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Sample records for 226ra standard solution

  1. Removal of 226Ra and 228Ra from TENORM sludge waste using surfactants solutions.

    PubMed

    Attallah, M F; Hamed, Mostafa M; El Afifi, E M; Aly, H F

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using surfactants as extracting agent for the removal of radium species from TENORM sludge produced from petroleum industry is evaluated. In this investigation cationic and nonionic surfactants were used as extracting agents for the removal of radium radionuclides from the sludge waste. Two surfactants namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 (TX100) were investigated as the extracting agents. Different parameters affecting the removal of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra by the two surfactants as well as their admixture were studied by the batch technique. These parameters include effect of shaking time, surfactants concentration and temperature as well as the effect of surfactants admixture. It was found that, higher solution temperature improves the removal efficiency of radium species. Combined extraction of nonionic and cationic surfactants produces synergistic effect in removal both (226)Ra and (228)Ra, where the removals reached 84% and 80% for (226)Ra and (228)Ra, respectively, were obtained using surfactants admixture.

  2. Radium uptake during barite recrystallization at 23 ± 2 °C as a function of solution composition: An experimental 133Ba and 226Ra tracer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curti, E.; Fujiwara, K.; Iijima, K.; Tits, J.; Cuesta, C.; Kitamura, A.; Glaus, M. A.; Müller, W.

    2010-06-01

    High-purity synthetic barite powder was added to pure water or aqueous solutions of soluble salts (BaCl 2, Na 2SO 4, NaCl and NaHCO 3) at 23 ± 2 °C and atmospheric pressure. After a short pre-equilibration time (4 h) the suspensions were spiked either with 133Ba or 226Ra and reacted under constant agitation during 120-406 days. The pH values ranged from 4 to 8 and solid to liquid (S/L) ratios varied from 0.01 to 5 g/l. The uptake of the radiotracers by barite was monitored through repeated sampling of the aqueous solutions and radiometric analysis. For both 133Ba and 226Ra, our data consistently showed a continuous, slow decrease of radioactivity in the aqueous phase. Mass balance calculations indicated that the removal of 133Ba activity from aqueous solution cannot be explained by surface adsorption only, as it largely exceeded the 100% monolayer coverage limit. This result was a strong argument in favor of recrystallization (driven by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism) as the main uptake mechanism. Because complete isotopic equilibration between aqueous solution and barite was approached or even reached in some experiments, we concluded that during the reaction all or substantial fractions of the initial solid had been replaced by newly formed barite. The 133Ba data could be successfully fitted assuming constant recrystallization rates and homogeneous distribution of the tracer into the newly formed barite. An alternative model based on partial equilibrium of 133Ba with the mineral surface (without internal isotopic equilibration of the solid) could not reproduce the measured activity data, unless multistage recrystallization kinetics was assumed. Calculated recrystallization rates in the salt solutions ranged from 2.8 × 10 -11 to 1.9 × 10 -10 mol m -2 s -1 (2.4-16 μmol m -2 d -1), with no specific trend related to solution composition. For the suspensions prepared in pure water, significantly higher rates (˜5.7 × 10 -10 mol m -2 s -1 or ˜49 μmol m

  3. A correlation between soil descriptions and {sup 226}Ra concentrations in Florida soils

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.

    1992-12-31

    The soil radium content in Florida is highly variable. The range in radium concentrations, where the samples involved in this study are concerned, is from 0.1 pCi/g to 18.5 pCi/g. Low {sup 226}Ra concentrations (0.1 to 5 pCi/g) are evidenced in sands, moderate concentrations (5 to 11 pCi/g) are found in silt and gravel, and high {sup 226}Ra concentrations (>11 pCi/g) are found in soil horizons with shell, clay, and strata with phosphate. Strata containing phosphate yields a high concentration of {sup 226}Ra. The information obtained in this study, soil descriptions with their corresponding {sup 226}Ra concentrations, comes from geological cores drilled by geotechnical consultants with gamma spectrometry analysis performed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. Concentration; of {sup 226}Ra generally increase with depth. These cores are usually terminated at 20 feet deep, with some cores being shallower than this due to hitting bedrock or encountering the water table. These frequency distributions give the core-logging geologist an approximate concentration of {sup 226}Ra based on the description of the soil. Since the correlation of {sup 226}Ra and soil descriptions can be used as a tool in assigning indoor radon potential, this study is of importance to land managers, contractors, developers, and regulating agencies who are attempting to place standards on tracts of land with {sup 226}Ra concentration used as a criterion.

  4. 226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams.

  5. 226Ra determination in phosphogypsum by alpha-particle spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, J. L.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical method for226Ra determination by alpha-particle spectrometry in environmental samples has been developed in our laboratory. The method has been validated by measurements in samples with known concentrations of this radionuclide and it has been applied in studies related to226Ra behaviour in phosphogypsum (the main by-product of producing phosphoric acid from phosphate rocks).

  6. 226Ra measurement in Mo, Cd and Nd 2O 3 samples with the emanation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.; Barabanov, I. R.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Orekhov, I. V.

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of 226Ra content in materials and chemical reagents used to construct the double beta decay sources in the NEMO-3 experiment have been done with the emanation method technique. Three different radon emanation technologies were used in these studies. The first was the "traditional" method of dissolving the sample. The second was an extraction of Rn from a melted sample and finally a technique of heating fine-grained powder was used. It is shown that there is good agreement of the data received with the emanation method and low background high purity germanium detectors. The sensitivity of this method is 0.02 mBq/ l of solution (for the "standard" emanation method) or 0.02 mBq/ kg (for methods in which radon is extracted from a powder or melt).

  7. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  8. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoishi; Ueno, Kaoru; Hinoide, Moriyo; Ohkubo, Yoshiteru

    1994-11-01

    {sup 226}Ra concentrations in human teeth from several cities, mainly Tokyo, Japan, were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 226}Ra by alpha-ray spectrometry following chemical separation. No appreciable differences in {sup 226}Ra concentration were found among various permanent teeth samples of different age groups in Tokyo. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration for Tokyo was 0.51 {+-} 0.06 mBq (g CA){sup -1}. {sup 226}Ra concentration [mean: 0.67 {+-} 0.11 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in teeth in western regions of the country was statistically higher than that [mean: 0.48 {+-} 0.09 mBq (g Ca){sup -1}] in eastern ones. The mean {sup 226}Ra concentration [0.51 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] in teeth from Tokyo was less than the concentration [1.11 mBq (g CA){sup -1}] reported for vertebral bone samples of this city. 27 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. 226Ra and 228Ra in Iowa drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kriege, L B; Hahne, R M

    1982-10-01

    The University Hygienic Laboratory has been performing radiochemical analyses on drinking water in the state of Iowa for over 20 yr. Approximately one half of the 1250 community water supplies that exist in Iowa have been sampled roughly once every 3 yr for the past decade. Originally, raw and finished waters that showed a gross alpha activity of greater than or equal to 3.0 pCi/L were analyzed for 226Ra, but starting in July 1976, finished waters were analyzed for both 226Ra and 228Ra if the gross alpha activity was greater than or equal to 2.0 pCi/L. As of 10 June 1981, 604 community water supplies had submitted composited samples that have been analyzed for gross alpha, 226Ra, and 228Ra concentrations in compliance with the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (Public Law 93-523). Approximately 10% of these supplies were found to exceed the EPA-established maximum contaminant level (MCL) for 226Ra plus 228Ra of 5 pCi/L. The results revealed, consistent with several other investigators (Mc81; Mi80; Mic80), that some supplies had higher concentrations of 228Ra than of 226Ra. It was also concluded, in agreement with McCurdy and Mellor (Mc81), that some ground water samples cannot be accurately measured for gross alpha activity due to their high dissolved solids content.

  10. Rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-02-27

    A new method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for the rapid determination of 226Ra in emergency urine samples following a radiological incident. If a radiological dispersive device event or a nuclear accident occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of radionuclides in urine samples to ensure the safety of the public. Large numbers of urine samples will have to be analyzed very quickly. This new SRNL method was applied to 100 mL urine aliquots, however this method can be applied to smaller or larger sample aliquots as needed.more » The method was optimized for rapid turnaround times; urine samples may be prepared for counting in <3 h. A rapid calcium phosphate precipitation method was used to pre-concentrate 226Ra from the urine sample matrix, followed by removal of calcium by cation exchange separation. A stacked elution method using DGA Resin was used to purify the 226Ra during the cation exchange elution step. This approach combines the cation resin elution step with the simultaneous purification of 226Ra with DGA Resin, saving time. 133Ba was used instead of 225Ra as tracer to allow immediate counting; however, 225Ra can still be used as an option. The rapid purification of 226Ra to remove interferences using DGA Resin was compared with a slightly longer Ln Resin approach. A final barium sulfate micro-precipitation step was used with isopropanol present to reduce solubility; producing alpha spectrometry sources with peaks typically <40 keV FWHM (full width half max). This new rapid method is fast, has very high tracer yield (>90 %), and removes interferences effectively. The sample preparation method can also be adapted to ICP-MS measurement of 226Ra, with rapid removal of isobaric interferences.« less

  11. 226Ra or 226Ra/Ba dating of Holocene volcanic rocks: application to Mt. Etna and Merapi volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condomines, M.; Gauthier, P. J.; Tanguy, J. C.; Gertisser, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Berthommier, P.; Camus, G.

    2005-02-01

    This paper shows how 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria can be used to date Holocene volcanic rocks from some well selected volcanoes. A systematic study of these disequilibria on historical or well-dated volcanic samples is indeed first required to test the applicability of this method. Two examples are described here to illustrate its potential. In the case of Mt. Etna, the good correlation observed between ( 226Ra) 0 activities at the time of eruption and Th contents in lava flows from the last two millennia [M. Condomines, J.C. Tanguy, V. Michaud, Magma dynamics at Mt. Etna: constraints from U-Th-Ra-Pb radioactive disequilibria and Sr isotopes in historical lavas, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 132 (1995) 25-41] is used to infer the ages of several newly analysed lava flows. The calculated ages are in good agreement with those deduced from the archaeomagnetic curve describing the variation of the geomagnetic field direction in southern Italy [J.C. Tanguy, I. Bucur, J.F.C. Thompson, Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mt. Etna, Nature 318 (1985) 453-455, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, C. Principe, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Variation séculaire de la direction du champ géomagnétique enregistrée par les laves de l'Etna et du Vésuve pendant les deux derniers millénaires, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 329 (1999) 557-564, J.C. Tanguy, M. Le Goff, C. Principe, S. Arrighi, V. Chillemi, A. Paiotti, S. La Delfa, G. Patane, Archaeomagnetic dating of Mediterranean volcanics of the last 2100 years: validity and limits. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 211 (2003) 111-124]. We also present a whole set of new U-series data on historical, recent, and older samples from Merapi (Indonesia), and show that the ( 226Ra)/Ba ratio has probably maintained a quasi-steady state value during at least the past four millennia, and can be used to infer the ( 226Ra) 0/Ba ratio of old volcanics at the time of eruption, and thus their ages. Comparison with

  12. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; ...

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  13. 230Th, 226Ra and 222Rn in abyssal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David

    1980-09-01

    A model that predicts the flux of 222Rn out of deep-sea sediment is presented. The radon is ultimately generated by 230Th which is stripped from the overlying water into the sediment. Data from many authors are compared with the model predictions. It is shown that the continental contribution of ionium is not significant, and that at low sedimentation rates, biological mixing and erosional processes strongly affect the surface concentration of the ionium. Two cores from areas of slow sediment accumulation, one from a manganese nodule region of the central Pacific and one from the Rio Grande Rise in the Atlantic were analyzed at closely spaced intervals for 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb. The Pacific core displayed evidence of biological mixing down to 12 cm and had a sedimentation rate of only 0.04 cm/kyr. The Atlantic core seemed to be mixed to 8 cm and had a sedimentation rate of 0.07 cm/kyr. Both cores had less total excess 230Th than predicted. Radium sediment profiles are generated from the 230Th model. Adsorbed, dissolved, and solid-phase radium is considered. According to the model, diffusional losses of radium are especially important at low sedimentation rates. Any particulate, or excess radium input is ignored in this model. The model fits the two analyzed cores if the fraction of total radium available for adsorption-desorption is about 0.5-0.7, and if K, the distribution coefficient, is about 1000. Finally, the flux of radon out of the sediments is derived from the model-generated radium profiles. It is shown that the resulting standing crop of 222Rn in the overlying water may be considered as an added constraint in budgeting 230Th and 226Ra in deep-sea sediments.

  14. Uptake and kinetics of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in big sagebrush. [Artemisia tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Root uptake of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po by mature sagebrush was studied using a soil injection method for spiking the soil with minimal root disturbance. The main objective was to measure vegetation concentrations and determine concentration ratios (CR's) due to root uptake as a function of time in mature big sagebrush. Concentration ratios obtained in mature vegetation and in steady-state situations may be valuable in assessing the impact of uranium mining and milling. The vegetation was sampled approximately every 3 months for a 2 year period. Significant levels of activity were detected in the vegetation beginning at the first sampling (81 days after soil injection for /sup 226/Ra, 28 days for /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po). There was an exponential decrease in concentration to an apparent steady-state value. Mean values (geometric) of the data pooled over the second year period indicated that the steady-state CR's for /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po, as determined in mature sagebrush, were 0.04, 0.009, and 0.08, respectively. A three compartment mathematical model was formulated to help understand mechanisms of plant uptake and to predict, if possible, the concentration of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in vegetation as a function of time after soil spiking. A numerical solution was determined by 'calibrating' the general model solution with constants determined from regressions of concentrations in vegetation, soil leaching and leaf leaching data. Validation of the model is currently not possible because of an absence of similar time-dependent uptake studies. 168 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Socrates Jose P; Palad, Lorna Jean H; Enriquez, Eliza B; Garcia, Teofilo Y; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2008-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially (226)Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of (226)Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the (226)Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of (226)Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of (226)Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of (226)Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no (226)Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area.

  16. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    DOE PAGES

    Kayzar, Theresa M.; Williams, Ross W.

    2015-09-26

    The model age or ‘date of purification’ of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing.

  17. The Enhancement of 226Ra in a Tidal Estuary due to the Operation of Fertilizer Factories and Redissolution from Sediments: Experimental Results and a Modelling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periáñez, R.

    2002-05-01

    The presence of 226Ra in a tidal estuary formerly affected by direct discharges from a phosphate fertilizer complex has been investigated. In general, activity levels are lower than those detected when direct discharges were carried out. However, there is still a clear contamination that can be attributed, presumably, to the disposal of Ra-containing phosphogypsum to the river and to the redissolution of radionuclides from the contaminated sediments. A numerical model of the estuary has been developed to investigate these hypothesis. The hydrodynamics are first calibrated and standard tidal analysis is carried out. The dispersion model computes instantaneous currents from the so obtained tidal constants to speed up simulations. The exchanges of 226Ra between water and the bottom sediment have been described in terms of kinetic transfer coefficients. Model results are, in general, in agreement with observations. The simulation results support the previous idea of sediments acting as a source of 226Ra to the water column.

  18. Age-dependent dose assessment of 226Ra from bottled water intake.

    PubMed

    Bronzovic, Maja; Marovic, Gordana

    2005-05-01

    Water may present a source of prolonged exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides. One of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in natural mineral and spring waters is 226Ra and its decay products. The contribution of drinking water to the total exposure is very small, at about 5% of the average effective dose attributable annually to natural background radiation, but that exposure contributes to the risk of adverse health consequences. In this study the mean values of 226Ra concentration determined in natural mineral and spring bottled waters range from 6 to 412 mBq L(-1), which is in accord with Croatian legislation. 226Ra effective doses per year from spring water consumption range up to 86 microSv, while 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral water consumption show much higher values. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral waters consumption, which are up to seven times higher than the dose recommended by WHO (100 microSv), were found in infants and teens. Based on this study, drinking of certain brands of bottled mineral water is not recommended for these age groups because assessed 226Ra effective doses per year exceed the recommended limits. From other research it is known that testosterone appears in elevated concentration during these life periods and affects bone calcification. Therefore, testosterone could affect the retention of 226Ra into the bone. To make more precise conclusions further research is necessary. Adults and especially elderly people are much less susceptible to the presence of 226Ra. According to the results obtained in this study, 226Ra effective doses per year assessed for these age groups were considerably lower (i.e., 10 microSv).

  19. Determination of (210)Pb and (226)Ra/(228)Ra in continental water using HIDEX 300SL LS-spectrometer with TDCR efficiency tracing and optimized α/β-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Jäggi, M

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for determination of (210)Pb, (226)Ra and (228)Ra is presented based on adsorption on 3M Empore RadDiscs, and measurement applying liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) after elution. The LSC measurement was performed with optimized α/β-discrimination and isotope standardization using the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR). The consistency of measurement results between radioactive parent-daughter pairs (210)Pb/(210)Bi, (226)Ra/(222)Rn and (228)Ra/(228)Ac was checked in long-term counting experiments and the influence ofinterference of in-growing daughters from (226)Ra into the β-spectrum of (228)Ra+(228)Ac was studied as well. Recommendations for optimized LSC (228)Ra measurement besides presence of (226)Ra are given.

  20. Assessment of (226)Ra age-dependent dose from water intake.

    PubMed

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom; Srisuksawad, Kanitha

    2008-11-01

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of (226)Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. (226)Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L(-1). The highest (226)Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated (226)Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 microSv yr(-1)). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 microSv yr(-1) from water intake of 2 Lday(-1).

  1. Distribution and retention in bone of /sup 226/Ra and comparison with the ICRP 20 model

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses are presented of the ratios of /sup 226/Ra to calcium in over 650 samples of compact and cancellous bone from 66 female and 26 male subjects who had died from less than one to 60 years after first exposure to radium. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios were normalized to the terminal /sup 226/Ra skeletal content. The /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios for vertebrae were essentialy identical to those for other cancellous bone for a given subject. Comparisons of the data with predictions of the ICRP model of alkaline earth metabolism show that for female cancellous bone the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratios tended to be greater than predicted, while those for female cortical bone (femoral and tibial shaft) tended to be less. The data for males were fitted better by the model. A modification of the model to reduce the amount of radium deposited in soft tissue fitted the data better in some respects. A straight line linear least squares fit to the data appeared to fit as well as, or better than, the models. A radiation effect was suggested in that the normalized /sup 226/Ra/Ca ratio for vertebrae relative to the ratio expected increased with skeletal absorbed dose for vertebra. However, no such effect was apparent for compact bone or for the cancellous bone as a whole.

  2. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutier, N.R.; Clulow, F.V.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7163 +/- 1077 mBq per animal in spring; 1506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The /sup 226/Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of /sup 226/Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  3. Comparative Analysis Of 226Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-01

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeiriça uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean 226Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of 226Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for 226Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, 226Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1).

