MPM patients with 87% sensitivity, 86% specificity and respective positive and negative predictive values of 87% and 86%. The overall accuracy was 87% with an area under the ROC-curve of 0.86. Breath analysis by MCC/IMS allows MPM patients to be discriminated from controls and holds promise for further investigation as a screening tool for former asbestos-exposed persons at risk of developing MPM. PMID:27669062

  4. Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide at work and at home: a new tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Hagemeyer, Olaf; Marek, Eike; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whereas serial measurements of lung function at work and at home are a well-known diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA), little is known about the serial measurements of non-invasive parameters such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). A 51-year-old baker with variable shortness of breath without relation to work was examined for suspected OA. Skin prick test showed weak sensitizations to wheat and rye flour (without sensitizations to environmental allergens) that were corroborated by in vitro testing (CAP class 3). Baseline FEV1 of 58% predicted and a decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after placebo (sugar powder) of 17% did not allow inhalational challenge testing. The patient performed daily measurements of FEV1 and eNO for about a month during a holiday at home and at work. Whereas symptoms and FEV1 did not show differences between holidays and work periods, eNO showed a clear increase from below 10 ppb to a maximum of 75 ppb. A diagnosis of baker's asthma was made, and the patient quit his job immediately after medical advice. A year afterwards, the patient was still taking asthma medication, but his symptoms had improved, FEV1 had increased to 73% predicted, and eNO was 25 ppb. We conclude that serial measurements of eNO at home and at work may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of OA.

  5. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction as an Add-On to ACQ-7 for Not Well Controlled Asthma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Methods Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Results Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. Conclusions The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment. PMID:24204742

  6. Volatile garlic odor components: gas phases and adsorbed exhaled air analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laakso, I; Seppänen-Laakso, T; Hiltunen, R; Müller, B; Jansen, H; Knobloch, K

    1989-06-01

    Combined headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSGC-MS) was used in the analysis of garlic volatile compounds. Twenty major components were identified in the gas phases enriched by fresh, sliced garlic cloves ( ALLIUM SATIVUM L, Allioceae, Liliidae). Suspended dry garlic powder and crushed garlic, incubated in vegetable oil, revealed a different pattern since mainly the amounts of di- and trisulfides were decreased. The considerable compositional differences found in the analyses for the gas phase of garlic cloves, kept in oil, are likely associated with the poor stability of allicin in a lipophilic environment; a marked increase in the amounts of 2-propene-1-thiol, acetic acid, and ethanol was observed in the gas phase, whereas trisulfides were present in traces only. The occurrence of 2-propene-1-thiol and diallyl disulfide, the two principal sulfur components in exhaled air, also may indicate a rapid degradation of most garlic volatile components probably caused by the enzymatically active human salivary or digestive system. PMID:17262412

  7. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes. PMID:22686312

  8. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes.

  9. Effect of exercise duration on pro-oxidants and pH in exhaled breath condensate in humans.

    PubMed

    Tuesta, M; Alvear, M; Carbonell, T; García, C; Guzmán-Venegas, R; Araneda, O F

    2016-06-01

    Exercise promotes pulmonary oxidative imbalance. In this regard, some evidence has been obtained from the study of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during urban races, in which the factors involved in the occurrence of this process are still not characterized. In this paper, under laboratory conditions, both the role of time of exercise on the generation of pro-oxidants (H2O2, NO2 (-)) and pH have been assessed in EBC of 16 under-trained subjects who completed three tests of cycloergometric exercise at low intensity (30 % of VO2 max) with a duration of 10, 30, and 90 min. Samples were obtained as follows: immediately before and at 80 min post exertion in each test. In the 90-min test, an increase in H2O2, NO2 (-) concentration in EBC at 80 min post exertion with no changes in the pH was observed. Total O2 consumption and total ventilation weakly correlated with the changes in H2O2 and NO2 (-). In conclusion, the concentration of pro-oxidants in the EBC depends on the duration of the exercise when it is performed at low intensity under laboratory conditions.

  10. Fractionation of families of major, minor, and trace metals across the melt-vapor interface in volcanic exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Le Cloarec, M.-F.; Lambert, G.

    1994-01-01

    volcanic plumes, and Cd and Tl are enriched relative to the others. Indium is much more abundant in the plume of the hotspot volcano Kilauea than in the Etna plume (probably non-hotspot in character). It may be a useful indicator of the tapping of deep mantle zones, or could aid in the interpretation of reports of Pt group metals in exhalations from hot spot volcanoes. Indium in old glacial ice strata could help assess magnitude and variability of exhalations from hotspot volcanoes in past time. Strong melt-vapor fractionation of the alkali and alkaline earth metals may only be observed in plumes during quiescent degassing of volcanoes; when large amounts of ash or spatter (undifferentiated lava) enter the plume, its alkali and alkaline earth metal composition may approach that of the melt. Ratios among the chalcophile metals may not be much changed by addition of ash, because their concentrations in melt are so small, and masses of them in any plume may remain dominated by transfer across the melt-vapor interface. Radon daughter nuclides give information about state of volcanic activity at time of sampling. The precisely known origins, ultratrace detectability, decay systematics, and wide variations in volatility of these species provide information about residence times, degassing and travel histories, and identities of melt bodies in volcanic systems. ?? 1994.

  11. Do linear logistic model analyses of volatile biomarkers in exhaled breath of cystic fibrosis patients reliably indicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection?

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Doušová, Tereza; Dřevínek, Pavel; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive breath analysis has been used to search for volatile biomarkers of lungs and airways infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PA, in cystic fibrosis patients. The exhaled breath of 20 PA-infected patients and 38 PA-negative patients was analysed using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. Special attention was given to the positive identification and accurate quantification of 16 volatile compounds (VOCs) as assured by the detailed consideration of their analytical ion chemistry occurring in the SIFT-MS reactor. However, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the concentrations of any of the 16 compounds taken individually were found to be low. But when a linear combination of the concentrations of all 16 VOCs was used to construct an optimised receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve using a linear logistic model, the diagnostic separation of PA-infected patients relative to the PA-negative patients was apparently good in terms of the derived sensitivity (89%), specificity (86%), and the area under the ROC curve is 0.91. Four compounds were revealed by the linear logistic model as significant, viz. malondialdehyde, isoprene, phenol and acetoin. The implications of these results to PA detection in the airways are assessed. Whilst such a metabolomics approach to optimise the ROC curve is widely used in breath analysis, it can lead to misleading indications. Therefore, we conclude that the results of the linear logistic model analyses are of limited immediate clinical value. The identified compounds should rather be considered as a stimulus for further independent studies involving larger patient cohorts. PMID:27532768

  12. Sensitive and selective chemiluminescence assay for hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate using nanoparticle-based catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Tao, Liang; Gao, Miao

    2013-04-01

    The catalytic properties of cubiform Co3O4 nanoparticles, α-Fe2O3 nanorods, and NiO nanoparticles were studied using both microarray method and FI-CL method. These nanoarticles exhibit high specific catalytic effects on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system in alkaline solution compared with other common catalysts. A reaction mechanism is described. It provides new insights into the application of nanoparticle materials. The CL method based on the use of the Co3O4 nanoparticles is ultrasensitive and particularly selective. Therefore, it was applied to the analysis of H2O2 which can be determined in the concentration range from 1.0 nM to 1000 nM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM. The relative standard deviation is 2.1% at 0.1 μM of H2O2 (for n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace quantities of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) where it is a mediator of oxidative stress and a promising biomarker for diagnosing. The assay requires a small sample and no incubation time, and has an analytical runtime of <1 min. It is timesaving and suitable for larger studies. The levels of H2O2 in EBC are found to be elevated in healthy subjects (average = 0.54 nM), rheum subjects (average = 0.24 nM), and feverish subjects (average = 0.16 nM). Our data suggested that the average H2O2 concentration of EBC from feverish subjects was significantly higher than healthy subjects and rheumatic subjects.