  4. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, N R; Clulow, F V; Lim, T P; Davé, N K

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6,083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7,163 +/- 1,077 mBq per animal in spring; 1,506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The 226Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of 226Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  5. (210)Pb-(226)Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-24

    We present new (238)U-(230)Th-(226)Ra-(210)Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant (238)U and (226)Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate (230)Th and (226)Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a (210)Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady (222)Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium ((210)Pb/(226)Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of (222)Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  6. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-03-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt.

  7. 210Pb-226Ra disequilibria in young gas-laden magmas

    PubMed Central

    Reagan, Mark; Turner, Simon; Handley, Heather; Turner, Michael; Beier, Christoph; Caulfield, John; Peate, David

    2017-01-01

    We present new 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb and supporting data for young lavas from southwest Pacific island arcs, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and Terceira, Azores. The arc lavas have significant 238U and 226Ra excesses, whereas those from the ocean islands have moderate 230Th and 226Ra excesses, reflecting mantle melting in the presence of a water-rich fluid in the former and mantle melting by decompression in the latter. Differentiation to erupted compositions in both settings appears to have taken no longer than a few millennia. Variations in the (210Pb/226Ra)0 values in all settings largely result from degassing processes rather than mineral-melt partitioning. Like most other ocean island basalts, the Terceira basalt has a 210Pb deficit, which we attribute to ~8.5 years of steady 222Rn loss to a CO2-rich volatile phase while it traversed the crust. Lavas erupted from water-laden magma systems, including those investigated here, commonly have near equilibrium (210Pb/226Ra)0 values. Maintaining these equilibrium values requires minimal persistent loss or accumulation of 222Rn in a gas phase. We infer that degassing during decompression of water-saturated magmas either causes these magmas to crystallize and stall in reservoirs where they reside under conditions of near stasis, or to quickly rise towards the surface and erupt. PMID:28338093

  8. Release of 226Ra from uranium mill tailings by microbial Fe(III) reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings were anaerobically incubated in the presence of H2 with Alteromonas putrefaciens, a bacterium known to couple the oxidation of H2 and organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) oxides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of Fe(III) reduction and the accumulation of dissolved 226Ra. In sterile tailings in which Fe(III) was not reduced, there was negligible leaching of 226Ra. The behavior of Ba was similar to that of Ra in inoculated and sterile systems. These results demonstrate that under anaerobic conditions, microbial reduction of Fe(III) may result in the release of dissolved 226Ra from uranium mill tailings. ?? 1991.

  9. Concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in industrial kaolinized granite.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Mrđa, Dušan; Nikolov, Jovana; Kardos, Richárd; Krmar, Miodrag

    2017-03-01

    Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (4)(0)K in 120 kaolinized granite samples imported in Serbia from the Motajica mine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, were measured. The (226)Ra concentration ranged from 61 to 319 Bq kg(-1), the (232)Th from 44 to 272 Bq kg(-1), and the (4)(0)K from 590 to 1470 Bq kg(-1). The frequency distribution of (4)(0)K concentrations was near-Gaussian, where those of (226)Ra and (232)Th were right-skewed. In 6 samples, the gamma index, I, was higher than 2, which exceeds the exemption dose criterion (0.3 mSv y(-1)). The absorbed dose rate and annual effective doses for workers in the ceramic industries in Serbia who worked with kaolinized granite were below levels of concern.

  10. A rapid and inexpensive method for 226Ra and 228Ra measurements of high TDS groundwaters.

    PubMed

    El-Shrakawy, A; Ebaid, Y Y; Burnett, W C; Aldaihan, Soaad K

    2013-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale studies was conducted by preconcentrating (226)Ra from spiked water test samples using Purolite ion-exchange resin to evaluate the adsorption efficiency of the resin under varying conditions. After removing the resin from the columns, it was sealed in gas-tight containers and measured via gamma spectrometry. The Purolite resin showed high radium uptake and retention from natural waters in the presence of high iron and total dissolved solids (TDS). This procedure allowed us to process a large number of high TDS samples at a typical rate of 15 samples/day using three germanium detectors. Quality assurance and method validation have been achieved by analyzing selected groundwater samples, with different (226)Ra activities and high TDS values, and comparing the results to those using alpha spectrometry with a (133)Ba yield tracer. There was very good agreement between the obtained (226)Ra activities by both methods.

  11. Bioaccumulation of 226Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K; Shukla, A K; Puranik, V D

    2010-09-01

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the (226)Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream & riverbed. The highest (226)Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg(-1)) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of (226)Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of (226)Ra in plant Bq kg(-1) fresh weight/activity concentration of (226)Ra in water Bq l(-1)) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 10(3) to 8.6 x 10(4). Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the (226)Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae (226)Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the activity concentrations of (226)Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between (226)Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  12. Water hardness determines (226)Ra uptake in the tropical freshwater mussel.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2017-03-22

    Chemical data for freshwater mussels (Velesunio spp.) and water from 15 sampling sites in the Alligator Rivers Region and Rum Jungle uranium provinces in tropical Northern Australia were analysed to develop a predictive model of radium-226 ((226)Ra) bioaccumulation for variable water calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Application of the model as a (226)Ra screening approach for freshwater mussels in tropical waterbodies potentially impacted by operational or remediated uranium mine sites is discussed in relation to Mudginberri Billabong, located approximately 12 km downstream of Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers Region.

  13. 226Ra activity in the mullet species Liza aurata and South Adriatic Sea marine.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N M; Antovic, I; Svrkota, N

    2010-08-01

    (226)Ra activity in the South Adriatic Sea-water, surface sediment, mud with detritus, seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) samples and the mullet (Mugilidae) species Liza aurata, as well as soil and sand from the Montenegrin Coast-was measured using the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. The results are used for calculation of the absorbed (and annual effective) dose rates in air due to the (226)Ra gamma radiation. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 5.94 to 97.16 nGy h(-1) (soil) and from 0.65 to 7.65 nGy h(-1) (sand). In seawater (226)Ra activity is found to be from 0.08 to 0.15 Bq l(-1), while in whole L. aurata individuals from 0.58 to 1.97 Bq kg(-1). Annual intake of (226)Ra by human consumers of this fish species has been estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv y(-1).

  14. Estuarine geochemistry of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 222/Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Elsinger, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess /sup 226/Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in /sup 226/Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 20/sup 0//oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for /sup 226/Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the /sup 228/Ra//sup 226/Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of /sup 228/Ra. In the Yangtze River the /sup 228/Ra//sup 226/Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 16/sup 0//oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by /sup 232/Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay /sup 228/Ra increases faster than /sup 226/Ra in the less than or equal to22/sup 0//oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm/sup 2/-year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. /sup 224/Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm/sup 2/-day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed /sup 224/Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant /sup 224/Ra in concentration over the 2.5/sup 0//oo to 12/sup 0//oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from /sup 228/Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes (/sup 224/Ra > /sup 228/Ra > /sup 226/Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess /sup 222/Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21..mu.. to 62..mu...

  15. Metrological Determination of Natural Radioactive Isotopes {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by Means of Ge Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Maria Candida M. de; Delgado, Jose U.; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Silva, Ronaldo L. da

    2008-08-07

    A metrological method to determine the activity per mass unity (activity concentration) of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb ({sup 238}U decay series) and {sup 228}Ra ({sup 232}Th series) by gamma-ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure coaxial germanium detector was developed. In the soil the {sup 22}Ra (half-life = 1600 years) exhibits the same level of radioactivity as {sup 238}U (half-life 4.5x10{sup 9} years) because of a natural phenomenon called secular equilibrium. {sup 226}Ra decays into {sup 222}Rn (half-life = 3.8 days), a radioactive inert gas. After several days, the {sup 222}Rn naturally decays to {sup 218}Po (half-life = 3 minutes), where finally {sup 210}Pb (half-life = 22 years) is produced. The metrological capability of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for naturally occurring radionuclides at environmental levels is showed, with emphasis on the use of 2 mL standard sources volume in a glass ampoule. Source preparation and calibration procedures are described. Radionuclide standards in an activity range of 10 to 250 Bq/g were produced which can be applied in a variety of environmental sample analysis (water, plant material, sediment, etc.). Uncertainties for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb around 3% (k = 1) were obtained.

  16. The development of a 222Rn standard solution dispenser at NPL.

    PubMed

    Dean, J C J; Kolkowski, P

    2004-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a unit for dispensing standardised aqueous solutions of 222Rn is described. The unit consists of a sealed polyethylene capsule (containing a known weight of a 226Ra standard solution) immersed in water inside a cylindrical stainless-steel accumulation chamber. The chamber is fitted with valves at each end and has a central bellows so that the chamber can be compressed to dispense solution. The degree of compression, and thus the weight of solution dispensed, is controlled by a microprocessor-controlled motor-drive mechanism. The solution is dispensed via a needle positioned beneath the lower valve.

  17. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    PubMed

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  18. Sorption of 226Ra from waste effluents using Syrian bentonite.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, L; Al Masri, M S; Budeir, Y; Al Chayah, O

    2010-12-14

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using a batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of a new phase, such as BaCO3, in Ba-derivative were evidenced by XRD characterizations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite showed the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were studied using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominant processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with the Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium coprecipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro components, likely present in waste streams, was investigated by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. Sodium was found to be the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This showed the influential effect ofpH compared with other parameters.

  19. Study of contents of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Alaamer, A S; Omer, R M

    2009-02-01

    In this study concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured in the fertiliser samples in Pakistan using a high-resolution and high-purity germanium detector. Samples were collected from main fertiliser depots located in 10 big cities in the Punjab province. Gamma spectrometric analysis revealed that concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K existed in the ranges from 232 to 511 Bq kg(-1), 21 to 58 Bq kg(-1) and 556 to 1302 Bq kg(-1) with average values of 386 +/- 92, 38 +/- 14 and 885 +/- 220 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Average values of the three natural radionuclides measured in this study were within the range of reported values from some of the other countries of the world. Correlations drawn between measured concentrations were not significant.

  20. Concentration of 210Po, 226Ra and 228Ac in non-siliceous environmental materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houmani, Zidan Mohamed M.; Bradley, D. A.; Maah, Mohd. Jamil; Ahmed, Zaharuddin

    2001-06-01

    The present interest concerns the possible anthropomorphic enhancement of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in non-siliceous media, in particular, sediment from a river running alongside a crude oil facility and alluvial samples from the site of a now defunct minerals benefication plant. We use gamma spectrometry for 226Ra and 228Ac, and for 210Po we use alpha spectrometry in association with a hydrochloric acid based radiochemical method for the extraction of 210Po. Using 209Po to monitor polonium extraction from samples we find the concentrations of 210Po, 226Ra and 228Ac in river sediments to be in accord with typical background values (˜0.04 Bq g -1 dry), while for sub-surface soils located nearby we find the respective activity concentrations to accord with low background values (˜0.02 Bq g -1dry). For alluvial material from the site of a defunct minerals benefications plant we have found 210Po concentrations of ˜11 Bq g -1 (dry) in two of three samples and 30 Bq g -1 (dry) in the remaining sample; 226Ra and 228Ac were some several times these concentrations. In support of the methods we have adopted in present evaluations we find IAEA-300 Baltic Sea sediment reference material to contain 210Po concentrations that are within the IAEA confidence interval for this material.

  1. Effective dose to the public from 226Ra in drinking water supplies of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M; Beitollahi, M M; Hafezi, S; Asefi, M; Bolourchi, M

    1999-08-01

    One of the most important and prevalent isotopes of radium (Ra) in the human food chain, and especially in drinking water, is 226Ra. To determine the contribution of this radionuclide to the annual effective dose to the public in Iran, a national program for determination of this radionuclide was established. Over 500 water samples from different surface and ground water supplies including wells, rivers and springs, as well as hot springs and sea water from the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf have been analyzed. An emanation method with a minimum detection limit of less than 2 mBq L(-1) was developed and applied in this study. Unweighted mean concentrations of 3.3 mBq L(-1) and 8.0 mBq L(-1) were determined in surface and ground drinking water supplies, respectively. Based on such values, mean unweighted annual intakes of 226Ra were found to be 0.85 Bq for an infant, 1.97 Bq for a child, and 2.82 Bq for an adult, which correspond to mean unweighted annual effective doses of 0.17 microSv y(-1), 0.39 microSv y(-1), and 0.56 microSv y(-1), respectively. The mean 226Ra concentrations in hot springs were higher with a maximum of 146.5 Bq L(-1) measured in the Ab-e-Siah hot spring in Ramsar, a town on the coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran.

  2. Concentration of 226Ra in rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a preliminary description of rocks in the southern part of Lower Silesia and the Sudety Mountains in particular, with regard to 226Ra content. The research demonstrates that the average content of this isotope was 40.4 Bq/kg in the rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia, and 41.7 Bq/kg in the rocks of the Sudetes. These values are slightly higher than the mean 226Ra content in the upper part of the Earth's crust, while the measured maximum content of this isotope (244 Bq/kg) is more than twice as high as the upper range of the values most frequently recorded in the upper part of the Earth's crust. The minimum values were lower than the detection limit, which was about 1 Bq/kg. These results reflect the mosaic-like geological structure of Lower Silesia, and particularly the Sudety Mountains, the occurrence of SiO2-rich igneous rocks and the products of their metamorphism, as well as numerous manifestations of uranium mineralisation or even deposital concentrations of this element. The rocks with the highest 226Ra contents include (in decreasing order): aplites, granites, gneisses and leucogranites, granite-gneisses, granodiorites and rhyolites, and, finally, mudstones. The lowest values of 226Ra content, on the other hand, were measured in sandstones, marls and conglomerates, and extremely low-in marbles and quartzites. The results show that background values of 226Ra content in the rocks of the southern part of Lower Silesia fall within a range from several to about 100 Bq/kg, which is the same as the range most frequently recorded in the upper part of the Earth's crust. Distribution of these values has log-normal character. The research demonstrates that the southern part of Lower Silesia, and the Sudetes in particular, may be marked by an increased radon potential. Particularly liable areas are: the Karkonosze granite massif, especially in its border zones, the Ladek-Snieznik and the Izera massifs, especially in their

  3. Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria.

    PubMed

    Rubin, K H; van der Zander, I; Smith, M C; Bergmanis, E C

    2005-09-22

    Although 70 per cent of global crustal magmatism occurs at mid-ocean ridges-where the heat budget controls crustal structure, hydrothermal activity and a vibrant biosphere-the tempo of magmatic inputs in these regions remains poorly understood. Such timescales can be assessed, however, with natural radioactive-decay-chain nuclides, because chemical disruption to secular equilibrium systems initiates parent-daughter disequilibria, which re-equilibrate by the shorter half-life in a pair. Here we use 210Pb-226Ra-230Th radioactive disequilibria and other geochemical attributes in oceanic basalts less than 20 years old to infer that melts of the Earth's mantle can be transported, accumulated and erupted in a few decades. This implies that magmatic conditions can fluctuate rapidly at ridge volcanoes. 210Pb deficits of up to 15 per cent relative to 226Ra occur in normal mid-ocean ridge basalts, with the largest deficits in the most magnesium-rich lavas. The 22-year half-life of 210Pb requires very recent fractionation of these two uranium-series nuclides. Relationships between 210Pb-deficits, (226Ra/230Th) activity ratios and compatible trace-element ratios preclude crustal-magma differentiation or daughter-isotope degassing as the main causes for the signal. A mantle-melting model can simulate observed disequilibria but preservation requires a subsequent mechanism to transport melt rapidly. The likelihood of magmatic disequilibria occurring before melt enters shallow crustal magma bodies also limits differentiation and heat replenishment timescales to decades at the localities studied.

  4. Microdistribution and local dosimetry of /sup 226/Ra in trabecular bone of the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Polig, E.; Jee, W.S.; Dell, R.B.; Johnson, F.

    1988-11-01

    Sections of lumbar vertebral bodies of young adult beagle dogs have been analyzed autoradiographically to characterize and quantify the local distribution of 226Ra by means of a scanning microscope photometer. The animals received a single injection of 355 kBq/kg body weight and were serially sacrificed at 5 to 1381 days postinjection. Hotspot concentrations decreased from about 51 kBq/g bone at 5 days to 20 kBq/g at 1381 days postinjection. The diffuse concentration changed from 8.3 to 1.9 kBq/g. The mean 226Ra concentration in the trabecular areas scanned was initially higher and at the end of the observation period lower than the average calculated for the whole lumbar vertebral column. Density and area of, and fraction of bone activity in, hotspots virtually remained constant. With time hotspots tended to become translocated into bone volume. Mean dose rates to lining cells from both hotspots and diffuse labels decreased from about 210 mGy/d at early postinjection times to 105 mGy/d. This corresponds to 2.5 to 1.1 times the average skeletal dose rate. A discussion of the level of irradiation in terms of hit frequencies shows that osteoblasts in the initial phase of hotspot formation receive about 60 hits to their nucleus for the duration of bone formation. After about 6 months, however, the 226Ra concentration in new bone and the corresponding hit frequency appears to be low enough that interference with bone formation is unlikely. Morphometric measurements showed that abnormal bone accretion and thickening of trabeculae occurred. This was interpreted as an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Both formation and resorption seem to be substantially lowered compared to control animals.

  5. Determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in drinking water using a single sample preparation procedure.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail P

    2005-12-01

    The current federal and New Jersey State regulations have greatly increased the number of gross alpha and radium tests for public and private drinking water supplies. The determination of radium isotopes in water generally involves lengthy and complicated processes. In this study, a new approach is presented for the determination of gross alpha, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in water samples. The method includes a single sample preparation procedure followed by alpha counting and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The sample preparation technique incorporates an EPA-approved co-precipitation methodology for gross alpha determination with a few alterations and improvements. Using 3-L aliquots of sample, spiked with 133Ba tracer, the alpha-emitting radionuclides are isolated by a BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 co-precipitation scheme. First the gross alpha-particle activity of the sample is measured with a low-background gas-flow proportional counter, followed by radium isotopes assay by gamma-ray spectroscopy, using the same prepared sample. Gamma-ray determination of 133Ba tracer is used to assess the radium chemical recovery. The 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra activities in the sample are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb/214Bi, and 228Ac, respectively. In cases where 224Ra determination is required, the gamma-ray counting should be performed within 2-4 d from sample collection. To measure 226Ra activity in the sample, the gamma-ray spectroscopy can be repeated 21 d after sample preparation to ensure that 226Ra and its progeny have reached the equilibrium state. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with parent 228Ra is already established. Analysis of aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with NIST-traceable 230Th, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra standards demonstrated the accuracy and precision of this method. Various performance evaluation samples were also assayed for gross alpha as well as radium isotope activity determination using this procedure and the

  6. Natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in thermal and mineral waters in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Petrinec, Branko; Sencar, Jasminka; Franulovic, Iva

    2009-01-01

    Thermal waters are known as valuable natural resources of a country. They contain certain degree of natural radioactivity attributable to the elements of the uranium and thorium natural decay series. Among these elements, the most radiotoxic and the most important is radium that exists in several isotopic forms (226Ra and 228Ra). The focus of attention was the content of radium in samples of thermal and mineral spring water from several spas in Croatia. These waters are mainly used for medical, bathing and recreational purposes, and some of them are used for drinking. Measured activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 87 to 6200 mBq l(-1) which, in some springs, exceed the maximal permissible level of 1 Bq l(-1) for drinking water. Measured activity concentrations of 228Ra ranged from 23 to 3480 mBq l(-1). The study showed that radium content for the investigated thermal and mineral waters is below the levels at which negative consequences would arise due to ingestion.

  7. Techniques for precise mapping of 226Ra and 228Ra in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the analyses of 226Ra and 228Ra in seawater made possible by better extraction and processing techniques reduce significantly the errors associated with these measurements. These improvements and the extensive sampling for Ra isotopes conducted on the TTO North Atlantic Study should enable us to use the distribution of 228Ra to study mixing processes on a 3-15 year time scale in both the upper and deep North Atlantic. The 228Ra profiles already analyzed show a closer resemblance to GEOSECS tritium data than to TTO tritium data in the upper ocean. This is because the transient tracer tritium was responding on a 10-year time scale during GEOSECS and a 20-year time scale during TTO. The steady state tracer 228Ra should always respond on a time scale of 8 years. Thus the 228Ra data obtained on TTO should provide a means to extend the features of the GEOSECS tritium field to the regions of the TTO study. The 226Ra data are of high enough quality to identify features associated with different water masses. Changes in the positions of the deep-water masses since the GEOSECS cruise are revealed by the 226Radata.

  8. Bone tumor location in dogs given skeletal irradiation by {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    Statistical analyses have indicated that there was a significant difference between dogs injected with bone volume-seeking {sup 226} Ra as compared to those given bone surface-seeking {sup 239}Pu with respect to location within the skeleton of 334 radiation-induced primary bone malignancies. Corresponding differences also were event when dogs given bone volume-seeking {sup 90}Sr or bone surface-seeking {sup 241}Am, {sup 228}Th {sup 248,252}Cf, or {sup 224}Ra (which decays mostly on bone surfaces because of its short, 3.6 d half time) were included along with the {sup 226}Ra or {sup 239}Pu, respectively (562 total tumors). Further analysis suggested that higher values of percent red marrow (M) and bone turnover rate (R) are correlated with increased probability. of tumor appearance at a particular location within the skeleton for the surface seekers. Proportionately higher values of M and R are associated with skeletal sites containing mostly trabecular bone as compared to those with mostly compact (cortical) bone. Coefficients of determination (r{sup 2}) for the relationship between percent of total tumors vs the combination of percent red marrow and turnover rate (= MR) was about 0.7 for the surface seekers but only about 0.1 for the volume seekers. This indicates that the neoplastic effects of surface seekers, but not volume seekers, are associated with the presence of trabecular bone at the various sites of radio nuclide deposition within the skeleton. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1988-12-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake.

  10. Disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb in a sediment core from a shallow Florida lake

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, M.; Peplov, A.J.; Schelske, C.L. )

    1994-07-01

    [sup 210]Pb dating can be used to assign ages in lake sediment cores, calculate rates of sediment accumulation, and determine the timing of recent changes in lake-watershed ecosystems. We used low-background gamma counting to measure [sup 226]Ra and total [sup 210]Pb activity in a core from Lake Rowell, Florida. [sup 226]Ra activity was high and strongly variable throughout the core, even exceeding total [sup 210]Pb activity in recently deposited sediments. We traced one source of Ra-rich sediments to the only inflow, Alligator Creek, where stream-bottom deposits display disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb. High and variable [sup 226]Ra activity in the Lake Rowell profile argues for direct estimates of in situ Ra in lake sediment cores from disturbed watersheds that have Ra-bearing bedrock. Isotopic disequilibrium between [sup 226]Ra and supported [sup 210]Pb makes it difficult to distinguish between supported and unsupported [sup 210]Pb activity throughout the Lake Rowell core and would require special assumptions and nonconventional dating models to establish age-depth relationships. 78 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Comparative Analysis Of {sup 226}Ra Soil-To-Plant Transfer In Cabbage Grown In Various Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Madruga, M. J.; Carvalho, F. P.; Silva, L.; Gouveia, J.

    2008-08-07

    The transfer of {sup 226}Ra from soil to cabbage was compared amongst regions, namely the surroundings of Urgeirica uranium milling tailings (GE), regions with past uranium mining activities (GN1), and regions with no uranium mining activities and no uranium deposits (GN2). Results show a slight increase of the concentration ratio values at low radium concentration in soils. Statistical analysis of the mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soil and cabbage for the three regions was carried out. The comparison of {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in soils indicated no difference (p>0.05), between GE and GN2 and significant differences (p<0.05) between GE and GN1 and between GN1 and GN2. Similar statistical results were obtained for {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in cabbage from the same regions. It was concluded that radium Concentration Ratio (CR) for cabbage grown in the region of the main uranium milling site (GE) is of the same order of magnitude of CR in cabagge grown in background regions (GN2). However, {sup 226}Ra CR was higher in cabagge from the region with past uranium mining activities (GN1)

  12. Radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in Na-Cl type groundwaters from Tohoku District (Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Jumpei; Zhang, Jing; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-11-01

    A total of 28 Na-Cl type groundwater samples were collected from Aomori, Akita and Yamagata Prefectures, in the Tohoku District of Japan, and their radium isotope ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) concentrations were measured along with their chemical components and stable isotope ratios (δ(2)H and δ(18)Os). The (226)Ra concentrations in groundwater samples varied widely, ranging from 8.8 to 1587 mBq kg(-1). These concentrations showed an increasing tendency with the increase of the total dissolved solid (TDS) contents. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were in the range from 0.3 to 4.2, with most data being around 0.5-2. These ratios were within those of (232)Th/(238)U found in granitic and related rocks and so on in Japan, indicating that Ra isotopes mainly ejected into the groundwater by the alpha-recoil process. The relationship between (226)Ra and other parameters suggested that Ra isotopes in groundwater samples in this study were mainly constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity with wide variation. Clear correlation between (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS observed in sulfate-free groundwater samples indicated that Ra isotopes of them were constrained by adsorption-desorption reactions depending on salinity under reducing condition. In contrast, relationship of (226)Ra-Ca, (226)Ra-Sr, (226)Ra-Ba and (226)Ra-TDS in sulfate-containing groundwater samples varied widely, and then, removal or enhanced mobility of Ra isotopes of them were observed.

  13. Use of 210Pb/ 226Ra disequilibria in the dating of deep-sea whale falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, Daniel; Kadko, David; Smith, Craig R.

    2004-02-01

    Deep-sea whale falls, in particular the skeletal remains of whales that have sunk to the seafloor, are remarkable temporary reducing habitats. Reduced chemical species created by anaerobic microbial decay of lipid and organic compounds within the whale bone matrix fuel chemosynthetic-based communities, including bacteria, mussels, limpets, snails, and clams. Many of these species exhibit taxonomic affinities to other chemosynthetic deep-sea organisms colonizing hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Knowledge of the timescales of whale fall community succession and persistence of these assemblages is needed to reliably estimate the abundance of whale fall habitats and to understand the dynamics of the whale fall communities and their potential roles as stepping stones for sulfophilic species. We have developed a radiochemical method based on 210Pb/ 226Ra disequilibria for estimating the ages of seafloor whale bone communities. Measurements of 210Pb/ 226Ra performed on known age bone samples yielded radioisotope ages in good agreement with the known ages. Our results indicate that this technique is valid for bones 10-85 years old (time since cetacean death). This technique, applied to multiple bones of unknown age whale falls taken from Monterey Canyon, Santa Catalina Basin, and San Nicholas Basin, constrained the upper limit ages of these systems (in 2002) to 6.3±1.0 years, 44.0±7.0 to 53.4±8.3 years, and 66.4±9.6 to 82.6±11 years, respectively. These ages were in reasonable agreement with faunal and/or skeletal observations. In addition, a preliminary lipid degradation rate was calculated for the Santa Catalina Basin whale fall using an independent time series and calibrated to the radiochemically determined age. Both radiochemical and lipid degradation evidence suggest that the whale fall microhabitat is able to support life for many decades.

  14. Influence of soil structure on the "Fv approach" applied to (238)U and (226)Ra.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C

    2017-02-01

    The soil-to-plant transfer factors were determined in a granitic area for the two long-lived uranium series radionuclides (238)U and (226)Ra. With the aim to identify a physical fraction of soil whose concentration correlates linearly with the plant concentration, the soil compartment was analyzed in various stages. An initial study identified the soil compartments as being either bulk soil or its labile fraction. The bulk soil was subsequently divided into three granulometric fractions consisting of: coarse sand, fine sand, and silt and clay. The soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides for each of these three texture fractions was analyzed. Lastly, the labile fraction was extracted from each textural part, and the activity concentration of the radionuclides (238)U and (226)Ra was measured. In order to assess the influence of soil texture on the soil-to-plant transfer process, we sought to identify possible correlations between the activity concentration in the plant compartment and those found in the different fractions within each soil compartment. The results showed that the soil-to-plant transfer process for uranium and radium depends on soil grain size, where the results for uranium showed a linear relationship between the activity concentration of uranium in the plant and the fine soil fraction. In contrast, a linear relation between the activity concentration of radium in the plant and the soil coarse-sand fraction was observed. Additionally, the presence of phosphate and calcium in the soil of all of the compartments studied affected the soil-to-plant transfer of uranium and radium, respectively.

  15. Ce-Fe-modified zeolite-rich tuff to remove Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+) in presence of As(V) and F(-) from aqueous media as pollutants of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Olguín, María Teresa; Deng, Shuguang

    2016-01-25

    The sorption behavior of the Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+) in the presence of H2AsO4(-)/HAsO4(2-) and F(-) from aqueous media using Ce-Fe-modified zeolite-rich tuff was investigated in this work. The Na-modified zeolite-rich tuff was also considered for comparison purposes. The zeolite-rich tuff collected from Wyoming (US) was in contact with NaCl and CeCl3-FeCl3 solutions to obtain the Na- and Ce-Fe-modified zeolite-rich tuffs (ZUSNa and ZUSCeFe). These zeolites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The BET-specific surface and the points of zero charge were determined as well as the content of Na, Ce and Fe by neutron activation analysis. The textural characteristics and the point of zero charge were changed by the presence of Ce and Fe species in the zeolitic network. A linear model described the Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+) sorption isotherms and the distribution coefficients (Kd) varied with respect to the metallic species present in the zeolitic material. The As(V) oxianionic chemical species and F(-) affected this parameter when the Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+)-As(V)-F(-) solutions were in contact with ZUSCeFe. The H2AsO4(-)/HAsO4(2-) and F(-) were adsorbed by ZUSCeFe in the same amount, independent of the concentration of Ba(2+)-like (226)Ra(2+) in the initial solution.

  16. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  17. Validation of a procedure for the analysis of (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials using a liquid scintillation counter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Jung, Yoonhee; Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myung; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detecting (226)Ra in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) was developed and validated with reference materials (zircon matrix, bauxite matrix, coal fly ash, and phosphogypsum) that represent typical NORMs. The (226)Ra was released from samples by a fusion method and was separated using sulfate-coprecipitation. Next, a (222)Rn-emanation technique was applied for the determination of (226)Ra. The counting efficiency was 238 ± 8% with glass vials. The recovery for the reference materials was 80 ± 11%. The linearity of the method was tested with different masses of zircon matrix reference materials. Using 15 types of real NORMs, including raw materials and by-products, this LSC method was compared with γ-spectrometry, which had already been validated for (226)Ra analysis. The correlation coefficient for the results from the LSC method and γ-spectrometry was 0.993 ± 0.058.

  18. Distribution of (226)Ra-(210)Pb-(210)Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sirelkhatim, D A; Sam, A K; Hassona, R K

    2008-12-01

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of (210)Pb and (210)Po with respect to their progenitor (226)Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of (210)Pb/(226)Ra (3.03+/-1.79) and (210)Po/(226)Ra (2.23+/-1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2Bq/kg and 21.9Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of (210)Po was met in Favites at 38.7Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for (210)Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by (210)Po:(226)Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, (210)Po:(210)Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate (210)Po over (210)Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity.

  19. Low impact of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of 226Ra in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Berntssen, Marc H G; Hylland, Ketil; Eriksen, Dag Ø; Holen, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether (226)Ra, a radionuclide present in produced water from oil platforms in the North Sea and other offshore drilling areas, could affect vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Blastula-stage embryonic cells (EC) from fertilized eggs of Atlantic cod were isolated and exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of (226)Ra and transcription of selected genes quantified. The results showed a weak, but significant up-regulation of GPx3 and HSP70 transcripts after 48 h of exposure to 2.11 Bq/L. In EC exposed to three (226)Ra concentrations (2.11, 23 and 117 Bq/L) for 12 h, metallothionein, HSP90AA, thioredoxin and caspase 8 were significantly up-regulated in cells exposed to 117 Bq/L, whereas thioredoxin was also significantly up-regulated in EC exposed to 23 Bq/L. When EC were exposed to the same (226)Ra concentrations for 48 h, only heme oxygenase was significantly up-regulated in the 23 Bq/L exposure group. The results suggest that environmentally relevant activities of (226)Ra may induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in fish ECs. Exposure of Atlantic cod EC to Cd, selected as a model toxicant, supported the ability of EC around blastula stage to respond to toxicants by altered transcription. Due to dilution, environmentally relevant concentrations of radionuclides present in produced water would be expected to pose a minor threat to early life stages of fish.

  20. Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oladele Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits.

  1. Leaching of 226Ra from U mill tailings by sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Landa, E R; Miller, C L; Updegraff, D M

    1986-10-01

    Relatively insoluble sulfate precipitates appear to be a major host for Ra in sulfuric acid-treated, U mill tailings. The dissolution of such precipitates by natural processes, such as metabolism by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), creates the potential for release of Ra to contacting waters. Significant leaching of Ra by SRB was achieved in the laboratory during the anaerobic incubation (1 to 119 days) of U mill tailings with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and mixed cultures containing SRB isolated from the tailings, all grown on a lactate medium at room temperature. While the maximum 226Ra concentration reached in a sterile media control was 0.44 Bq/L (12 pCi/L), that in the SRB systems was 61 Bq/L (1640 pCi/L) or about 20% of the total Ra inventory in the original tailings sample. The leaching of Ra in SRB systems was accompanied by a decrease in soluble sulfate concentration, an increase in total sulfide concentration, and an increase in the number of SRB. The observed leaching effect does not appear to be due to the action of microbial chelates or to binding to cell walls. Potential implications of these findings to the management of U mill tailings and other radioactive wastes are discussed.

  2. Thermoluminescence and excess 226Ra decay dating of late Quaternary fluvial sands, East Alligator River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew; Wohl, Ellen; East, Jon

    1992-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating was applied to seven samples of siliceous fluvial sands from the East Alligator River of Northern Australia, giving ages ranging from modern to 6000 yr B.P. Two methods of estimating the equivalent dose (ED), total bleach and regenerative, were applied to the 90- to 125-μm quartz fraction of the samples in order to determine the reliability and internal consistency of the technique. High-resolution γ and α spectroscopy were used to measure radionuclide contents; these measurements revealed an excess 226Ra activity compared with 230Th. This excess decreased with depth, and was used directly to derive mean sedimentation rates, and thus sediment ages. Both this method and one 14C date confirmed the validity of the TL values, which increased systematically with depth and were consistent with site stratigraphy. TL was of limited use in the dating of these late Holocene deposits because of age uncertainties of 500 to 1600 yr, resulting from a significant residual ED. This residual probably resulted from incomplete bleaching during reworking upstream of the sampling site. For Pleistocene deposits, the residual ED will be less significant because of higher total EDs, and TL dates will be correspondingly more accurate.

  3. Soft-tissue tumors among beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.

    1994-03-01

    A total of 409 primary soft-tissue tumors (189 malignant) occurred among 87 of 120 young adult beagles (72.5%) injected with {sup 226}Ra in eight dose levels ranging from 0.2-440 kBq kg{sup -1} body mass, while a total of 565 primary soft-tissue tumors (208 of them malignant) were seen among 117 of 133 control beagles not given radioactivity (88%). Because the p-value for the difference in these two percentages was >0.05, further comparisons were not made of all tumor locations or types taken together but only of the individual tumor locations or types. There was a clear excess of malignant tumors and all tumors (benign plus malignant) in the eye among dogs injected with radium (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively), but the occurrence of all the other types of soft-tissue tumors was not greater in irradiated vs. control dogs (p > 0.05). This was also true for hematopoietic tumor types (including just one leukemia in a control and none in irradiated dogs) in which there was no difference between controls and dogs given radium. 25 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Concurrent determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 212Pb in a single analysis for drinking water and wastewater: dissolved and suspended fractions.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Obed, Reynaldo N; Nemeth, William K; Suozzo, Gail

    2004-02-01

    A technique has been developed for the measurement of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 2t2Pb concurrently in a single analysis. The procedure can be applied to both drinking water and wastewater, including the dissolved and suspended fractions of a sample. For drinking water samples, using 3-L aliquots, the radium isotopes are isolated by a fast PbSO4 co-precipitation and then quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The radium isotopes 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra are measured through their gamma-ray-emitting decay products, 212Pb, 214Pb (and/or 214Bi), and 228Ac, respectively. Because of the short half-life of 224Ra (T1/2 = 3.66 d), the precipitate should be counted within 4 d of the sample collection date. In case the measurement of unsupported 212Pb (T1/2 = 10.64 h) is required, the gamma-ray analysis should be initiated as soon as possible, preferably on the same day of collection. The counting is repeated after about 21 d to ensure the 226Ra progeny are in equilibrium with their parent. At this point, the 228Ac equilibration with its 228Ra parent is already established. In the case of samples containing suspended materials, an aliquot of sample is filtered and then the filtrate is treated as described above for drinking water samples. The suspended fraction of sample, collected on the filter, is directly analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with no further chemical separation. Aliquots of de-ionized water spiked with various radium standards were analyzed to check the accuracy and precision of the method. In addition, analysis results of actual samples using this method were compared with the ones performed using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved procedures, and the measured values were in close agreement. This method simplifies the analytical procedures and reduces the labor while achieving the precision, accuracy, and minimum detection concentration requirements of EPA's Regulations.