  13. Assessment of oxidative stress biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and blood of dairy heifer calves from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Rujuta; Talukder, Saranika; Muscatello, Gary; Celi, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    The balance between oxidants and antioxidants may be impaired in neonatal calves but only limited information is available on physiological changes in oxidative biomarkers in healthy calves. The aim of this study was to measure biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in calves from birth to weaning. Eighteen, healthy, female Holstein-Friesian calves were used in the study. Blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples were taken on the day of birth (Week 0) and then at Weeks 6, 12 and 18. Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) were determined on fresh blood and the degree of OS was expressed as an oxidative stress index (OSI), where OSI = ROMs/BAP × 100. Plasma concentrations of antioxidant barrier (OXY), thiol antioxidant barrier (SH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), albumin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were also measured, as was hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in EBC. Plasma concentrations of ROMs were relatively stable during the trial; AOPP concentration progressively decreased reaching its lowest values on Week 18. Albumin, SH and OXY concentrations progressively increased from birth to weaning. Concentrations of NEFA in plasma and H2O2 in EBC were relatively stable but peaked in Week 18. The results indicate that antioxidative defence not only increases with time in the plasma of new-born calves but also that it is related to protein oxidation processes. Furthermore, the data support the use EBC H2O2 as a novel biomarker to assess respiratory OS in calves.

  14. Exercise-Induced Changes in Exhaled NO Differentiates Asthma With or Without Fixed Airway Obstruction From COPD With Dynamic Hyperinflation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Yi; Chou, Pai-Chien; Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Chung, Kian Fan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Asthmatic patients with fixed airway obstruction (FAO) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) share similarities in terms of irreversible pulmonary function impairment. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been documented as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma, but not in COPD. To examine whether the basal eNO level and the change after exercise may differentiate asthmatics with FAO from COPD, 27 normal subjects, 60 stable asthmatics, and 62 stable COPD patients were studied. Asthmatics with FAO (n = 29) were defined as showing a postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≤70% and FEV1 less than 80% predicted after inhaled salbutamol (400 μg). COPD with dynamic hyperinflation (n = 31) was defined as a decrease in inspiratory capacity (ΔIC%) after a 6 minute walk test (6MWT). Basal levels of eNO were significantly higher in asthmatics and COPD patients compared to normal subjects. The changes in eNO after 6MWT were negatively correlated with the percent change in IC (r = -0.380, n = 29, P = 0.042) in asthmatics with FAO. Their levels of basal eNO correlated with the maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF % predicted) before and after 6MWT. In COPD patients with air-trapping, the percent change of eNO was positively correlated to ΔIC% (rs = 0.404, n = 31, P = 0.024). We conclude that asthma with FAO may represent residual inflammation in the airways, while dynamic hyperinflation in COPD may retain NO in the distal airspace. eNO changes after 6MWT may differentiate the subgroups of asthma or COPD patients and will help toward delivery of individualized therapy for airflow obstruction. PMID:27082615

  15. Effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples on diagnostic accuracy of electronic nose analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Brinkman, P; Bos, L D J; Angelo, M D; Nijsen, T M E; Raabe, R; Knobel, H H; Vink, T J; Sterk, P J

    2013-03-01

    Many (multi-centre) breath-analysis studies require transport and storage of samples. We aimed to test the effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples for diagnostic accuracy of eNose and GC-MS analysis. As a reference standard for diagnostic accuracy, breath samples of asthmatic patients and healthy controls were analysed by three eNose devices. Samples were analysed by GC-MS and eNose after 1, 7 and 14 days of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes. The diagnostic accuracy for eNose and GC-MS after storage was compared to the reference standard. As a validation, the stability was assessed of 15 compounds known to be related to asthma, abundant in breath or related to sampling and analysis. The reference test discriminated asthma and healthy controls with a median AUC (range) of 0.77 (0.72-0.76). Similar accuracies were achieved at t1 (AUC eNose 0.78; GC-MS 0.84), t7 (AUC eNose 0.76; GC-MS 0.79) and t14 (AUC eNose 0.83; GC-MS 0.84). The GC-MS analysis of compounds showed an adequate stability for all 15 compounds during the 14 day period. Short-term transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of breath samples does not influence the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between asthma and health by eNose and GC-MS.

  16. Effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Cyrys, Josef; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies which have investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on airway inflammation, assessed by an increase of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), have been conducted among asthmatic children. Few studies have considered this potential association among non-asthmatics. Furthermore, although both short- and long-term effects of air pollution on eNO had been reported separately, studies which include both are scarce. We explored associations between 24h NO2 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) mass with eNO in 1985 children (192 asthmatics and 1793 non-asthmatics) aged 10 years and accounted for the long-term effects of air pollution by adjusting for annual averages of NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm) and PM2.5 absorbance, using data from two German birth cohorts in Munich and Wesel. In total, robust associations between 24h NO2 and eNO were observed in both single-pollutant (percentage change: 18.30%, 95% confidence interval: 11.63-25.37) and two-pollutant models (14.62%, 6.71-23.11). The association between 24h PM10 mass and eNO was only significant in the single-pollutant model (9.59%, 4.80-14.61). The same significant associations were also observed in non-asthmatic children, while they did not reach significant levels in asthmatic children. Associations between annual averages of ambient air pollution (NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 absorbance) and eNO were consistently null. In conclusion, significantly positive associations were observed between short-term ambient air pollution and eNO. No long-term effects of air pollution on eNO were found in this study.