  5. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings.

  6. The Concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in Soil Sample in Osmaniye (Turkey)

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, I.; Guenoglu, K.; Kara, A.; Mavi, B.; Karaboerklue, S.

    2011-12-26

    The {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th concentration is due to the magmatic structure of the earth and it can be varied from place to place. Osmaniye is located in the Eastern side of Mediteranean Region. It holds the climatic characteristics of the same region and arises with Middle Taurus Mountains from west to North and with Amonos Mounations in East and West-east parts and is situated between 35 deg. .52'-36 deg. .42' east longitudes and 36 deg. .57'-37 deg. .45' north latitudes. In this study, the natural radioactivity concentrations {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some soil samples collected in Osmaniye have been investigated. The measurements have been performed using 3x3{sup ''} NaI(Tl) detector system.

  7. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K activities of Wheat and Corn Products in Ilam Province – Iran and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    CHANGIZI, Vahid; SHAFIEI, Elham; ZAREH, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Background: Natural background radiation is the main source of human exposure to radioactive material. Soils naturally have radioactive mineral contents. The aim of this study is to determine natural (238 U, 232 Th, 40 K) and artificial (137 Cs) radioactivity levels in wheat and corn fields of Eilam province. Methods: HPGe detector was used to measure the concentration activity of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs in wheat and corn samples taken from different regions of Eilam province, in Iran. Results: In wheat and corn samples, the average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 1, 67, 0.5, 91.73, 0.01 and 0.81, 0.85, 101.52, 0.07 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. H ex and H in in the present work are lower than 1. The average value of H ex was found to be 0.02 and 0.025 and average value of H in to be found 0.025 and 0.027 in wheat fields samples and corn samples in Eilam provinces, respectively. The obtained values of AGDE are 30.49 mSv/yr for wheat filed samples and 37.89 mSv/yr for corn samples; the AEDE rate values are 5.28 mSv/yr in wheat filed samples and this average value was found to be 6.13 mSv/yr in corn samples in Eilam. Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from soils to corn and wheat plants have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Conclusion: The natural radioactivity levels in Eilam province are not at the range of high risk of morbidity and are under international standards. PMID:26056646

  8. /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb in some vent waters of the Galapagos spreading center

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, K.K.

    1982-08-01

    The concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 238/U and /sup 210/Pb have been measured in waters from the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden thermal fields at the Galapagos spreading center over a temperature range of approx.2.5--16 /sup 0/C. The /sup 226/Ra-T plots yield slopes of 0.112 and 0.036 dpm/kg /sup 0/C for the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden respectively yielding a global hydrothermal /sup 226/Ra flux less than 5% of that required to sustain the oceanic inventory. /sup 238/U concentration in waters <9 /sup 0/C is the same as that in ambient sea water whereas water hotter than approx.9 /sup 0/C shows a decreasing trend with temperature to zero /sup 238/U at approx.29 /sup 0/C. /sup 210/Pb concentration in Mussel Bed increases with temperature, and extrapolated to approx.350 /sup 0/C yields a /sup 210/Pb concentration considerably less than that expected from /sup 222/Rn decay and basalt alteration.

  9. [About the contents of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2014-01-01

    The specific activity of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in forest soil ecotopes (A2-B2-C2-D2) has been investigated. When the fertility of the soil increases from A2 to D2, then the specific activity of 40K increases in the rooting zone of the soil from 275 ± 6.9 up to 499 ± 11 Bq/kg, 232Th--from 11.8 ± 0.5 to 17.1 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, 226Ra- from 19.2 γ 0.8 to 27.9 ± 1.5 Bq/kg. The calculated capacity of the absorbed dose of γ-radiation conditioned by 40K, 232Th and 226Ra increases from A2 to D2 from 27.5 ± 0.5 to 44.1 ± 1.1 nGy / h at the height of 1 m.

  10. U-isotopes and (226)Ra as tracers of hydrogeochemical processes in carbonated karst aquifers from arid areas.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, José Luis; Vallejos, Ángela; Cerón, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Sierra de Gádor is a karst macrosystem with a highly complex geometry, located in southeastern Spain. In this arid environment, the main economic activities, agriculture and tourism, are supported by water resources from the Sierra de Gádor aquifer system. The aim of this work was to study the levels and behaviour of some of the most significant natural radionuclides in order to improve the knowledge of the hydrogeochemical processes involved in this groundwater system. For this study, 28 groundwater and 7 surface water samples were collected, and the activity concentrations of the natural U-isotopes ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U) and (226)Ra by alpha spectrometry were determined. The activity concentration of (238)U presented a large variation from around 1.1 to 65 mBq L(-1). Elevated groundwater U concentrations were the result of oxidising conditions that likely promoted U dissolution. The PHREEQC modelling code showed that dissolved U mainly existed as uranyl carbonate complexes. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were higher than unity for all samples (1.1-3.8). Additionally, these ratios were in greater disequilibrium in groundwater than surface water samples, the likely result of greater water-rock contact time. (226)Ra presented a wide range of activity concentrations, (0.8 up to about 4 × 10(2) mBq L(-1)); greatest concentrations were detected in the thermal area of Alhama. Most of the samples showed (226)Ra/(234)U activity ratios lower than unity (median = 0.3), likely the result of the greater mobility of U than Ra in the aquifer system. The natural U-isotopes concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolution of sulphate evaporites (mainly gypsum). (226)Ra had a more complex behaviour, showing a strong correlation with water salinity, which was particularly evident in locations where thermal anomalies were detected. The most saline samples showed the lowest (234)U/(238)U activity ratios, probably due to fast uniform bulk mineral dissolution

  11. (226Ra)/(230Th) Excess Generated in the Lower Crust: Implications for Magma Transport Rates in Arc Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, J. D.; Cooper, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    226Ra-excesses in arc magmas have been interpreted to result from flux melting of the mantle above subducting slabs and subsequent fast ascent rates of magma from slab to surface, up 1000 m/yr and higher. Implied by this hypothesis is that the magma has not stalled at any depth for long periods of time, limiting the amount of time for assimilation of crustal material and homogenization of magmas. However, mixing of mantle melts with mid to lower crustal melts has been inferred in numerous localities, especially in continental arc settings. In addition, very short residence times may be in conflict with crystal residence of thousands to tens of thousands of years in arc lavas. We present calculations that demonstrate that incongruent melting of the lower crust could either maintain or augment mantle-derived Ra-excesses and so reduce vertical transport rates to 10 m/yr or less. In particular, we found that dehydration melting of amphibolite can produce modeled 226Ra-excesses greater than 300 percent with corresponding 230Th-excesses of approx. 14 percent. Both the modal percentage of garnet and melt fraction contribute to the degree of Ra-excess, and a wide range of garnet compositions can produce significant disequilibria. Mixtures of such an amphibolite dehydration melt with mantle melts will likely retain a 238U-excess (subducted slab) signature, although lower crustal melting without such mixing could help explain some of the enigmatic silicic magmas observed that have 230Th-excesses. This amphibolite dehydration melting process will also produce elevated Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, similar to those observed in several arc settings, that may distinguish these magmas from those with 226Ra-excesses produced by slab-dewatering alone.

  12. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. {sup 40}K, {sup 115}Cs and {sup 226}Ra Soil and Plant Content in Seminatural Grasslands of Central Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Rizzotto, M.; Quintana, E.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-08-07

    Activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs have been analyzed in soil and plant samples, collected in permanent grassland in central Argentina. Two near areas (A1 and A2) under field conditions with soil undisturbed at least in the last four decades were selected. For each of the three studied radionuclides we do not find differences in the inventories between both areas. The inventories range from 143 kBq m{sup -2} to 197 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 40}K and from 13 kBq m{sup -2} to 18 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra. The vertical distributions of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are uniform through de soil profile. For {sup 137}Cs the inventories range from 0.33 kBq m{sup -2} to 0.73 kBq m{sup -2}. In spite of {sup 137}Cs inventories are similar in both areas the distribution through vertical profile is different. {sup 137}Cs activity concentration has a maximum for layers 5-10 cm depth in A1 and 10-15 cm depth in A2. For deeper layers both areas show similar activity concentrations. The diffusion coefficient (D{sub s}) and convection velocity (v{sub s}) are estimated with a convection-diffusion model. D{sub s} values are in the range reported in the bibliography, while v{sub s} values are one order of magnitude higher. After 40 years most {sup 137}Cs fallout is still in the layer 10-15 cm depth. The great penetration of {sup 137}Cs (25 cm) in these soils may be the result of a high sand and low fine materials content. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra were not detected in grass samples. Activity concentration of {sup 40}K in vegetal samples ranges from 116 Bq kg{sup -1} to 613 Bq kg{sup -1}. The TF values obtained for {sup 40}K show a lognormal distribution and ranges from 0.05 to 0.42.

  14. (226)Ra dynamic lixiviation from phosphogypsum samples by an automatic flow-through system with integrated renewable solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Melisa Rodas; Borràs, Antoni; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Rodríguez, Rogelio; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2017-05-15

    The release of (226)Ra from phosphogypsum (PG) was evaluated by developing a novel tool for fully automated (226)Ra lixiviation from PG integrating extraction/pre-concentration using a renewable sorbent format. Eight leached fractions (30mL each one) and a residual fraction were analyzed allowing the evaluation of dynamic lixiviation of (226)Ra. An automatic system allows this approach coupling a homemade cell with a (226)Ra extraction/pre-concentration method, which is carried out combining two procedures: Ra adsorption on MnO2 and its posterior co-precipitation with BaSO4. Detection was carried out with a low-background proportional counter, obtaining a minimum detectable activity of 7Bqkg(-1). Method was validated by analysis of a PG reference material (MatControl CSN-CIEMAT 2008), comparing the content found in fractions (sum of leached fractions + residual fraction) to the reference value. PG samples from Huelva (Spain) were studied. (226)Ra average activity concentration of the sum of leached fractions with artificial rainwater at pH 5.4±0.2 was 105±3Bqkg(-1)d.w. representing a (226)Ra lixiviation of 37%; while at pH 2.0±0.2, it was 168±3Bqkg(-1) d.w., which represents a 50%. Also, static lixiviation, maintaining the same experimental conditions, was carried out indicating that, for both considered pH, the (226)Ra release from PG is up to 50% higher in a dynamic leaching that in a static one, may have both environmental and reutilization implications.

  15. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology, permeability and 226Ra content.

    PubMed

    Lara, E; Rocha, Z; Santos, T O; Rios, F J; Oliveira, A H

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The measurements of soil gas radon concentrations were performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The (226)Ra content analysis was performed by gamma spectrometry (high pure germanium) and permeabilities were performed by using the RADON-JOK permeameter. The GEORP indicator and soil radon index (RI) were also calculated. Approximately 53 % of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as 'high risk' (Swedish criteria). The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas. The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas (60.6 ± 8.7 kBq m(-3)), high indoor radon concentration, high RI, (226)Ra content and GEORP. The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals.

  16. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 231}Pa systematics of axial MORB, crustal residence ages, and magma chamber characteristics at 9--10{degree}N East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Perfit, M.R.; Batiza, R.; Fornari, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 30}Th-22{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}-U{sup 231}Pa disequilibria for axial basalts are used to determine crustal residence ages for MORB magma and investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of axial magma chambers (AMC) at 9--10{degrees}N East Pacific Rise (EPR). Relative crustal residence ages can be calculated from variations in {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U activity ratios for axial lavas, if (1) mantle sources and melting are uniform, and mantle transfer times are constant or rapid for axial N-MORB, and (2) {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th in the melt are unaffected by shallow level fractional crystallization. Uniform Th, Sr, and Nd isotopic systematics and incompatible element ratios for N-MORB along the 9--10{degrees}N segment indicate that mantle sources and transfer times are similar. In addition, estimated bulk solid/melt partition coefficients for U, Th, and Pa are small, hence effects of fractional crystallization on {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratios for the melt are expected to be negligible. However, fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the AMC would lower {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th ratios in the melt and produce a positive bias in {sup 226}Ra crustal residence ages for fractionated lavas.

  17. Magma differentiation rates from ( 226Ra / 230Th) and the size and power output of magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Stephen; Rogers, Nick

    2005-08-01

    We present a mathematical model for the evolution of the ( 226Ra / 230Th) activity ratio during simultaneous fractional crystallization and ageing of magma. The model is applied to published data for four volcanic suites that are independently known to have evolved by fractional crystallization. These are tholeiitic basalt from Ardoukoba, Djibouti, MORB from the East Pacific Rise, alkali basalt to mugearite from Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland, and basaltic andesites from Miyakejima, Izu-Bonin arc. In all cases ( 226Ra / 230Th) correlates with indices of fractional crystallization, such as Th, and the data fall close to model curves of constant fractional crystallization rate. The best fit rates vary from 2 to 6 × 10 - 4 yr - 1 . Consequently, the time required to generate moderately evolved magmas ( F ≤ 0.7) is of the order of 500 to 1500 yrs and closed magma chambers will have lifetimes of 1700 to 5000 yrs. These rates and timescales are argued to depend principally on the specific power output (i.e., power output per unit volume) of the magma chambers that are the sites of fractional crystallization. Equating the heat flux at the EPR to the heat flux from the sub-axial magma chamber that evolves at a rate of ca. 3 × 10 - 4 yr - 1 implies that the magma body is a sill of ca. 100 m thickness, a value which coincides with independent estimates from seismology. The similarity of the four inferred differentiation rates suggests that the specific power output of shallow magma chambers in a range of tectonic settings covers a similarly narrow range of ca. 10 to 50 MW km - 3 . Their differentiation rates are some two orders of magnitude slower than that of the basaltic Makaopuhi lava lake, Hawaii, that cooled to the atmosphere. This is consistent with the two orders of magnitude difference in heat flux between Makaopuhi and the East Pacific Rise. ( 226Ra / 230Th) data for magma suites related by fractional crystallization allow the magma differentiation rate to be estimated

  18. Radionuclide ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K) accumulation among plant species in mangrove ecosystems of Pattani Bay, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewtubtim, Pungtip; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Seepom, Sumalee; Pichtel, John

    2017-02-15

    Little is known regarding phytoremediation of radionuclides from soil; even less is known about radionuclide contamination and removal in tropical ecosystems such as mangrove forests. In mangrove forests in Pattani Bay, Thailand, 18 plant species from 17 genera were evaluated for radionuclide concentrations within selected plant parts. Two shrub species, Avicennia marina and Pluchea indica, accumulated the highest (232)Th (24.6Bqkg(-1)) and (40)K (220.7Bqkg(-1)) activity concentrations in roots, respectively. Furthermore, the aquatic species Typha angustifolia accumulated highest (232)Th, (40)K and (226)Ra activity concentrations (85.2, 363.5, 16.6Bqkg(-1), respectively) with the highest transfer factors (TFs) (3.0, 2.0, 5.9, respectively) in leaves. Leaves of T. angustifolia had an absorbed dose rate in air (D) over the recommended value (74.8nGyh(-1)) that was considered sufficiently high to be of concern for human consumption.

  19. (226) RA AND (228) RA ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE PONDS AND WETLAND PONDS IN THE KANKAKEE WATERSHED, IL-IN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-a and -B activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L-1, respectively. 226Ra and 228Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L-01...

  20. Precise determination of photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays of 226Ra in equilibrium with daughters.

    PubMed

    Morel, J; Sepman, S; Rasko, M; Terechtchenko, E; Delgado, J U

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of a joint project between VNIIM (D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology) and LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel), special 226Ra sources were prepared by VNIIM in order to determine as accurately as possible the absolute photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays following the decay of 226Ra and daughters. The main purpose of this work was to supplement a previous joint study by Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiaçoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) and LNHB to determine their relative values. Some specific point sources were produced for alpha-spectrometry measurements that were undertaken at VNIIM and also for gamma-ray spectrometry studies at VNIIM and LNHB. The 226Ra activity for the gamma-spectrometric sources was measured relative to the alpha-spectrometric sources by comparing the counts of the main gamma-rays. The total uncertainty of the activity for these sources was 0.2% (k = 1). Using calibrated germanium detectors, several X- and gamma-ray spectra were analyzed to determine the absolute photon emission probabilities of 226Ra in radioactive equilibrium with daughters. The results are presented and compared to other published values.

  1. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on the uptake of (226)Ra by corn (Zea mays L.) in a region of high natural radioactivity in Ramsar-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Sareh; Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar; Bahrami Samani, Ali; Ghannadi Maragheh, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    To study the benefit of including citric and oxalic acid treatments for phytoremediation of (226)Ra contaminated soils a greenhouse experiment with corn was conducted. A soil was sampled from a region of high natural (226)Ra radioactivity in Ramsar, Iran. After cultivation of corn seed and using organic acid treatments at 1, 10 and 100 mM concentrations, plants (shoots and roots) were harvested, digested and prepared to measure (226)Ra activity. Simultaneously, sequential selective extraction were performed to estimate the partitioning of (226)Ra among geochemical extraction. Results showed that the maximum uptake of (226)Ra in plants was observed in citric acid (6.3%) and then oxalic acid (6%) at 100 mM concentration. These treatments increased radium uptake by a factor of 1.5 than the control. Enhancement of radium uptake by plants was related to soil pH reduction of organic acids in comparison to control. Also, the maximum uptake of this radionuclide in all treatments was obtained in roots compared to shoots. (226)Ra fractionations results revealed that 91.8% of radium was in the residual phase of the soil and the available fractions were less than 2%. As the main percent of (226)Ra was in the residual phase of the soil in this region, it seems that organic acids had not significant effect on the uptake of (226)Ra for phytoremediation by corn in this condition.

  2. Laser-trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Physics; Enrico Fermi Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-02-27

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  3. Vertical migration of 60Co, 137Cs and 226Ra in agricultural soils as observed in lysimeters under crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Shinonaga, T; Schimmack, W; Gerzabek, M H

    2005-01-01

    In most studies quantifying the migration parameters - apparent migration velocity and apparent dispersion coefficient - of radionuclides in the soil by model calculations, these parameters are determined for undisturbed soils. For soils disturbed by ploughing, however, no such data are available in the literature. Therefore, in the present study, the migration parameters of (137)Cs, (60)Co and (226)Ra were estimated for ploughed soils by means of a convection-dispersion model. The depth distributions of the radionuclides were determined in four lysimeters (area: 1m(2), depth of soil monolith: 0.75m) filled with artificially contaminated soils of different types in July 1990. The lysimeters were cropped with agricultural plants. The soil in each lysimeter was ploughed manually once a year until 1996 (plough depth 20cm). In July 1999, soil samples were collected from three pits in each lysimeter. The depth distributions of all radionuclides proved to be very similar in each soil pit. The spatial variability of the depth distributions of a given radionuclide within the lysimeters was about the same as their variability between the four lysimeters. Evaluation of the migration parameters revealed that the convective transport of the radionuclides was always rather small or even zero, while the dispersive transport caused a "melting" process of the initially sharp activity edge at the lower border of the Ap horizon. These results are explained by the high evapotranspiration (80-90% of the total precipitation plus irrigation) and the small amounts of seepage water during the observation period of 9 years.

  4. Mobile gamma-ray scanning system for detecting radiation anomalies associated with /sup 226/Ra-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Blair, M.S.; Doane, R.W.; Goldsmith, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    A mobile gamma-ray scanning system has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the Department of Energy's remedial action survey programs. The unit consists of a NaI(T1) detection system housed in a specially-equipped van. The system is operator controlled through an on-board mini-computer, with data output provided on the computer video screen, strip chart recorders, and an on-line printer. Data storage is provided by a floppy disk system. Multichannel analysis capabilities are included for qualitative radionuclide identification. A /sup 226/Ra-specific algorithm is employed to identify locations containing residual radium-bearing materials. This report presents the details of the system description, software development, and scanning methods utilized with the ORNL system. Laboratory calibration and field testing have established the system sensitivity, field of view, and other performance characteristics, the results of which are also presented. Documentation of the instrumentation and computer programs are included.

  5. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, P.; Reyss, J.-L.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Colin, C.; Frank, N.; Tisnérat-Laborde, N.; Bordier, L.; Douville, E.

    2012-03-01

    Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr-1 (2.6 polyps per year). Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr-1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr-1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years). We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost ranges of previous growth

  6. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents in water samples in part of central deserts in Iran and their potential radiological risk to human population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The radiological quality of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some samples of water resources collected in Anarak-Khour a desertic area, Iran has been measured by direct gamma ray spectroscopy using high purity germanium detector in this paper. Result The concentration ranged from ≤0.5 to 9701 mBq/L for 226Ra; ≤0.2 to 28215 mBq/L for 232Th and < MDA to 10332 mBq/L for 40K. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370Bq/L. The calculated external hazard indices were found to be less than 1 which shows a low dose. Conclusion These results can be contributed to the database of this area because it may be used as disposal sites of nuclear waste in future. PMID:24883192

  7. Migration of the FDNPP-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs along with (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations across the northwestern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Shirotani, Y; Nagao, S; Kofuji, H; Volkov, Y N; Nishioka, J

    2016-10-01

    We examined lateral distributions of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra in the surface seawaters around the Kuril Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2014. The sampling area included three water current areas, the Oyashio Current, the current from the Okhotsk Sea, and the coastal current along the east Kamchatka Peninsula. (226)Ra and (228)Ra distributions differed along the three currents. Low levels of (134)Cs were detected in the surface waters of the Oyashio Current (0.09-0.35 mBq/L), but it was <∼0.1 mBq/L at the surface along the other two currents. This indicates that the distribution of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in surface waters off the Kamchatka and along the Kuril Islands is predominantly governed by the Oyashio current system.

  8. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: 226Ra, 238U, 210Po concentrations and 222Rn exhalation rate.

    PubMed

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Manjón, Guillermo

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its (226)Ra content and to the (222)Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of (222)Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km(2) from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged (226)Ra concentrations for the stack were 730+/-60 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). (222)Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m(-2)h(-1), but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with (226)Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  9. The cumulative effect of three decades of phosphogypsum amendments in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain: (226)Ra, (238)U and Cd contents in soils and tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Enamorado, Santiago M; Hurtado, M Dolores; Andreu, Luis; Delgado, Antonio

    2008-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertiliser industries, has been applied as soil amendment to reduce Na saturation in soils, as in the reclaimed marsh area from SW Spain, where available PG has a typical fingerprint of 710+/-40 Bq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, 165+/-15 Bq kg(-1) of (238)U and 2.8+/-0.4 mg kg(-1) of Cd. This work was focussed on the cumulative effects of PG amendments on the enrichment of these pollutants in cultivated soils and plants (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill L.) from the area studied, where PG has been applied since 1978 at recommended rates of 20-25 Mg ha(-1) every 2-3 years. A field experiment was conducted over three years to compare activity concentrations of (226)Ra ((214)Pb) and (238)U ((234)Th) in non-reclaimed soils, reclaimed soils with no additional PG application, and reclaimed soils with two additional PG applications. A non-significant effect of two PG amendments (in three years) was observed when compared with non-amended reclaimed plots. Nevertheless, a significant (p<0.05) enrichment of (226)Ra was observed in the surface horizon (0-30 cm) of reclaimed plots relative to deeper horizons and also when compared with the surface horizon of non-reclaimed soil (p<0.05), thereby revealing the cumulative effect of three decades of PG applications. Furthermore, the effect of a continuous application of PG was studied by analysing soils and tomato fruits from six commercial farms with different cumulative rates of PG applied. Cadmium concentrations in tomatoes, which were one order of magnitude higher than those found in tomatoes from other areas in South Spain, were positively correlated (r = 0.917) with (226)Ra-concentration in soils, which can be considered an accurate index of the cumulative PG rate of each farm.

  10. Mapping the spatial distribution and activity of (226)Ra at legacy sites through Machine Learning interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Radium ((226)Ra) contamination derived from military, industrial, and pharmaceutical products can be found at a number of historical sites across the world posing a risk to human health. The analysis of spectral data derived using gamma-ray spectrometry can offer a powerful tool to rapidly estimate and map the activity, depth, and lateral distribution of (226)Ra contamination covering an extensive area. Subsequently, reliable risk assessments can be developed for individual sites in a fraction of the timeframe compared to traditional labour-intensive sampling techniques: for example soil coring. However, local heterogeneity of the natural background, statistical counting uncertainty, and non-linear source response are confounding problems associated with gamma-ray spectral analysis. This is particularly challenging, when attempting to deal with enhanced concentrations of a naturally occurring radionuclide such as (226)Ra. As a result, conventional surveys tend to attribute the highest activities to the largest total signal received by a detector (Gross counts): an assumption that tends to neglect higher activities at depth. To overcome these limitations, a methodology was developed making use of Monte Carlo simulations, Principal Component Analysis and Machine Learning based algorithms to derive depth and activity estimates for (226)Ra contamination. The approach was applied on spectra taken using two gamma-ray detectors (Lanthanum Bromide and Sodium Iodide), with the aim of identifying an optimised combination of detector and spectral processing routine. It was confirmed that, through a combination of Neural Networks and Lanthanum Bromide, the most accurate depth and activity estimates could be found. The advantage of the method was demonstrated by mapping depth and activity estimates at a case study site in Scotland. There the method identified significantly higher activity (<3 Bq g(-1)) occurring at depth (>0.4m), that conventional gross counting algorithms

  11. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  12. 226Ra and other radionuclides in water, vegetation, and tissues of beavers (Castor canadensis) from a watershed containing U tailings near Elliot Lake, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Mirka, M A; Davé, N K; Lim, T P

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, diet items, and water at site of capture, of adult beavers from the Serpent River drainage basin which contains U tailings at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from nearby control sites. Levels of (226)Ra in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to U tailings; liver levels did not vary by site. Environmental (226)Ra levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site and were less than 0.19 between vegetation and other tissues. In two beavers with tissue levels of (226)Ra higher than other sampled, neither (232)Th nor (230)Th were detected in bone, muscle or liver tissues. U-238 was measurable in bone, muscle and liver, (228)Th in bone, (210)Po bone, muscle and liver; and (210)Pb was measurable only in bone. Estimated yearly intakes of radionuclides by people eating beavers were calculated to be below current allowable levels set by the Canadian regulatory authorities.

  13. STUDY OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY (226Ra, 232Th AND 40K) IN SOIL SAMPLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AVERAGE EFFECTIVE DOSE AND RADIATION HAZARDS.

    PubMed

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Jakhu, Rajan

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentration of (226)Ra (radium), (232)Th (thorium) and (40)K (potassium) has been measured in the soil samples collected from Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using NaI (Tikl) gamma detector. The concentration of three radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the studied area has been varied from 18±4 to 46±5, 53±7 to 98±8 and 248±54 to 756±110 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) have been calculated in soil samples for the assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples. The absorbed dose rate of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in studied area has been varied from 8 to 21, 33 to 61 and 9 to 25 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding indoor and outdoor annual effective dose in studied area was 0.38 and 0.09 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard has been also calculated for the assessment of radiation hazards in the studied area.

  14. Investigations on the activity concentrations of 238U, 226RA, 228RA, 210PB and 40K in Jordan phosphogypsum and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Ahmad, N; Shehadeh, H; Afaneh, F; Maghrabi, M; Gerstmann, U; Höllriegl, V; Oeh, U

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K) in Jordanian phosphate ore, fertilizer material and phosphogypsum piles were investigated. The results show the partitioning of radionuclides in fertilizer products and phosphogypsum piles. The outcome of this study will enrich the Jordanian radiological map database, and will be useful for an estimation of the radiological impact of this industrial complex on the immediate environment. The activity concentration of (210)Pb was found to vary from 95 +/- 8 to 129 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 111 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) in fertilizer samples, and from 364 +/- 8 to 428 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 391 +/- 30 Bq kg(-1) in phosphogypsum samples; while in phosphate wet rock samples, it was found to vary between 621 +/- 9 and 637 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 628 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1). The activity concentration of (226)Ra in fertilizer samples (between 31 +/- 4 and 42 +/- 5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 37 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much smaller than the activity concentration of (226)Ra in phosphogypsum samples (between 302 +/- 8 and 442 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 376 +/- 62 Bq kg(-1)). In contrast, the activity concentration of (238)U in fertilizer samples (between 1011 +/- 13 and 1061 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1033 +/- 22 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much higher than the activity concentration of (238)U in phosphogypsum samples (between 14 +/- 5 and 37 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 22 +/- 11 Bq kg(-1)). This indicates that (210)Pb and (226)Ra show similar behaviour, and are concentrated in phosphogypsum piles. In addition, both isotopes enhanced the activity concentration in phosphogypsum piles, while (238)U enhanced the activity concentration in the fertilizer. Due to the radioactivity released from the phosphate rock processing plants into the environment, the highest collective dose commitment for the lungs

  15. Activity concentration, transfer factors and resultant radiological risk of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil and some vegetables consumed in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solehah, A. R.; Yasir, M. S.; Samat, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined in vegetable crops consumed by Malaysian people in Sungai Besar, Selangor. Sample of vegetables and the soil where the crops were cultivated and collected at five different location. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy using the high purity germanium detector. The range activity concentration in soil is between 51.81 and 71.84 Bq/kg, 64.18 and 78.00 Bq/kg, and 210.49 and 244.29 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in vegetables were found to be in the range of 2.06 to 5.44 Bq/kg, Not Detectable to 0.61 Bq/kg, and 101.00 to 1223.09 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentration in both soil and vegetables were all less than lower limit stated by UNSCEAR. The Transfer Factors range value for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied from 0.02 to 0.06, 0.003 to 0.008, and 1.79 to 5.19 respectively. Radium equivalent for soil range from 165.57 to 194.84 Bq/kg. It was within the international accepted value (370 Bq/kg). Absorb dose rate for soil range between 73.5 to 86.40 nGyh-1, in safe range from limit of international accepted value (55nGyh-1). Effective dose rate is found to be in range of 0.09 to 0.11 mSvy-1 for soil which is less than 2.4 mSv/y. External and Internal Hazard indices of soil was all below 1, within agreement of other researcher and UNSCEAR. The estimation of the consequent radiological risk due to the presence of those radionuclides is significantly low.

  16. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, P.; Reyss, J.-L.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Colin, C.; Frank, N.; Tisnérat-Laborde, N.; Bordier, L.; Douville, E.

    2011-12-01

    Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of corals from one of the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, the Røst Reef off Norway. Two large branching framework-forming cold-water coral specimens, one Lophelia pertusa and one Madrepora oculata were collected alive at 350 m water depth from the Røst Reef at ~67° N and ~9° E. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and the corals trace element compositions were studied using ICP-QMS. Due to the different chemical behaviors of Pb and Ra in the marine environment, 210Pb and 226Ra were not incorporated the same way into the aragonite skeleton of those two cold-water corals. Thus to assess of the growth rates of both specimens we have here taken in consideration the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb as well as the ingrowth of 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra. Moreover a~post-depositional 210Pb incorporation is found in relation to the Mn-Fe coatings that could not be entirely removed from the oldest parts of the skeletons. The 226Ra activities in both corals were fairly constant, then assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time the 210Pb-226Ra chronology can be applied to calculate linear growth rate. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata reveals an age of 31 yr and a~linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr-1, i.e. 2.6 polyps per year. However, a correction regarding a remaining post-depositional Mn-Fe oxide coating is needed for the base of the specimen. The corrected age tend to confirm the radiocarbon derived basal age of 40 yr (using 14C bomb peak) with a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr-1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in Aquaria experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long specimen of L. pertusa a remaining contamination of metal-oxides is observed for the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton, inhibiting similar accurate age

  17. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-08-01

    The present study addresses the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U for 13 types of vegetables and agricultural crops planted under semi-arid environment in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. Crop plants along with plant-growing soils were collected from selected farms, which are irrigated from the non-renewable Saq aquifer, and investigated for their radioactivity content by means of alpha spectrometry after applying a radiochemical separation procedure. Hence, TF data for plant roots, green parts (stem and leaves) and fruits were calculated and contrasted to those reported in the literature. Substantial differences were observed in the TFs of Ra and U radioisotopes among plant species. In crop fruits, eggplant exhibited the highest uptake of (226)Ra (TF value of 0.11), while beans (0.16) have the highest TF for (234)U and (238)U. The geometric mean TF values indicated that the crop roots tend to accumulate Ra and U about four to six-folds higher than fruits. The relation between TF values and soil concentrations showed a weak correlation. Activity ratios between radionuclides in crop plants indicated the preferential translocation of U in fruits than Ra even though Ra is more available for root uptake. The fruit/root (F/R) ratios obtained for the investigated plants shown that pepper had the smallest F/R ratios (0.07 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively), while the highest F/R ratios were observed in potatoes (0.71 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.10 and 0.40 ± 0.08 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively). The TF and F/R ratios data of natural radionuclides in the study region can hopefully improve the scientific knowledge for future studies.

  18. Quantification of transfer of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in mosses of a semi-natural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dragović, S; Mihailović, N; Gajić, B

    2010-02-01

    There is a lack of appropriate data on transfer of some radionuclides on many terrestrial biota groups. To expand the available data concentration ratios of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in mosses are presented in this paper. The relationship between concentration ratios of radionuclides and physicochemical characteristics of the underlying soil was also investigated. The data on concentration ratios obtained here will provide a useful addition to the currently used database of transfer parameters, particularly for natural radionuclides.

  19. Assessment of (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K activities from the northern coastline of Oman Sea (water and sediments).

    PubMed

    Darabi-Golestan, F; Hezarkhani, A; Zare, M R

    2017-02-27

    Water and sediment samples were collected from northern coast of Oman Sea covering from Goatr to Hormoz canyon seaport. Water and sediment quality assessment for naturally or anthropogenic radionuclides at Oman Sea as a main strategic golf for trade and transit, is an important issue. Correspondence analysis (CA) by R-mode analysis represents that sigma(T)-temperature-conductivity-O2 parameters are well-correlated with (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. Accordingly Q-mode analysis revealed an indicator samples of ST13W for different radionuclides, ST03W for O2, and simultaneously ST34W-ST21W-ST08W-ST04W for sigma(T) parameters. The CA results overlapped with factor and cluster analysis results that explained 85.8% of total variance of water samples. Descriptive analysis of sediments indicates more significant variation than water samples. The (232)Th and (226)Ra generally showing that ST13D to ST25D sediments that restricted to Pi Bashk coastline are concentrated from (137)Cs and (40)K. By comparison with reference-values from Iran and other parts of the world, they are acceptable with respect to environmental and radioisotope hazards.

  20. Assessment of environmental (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in the region of elevated radiation background in Segamat District, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq

    2013-10-01

    Extensive environmental survey and measurements of gamma radioactivity in the soil samples collected from Segamat District were conducted. Two gamma detectors were used for the measurements of background radiation in the area and the results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate and mean weighted dose rate, which are 276 nGy h(-1) and 1.169 mSv y(-1), respectively. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used in the assessment of activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K. The results of the gamma spectrometry range from 11 ± 1 to 1210 ± 41 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, 12 ± 1 to 968 ± 27 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 12 ± 2 to 2450 ± 86 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations range from 170 ± 50 to 4360 ± 170 Bq kg(-1) and 70 ± 20 to 4690 ± 90 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These results were used in the plotting of digital maps (using ARCGIS 9.3) for isodose. The results are compared with values giving in UNSCEAR 2000.

  1. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2013-12-01

    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of (226)Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination.

  2. Ground water contamination with (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb from past uranium mining: cove wash, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Dias da Cunha, Kenya Moore; Henderson, Helenes; Thomson, Bruce M; Hecht, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the study are to present a critical review of the (238)U, (234)U, (235)U, (226)Ra and (210)Pb levels in water samples from the EPA studies (U.S. EPA in Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Red Valley chapter screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2004, Abandoned uranium mines and the Navajo Nation: Northern aum region screening assessment report. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Francisco, 2006, Health and environmental impacts of uranium contamination, 5-year plan. Region 9 Superfund Program, San Franciso, 2008) and the dose assessment for the population due to ingestion of water containing (238)U and (234)U. The water quality data were taken from Sect. "Data analysis" of the published report, titled Abandoned Uranium Mines Project Arizona, New Mexico, Utah-Navajo Lands 1994-2000, Project Atlas. Total uranium concentration was above the maximum concentration level for drinking water (7.410-1 Bq/L) in 19 % of the water samples, while (238)U and (234)U concentrations were above in 14 and 17 % of the water samples, respectively. (226)Ra and (210)Pb concentrations in water samples were in the range of 3.7 × 10(-1) to 5.55 × 102 Bq/L and 1.11 to 4.33 × 102 Bq/L, respectively. For only two samples, the (226)Ra concentrations exceeded the MCL for total Ra for drinking water (0.185 Bq/L). However, the (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios varied from 0.11 to 47.00, and ratios above 1.00 were observed in 71 % of the samples. Secular equilibrium of the natural uranium series was not observed in the data record for most of the water samples. Moreover, the (235)U/(total)U mass ratios ranged from 0.06 to 5.9 %, and the natural mass ratio of (235)U to (total)U (0.72 %) was observed in only 16 % of the water samples, ratios above or below the natural ratio could not be explained based on data reported by U.S. EPA. In addition, statistical evaluations showed no correlations among the distribution of the radionuclide concentrations

  3. Distribution and possible dietary intake of radioactive 137Cs, 40K and 226Ra with the pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea in SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Wiejak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of data on contamination with radiocesium 134/137Cs of edible mushrooms from the Southwestern Asia. This study aimed to get insight into activity concentration of artificial nuclides 134/137Cs and natural 40K and 226Ra in mushrooms from Yunnan province, which is major producer in China. The specimens of pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea were collected from the wild and from a farm across Yunnan land in 2012-2013 and analyzed using gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). M. gigantea showed low activity concentrations of 137Cs (median value for dehydrated caps was 4.5 Bq kg(-1) and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for stipes) while 134Cs was not detected. Natural radionuclide 40K showed 2-3 orders of magnitude greater activity concentration compared to artificial 137Cs in M. gigantea. The activity concentrations of 226Ra from uranium and radium decay series for most of the consignments of M. gigantea examined were below the method's limit of detection. The nominal effective dose equivalent for the Yunnan people from the dietary intake of 137Cs was assessed to be below 0.01 μSv per annum on the average, and that from 40K to be below 0.1 μSv per annum. Data available for the first time on activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild-grown saprobic mushroom from this region of Asia suggest low pollution with radiocesium from fallout there. Hence, the likely health risks from intake of 137Cs from cooked M. gigantea are in practice of mushrooms absent for human consumers there. Because of abundance of mushrooms in Yunnan and high significance of the region as producer and exporter a wider study using many species is necessary to fill a gap on possible radioactive contamination and risk to mushroom consumers.