  17. Residential Traffic-Related Pollution Exposures and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in the Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Salam, Muhammad T.; Rappaport, Edward B.; Linn, William S.; Bastain, Theresa M.; Zhang, Yue; Lurmann, Frederick; Avol, Edward L.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) potentially detects airway inflammation related to air pollution exposure. Existing studies have not yet provided conclusive evidence on the association of FeNO with traffic-related pollution (TRP). Objectives: We evaluated the association of FeNO with residential TRP exposure in a large cohort of children. Methods: We related FeNO measured on 2,143 children (ages 7–11 years) who participated in the Southern California Children’s Health Study (CHS) to five classes of metrics of residential TRP: distances to freeways and major roads; length of all and local roads within circular buffers around the home; traffic densities within buffers; annual average line source dispersion modeled nitrogen oxides (NOx) from freeways and nonfreeway roads; and predicted annual average nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and NOx from a model based on intracommunity sampling in the CHS. Results: In children with asthma, length of roads was positively associated with FeNO, with stronger associations in smaller buffers [46.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 14.3–88.4], 12.4% (95% CI, –8.8 to 38.4), and 4.1% (95% CI, –14.6 to 26.8) higher FeNO for 100-, 300-, and 1,000-m increases in the length of all roads in 50-, 100-, and 200-m buffers, respectively. Other TRP metrics were not significantly associated with FeNO, even though the study design was powered to detect exposures explaining as little as 0.4% of the variation in natural log-transformed FeNO (R2 = 0.004). Conclusion: Length of road was the only indicator of residential TRP exposure associated with airway inflammation in children with asthma, as measured by FeNO. PMID:21708511

  18. Positional Reproducibility of Pancreatic Tumors Under End-Exhalation Breath-Hold Conditions Using a Visual Feedback Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shibuya, Keiko; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To assess positional reproducibility of pancreatic tumors under end-exhalation (EE) breath-hold (BH) conditions with a visual feedback technique based on computed tomography (CT) images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. All patients were placed in a supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. At the time of CT scan, they held their breath at EE with the aid of video goggles displaying their abdominal displacement. Each three-consecutive helical CT data set was acquired four times (sessions 1-4; session 1 corresponded to the time of CT simulation). The point of interest within or in proximity to a gross tumor volume was defined based on certain structural features. The positional variations in point of interest and margin size required to cover positional variations were assessed. Results: The means {+-} standard deviations (SDs) of intrafraction positional variations were 0.0 {+-} 1.1, 0.1 {+-} 1.2, and 0.1 {+-} 1.0 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively (p = 0.726). The means {+-} SDs of interfraction positional variations were 0.3 {+-} 2.0, 0.8 {+-} 1.8, and 0.3 {+-} 1.8 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively (p = 0.533). Population-based margin sizes required to cover 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations were 4.7, 5.3, and 4.9 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusions: A margin size of 5 mm was needed to cover the 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations under EE-BH conditions, using this noninvasive approach to motion management for pancreatic tumors.

  19. Domestic airborne black carbon levels and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate among children in New York City☆

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria Jose; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Acosta, Luis M.; Divjan, Adnan; Jacobson, Judith S.; Miller, Rachel L.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne black carbon (BC) has been associated with asthma development, respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function. However, the mechanism through which BC may lead to respiratory symptoms has not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which BC might lead to adverse health outcomes. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) allows for the non-invasive collection of airway lining fluid containing biomarkers of oxidative stress like 8-isoprostane, a stable by-product of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the association between domestic airborne BC concentrations and 8-isoprostane in EBC. Materials and methods Seven- and eight-year-old children participated in an asthma case–control study in New York City. During home visits, air samples and EBC were collected. Seven day averages of domestic levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), BC and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were measured. Urea and 8-isoprostane were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in EBC. Results In univariate models, PM2.5 and BC, but not ETS, were significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane in the EBC (β = 0.006 and β = 0.106 respectively, p < 0.05 for both). These associations remained statistically significant for both PM2.5 and BC after adjustment for covariates. In a co-pollutant model including PM2.5, BC and ETS, only BC remained a statistically significant predictor of 8-isoprostane (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest the BC fraction of PM might contain exposure relevant to increased oxidative stress in the airways. PMID:25262082

  20. Importance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the differentiation of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome, asthma, and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-jia; Huang, Xin-yan; Liu, Yang-li; Lin, Geng-peng; Xie, Can-mao

    2016-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an easy, sensitive, reproducible, and noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Accordingly, FeNO is extensively used to diagnose and manage asthma. Patients with COPD who share some of the features of asthma have a condition called asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). The feasibility of using FeNO to differentiate ACOS patients from asthma and COPD patients remains unclear. Methods From February 2013 to May 2016, patients suspected with asthma and COPD through physician’s opinion were subjected to FeNO measurement, pulmonary function test (PFT), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test. Patients were divided into asthma alone group, COPD alone group, and ACOS group according to a clinical history, PFT values, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to elucidate the clinical functions of FeNO in diagnosing ACOS. The optimal operating point was also determined. Results A total of 689 patients were enrolled in this study: 500 had asthma, 132 had COPD, and 57 had ACOS. The FeNO value in patients with ACOS was 27 (21.5) parts per billion (ppb; median [interquartile range]), which was significantly higher than that in the COPD group (18 [11] ppb). The area under the ROC curve was estimated to be 0.783 for FeNO. Results also revealed an optimal cutoff value of >22.5 ppb FeNO for differentiating ACOS from COPD patients (sensitivity 70%, specificity 75%). Conclusion FeNO measurement is an easy, noninvasive, and sensitive method for differentiating ACOS from COPD. This technique is a new perspective for the management of COPD patients. PMID:27713629

  1. Association of recent exposure to ambient metals on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in 9-11 year old inner-city children

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria José; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Divjan, Adnan; Chillrud, Steven N; Hoepner, Lori; Zhang, Hanjie; Ridder, Robert; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient metals in urban environments has been associated with wheeze, and emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to respiratory illness. However, the effect of ambient metals exposure on airway inflammation, and how these associations may be modified by seroatopy, has not been determined. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a reliable proxy marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that recent ambient concentrations of Ni, V, Zn and Fe would be associated differentially with proximal and distal fractions of exhaled NO, and that these associations would be modified by seroatopy. As part of the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study, 9-11 year old children (n=192) were evaluated. Ambient measures of Ni, V, Zn and Fe were obtained from a local central monitoring site and averaged over nine days based on three 24 hour measures every third day. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) samples were obtained at constant flows of 50 (FENO50), 83 and 100 mL/sec, and used to determine surrogate measures for proximal (JNO) and alveolar (Calv) inflammation. Seroatopy was determined by specific IgE at age 7. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Ambient V and Fe concentrations were associated positively with FENO50 (p = 0.018, p = 0.027). Ambient Fe was associated positively with JNO (p = 0.017). Ambient Ni and V concentrations were associated positively with Calv (p = 0.004, p = 0.018 respectively). A stronger association of Ni concentrations with Calv was observed among the children with seroatopy. These results suggest that ambient metals are associated differentially with different fractions of FENO production, and this relationship may be modified by seroatopy. PMID:24878380