  4. Duration of gas accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption constrained by 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Condomines, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known world-wide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the duration of gas accumulation, is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreiitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt (MgO > 8 %) was emitted during the preceding flank eruption. The silicic tephra of the first explosive phase is composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreiite, and evolved basalt (MgO < 5 %). The rhyolitic glass is indistinguishable from tephra glass composition emitted during the penultimate eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 1821-23 AD (Sigmarsson et al., 2011). Tephra from the first explosive phase, emitted on 15 and 17 April, had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb ((210Po/210Pb)0 as high as 2!) and a small, but significant, 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra ((210Pb/226Ra)0= 1.05 and 1.04, respectively). These excesses suggest rapid accumulation of Po and Rn together with the major gas species in the residual rhyolitic magma from the 1821-23 eruption. The gas most likely originates from the basalt recharge that eventually provoked the eruption. Basalts emitted a month earlier during the flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls lost all their Po upon eruption and had (210Po/210Pb)0 equal to 0). From a simple model of radon and polonium degassing and accumulation, the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of silicic magma accumulating the excess gas can be calculated. Moreover, the duration of gas accumulation can be shown to be close to 300 days. This duration suggests that gas was liberated from the basaltic magma since June 2009, a month that corresponds to the initial seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull preceding the explosive eruption of 14 April 2010.

  5. Determination of specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K for assessment of radiation hazards from Turkish pumice samples.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Seref; Gündüz, Lüfullah

    2008-02-01

    The specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 52 Turkish pumice samples collected from 11 geographical areas located in Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Mediterranean and Aegean regions was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 12.7+/-0.5 to 256.2+/-9.1Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 89.1+/-65.2Bqkg(-1), 12.3+/-1.0 to 237.9+/-12.2Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 87.0+/-61.4Bqkg(-1) and 300.1+/-5.5 to 1899.0+/-30.8Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 1211.9+/-419.8Bqkg(-1), respectively. Elemental concentrations were determined for U (from 1.0 to 20.7ppm with a mean of 7.2+/-5.3ppm), Th (from 3.0 to 58.6ppm with a mean of 21.4+/-15.1ppm) and K (from 1.0 to 6.1% with a mean of 3.9+/-1.3%). The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the activity index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, the indoor absorbed dose rate and the effective dose rate were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples. The calculated mean Ra(eq) value was 306.6+/-177.7Bqkg(-1) (54.6+/-5.5 to 737.6+/-49.0Bqkg(-1)) for all pumice samples. This value is lower than the recommended limit value of 370Bqkg(-1) for building raws and products. The emanation coefficient and the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate of all samples ranged from 29.4 to 42.9% with a mean of 36.2% and from 11.0 to 196.4microBqkg(-1)s(-1) with a mean of 73.5microBqkg(-1)s(-1), respectively. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate and the corresponding mean effective dose rate were 274.6+/-153.6nGyh(-1) (50.4-644.6nGyh(-1)) and 1.35+/-0.75mSvy(-1) (0.24-3.16mSvy(-1)), respectively. For all pumice samples the mean indoor absorbed dose rate is about three times higher than the population-weighted average of 84nGyh(-1), while the mean effective dose rate values except for PUM 05, PUM 06, PUM 10 and PUM 15 exceed the dose criterion of 1mSvy(-1).

  6. Investigating groundwater properties in high annual recharge rate aquifers using 14c and 226ra : example of the fontainebleau sands aquifer (paris basin, france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabault, C.; Barbecot, F.; Ghaleb, B.; Dever, L.

    2003-04-01

    Aquifers with high annual recharge rates constitute prominent groundwater resource for freshwater supplies. However, they are very sensitive to pollutants. Moreover, in such cases, the establishment of recharge rates based on radiometric age measurements requires specific methodological approaches as in the example of the aquifer of the Fontainebleau Sands, in the Paris Basin, that we investigate here. It constitutes one of the major aquifers exploited for freshwater supply in the area. It is part of the Beauce aquifer that is underlain by the Romainville aquitard (green clays of Lower Sannoisian age) and overlain by millstone clays of Plio-Quaternary age. The Fontainebleau Sands aquifer outcrops principally in valleys, in the southern part of the Paris Basin (1). Groundwaters from the Fontainebleau Sands aquifer were sampled along a flow-path line in order to determine their geochemical evolution through time. Chemical and stables isotope compositions provide information on mineralisation processes during recharge. They indicate either carbonate dissolution up to saturation during the recharge or addition of recent water along the flow lines. These two possibilities will be discriminated using time tracers. 14C-derived age estimates (T1/2 = 5750 years) are not precise enough to assess residence times of recent waters. We will tentatively use 226 Ra measurements (T1/2 = 1620 years) to add constraints on age-estimates. 14C vs. 226Ra age models already tested in the Astian aquifer from southern France (2), are expected to provide further information on water-rock interactions occurring within the aquifer of the Fontainebleau Sands. (1) Bariteau. A., 1996, Modélisation géochimique d’un aquifère, la nappe de l’oligocène en Beauce et l’altération des Sables de Fontainebleau. Ecoles des Mines de Paris, pp. 179 (2) Barbecot, F., Dever, L., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Gibert, E., Travi, Y. And Marlin, C., 1999. Isotopic evidence for geochemical provinces in the Astian

  7. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

  8. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclides in Turkish medicinal herbs, their ingestion doses and cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmaksız, Aydın; Ağuş, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two medicinal herb samples, each representing a distinct species, were collected from Turkish markets and measured by the gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentration of 226Ra in medicinal herbs was found in the range of minimum detectable activity (MDA) and 15.1 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from MDA values to 3.5 ± 0.8 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K varied between 50.0 ± 16.8 and 1311.5 ± 57.3 Bqkg-1. All 137Cs activity concentrations of medicinal herbs were found to have lower than MDA values. The bone surface dose, lower large intestine and colon doses were found to be 182.9, 18.8 and 18.7 µSvy-1, respectively. The highest committed effective dose originated from the annual ingestion of 1 kg medicinal herb was calculated notably low as 9.0 µSv. The cancer risk of ingestion of medicinal herbs was found to be small enough to be neglected. The selected Turkish medicinal herbs are considered safe for human consumption.

  9. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  10. Current (1984) status of the study of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Flank eruptions of Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods: New data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Condomines, Michel; Tanguy, Jean-Claude

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present new data from 226Ra-230Th dating and archaeomagnetism with the aim of improving the knowledge of the flank eruptions that occurred at Mt Etna during the Greek-Roman and Early Medieval periods, as defined in the new geological map of the volcano. The combination of the two dating techniques demonstrates that three major flank eruptions occurred on the lower north and west flanks during Greek-Roman epochs, producing large scoria cones and extensive lava flows. In particular, the Mt Ruvolo and Mt Minardo events highly impacted the territory of the west flank, notably by damming the Simeto River. The new data of the Millicucco and Due Monti lava flows, on the lower north-east flank, indicate a younger age than their stratigraphic ages quoted in the 2011 geological map, since they occurred around 700 and 500 AD, respectively. None of the large flank eruptions occurring on the lower slopes of Etna during the Early Medieval age are reported in the historical sources. Overall, our paper shows that a comprehensive assessment of eruptions at Mount Etna in the last three millennia can only be achieved through a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Mount Etna eruptions of the last 2,750 years: revised chronology and location through archeomagnetic and 226Ra-230Th dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, Jean-Claude; Condomines, Michel; Le Goff, Maxime; Chillemi, Vito; La Delfa, Santo; Patanè, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    A careful re-examination of the well-known written documents pertaining to the 2,750-year-long historical period of Mount Etna was carried out and their interpretation checked through the high-accuracy archeomagnetic method (>1,200 large samples), combined with the 226Ra-230Th radiochronology. The magnetic dating is based upon secular variation of the direction of the geomagnetic field (DGF) and estimated to reach a precision of ±40 years for the last 1,200 years, and ±100 to 200 years up to circa 150 B.C. Although less precise, the 226Ra-230Th method provides a unique tool for distinguishing between historic and prehistoric lavas, which in some cases might have similar DGFs. We show that despite the abundance of details on ancient historical eruptions, the primary sources of information are often too imprecise to identify their lava flows and eruptive systems. Most of the ages of these lavas, which are today accepted on the geological maps and catalogues, were attributed in the 1800s on the basis of their morphology and without any stratigraphical control. In fact, we found that 80% of the “historically dated” flows and cones prior to the 1700s are usually several hundreds of years older than recorded, the discrepancies sometimes exceeding a millennium. This is proper the case for volcanics presumed of the “1651 east” (actually ˜1020), “1595” (actually two distinct flows, respectively, ˜1200 and ˜1060), “1566” (˜1180), “1536” (two branches dated ˜1250 and ˜950), “1444” (a branch dated ˜1270), “1408” (lower branches dated ˜450 and ˜350), “1381” (˜1160), “1329” (˜1030), “1284” (˜1450 and ˜700), “1169 or 812” (˜1000) eruptions. Conversely, well-preserved cones and flows that are undated on the maps were produced by recent eruptions that went unnoticed in historical accounts, especially during the Middle Ages. For the few eruptions that are recorded between A.D. 252 and 750 B.C., none of their presumed lava

  13. Compositional variation and 226Ra-230Th model ages of axial lavas from the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 8°48'S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, K. M.; Brandl, P. A.; Devey, C. W.; Hauff, F.; Melchert, B.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Kokfelt, T. F.; Paulick, H.

    2016-01-01

    We present geological observations and geochemical data for the youngest volcanic features on the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 8°48'S that shows seismic evidence for a thickened crust and excess magma formation. Young lava flows with high sonar reflectivity cover about 14 km2 in the axial rift and were probably erupted from two axial volcanic ridges each of about 3 km in length. Three different lava units occur along an about 11 km long portion of the ridge, and lavas from the northern axial volcanic ridge differ from those of the southern axial volcanic ridge and surrounding lava flows. Basalts from the axial rift flanks and from a pillow mound within the young flows are more incompatible element depleted than those from the young volcanic field. Lavas from this volcanic area have 226Ra-230Th disequilibria model ages of 1000 and 4000 years whereas the older lavas from the rift flank and the pillow mound, but also some of the lava field, are older than 8000 years. Glasses from the northern and southern ends of the southern lava unit indicate up to 100°C cooler magma temperatures than in the center and increased assimilation of hydrothermally altered material. The compositional heterogeneity on a scale of 3 km suggests small magma batches rising vertically from the mantle to the surface without significant lateral flow and mixing. The observations on the 8°48'S lava field support the model of low-frequency eruptions from single ascending magma batches that has been developed for slow spreading ridges.

  14. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Pradyumna; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Dubey, J S; Vidyasagar, D; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-03-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 µSv y(-1), respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 µSv y(-1). The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from (226)Ra for cereals and drinking water and (40)K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide (137)Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. (226)Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources.

  15. Comparative toxicity of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, and /sup 252/Cf in C57BL/Do black and albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Gardner, P.A.; Talbot, L.R.; McFarland, S.S.; Pollard, I.A.; Atherton, D.R.; VanMoorhem, D.; Brammer, D.

    1983-09-01

    Groups of C57BL/Do (black and albino) mice were injected with graded activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, or /sup 252/Cf and were followed throughout life. Bone sarcoma was the principal radiation-induced end point, and the risks associated with average skeletal doses of the four transuranium radionuclides, relative to radium, were determined. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was calculated for each emitter by dividing its risk coefficient (bone sarcomas per 10(/sup 6/) mouse-rad) by the risk coefficient for /sup 226/Ra. Combined data for males and females in both black and albino mice gave the following values +/- SD for the RBE relative to /sup 226/Ra . 1.0: /sup 239/Pu . 15.3 +/- 3.9, /sup 241/Am . 4.9 +/- 1.4, /sup 249/Cf . 5.0 +/- 1.4, and /sup 252/Cf . 2.6 +/- 0.8. About 70% of the tumors occurred in the axial skeleton, and the risk coefficient for females averaged about four times higher than for males when all five nuclides were included. The RBE of fission fragment irradiation from /sup 252/Cf for cancer induction, relative to alpha irradiation, for the combined data in all of the animals given /sup 252/Cf and /sup 249/Cf, was 0.02 +/- 0.28, in agreement with the calculated theoretical value of 0.03, based on the ratio of summed track lengths in tissue.

  16. Comparative toxicity of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, and /sup 252/Cf in C57BL/Do black and albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Gardner, P.A.; TAlbot, L.R.; McFarland, S.S.; Pollard, T.A.; Atherton, D.R.; vanMoorhem, D.; Brammer, D.

    1983-09-01

    Groups of C57BL/Do (black and albino) mice were injected with graded activities of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 249/Cf, or /sup 252/Cf and were followed throughout life. Bone sarcoma was the principal radiation-induced end point, and the risks associated with average skeletal doses of the four transuranium radionuclides, relative to radium, were determined. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was calculated for each emitter by dividing its risk coefficient (bone sarcomas per 10/sup 6/ mouse-rad) by the risk coefficient for /sup 226/Ra. Combined data for males and females in both black and albino mice gave the following values +- SD for the RBE relative to /sup 226/Ra = 1.0: /sup 239/Pu = 15.3 +- 3.9, /sup 241/Am = 4.9 +- 1.4, /sup 249/Cf = 5.0 +- 1.4, and /sup 252/Cf = 2.6 +- 0.8. About 70% of the tumors occurred in the axial skeleton, and the risk coefficient for females averaged about four times higher than for males when all five nuclides were included. The RBE of fission fragment irradiation from /sup 252/Cf for cancer induction, relative to ..cap alpha.. irradiation, for the combined data in all of the animals given /sup 252/Cf and /sup 249/Cf, was 0.02 +- 0.28, in agreement with the calculated theoretical value of 0.03, based on the ratio of summed track lengths in tissue.

  17. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth < 30 m) with high U concentration and <1 in the deeper zone (depth > 30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs < 1 clearly indicate the lack of recharge from surface water to groundwater leading to (234)U deficit in groundwater. This deficit might be also attributed to alpha recoil processes under strong dissolution. Overall, the decreasing pattern of (234)U/(238)U ARs observed from SE to SW or NW ward clearly indicates a groundwater flow paths from SE to SW/NW. Similarly, (226)Ra/(238)U ARs < 1 for all water samples reflect that the precursor (238)U is fairly mobile relative to (226)Ra. This might be due to unusually high amount of (238)U in groundwaters and subsequently the different geochemistry of the two isotopes. On the other hand, (226)Ra/(228)Ra ARs in groundwaters varied widely and observed about 50-300 times higher than (238)U/(232)Th ARs in granitic rocks or soils. Such elevation in ARs might be attributed to different dissolution properties of their parents during water-rock interactions or lattice damage during decay or local enrichments of uranium in the aquifers.

  18. Timing of degassing and plagioclase growth in lavas erupted from Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, from 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria: Chapter 37 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, Mark K.; Cooper, Kari M.; Pallister, John S.; Thornber, Carl R.; Wortel, Matthew; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Disequilibrium between 210Po, 210Pb, and 226Ra was measured on rocks and plagioclase mineral separates erupted during the first year of the ongoing eruption of Mount St. Helens. The purpose of this study was to monitor the volatile fluxing and crystal growth that occurred in the weeks, years, and decades leading up to eruption. Whole-rock samples were leached in dilute HCl to remove 210Po precipitated in open spaces. Before leaching, samples had variable initial (210Po) values, whereas after leaching, the groundmasses of nearly all juvenile samples were found to have had (210Po) ≈ 0 when they erupted. Thus, most samples degassed 210Po both before and after the magmas switched from open- to closed-system degassing. All juvenile samples have (210Pb)/(226Ra) ratios within 2 δ of equilibrium, suggesting that the magmas involved in the ongoing eruption did not have strong, persistent fluxes of 222Rn in or out of magmas during the decades and years leading to eruption. These equilibrium values also require a period of at least a century after magma generation and the last significant differentiation of the Mount St. Helens dacites. Despite this, the elevated (210Pb)/(226Ra) value measured in a plagioclase mineral separate from lava erupted in 2004 suggests that a significant proportion of this plagioclase grew within a few decades of eruption. The combined dataset suggests that for most 2004-5 lavas, the last stage of open-system degassing of the dacite magmas at Mount St. Helens is confined to the period between 1-2 years and 1-2 weeks before eruption, whereas plagioclase large enough to be included in the mineral separate grew around the time of the 1980s eruption or earlier.

  19. Investigation of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs, and heavy metal concentrations in Anzali international wetland using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Fallahi Kapourchali, Maryam; Bagheri, Hashem; Khoram Bagheri, Mahdi; Abedini, Ali; Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in sediment and soil samples of the Anzali international wetland were carried out by two HPGe-gamma ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The concentrations of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.05 ± 0.51-5.81 ± 0.61, 18.06 ± 0.63-33.36 ± .0.34, 17.57 ± 0.38-45.84 ± 6.23, 371.88 ± 6.36-652.28 ± 11.60, and 0.43 ± 0.06-63.35 ± 0.94 Bq/kg, while in the soil samples they vary between 2.36-5.97, 22.71-38.37, 29.27-42.89, 472.66-533, and 1.05-9.60 Bq/kg for (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. Present results are compared with the available literature data and also with the world average values. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in order as Fe > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. These measurements will serve as background reference levels for the Anzali wetland.