  2. Loss of Salmeterol Bronchoprotection against Exercise in Relation to ADRB2 Arg16Gly Polymorphism and Exhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Matteo; Permaul, Perdita; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Kazani, Shamsah; Segal, Alex; Sorkness, Christine A.; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: β2-Agonists are the treatment of choice for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and act through specific receptors (ADRB2). Arg16Gly polymorphisms have been shown to affect responses to regular use of β2-agonists. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of the Arg16Gly receptor polymorphism on salmeterol bronchoprotection in EIB and assess predictors of bronchoprotection. Methods: A prospective, genotype-blinded, randomized trial was performed in 26 subjects (12 Arg16Arg and 14 Gly16Gly) with EIB who were not on controller therapy. Subjects were administered salmeterol, 50 μg twice a day for 2 weeks, and underwent an exercise challenge 9 hours after the first and last drug dose. In addition to genotype, FEV1, response to salmeterol, degree of EIB, and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at baseline were examined for their association with loss of bronchoprotection (LOB). Measurements and Main Results: The maximum exercise-induced FEV1 fall was 27.9 ± 1.4% during the run-in period, 8.1 ± 1.2% (70.3 ± 4.1% bronchoprotection) after the first salmeterol dose, and 22.8 ± 3.2% (18.9 ± 11.5% bronchoprotection) after 2 weeks of salmeterol (P = 0.0001). The Arg16Gly polymorphisms were not associated with the LOB in response to salmeterol. FeNO values at baseline were significantly related to the LOB (r = 0.47; P = 0.01). Mean change was a 74 ± 13% LOB in subjects with FeNO levels greater than 50 ppb and a 7 ± 16% gain in bronchoprotection in those with FeNO levels less than 25 ppb (P = 0.01). Conclusions: The LOB that occurs with chronic long-acting β2-agonists use is not affected by ADRB2 Arg16Gly polymorphisms. High FeNO was associated with marked LOB. Use of long-acting β2-agonists before achieving a reduction in FeNO may need to be avoided. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00595361). PMID:24228710

  3. Fractioned exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is not a sufficiently reliable test for monitoring asthma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Liebhart, Jerzy; Pawłowicz, Robert; Kazimierczak, Anna; Marszalska, Hanna; Kraus-Filarska, Maria; Panaszek, Bernard; Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna

    2013-09-01

    It has been reported that fractioned exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) can be used for monitoring airway inflammation and for asthma management but conclusions drawn by different researchers are controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of FENO assessment for monitoring asthma during pregnancy. We monitored 72 pregnant asthmatics aged 18-38years (Me=29 years) who underwent monthly investigations including: the level of asthma control according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma), the occurrence of exacerbations, ACT (Asthma Control Test), as well as FENO and spirometry measurements. In 50 women, during all visits, asthma was well-controlled. In the remaining 22 women, asthma was periodically uncontrolled. FENO measured at the beginning of the study did not show significant correlation with retrospectively evaluated asthma severity (r=0.07; p=0.97). An analysis of data collected during all 254 visits showed that FENO correlated significantly but weakly with ACT scores (r=0.25; p=0.0004) and FEV1 (r=0.21; p=0.0014). FENO at consecutive visits in women with well-controlled asthma (N=50) showed large variability expressed by median coefficient of variation (CV)=32.0% (Min 2.4%, Max 121.9%). This concerned both: atopic and nonatopic groups (35.5%; and 26.7%, respectively). Large FENO variability (35.5%) was also found in a subgroup of women (N=11) with ACT=25 constantly throughout the study. FENO measured at visits when women temporarily lost control of asthma (N=22; 38 visits), showed an increasing tendency (64.2 ppb; 9.5 ppb-188.3 ppb), but did not differ significantly (p=0.13) from measurements taken at visits during which asthma was well-controlled (27.6 ppb; 6.2 ppb-103.4 ppb). The comparison of FENO in consecutive months of pregnancy in women who had well-controlled asthma did not show significant differences in FENO values during the time of observation. The assessment of asthma during pregnancy by means of monitoring FENO is of

  4. Relation between biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate and internal exposure to metals from gas metal arc welding.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Weiss, Tobias; Lehnert, Martin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Kendzia, Benjamin; Harth, Volker; Henry, Jana; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Concerning possible harmful components of welding fumes, besides gases and quantitative aspects of the respirable welding fumes, particle-inherent metal toxicity has to be considered.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect markers leukotriene B4 (LTB4),prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane (8-Iso PGF2α) as well as the acid–base balance(pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 43 full-time gas metal arc welders (20 smokers) in relation to welding fume exposure. We observed different patterns of iron, chromium and nickel in respirable welding fumes and EBC. Welders with undetectable chromium in EBC(group A, n = 24) presented high iron and nickel concentrations. In this group, higher 8-isoPGF2α and LTB4 concentrations could be revealed compared to welders with detectable chromium and low levels of both iron and nickel in EBC (group B): 8-iso PGF2α443.3 pg mL−1 versus 247.2 pg mL−1; p = 0.001 and LTB4 30.5 pg mL−1 versus 17.3 pgmL−1; p = 0.016. EBC-pH was more acid in samples of group B (6.52 versus 6.82; p = 0.011).Overall, effect markers in welders were associated with iron concentrations in EBC according to smoking habits--non-smokers/smokers: LTB4 (rs = 0.48; p = 0.02/rs = 0.21; p = 0.37),PGE2 (rs = 0.15; p = 0.59/rs = 0.47; p = 0.07), 8-iso PGF2α (rs = 0.18; p = 0.54/rs = 0.59;p = 0.06). Sampling of EBC in occupational research provides a matrix for the simultaneous monitoring of metal exposure and effects on target level. Our results suggest irritative effects in the airways of healthy welders. Further studies are necessary to assess whether these individual results might be used to identify welders at elevated risk for developing a respiratory disease. PMID:22622358

  5. The Woxi W-Sb-Au deposit in Hunan, South China: An example of Late Proterozoic sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Schulz, O.; Vavtar, F.; Liu, J. M.; Zheng, M. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-09-01

    many SEDEX-type deposits and associated exhalites, implying similar mineralizing fluids for these deposits. Sulfides from the ore have negative and variable δ34S values (from -12.3‰ to -1.2‰), suggesting a dominant sulfur contribution of bacterial sulfate reduction. A syngenetic (SEDEX) model is thus proposed for the formation of the Woxi deposit. Convective seawater circulated through the sediment pile and episodically vented metalliferous hydrothermal fluids onto the sea floor. Each exhalative episode was preceded by a period dominated by chemical and turbiditic sedimentation (footwall alteration blanket), followed by a peak release of hot metalliferous brines (stratiform ores and associated stringers), and terminated by a waning influx of hydrothermal fluids accompanying burial by later turbidites (hanging-wall alteration blanket).