  20. Reply to Comment on “Steady-state 226Ra/230Th disequilibrium in mantle minerals: implications for melt transport rates in island arcs” by R. George, M. Reagan, S. Turner, J. Gill, B. Bourdon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feineman, M. D.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    We agree with George et al. that high 226Ra/ 230Th and correlated Ba/Th, 238U/ 230Th, and other elemental and isotopic ratios are the result of fluid addition to the wedge. The Feineman and DePaolo [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 215 (2003) 339-355] manuscript addresses more specifically the pathway followed by the fluid en route to the surface. In particular, we address whether the 226Ra/ 230Th data directly yield the total time available for the fluid to migrate from the point of origin in the slab to the melting region in the wedge, and ultimately to the surface with the melt. All of the processes involved in generating arc volcanism would of necessity have to take place very rapidly within the constraints proposed by George et al. The alternative is that the upward fluid movement is hindered by the fluid flow regime and solid mantle flow, allowing more time for reaction with the mantle wedge. There is evidence in the U-series data for more than one time scale, and our model helps to explain how this could come about. The extent to which grainscale 226Ra/ 230Th disequilibrium affects the inferred melt transport time is yet another issue, and this could be achieved either with the small-degree melt mechanism we discussed or by additional effects associated with melt and fluid migration at later stages in the melt generation process. We agree that the final melt transport event is likely to happen quickly. One of the most puzzling features of volcanic arcs is that the volcanic front emerges considerably behind the presumed location of primary water release from the subducting slab (depth to slab is ˜120 km beneath the volcanic front, as opposed to the predicted ˜80 km). This offset between the expected site of fluid release and the location of the volcanic front can be attributed to coupled transport of the fluid—in the form of hydrous minerals, such as amphibole and/or phlogopite in the wedge [J. Geophys. Res. 97 (1992) 2037-2070] or redirection of the melt due to

  1. Porosity of the melting zone and variations in the solid mantle upwelling rate beneath Hawaii: Inferences from {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}U-{sup 231}Pa disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, K.W.W.; DePaolo, D.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Baldridge, W.S.; Goldstein, S.; Clague, D.; Jull, M.

    1999-12-01

    Measurements of {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}U-{sup 231}Pa disequilibria in a suite of tholeiitic-to-basanitic lavas provide estimates of porosity, solid mantle upwelling rate and melt transport times beneath Hawaii. The observation that ({sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U) {gt} 1 indicates that garnet is required as a residual phase in the magma sources for all of the lavas. Both chromatographic porous flow and dynamic melting of a garnet peridotite source can adequately explain the combined U-Th-Ra and U-Pa data for these Hawaiian basalts. For chromatographic porous flow, the calculated maximum porosity in the melting zone ranges from 0.3--3% for tholeiites and 0.1--1% for alkali basalts and basanites, and solid mantle upwelling rates range from 40 to 100 cm/yr for tholeiites and from 1 to 3 cm/yr for basanites. For dynamic melting, the escape or threshold porosity is 0.5--2% for tholeiites and 0.1--0.8% for alkali basalts and basanites, and solid mantle upwelling rates range from 10 to 30 cm/yr for tholeiites and from 0.1 to 1 cm/yr for basanites. Assuming a constant melt productivity, calculated total melt fractions range from 15% for the tholeiitic basalts to 3% for alkali basalts and basanites.

  2. A sequential method for the determination of 210Pb, 226Ra, and uranium and thorium radioisotopes by LSC and alpha-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J C; Tomé, F Vera; Rodríguez, P Blanco; Prieto, C

    2010-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of (210)Pb, and alpha-emitting radioisotopes of uranium, thorium, and radium from the same aliquot of a sample has been proposed. The key step consisted in the recovery of Pb(II) and Ra by precipitation of insoluble Pb(NO(3))(2), the uranium and thorium radioisotopes remaining in solution. Afterwards, the fractions were handled by specific, well consolidated procedures. Lead-210 was determined by the LSC technique while the uranium, thorium, and radium radioisotopes were measured with silicon alpha-spectrometers. The procedure was applied to a reference sample and several environmental samples obtaining satisfactory results.

  3. Some Standard model problems and possible solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, J.

    2016-10-01

    Three problems of the standard model of elementary particles are studied from a phenomenological approach. (i) It is shown that the Dirac or the Majorana nature of the neutrino can be studied by looking for differences in the v-electron scattering if the polarization of the neutrino is considered. (ii) The absolute scale of the neutrino mass can be set if a four zero mass matrix texture is considered for the leptons. It is found that m ν3 ∼⃒ 0.05 eV. (iii) It is shown that it is possible -within a certain class of two Higgs model extensions of the standard model- to have a cancelation of the quadratic divergences to the mass of physical Higgs boson.

  4. Standardization of a 204Tl radioactive solution.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2003-02-01

    The standardization of 204Tl is described. The efficiency tracing technique was applied using 134Cs as tracer. The 4(pi)beta-gamma coincidence system was used for the calibration. The (Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear) has participated in this comparison in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from Rio de Janeiro. Independent results using different techniques were developed by each of these laboratories and included in the comparison.

  5. A Method for Comparing Completely Standardized Solutions in Multiple Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a method for comparing completely standardized solutions in multiple groups. The method is based on a correlation structure analysis of equal-size samples and uses the correlation distribution theory implemented in the structural equation modeling program RAMONA. (SLD)

  6. Interoperable and standard e-Health solution over Bluetooth.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Del Valle, P; Munoz, P; Trigo, J D; Escayola, J; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Muñoz, A; Serrano, L; Garcia, J

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of e-Health demands open sensors and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability of new personal health devices. The use of standards seems to be the internationally adopted way to solve these problems. This paper presents the implementation of an end-to-end standards-based e-Health solution. This includes ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of the medical devices in the patient environment and EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of the Electronic Healthcare Record. The design strictly fulfills all the technical features of the most recent versions of both standards. The implemented prototype has been tested in a laboratory environment to demonstrate its feasibility for its further transfer to the healthcare system.

  7. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR NEUTRAL TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.25)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This standard operating procedure describes the method used for preparing internal standard, surrogate recovery standard and calibration standard solutions for neutral analytes used for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  10. Proposed New Electrolytic Conductivity Primary Standards for KCl Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y. C.; Koch, W. F.; Pratt, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    An absolute determination of aqueous electrolytic conductivity has been made for 0.01 molal (m) and 0.1 m potassium cliloride solutions, over the temperature range of 0 to 50 °C in 5 degree intervals. A cell with a removable center section of accurately known length and area was used for the measurements. Values were adjusted to be in conformity with the ITS-90 temperature scale. The overall uncertainty over the entire temperature range is estimated to be 0.03%. Values at 25 °C for 0.01 and 0.1 m are 0.00140823 and 0.0128246 S/cm, respectively. It is proposed that these values be adopted as primary standards for aqueous electrolytic conductivity, replacing the demal scale. PMID:28184109

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF SURROGATE RECOVERY STANDARD AND INTERNAL STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR POLAR TARGET ANALYTES (SOP-5.26)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method used for preparing surrogate recovery standard and internal standard solutions for the analysis of polar target analytes. It also describes the method for preparing calibration standard solutions for polar analytes used for gas chromatography/mass sp...

  12. Mobile health requires mobile security: challenges, solutions, and standardization.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Extended communication and advanced cooperation in a permanently growing healthcare and welfare domain require a well-defined set of security services provided by an interoperable security infrastructure based on international and European standards. Any communication and collaboration procedure requires a purpose. But such legal purpose-binding is definitely not the only aspect to carefully be observed and investigated. More and more, aspects of security, safety, privacy, ethics, and quality reach importance while discussing about future-proof health information systems and health networks - regardless whether local, regional or even pan-European networks. During the course of the current paradigm change from an organization-centered to a process-related and to a person-centered health system, different new technologies including mobile solutions need to be applied in order to meet challenges arising from both legal and technical circumstances. Beside the typical Information and Communication Technology systems and applications, the extended use of modern technologies includes large medical devices like, e.g., MRI and CT but also small devices like sensors worn by a person or included in clothing. Security and safety are on top of the priority list. The paper addresses the identification of some specific aspects like mobile technology and safety when moving both IT and people towards mobile health aiming at increasing citizens and patients awareness, confidence, and acceptance in future mobile care - a world often still beyond the horizon.

  13. [Reference standards in diagnostic research: problems and solutions].

    PubMed

    de Groot, Joris A H; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of diagnostic tests is of utmost importance as biased test results may lead to wrong decisions in clinical practice. In diagnostic accuracy research the results of a diagnostic test, model or strategy are compared to those of the reference standard, i.e. the best available method to determine whether a certain condition or disease is present or absent. Problems with the reference standard lead to biased test results. The umbrella term for this is 'verification bias'. Verification bias arises if the reference standard cannot be applied to all patients, if investigators use different reference standards or simply because there is no reference standard. Correction of these problems is often possible, and, if it is applied in a transparent and reproducible fashion it will deliver useful diagnostic information. Clinicians who use a diagnostic test should take possible verification bias into account.

  14. The standard enthalpies of formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid and its aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernyavskaya, N. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Nikol'Skii, V. M.

    2007-07-01

    The energy of combustion of N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid (CMAA) was determined by bomb calorimetry in oxygen. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline N-(carboxymethyl)aspartic acid were calculated. The heat effects of solution of crystalline CMAA in water and a solution of sodium hydroxide were measured at 298.15 K by direct calorimetry. The standard enthalpies of formation of CMAA and its dissociation products in aqueous solution were determined.

  15. Standard enthalpies of formation for glycyl-tyrosine and products of its dissociation in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Badelin, V. G.; Krutova, O. N.; Volkov, A. V.; Damrina, K. V.

    2015-07-01

    The enthalpies of solution of crystalline glycyl-tyrosine in water and potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are determined at 298.15 K by means of direct calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation for dipeptide and its products of dissociation in an aqueous solution are calculated.

  16. Copper leaching from brake wear debris in standard extraction solutions.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Yim, Soobin; Schlautman, Mark A

    2003-10-01

    Quantification of the copper content of and copper leaching from a disc brake wear debris sample was performed using microwave-assisted acid digestion, the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the State of California Waste Extraction Test (WET). The brake wear debris tested was a composite sample obtained from a brake dynamometer test of one brake pad source material. Comparative digestion studies demonstrated that a modified aqua regia matrix (HNO3:HCl:H2O2 = 1:3:0.5) optimized the digestion effectiveness for determining the total copper content in the brake wear debris. No significant sample heterogeneity within the brake wear debris was observed, based on statistically indistinguishable total copper content results for subsamples with a wide range of sample masses. Upon pooling all subsample results, an overall total copper content for the composite brake wear debris sample was determined to be 10.8% (g/g), with a 95% confidence limit of +/- 0.5% (g/g). Copper leaching increased with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratios in TCLP tests, but was unaffected by the solid-to-liquid ratio in the WET. For a 1:10(4) (g/g) solid-to-liquid ratio, 85% and 99% of the total mass of copper present in the composite brake wear debris sample was leached into solution during the TCLP and WET, respectively. Rate studies also demonstrated that the WET resulted in a faster rate and higher extent of copper leaching relative to the TCLP. Compared to reference copper-containing materials, the composite brake wear debris sample exhibited relatively higher TCLP and WET copper leaching characteristics. The higher copper leaching exhibited by the brake wear debris sample may have resulted from its higher specific surface area and/or from changes in the chemical form of copper that occurred during the braking process.

  17. Deployment of Porous Crystalline Matrix (Gubka) Technology for Stabilizing Radioactive Standard Solutions at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D. A.; Tranter, T. J.; Macheret, J.; Meyer, A.; Yesso, D.; Daniels, T.; Aloy, A. S.; Sapozhnikova, N. V.; Anshits, A. G.; Sharonova, O. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.

    2002-02-26

    Radioactive solutions requiring stabilization exist in various compositions throughout the DOE complex. Future cleanup could generate additional actinide residue solutions requiring stabilization at facilities where processing capabilities have been dismantled. Radiological laboratory standard solutions (liquid technical standards) have recently been identified at the Fernald site, which require stabilization and disposal before the laboratory facilities at Fernald can be decommissioned. The Fernald solutions consist of approximately 25 liters of acidic solutions containing isotopes of Cs, Ba, Ra, Eu, U, Am, Po, Ru, Sr, Th, Pb, Pu, and Np and in some cases small quantities of added salts. After stabilization and waste acceptance approval, the resulting waste forms will be disposed at the Nevada Test Site. This paper describes the technology and progress in using the Russian ''Gubka'' technology to stabilize the Fernald liquid technical standards for disposal by September 2002 to meet the facility D&D schedule.

  18. Fluorescent rare earth solutions as intrinsic wavelength standards for protein fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Anderle, Heinz; Weber, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    Trivalent Gd, Tm, and Dy solutions can be used as intrinsic excitation and emission standards to validate the UV and violet-blue wavelength accuracy of a spectrofluorimeter. Europium extends the range into the red. To attain sufficient sensitivity, these luminescent rare earth ions require deuterated reagents or carbonate complexation, which allow the use of ordinary water and thus preparation in virtually any laboratory. Such solutions are particularly valuable as system suitability standards (SST) for protein fluorescence spectroscopy to detect red shifts of the intrinsic fluorescence maximum in stability and storage studies.

  19. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  20. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  1. Development of an Ultra-Pure, Carrier-Free 209Po Solution Standard

    PubMed Central

    Collé, R.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Laureano-Perez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-pure, carrier-free 209Po solution standards have been prepared and standardized for their massic alpha-particle emission rate. The standards, which will be disseminated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as Standard Reference Material SRM 4326a, have a mean mass of (5.169 ± 0.003) g of a solution of polonium in nominal 2.0 mol▪L−1 HCl (having a solution density of (1.032 ± 0.002) g▪ mL−1 at 20 °C) that are contained in 5 mL, flame-sealed, borosilicate glass ampoules. They are certified to contain a 209Po massic alpha-particle emission rate of (39.01 ± 0.18) s−1▪g−1 as of a reference time of 1200 EST, 01 December 2013. This new standard series replaces SRM 4326 that was issued by NIST in 1994. The standardization was based on 4πα liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry with two different LS counting systems and under wide variations in measurement and counting source conditions. The methodology for the standardization, with corrections for detection of the low-energy conversion electrons from the delayed 2 keV isomeric state in 205Pb and for the radiations accompanying the small 0.45 % electron-capture branch to 209Bi, involves a unique spectral analysis procedure that is specific for the case of 209Po decay. The entire measurement protocol is similar, but revised and improved from that used for SRM 4326. Spectroscopic impurity analyses revealed that no photon-emitting or alpha-emitting radionuclidic impurities were detected. The most common impurity associated with 209Po is 208Po and the activity ratio of 208Po/209Po was < 10−7. PMID:26958444

  2. Long-term stability of carrier-added Ge-68 standardized solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B. E.; Bergeron, D. E.; Fitzgerald, R.; Cessna, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Tests for chemical stability were carried out on carrier-added 68Ge solutions prepared and calibrated in 2007 and 2011 to evaluate the suitability of the specific composition as a potential Standard Reference Material. Massic count rates of the stored solutions were measured using a NaI(Tl) well counter before and after gravimetric transfers. The present activity concentration of the 2007 solution was also measured using live-timed anticoincidence counting (LTAC) and compared to the 2007 calibrated value. The well counter data indicated no change in massic count rate to within uncertainties for either solution. The LTAC measurements gave a difference of −0.49 % in the activity concentration 2007 solution over 7 years. However, the uncertainty in the decay correction over that time, due to the uncertainty in the 68Ge half-life, accounted for the majority (0.67 % out of 0.83 %) of the standard uncertainty on the activity concentration. The results indicate that these carrier-added solutions are stable with regard to potential activity losses over several half-lives of 68Ge. PMID:26671789

  3. Preparation of ASTER in-house 10Be/9Be standard solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braucher, R.; Guillou, V.; Bourlès, D. L.; Arnold, M.; Aumaître, G.; Keddadouche, K.; Nottoli, E.

    2015-10-01

    Since its commissioning in 2006, the commercially available certificated National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference material NIST SRM 4325 is used at the French national facility ASTER (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence) to normalize 10Be measurements. This standard solution being no longer disposable, we thus decided to produce in-house standards. As a first attempt, a STD-12 standard (10Be/9Be = (4.939 ± 0.053) × 10-12) has been prepared from 2.5 kg of marine sediments with an adapted chemical protocol. Then, a 10Be enriched solution of known concentration being available, a STD-11 standard (10Be/9Be = (1.191 ± 0.013) × 10-11) that will be used at ASTER in the near future to calibrate 10Be measurements and its dilution to the 10-14 level (STD-14 (10Be/9Be = (5.468 ± 0.064) × 10-14)) have been prepared from it.

  4. DEPLOYMENT OF THE GUBKA TECHNOLOGY TO STABILIZE RADIOACTIVE STANDARD SOLUTIONS AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Meyer, A.; Aloy, A.; Anshits, A.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the deployment of the Gubka technology to stabilize liquid technical standards at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. Gubka, an open-cell glass crystalline porous material, was developed by a joint research program of Russian Institutes at St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk, and Zheleznogorsk and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Gubka technology can be applied in an active or a passive method to stabilize a solution. In both methods the result is the same, and the dried components of the solution are sorbed in the pores of the Gubka block while the liquid phase is evaporated. In this deployment Gubka blocks were passively floated in the solutions at ambient conditions. As the solutions evaporated, the non-volatile components were sorbed in the pores of the Gubka blocks. The waste-loaded Gubka blocks have been packaged for transportation and disposal at the Nevada Test site within an existing waste category.

  5. Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Smyth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the determination of the internal absorbed dose to tissue from an administered radionuclide solution relies on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations based on published nuclear decay data, such as emission probabilities and energies. In order to validate these methods with measurements, it is necessary to achieve the required traceability of the internal absorbed dose measurements of a radionuclide solution to a primary standard of absorbed dose. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable primary standard. A comparison between measurements and calculations of absorbed dose allows the validation of the internal radiation dose assessment methods. The absorbed dose from an yttrium-90 chloride (90YCl) solution was measured with an extrapolation chamber. A phantom was developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Measurement Institute, to position the extrapolation chamber as closely as possible to the surface of the solution. The performance of the extrapolation chamber was characterised and a full uncertainty budget for the absorbed dose determination was obtained. Absorbed dose to air in the collecting volume of the chamber was converted to absorbed dose at the centre of the radionuclide solution by applying a MC calculated correction factor. This allowed a direct comparison of the analytically calculated and experimentally determined absorbed dose of an 90YCl solution. The relative standard uncertainty in the measurement of absorbed dose at the centre of an 90YCl solution with the extrapolation chamber was found to be 1.6% (k  =  1). The calculated 90Y absorbed doses from published medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) and radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) data agreed with measurements to within 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively. This study has shown that it is feasible to use an extrapolation chamber for performing primary standard absorbed dose measurements of an unsealed radionuclide solution. Internal radiation

  6. Standard electrode potentials involving radicals in aqueous solution: inorganic radicals (IUPAC Technical Report)

    DOE PAGES

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; ...