  6. An exploratory comparative study of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and emitted by skin using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Claire; Parekh, Bhavin; Walton, Christopher; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David; Evans, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has been used to carry out a pilot parallel study on five volunteers to determine changes occurring in several trace compounds present in exhaled breath and emitted from skin into a collection bag surrounding part of the arm, before and after ingesting 75 g of glucose in the fasting state. SIFT-MS enabled real-time quantification of ammonia, methanol, ethanol, propanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isoprene and acetone. Following glucose ingestion, blood glucose and trace compound levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h. All the above compounds, except formaldehyde, were detected at the expected levels in exhaled breath of all volunteers; all the above compounds, except isoprene, were detected in the collection bag. Ammonia, methanol and ethanol were present at lower levels in the bag than in the breath. The aldehydes were present at higher levels in the bag than in breath. The blood glucose increased to a peak about 1 h post-ingestion, but this change was not obviously correlated with temporal changes in any of the compounds in breath or emitted by skin, except for acetone. The decrease in breath acetone was closely mirrored by skin-emitted acetone in three volunteers. Breath and skin acetone also clearly change with blood glucose and further work may ultimately enable inferences to be drawn of the blood glucose concentration from skin or breath measurements in type 1 diabetes. PMID:18215004

  7. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  8. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration. PMID:27380868

  9. Persistence of aroma volatiles in the oral and nasal cavities: real-time monitoring of decay rate in air exhaled through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, José Antonio; Ziere, Aldo; Martins, Sara I F S; Zimmermann, Ralf; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2016-07-06

    The persistence of aroma compounds in breath after swallowing is an important attribute of the overall aroma experience during eating and drinking. It is mainly related to the coating of the oral tract with food residues and the interaction between volatile compounds and airway mucosa. We have studied the persistence of eight compounds (2,5-dimethylpyrazine, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, phenylethylalcohol, ethylbutanoate, ethyloctanoate, isoamylacetate and 2-heptanone) both in-nose and in-mouth after administration of volatiles in gas phase (vapor) to five different panelists. By using volatiles in the gas phase, only the interaction with the mucosa is highlighted and the formation of a liquid coating in the oral and tracheal airway is avoided. The physicochemical properties of the compounds, mainly polarity and vapor pressure, determine the interactions of the volatiles with the airway mucosa. The use of different breathing protocols allowed the study of the differences between nasal and oral mucosa in volatile retention, with higher persistence of volatiles obtained in-mouth. Initial concentration also affected persistence, but only for compounds with high volatility and at low concentration.

  10. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, R F; Sabourin, P J; Bechtold, W E; Griffith, W C; Medinsky, M A; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G W

    1989-01-01

    Studies were completed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to determine the effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and rodent species on formation of total and individual benzene metabolites. Oral doses of 50 mg/kg or higher saturated the capacity for benzene metabolism in both rats and mice, resulting in an increased proportion of the administered dose being exhaled as benzene. The saturating air concentration for benzene metabolism during 6-hr exposures was between 130 and 900 ppm. At the highest exposure concentration, rats exhaled approximately half of the internal dose retained at the end of the 6-hr exposure as benzene; mice exhaled only 15% as benzene. Mice were able to convert more of the inhaled benzene to metabolites than were rats. In addition, mice metabolized more of the benzene by pathways leading to the putative toxic metabolites, benzoquinone and muconaldehyde, than did rats. In both rats and mice, the effect of increasing dose, administered orally or by inhalation, was to increase the proportion of the total metabolites that were the products of detoxification pathways relative to the products of pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. This indicates low-affinity, high-capacity pathways for detoxification and high-affinity, low-capacity pathways leading to putative toxic metabolites. If the results of rodent studies performed at high doses were used to assess the health risk at low-dose exposures to benzene, the toxicity of benzene would be underestimated. PMID:2792053

  11. Keeping Fit: Inhale, Exhale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    This article describes yoga and stretching exercises that can quickly restore order and bring a sense of calm to the classroom. All the exercises described can be done sitting cross-legged on the floor or on a small exercise mat or carpet square. Just a few minutes of yoga in the morning, between classes, or in the afternoon can certainly help to…

  12. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  13. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal. PMID:25658471

  14. Observations and modelling of thoron and its progeny in the soil-atmosphere-plant system.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, A E; Gattavecchia, E; Kirchner, G

    2010-11-01

    Samples of pasture vegetation, mainly Trifolium pratensis, were collected at the Botanic Garden of the University of Bologna during the period 1998-2000 and measured by gamma-spectrometry for determining thoron progeny. Concentrations of (212)Pb were between 1.5 and 20 Bq m(-2), with individual peaks up to 70 Bq m(-2). Soil samples were collected at the same location and physically characterised. Their chemical composition (particularly Th and U) was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Lead-212 on plants mainly originates from dry and wet deposition of this isotope generated in the lower atmosphere by the decay of its short-lived precursor (220)Rn, which is produced in the upper soil layers as a member of the natural thorium decay chain and exhales into the atmosphere. Concentrations of (220)Rn in the atmosphere depend on (1) the amount of Th present in soil, (2) the radon fraction which escapes from the soil minerals into the soil pore space, (3) its transport into the atmosphere, and (4) its redistribution within the atmosphere. The mobility of radon in soil pore space can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the soil water content, thus being the main factor for varying concentrations of (220)Rn and (212)Pb in the atmosphere. We present a simple model to predict concentrations of thoron in air and its progeny deposited from the atmosphere, which takes into account varying soil moisture contents calculated by the OPUS code. Results of this model show close agreement with our observations.

  15. Contribution of exhaled nitric oxide measurement in airway inflammation assessment in asthma. A position paper from the French Speaking Respiratory Society.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Xuan, A T; Annesi-Maesano, I; Berger, P; Chambellan, A; Chanez, P; Chinet, T; Degano, B; Delclaux, C; Demange, V; Didier, A; Garcia, G; Magnan, A; Mahut, B; Roche, N

    2015-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is both a gas and a ubiquitous inter- and intracellular messenger with numerous physiological functions. As its synthesis is markedly increased during inflammatory processes, NO can be used as a surrogate marker of acute and/or chronic inflammation. It is possible to quantify fractional concentration of NO in exhaled breath (FENO) to detect airway inflammation, and thus improve the diagnosis of asthma by better characterizing asthmatic patients with eosinophilic bronchial inflammation, and eventually improve the management of targeted asthmatic patients. FENO measurement can therefore be viewed as a new, reproducible and easy to perform pulmonary function test. Measuring FENO is the only non-invasive pulmonary function test allowing (1) detecting, (2) quantifying and (3) monitoring changes in inflammatory processes during the course of various respiratory disorders, including corticosensitive asthma.

  16. Direct and rapid analysis of ambient air and exhaled air via electrostatic precipitation of aerosols in an atomizer furnace and Zeeman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, A A; Ivanenko, N B; Kuzmenkov, M A; Jakovleva, E M; Skudra, A; Slyadnev, M N; Ganeev, A A

    2005-02-01

    Techniques that allow the elements present in the air to be determined in a simple and rapid manner are very attractive. Direct aerosol sampling techniques avoid the need to pretreat the filter via wet digestion in order to remove any sources of contamination, and they decrease the precipitation time significantly. Analyzers based on this technique can also determine the concentrations of elements in the air automatically in situ. This paper is concerned with the development of a novel analytical system that is based on electrostatically precipitating aerosols from the air into a graphite furnace. The equipment includes a Zeeman spectrometer with high frequency modulation polarization (MGA-915), and an electrostatic precipitation system incorporated into the analyzer. The high sensitivity of the system developed here means that it can be used to determine element concentrations in the air exhaled by humans, as well as those in ambient air.

  17. Measurement of proton transfer reaction rates in a microwave cavity discharge flowing afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, George M., IV

    The reaction rate coefficients between the hydronium ion and the molecules ethene (C2H4), propene (C 3H6), 1-butene (C4H8) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured at 296 K. The measured reaction rates were compared to collision rates calculated using average dipole orientation (ADO) theory. Reaction efficiency depends primarily upon the proton affinity of the molecules. All the measurements were obtained using the newly developed microwave cavity discharge flowing afterglow (MCD-FA) apparatus. This device uses an Asmussen-type microwave cavity discharge ion source that is spatially separated from the flow tube, eliminating many of the problems inherent with the original FA devices. In addition to measuring reaction rate coefficients, the MCD-FA was shown to be an effective tool for measuring trace compounds in atmospheric air. This method has many advantages over current detection techniques since compounds can be detected in almost real time, large mass ranges can be scanned quickly, and repeated calibration is not required. Preliminary measurements were made of car exhaust and exhaled alveolar air. Car exhaust showed the presence of numerous hydrocarbons, such as butene, benzene and toluene while the exhaled alveolar air showed the presence of various volatile organic compounds such as methanol and acetone.

  18. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek; Grzela, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers - exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  19. Towards an easy-to-use tuberculosis diagnosis through exhaled breath analysis: a liquid fluorimeter with an excitation at 265 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, J.; Dupoy, M.; Vignoud, S.; Ricaud, J. L.; Tran-Thi, T.; Karpe, S.; Novelli-Rousseau, A.; Mallard, F.

    2013-03-01

    The struggle against tuberculosis is one of the World Health Organization priorities. Identifying in a short time, patients with active tuberculosis, would bring a tremendous improvement to the current situation. Recovering from this infectious and deadly disease (2 million of death per year) is possible with a correct diagnosis to give an appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, most common tuberculosis diagnoses have few drawbacks: - skin tests: not reliable at 100% and need an incubation of 2 days before the diagnosis, - blood tests: costly and sophisticated technology, - chest X-ray: the first step before the sputum tests used for a bacterial culture with a final diagnosis given within 2 weeks. A tuberculosis test based on exhaled breath analysis is a prospective and noninvasive solution, cheap and easy to use and to transport. This test lies on a fluoregenic detection of niacin, a well-known mycobacterium tuberculosis specific metabolite. In this paper, it is assumed that the selected probe is specific to niacin and that exhaled breath does not contain any interfering species. To address this problem, a fluorimeter is developed with a cheap and cooled CCD ( 2k$) as a sensor, to easily determine the suitable "fluorescent zone". In comparing aqueous solutions with and without niacin, 250 pM of niacin have been detected. With a commercial fluorimeter (Fluorolog from Horiba), only 200 nM of niacin are detected. The present detection remains 10 times above the estimated targeted value for a tuberculosis test. The excitation source is a LED, which typically emits 20 °W at 265 nm through an optical fiber. The emission signal is detected around 545 nm. A typical light exposure lasts 700 seconds. Analysis of biomarkers with a liquid fluorimeter is generic and promising as health diagnosis.

  20. New miniaturized exhaled nitric oxide sensor based on a high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Conteduca, D; Dell'Olio, F; Ciminelli, C; Armenise, M N

    2015-03-20

    A high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity in chalcogenide glass AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) resonating at λR=5.26  μm has been proposed as a key element of a sensor able to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the exhaled breath, namely fraction exhaled NO. The cavity design has been carried out through 3D finite-element method simulations. A Q-factor of 1.1×104 and a mode volume V=0.8  (λ/n)3, corresponding to a Q/V ratio of 1.4×104(λ/n)-3, have been obtained with a resonance transmission coefficient T=15%. A sensitivity of 10 ppb has been calculated with reference to the photothermal physical property of the material. Such a result is lower than the state-of-the-art of NO sensors proposed in literature, where hundreds of parts per trillion-level detection seem to have been achieved, but comparable with the performance obtained by commercial devices. The main advantages of the new device are in terms of footprint (=150  μm2), smaller at least 1 order of magnitude than those in literature, fast response time (only few seconds), and potential low cost. Such properties make possible in a handheld device the sensor integration in a multi-analysis system for detecting the presence of several trace gases, improving prevention, and reducing the duration of drug treatment for asthma and viral infections. PMID:25968502

  1. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers – exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  2. Development of a method for metabolomic analysis of human exhaled breath condensate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-08-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. The main limitation in the analysis of EBC is the lack of standardized protocols to support validation studies. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human EBC by GC-TOF/MS in high resolution mode. Thus, sample preparation strategies as liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were compared in terms of extraction coverage. Liquid-liquid extraction resulted to be the most suited sample preparation approach providing an average extraction efficiency of 77% for all compounds in a single extraction. Different normalization approaches were also compared to determine which strategy could be successfully used to obtain a normalized profile with the least variability among replicates of the same sample. Normalization to the total useful mass spectrometry signal (MSTUS) proved to be the most suited strategy for the analysis of EBC from healthy individuals (n = 50) reporting a within-day variability below 7% for the 51 identified compounds and a suited data distribution in terms of percentage of metabolites passing the Skewness and Kurtosis test for normality distribution. The composition of EBC was clearly dominated by the presence of fatty acids and derivatives such as methyl esters and amides, and volatile prenol lipids. Therefore, EBC offers the profile of both volatile and non-volatile components as compared to other similar biofluids such as exhaled breath vapor, which only provides the volatile profile. This human biofluid could be an alternative to others such as serum/plasma, urine or sputum to find potential markers with high value for subsequent development of screening models.

  3. Development of a method for metabolomic analysis of human exhaled breath condensate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-08-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. The main limitation in the analysis of EBC is the lack of standardized protocols to support validation studies. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human EBC by GC-TOF/MS in high resolution mode. Thus, sample preparation strategies as liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were compared in terms of extraction coverage. Liquid-liquid extraction resulted to be the most suited sample preparation approach providing an average extraction efficiency of 77% for all compounds in a single extraction. Different normalization approaches were also compared to determine which strategy could be successfully used to obtain a normalized profile with the least variability among replicates of the same sample. Normalization to the total useful mass spectrometry signal (MSTUS) proved to be the most suited strategy for the analysis of EBC from healthy individuals (n = 50) reporting a within-day variability below 7% for the 51 identified compounds and a suited data distribution in terms of percentage of metabolites passing the Skewness and Kurtosis test for normality distribution. The composition of EBC was clearly dominated by the presence of fatty acids and derivatives such as methyl esters and amides, and volatile prenol lipids. Therefore, EBC offers the profile of both volatile and non-volatile components as compared to other similar biofluids such as exhaled breath vapor, which only provides the volatile profile. This human biofluid could be an alternative to others such as serum/plasma, urine or sputum to find potential markers with high value for subsequent development of screening models. PMID:26320793

  4. Research protocol for a diagnostic study of non-invasive exhaled breath analysis for the prediction of oesophago-gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markar, Sheraz R; Lagergren, Jesper; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite improvements in a range of chemo, radio and surgical therapies, the overall survival at 5 years from oesophago-gastric cancer remains poor and ranges from 10% to 30%. Early diagnosis is a key strategy to improve survival but early disease stage has non-specific symptoms that are very common while the warning clinical picture often indicates advanced disease. The aim of this research is to validate a breath test to predict oesophago-gastric cancer therefore allowing earlier diagnosis and introduction of treatment. Methods and analysis The study will include 325 patients and be conducted across four major oesophago-gastric cancer centres in London, UK. This research will utilise selected ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) exhaled breath analysis, for comparison of predicted cancer risk based on the previously developed volatile organic compound exhaled breath model, with endoscopic findings and histology biopsies. This will determine the overall diagnostic accuracy for non-invasive breath testing for the diagnosis of oesophago-gastric cancer. Ethics and Dissemination Approval was gained from NRES Committee London, on 16 July 2014 (REC reference 14/LO/1136) for the completion of this study. Different methods of dissemination will be employed including international clinical and patient group presentations, and publication of research outputs in a high-impact clinical journal. This is to ensure that the findings from this research will reach patients, primary care practitioners, scientists, hospital specialists in gastroenterology, oncology and surgery, health policymakers and commissioners as well as NHS regulatory bodies. Trials registration number UKCRN18063; Pre-results. PMID:26739727

  5. A simple breathing rate-sensing method exploiting a temporarily condensed water layer formed on an oxidized surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Min-Ho; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Choi, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Jae-Shin; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2015-02-01

    We describe a very simple breathing rate-sensing method that detects a significant electric current change between two metal electrodes on an oxidized surface. The current change is caused by the formation of a water layer from exhaled breath. We discovered that breathing onto the oxidized surface causes instant water condensation, and it generates 20 times increased current than that measured in the inhalation period. The condensed water quickly evaporates, enabling us to detect dynamic human breathing in real time. We also investigated the breathing rate sensor by varying the relative humidity, temperature, and breathing frequency and confirmed its potential for practical applications.

  6. Determining the relationship of heart rate and blood pressure using voluntary cardio-respiratory synchronization (VCRS).

    PubMed

    Mason, Lynne I; Patterson, Robert P

    2003-11-01

    Voluntary cardio-respiratory synchronization (VCRS) was used to investigate heart rate and blood pressure changes in the supine position in 21 subjects. VCRS involves a breathing pattern that is synchronized with the cardiac cycle. The signals to inhale and exhale are derived from the ECG. In this study, the subjects inspired for four heart beats and expired for four heart beats for 35 cycles. This technique is designed to have the heart beat occur at exactly the same phase in the respiratory cycle and lends itself to the study of the influence of the respiration cycle on heart rate and blood pressure changes. The heart rate and blood pressure changed simultaneously in the same direction, with the largest significant positive change occurring on the second heart beat during inspiration. The authors discuss the potential of VCRS for research, and clinical applications as a respiration modulator for hypertension therapy or increased heart rate variability.

  7. Aluminum Gallium Nitride (GaN)/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Sensors for Glucose Detection in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Byung Hwan; Kang, Byoung Sam; Hung, Sheng Chun; Chen, Ke Hung; Ren, Fan; Sciullo, Andrew; Gila, Brent P.; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Immobilized aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have shown great potential in the areas of pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). HEMT sensors can be integrated into a wireless data transmission system that allows for remote monitoring. This technology offers the possibility of using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for extended investigations of airway pathology of detecting glucose in EBC without the need for clinical visits. Methods HEMT structures, consisting of a 3-μm-thick undoped GaN buffer, 30-Å-thick Al0.3Ga0.7N spacer, and 220-Å-thick silicon-doped Al0.3Ga0.7N cap layer, were used for fabricating the HEMT sensors. The gate area of the pH, chloride ion, and glucose detection was immobilized with scandium oxide (Sc2O3), silver chloride (AgCl) thin film, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, respectively. Results The Sc2O3-gated sensor could detect the pH of solutions ranging from 3 to 10 with a resolution of ∼0.1 pH. A chloride ion detection limit of 10-8 M was achievedt with a HEMT sensor immobilized with the AgCl thin film. The drain–source current of the ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor immobilized with glucose oxidase showed a rapid response of less than 5 seconds when the sensor was exposed to the target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4. The sensor could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5 nM to 125 μM. Conclusion There is great promise for using HEMT-based sensors to enhance the detection sensitivity for glucose detection in EBC. Depending on the immobilized material, HEMT-based sensors can be used for sensingt different materials. These electronic detection approaches with rapid response and good repeatability show potential for the investigation of airway pathology. The devices can also be integrated into a wireless data transmission system for remote monitoring applications. This sensor technology could use the exhaled breath condensate to

  8. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  9. Increase of pro-oxidants with no evidence of lipid peroxidation in exhaled breath condensate after a 10-km race in non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Urbina-Stagno, R; Tuesta, M; Haichelis, D; Alvear, M; Salazar, M P; García, C

    2014-03-01

    It is a well-established fact that exercise increases pro-oxidants and favors oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has been poorly studied in human lungs. Pro-oxidative generation (H(2)O(2), NO(2) (-)), lipid peroxidation markers (MDA), and inflammation (pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) have been determined through data from 10 active subjects who ran 10 km; samples were obtained immediately before, at 20, and at 80 min post-exertion. In EBC, the concentration of H(2)O(2) at 80 min post-exertion was increased. NO(2) (-) concentration showed a tendency to increase at 80 min post-exertion, with no variations in MDA and pH. No variations of NO(2) (-) were found in plasma, while there was an increase of NO(2) (-) at 80 min post-exertion in the relation between EBC and plasma. NO(2) (-) in EBC did not correlate to plasmatic NO(2) (-), while it did correlate directly with H(2)O(2) in EBC, suggesting a localized origin for the exercise-related NO(2) (-) increase in EBC. MDA in plasma did not increase nor correlate with MDA in EBC. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise increases lung-originated pro-oxidants in non-athlete subjects with no evidence of early lipid peroxidation and changes in the pH value in EBC. PMID:23979922

  10. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  11. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  12. Preparation and Gas Sensing Properties of In2O3/Au Nanorods for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ruiqing; Xu, Lin; Song, Jian; Zhou, Chunyang; Li, Qingling; Liu, Dali; Wei Song, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A series of In2O3/Au nanorods (NRs) were fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The length to diameter ratios of In2O3/Au NRs was periodically modulated in the range of 2.9-4.5 through controlling the initial content of indium salt and reaction time. Their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carefully studied and then applied in exhaled breath detection. The results demonstrate that In2O3/Au NRs gas sensor can effectively detect acetone at 250 °C and ethanol at 400 °C. The corresponding actual detection limit is as low as 0.1 ppm to acetone and 0.05 ppm to ethanol, respectively. Moreover, by using humidity compensation method, In2O3/Au NRs gas sensor can clearly distinguish the acetone and ethanol biomarkers in human breath. The main reason of the enhanced gas sensing properties was attributed to the "spillover effects" between Au and In2O3 NRs. The excellent sensing performance indicates that In2O3/Au NRs is a promising functional material to actual application in monitoring and detecting diabetes and safe driving area in a noninvasive and more accurate way. PMID:26030482

  13. Assessment of the impact of collection temperature and sampler design on the measurement of exhaled breath condensate pH in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrew G; Love, Sandy; Parkin, Timothy D H; Duz, Marco; Cathcart, Michael; Hughes, Kristopher J

    2012-02-01

    The pH measurement of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) may provide a non-invasive method of assessing the lower airways of horses but the methodology used may influence findings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two sampling devices and three methods of condensation surface cooling (ethanol slush, -100°C; dry ice, -75°C; water ice, 0°C) on EBC pH. Each method was tested 30 times using six healthy ponies. Sample pH was determined before and after de-aeration with argon for 10 min. Sampler design was found to significantly affect pH. Samples collected as a liquid had a significantly higher pH than samples frozen during collection (P<0.05). De-aeration resulted in significantly higher pH (P<0.05) with less variation. This study has shown that device design and condensation surface temperature will influence EBC pH, which will prevent a direct comparison of results when different methodologies are used. PMID:21251858

  14. Increase of pro-oxidants with no evidence of lipid peroxidation in exhaled breath condensate after a 10-km race in non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Araneda, O F; Urbina-Stagno, R; Tuesta, M; Haichelis, D; Alvear, M; Salazar, M P; García, C

    2014-03-01

    It is a well-established fact that exercise increases pro-oxidants and favors oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has been poorly studied in human lungs. Pro-oxidative generation (H(2)O(2), NO(2) (-)), lipid peroxidation markers (MDA), and inflammation (pH) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) have been determined through data from 10 active subjects who ran 10 km; samples were obtained immediately before, at 20, and at 80 min post-exertion. In EBC, the concentration of H(2)O(2) at 80 min post-exertion was increased. NO(2) (-) concentration showed a tendency to increase at 80 min post-exertion, with no variations in MDA and pH. No variations of NO(2) (-) were found in plasma, while there was an increase of NO(2) (-) at 80 min post-exertion in the relation between EBC and plasma. NO(2) (-) in EBC did not correlate to plasmatic NO(2) (-), while it did correlate directly with H(2)O(2) in EBC, suggesting a localized origin for the exercise-related NO(2) (-) increase in EBC. MDA in plasma did not increase nor correlate with MDA in EBC. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise increases lung-originated pro-oxidants in non-athlete subjects with no evidence of early lipid peroxidation and changes in the pH value in EBC.

  15. Exhaled volatile organic compounds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: cross sectional and nested short-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Diana; Carbognani, Paolo; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Acampa, Olga; Balbi, Bruno; Bianchi, Luca; Rusca, Michele; Mutti, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Background Non-invasive diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying biomarkers of lung cancer are of great interest for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to set up a new method for identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled air of patients with non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC), by comparing the levels with those obtained from healthy smokers and non-smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The VOC collection and analyses were repeated three weeks after the NSCLC patients underwent lung surgery. Methods The subjects' breath was collected in a Teflon® bulb that traps the last portion of single slow vital capacity. The 13 VOCs selected for this study were concentrated using a solid phase microextraction technique and subsequently analysed by means of gas cromatography/mass spectrometry. Results The levels of the selected VOCs ranged from 10-12 M for styrene to 10-9 M for isoprene. None of VOCs alone discriminated the study groups, and so it was not possible to identify one single chemical compound as a specific lung cancer biomarker. However, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that VOC profile can correctly classify about 80 % of cases. Only isoprene and decane levels significantly decreased after surgery. Conclusion As the combination of the 13 VOCs allowed the correct classification of the cases into groups, together with conventional diagnostic approaches, VOC analysis could be used as a complementary test for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Its possible use in the follow-up of operated patients cannot be recommended on the basis of the results of our short-term nested study. PMID:16018807

  16. Management based on exhaled nitric oxide levels adjusted for atopy reduces asthma exacerbations in children: A dual centre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petsky, Helen L; Li, Albert M; Au, Chun T; Kynaston, Jennifer A; Turner, Catherine; Chang, Anne B

    2015-06-01

    While several randomized control trials (RCTs) have evaluated the use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) to improve asthma outcomes, none used FeNO cut-offs adjusted for atopy, a determinant of FeNO levels. In a dual center RCT, we assessed whether a treatment strategy based on FeNO levels, adjusted for atopy, reduces asthma exacerbations compared with the symptoms-based management (controls). Children with asthma from hospital clinics of two hospitals were randomly allocated to receive an a-priori determined treatment hierarchy based on symptoms or FeNO levels. There was a 2-week run-in period and they were then reviewed 10 times over 12-months. The primary outcome was the number of children with exacerbations over 12-months. Sixty-three children were randomized (FeNO = 31, controls = 32); 55 (86%) completed the study. Although we did achieve our planned sample size, significantly fewer children in the FeNO group (6 of 27) had an asthma exacerbation compared to controls (15 of 28), P = 0.021; number to treat for benefit = 4 (95% CI 3-24). There was no difference between groups for any secondary outcomes (quality of life, symptoms, FEV1 ). The final daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) dose was significantly (P = 0.037) higher in the FeNO group (median 400 µg, IQR 250-600) compared to the controls (200, IQR100-400). Taking atopy into account when using FeNO to tailor asthma medications is likely beneficial in reducing the number of children with severe exacerbations at the expense of increased ICS use. However, the strategy is unlikely beneficial for improving asthma control. A larger study is required to confirm or refute our findings.

  17. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Acute Phase of Bronchiolitis and Its Relation with Episodes of Subsequent Wheezing in Children of Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Osona, Borja; Gil-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Figuerola, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels are increased in children with asthma and in infants with recurrent wheezing, but the role of FENO in the acute phase of bronchiolitis is still not defined. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate FENO values in the acute phase of bronchiolitis, compare them with healthy infants, and relate those values with the appearance of other wheezing episodes. Methods FENO values were determined in infants between 2 months and 2 years affected with RVS bronchiolitis by offline method. The FENO values collected in the acute phase were related with the respiratory clinical symptoms presented in the 2 years following the episode. Results A total of 30 patients were recruited: 15 in the bronchiolitis group and 15 in the control group. The average of the FENO values in the acute phase was 18.74 ppb (range 2–88) in the bronchiolitis group, and 8.75 ppb (range 2–24) in the control group. However, these results showed no significant statistical differences (p=0.176). Nevertheless, we found a positive correlation between the FENO values and the clinical score (Downes) of the bronchiolitis episode (p=0.023). In infants that presented other wheezing episodes in the 2 years after, the average of FENO in the acute phase of the first episode was 23.1 ppb (average of 10.25 ppb) versus 8.4 ppb (average 5.4 ppb) in the group of patients with no other episodes. The comparison of averages has no statistical significance. Conclusion We found no differences in FENO between infants with bronchiolitis and healthy ones. The FENO values in the acute phase seems to be related to the severity of the disease but do not predict the appearance of wheezing episodes in the following 2 years. PMID:22768386

  18. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Christopher; Mac Parthaláin, Neil; Syed, Yasir; Deganello, Davide; Claypole, Timothy; Lewis, Keir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples) for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used). Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly). Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination. PMID:24957028

  19. The role of dense brines in the formation of vent-distal sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits: field and laboratory evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, Donald F.

    2002-03-01

    A majority of the world's sediment-hosted exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits are vent-distal. They are not underlain by a discordant alteration zone or stockwork vent complex that would indicate the path by which ore fluids reached the se