    2015-01-01

    We made recommendations for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. We also summarized the data in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations.

  7. Multicomponent leach tests in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution on glasses containing simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, R.B.; Wood, D.D.; Hamon, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leaching experiments on borosilicate glass frit and simulated nuclear waste glasses were performed as a preliminary to leaching experiments on glasses incorporating radioactive waste. The experimental design included (1) simulated waste glass, (2) ASTM Grade-2 titanium container material, (3) clay buffer material, (4) Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution, and (5) granitic rock. Cumulative fractions of release for boron were determined, as well as the solution concentrations of silicon, iron, strontium and cesium. The leach rates for boron after 28 d were approximately 5 x 10/sup -6/ kg x m/sup -2/ x s/sup -1/ in Hastelloy vessels. There is an apparently strong relationship between the clay/groundwater ratio, the concentration of iron in the solution, and the concentrations of silicon, strontium, and cesium.

  8. The enthalpies of solution of VOCl3 in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide and the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, N. G.; Romodanovskii, P. A.; Gridchin, S. N.; Vorob'ev, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide were determined by direct calorimetric measurements at 298.15 K and ionic strength values I = 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 (NaClO4). The experimental data were used to calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid VOCl3.

  9. Enthalpy of solution of VOCl3 in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions and the standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romodanovskii, P. A.; Vorob'ev, P. N.; Dmitrieva, N. G.; Gridchin, S. N.

    2007-12-01

    The calorimetric enthalpies of solution of liquid vanadium oxytrichloride in dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured at 298.15 K and ionic strengths I = 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 (NaClO4). The standard enthalpy of formation of the HVO{4/2-} ion was calculated from the measured data.

  10. Standard thermodynamic functions of Co2+ complexation with glycine and L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The enthalpies of the reactions between solutions of Co(NO3)2 and solutions of glycine (Gly) and L-histidine (His) are determined via direct calorimetry at different pH values and metal: ligand ratios using KNO3 as a background electrolyte ( T = 298.15 K, I = 0.2-1.0). The enthalpy changes upon the formation of cobalt glycinate complexes and Co2+ mixed-ligand complex, viz., glycine-L-histidine, were calculated. The standard thermodynamic parameters (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation are determined. The CoGlyHis complex is shown to be stable toward decomposition into homogeneous complexes.

  11. Automatic determination of chlorine without standard solutions using a biamperometric flow-batch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Valberes B; Selva, Thiago M G; Coelho, Elaine C S; Santos, Francyana P; Antônio, Jadielson L S; Silva, José R; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Araújo, Mário C U

    2010-04-15

    This study presents an automatic analysis system that does not require the use of standard solutions. The system uses an electrochemical flow cell for in line generation of the standards, and operates under the standard addition technique. The versatility of this system was demonstrated by the development of a one key touch fully automatic method for the determination of total available chlorine in real samples. The extremely simple, accurate and inexpensive method was based simply on the biamperometric monitoring of the well known redox reaction of chlorine with iodide ions in a flow-batch system, where the produced iodine (triiodide ions) generates an electrical current proportional to the chlorine concentration in the sample. The flow-batch parameters were optimized to maximize the sensitivity without losses on the precision of the analysis. An excellent linear dependence between the biamperometric signal and the chlorine concentration for the standard additions and a good agreement between the proposed approach and a reference method were obtained. The method was successfully applied to determine chlorine in several different bleach and chlorinated water samples (r=0.9995, LOD=8.261 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) and could be easily extended to other oxidants and samples. Comparison to a reference method and recoveries close to 100% demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method. In addition, low residue disposal and reagent consumption, allied with high accuracy and precision, make it very promising for routine applications.

  12. New exact solutions of the standard pairing model for well-deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Feng; Xie Mingxia; Guan Xin; Dai Lianrong; Draayer, J. P.

    2009-10-15

    A new step-by-step diagonalization procedure for evaluating exact solutions of the nuclear deformed mean-field plus pairing interaction model is proposed via a simple Bethe ansatz in each step from which the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates can be obtained progressively. This new approach draws upon an observation that the original one- plus two-body problem in a k-particle Hilbert subspace can be mapped onto a one-body grand hard-core boson picture that can be solved step by step with a simple Bethe ansatz known from earlier work. Based on this new procedure, it is further shown that the extended pairing model for deformed nuclei [Feng Pan, V. G. Gueorguiev, and J. P. Draayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 112503 (2004)] is similar to the standard pairing model with the first step approximation, in which only the lowest energy eigenstate of the standard pure pairing interaction part is taken into consideration. Our analysis shows that the standard pairing model with the first step approximation displays similar pair structures of the first few exact low-lying states of the model, which, therefore, provides a link between the two models.

  13. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  14. Global Time Dependent Solutions of Stochastically Driven Standard Accretion Disks: Development of Hydrodynamical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.

  15. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible.

  16. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Anastos, N; Barnett, N W; Pfeffer, F M; Lewis, S W

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous solutions of psilocin and psilocybin reference drug standards over a period of fourteen days. This study was performed using high performance liquid chromatography utilising a (95:5% v/v) methanol: 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase and absorption detection at 269 nm. It was found that the exclusion of light significantly prolonged the useful life of standards, with aqueous solutions of both psilocin and psilocybin being stable over a period of seven days.

  17. Kava hepatotoxicity solution: A six-point plan for new kava standardization.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Lebot, Vincent

    2011-01-15

    Kava-induced liver injury has been demonstrated in a few patients worldwide and appears to be caused by inappropriate quality of the kava raw material. When cases of liver disease in connection with the use of kava emerged, this was an unexpected and challenging event considering the long tradition of safe kava use. In order to prevent kava hepatotoxicity in future, a set of quality specifications as standard is essential for the preparation not only of kava drugs and kava dietary supplements in the Western world but also for traditional kava drinks in the South Pacific Islands. For all these purposes a uniform approach is required, using water based extracts from the peeled rhizomes and roots of a noble cultivar such as Borogu with at least 5 years of age at the time of harvest. Cultivated in Vanuatu for centuries, noble varieties (as defined in the Vanuatu Kava Act of December 2002) are well tolerated traditional cultivars with a good safety record. At present, Vanuatu kava legislation is inadequately enforced to meet quality issues for kava, and further efforts are required in Vanuatu, in addition to similar legislation in other kava producing South Pacific Islands. Future regulatory and commercial strategies should focus not only on the standardization of kava drugs, kava dietary supplements, and traditional kava extracts, but also on thorough surveillance during the manufacturing process to improve kava quality for safe human use. The efficacy of kava extracts to treat patients with anxiety disorders is well supported, but further clinical trials with aqueous kava extracts are necessary. We thereby propose a six-point kava solution plan: (1) use of a noble kava cultivar such as Borogu, at least 5 years old at time of harvest, (2) use of peeled and dried rhizomes and roots, (3) aqueous extraction, (4) dosage recommendation of ≤250mg kavalactones per day (for medicinal use), (5) systematic rigorous future research, and (6) a Pan Pacific quality control system

  18. New solutions for standardization, monitoring and quality management of fluorescence-based imaging systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, Arnaud; Papon, Gautier

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopes have become ubiquitous in life sciences laboratories, including those focused on pharmaceuticals, diagnosis, and forensics. For the past few years, the need for both performance guarantees and quantifiable results has driven development in this area. However, the lack of appropriate standards and reference materials makes it difficult or impossible to compare the results of two fluorescence microscopes, or to measure performance fluctuations of one microscope over time. Therefore, the operation of fluorescence microscopes is not monitored as often as their use warrants - an issue that is recognized by both systems manufacturers and national metrology institutes. We have developed a new process that enables the etching of long-term stable fluorescent patterns with sub-micrometer sizes in three dimensions inside glass. In this paper, we present, based on this new process, a fluorescent multi-dimensional ruler and a dedicated software that are suitable for monitoring and quality management of fluorescence-based imaging systems (wide-field, confocal, multiphoton, high content machines). In addition to fluorescence, the same patterns exhibit bright- and dark-field contrast, DIC, and phase contrast, which make them also relevant to monitor these types of microscopes. Non-exhaustively, this new solution enables the measurement of: The stage repositioning accuracy; The illumination and detection homogeneities; The field flatness; The detectors' characteristics; The lateral and axial spatial resolutions; The spectral response (spectrum, intensity and lifetime) of the system. Thanks to the stability of the patterns, microscope performance assessment can be carried out as well in a daily basis as in the long term.

  19. Standard thermodynamic functions of complexation between copper(II) and glycine and L-histidine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Cu2+-glycine-L-histidine system is studied calorimetrically at 298.15 K and an ionic strength of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 in aqueous solutions containing potassium nitrate. The standard thermodynamic parameters (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation processes are determined.

  20. A model for large non-standard interactions of neutrinos leading to the LMA-Dark solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2015-09-01

    It is well-known that in addition to the standard LMA solution to solar anomaly, there is another solution called LMA-Dark which requires Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) with effective couplings as large as the Fermi coupling. Although this solution satisfies all the bounds from various neutrino oscillation observations and even provides a better fit to low energy solar neutrino spectrum, it is not as popular as the LMA solution mainly because no model compatible with the existing bounds has been so far constructed to give rise to this solution. We introduce a model that provides a foundation for such large NSI with strength and flavor structure required for the LMA-Dark solution. This model is based on a new U(1) ‧ gauge interaction with a gauge boson of mass ∼ 10 MeV under which quarks as well as the second and third generations of leptons are charged. We show that observable effects can appear in the spectrum of supernova and high energy cosmic neutrinos. Our model predicts a new contribution to the muon magnetic dipole moment and new rare meson decay modes.

  1. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  2. Self-initiated and concentration-dependent degradation of tetracaine in neat standard solutions: A trouble-shooting story.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aimin; Wu, Yanxin; Gu, Guifen; Fanaras, John C

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the trouble-shooting for a very unusual stability case. Tetracaine was found unstable in neat solutions only at high concentrations, but not at low concentrations. Moreover, its stable-isotope labeled internal standard did not show similar behavior. A series of trouble-shooting experiments were conducted to uncover the root cause. Some generally applicable precautions/insights can be drawn from this investigation to avoid potential stability issues during bioanalytical method development and validation.

  3. Calculation of the standard heat capacity at constant pressure for cobalt ferrite-zinc ferrite solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chachanidze, G.D.; Pavlenishvili, T.A.; Machaladze, T.E.; Khutsishvili, D.I.

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic, electrical, and other properties of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solutions are widely studied because of their high coercive force and Curie temperature ({Tc}), which makes these compounds applicable in modern electronic devices. However, the information published on their thermodynamic properties is limited. This paper focuses on calculation of the standard heat capacity C{sub p}{sup 0} (298 K) for cobalt zinc ferrites using correlation analysis of the relationship between C{sub p}{sup 0} (298 K) and the saturation magnetic moment {mu}{sub o}. The authors studied the solid solutions Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.8), whose magnetic and thermal parameters, crucial in our calculations, are known to be strongly dependent on the preparation conditions. An equation was derived for calculation of the standard heat capacity at constant pressure from the saturation magnetic moment of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solutions. The equation allows a satisfactory estimation of the standard heat capacity at 298 Kelvin for any cobalt ferrite-zinc ferrite solid, providing the saturation magnetic moment is available.

  4. 77 FR 57055 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for..., 2012 (77 FR 48491). The document announced a meeting entitled ``Regulatory New Drug Review:...

  5. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  6. Convergence and Periodic Solutions for the Input Impedance of a Standard Ladder Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucak, C.; Acar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution…

  7. Gold standards and expert panels: a pulmonary nodule case study with challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dave P.; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn F.; Wood, Susan A.; Castellino, Ronald A.

    2004-05-01

    Comparative evaluations of reader performance using different modalities, e.g. CT with computer-aided detection (CAD) vs. CT without CAD, generally require a "truth" definition based on a gold standard. There are many situations in which a true invariant gold standard is impractical or impossible to obtain. For instance, small pulmonary nodules are generally not assessed by biopsy or resection. In such cases, it is common to use a unanimous consensus or majority agreement from an expert panel as a reference standard for actionability in lieu of the unknown gold standard for disease. Nonetheless, there are three major concerns about expert panel reference standards: (1) actionability is not synonymous with disease (2) it may be possible to obtain different conclusions about which modality is better using different rules (e.g. majority vs. unanimous consensus), and (3) the variability associated with the panelists is not formally captured in the p-values or confidence intervals that are generally produced for estimating the extent to which one modality is superior to the other. A multi-reader-multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed using 90 cases, 15 readers, and a reference truth based on 3 experienced panelists. The primary analyses were conducted using a reference truth of unanimous consensus regarding actionability (3 out of 3 panelists). To assess the three concerns noted above: (1) additional data from the original radiology reports were compared to the panel (2) the complete analysis was repeated using different definitions of truth, and (3) bootstrap analyses were conducted in which new truth panels were constructed by picking 1, 2, or 3 panelists at random. The definition of the reference truth affected the results for each modality (CT with CAD and CT without CAD) considered by itself, but the effects were similar, so the primary analysis comparing the modalities was robust to the choice of the reference truth.

  8. Expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations that induce an anomalous acceleration into the Standard Model of Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Temple, Blake; Smoller, Joel

    2009-08-25

    We derive a system of three coupled equations that implicitly defines a continuous one-parameter family of expanding wave solutions of the Einstein equations, such that the Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology is embedded as a single point in this family. By approximating solutions near the center to leading order in the Hubble length, the family reduces to an explicit one-parameter family of expanding spacetimes, given in closed form, that represents a perturbation of the Standard Model. By introducing a comoving coordinate system, we calculate the correction to the Hubble constant as well as the exact leading order quadratic correction to the redshift vs. luminosity relation for an observer at the center. The correction to redshift vs. luminosity entails an adjustable free parameter that introduces an anomalous acceleration. We conclude (by continuity) that corrections to the redshift vs. luminosity relation observed after the radiation phase of the Big Bang can be accounted for, at the leading order quadratic level, by adjustment of this free parameter. The next order correction is then a prediction. Since nonlinearities alone could actuate dissipation and decay in the conservation laws associated with the highly nonlinear radiation phase and since noninteracting expanding waves represent possible time-asymptotic wave patterns that could result, we propose to further investigate the possibility that these corrections to the Standard Model might be the source of the anomalous acceleration of the galaxies, an explanation not requiring the cosmological constant or dark energy.

  9. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  10. Asymptotic solution of the optimal control problem for standard systems with delay

    SciTech Connect

    Zheltikov, V.P.; Efendiev, V.V.

    1995-05-01

    The authors consider the construction of an asymptotic solution of the terminal optimal control problem using the averaging method. The optimal process is described by the equation z = eZ (t, z, z(t-l, e, u), u), z/t=[-1,0] = {var_phi}(t), where the delay is constant and of unit magnitude, z {element_of} G is an n-dimensional vector, G {contained_in} R{sup n}, e > 0 is a small parameter, t {element_of} T {triple_bond} [0, e{sup -1}], Z {var_phi} are n-dimensional vector functions, Z is strictly convex in u for any (t, z) {element_of} T X G, u {element_of} U is the r-dimensional control vector, U is a compact set.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of LTA nanozeolite using barley husk silica: Mercury removal from standard and real solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Dehnavi, Ahmad Roozbehani; Joorabdoozha, Amir

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Silica extraction from barley husk with high purity for the synthesis of A nanozeolite. ► Free template A nanozeolite synthesized via new source of silica at low temperature. ► Optimization of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios, temperature and time of the synthesis. ► Utilizing of synthesized A nanozeolite for mercury removal from aqueous solutions. ► Mercury removal at optimized pH, contact time and adsorbent dose from real solution. - Abstract: In this study, synthesized Lined Type A (LTA) nanozeolite from barley husk silica (BHS) was used for mercury removal from standard and real aqueous solutions. The BHS in amorphous phase with 80% purity was extracted from barley husk ash (BHA), and used effectively as a new source of silica for the synthesis of NaA nanozeolite. The NaA nanocrystal in pure phase has been synthesized at low temperature, without adding any organic additives. The effects of heating time, reaction temperature, SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} mole ratios on the crystallization of NaA nanozeolite were studied. The adsorption capacity of mercury (II) was studied as a function of pH, contact time, and amount of adsorbent. The crystallization of NaA nanozeolite from BHS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and FTIR techniques. Moreover, concentration of Hg{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous solutions was analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy method (HG-AAS). The standard and real samples analysis showed that NaA nanozeolite is capable of Hg{sup 2+} ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Efficiency of mercury (II) adsorption from real solutions onto the nano-sized NaA zeolite was 98%.

  12. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  13. Evaluation of the Ross fast solution of Richards’ equation in unfavourable conditions for standard finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevoisier, David; Chanzy, André; Voltz, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Ross [Ross PJ. Modeling soil water and solute transport - fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agron J 2003;95:1352-61] developed a fast, simplified method for solving Richards' equation. This non-iterative 1D approach, using Brooks and Corey [Brooks RH, Corey AT. Hydraulic properties of porous media. Hydrol. papers, Colorado St. Univ., Fort Collins; 1964] hydraulic functions, allows a significant reduction in computing time while maintaining the accuracy of the results. The first aim of this work is to confirm these results in a more extensive set of problems, including those that would lead to serious numerical difficulties for the standard numerical method. The second aim is to validate a generalisation of the Ross method to other mathematical representations of hydraulic functions. The Ross method is compared with the standard finite element model, Hydrus-1D [Simunek J, Sejna M, Van Genuchten MTh. The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS-2D codes for estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic and solutes transport parameters. Agron Abstr 357; 1999]. Computing time, accuracy of results and robustness of numerical schemes are monitored in 1D simulations involving different types of homogeneous soils, grids and hydrological conditions. The Ross method associated with modified Van Genuchten hydraulic functions [Vogel T, Cislerova M. On the reliability of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from the moisture retention curve. Transport Porous Media 1988;3:1-15] proves in every tested scenario to be more robust numerically, and the compromise of computing time/accuracy is seen to be particularly improved on coarse grids. Ross method run from 1.25 to 14 times faster than Hydrus-1D.

  14. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  15. Comparative antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solutions evaluated using a novel standardized assay.

    PubMed

    Thorn, R M S; Robinson, G M; Reynolds, D M

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces.

  16. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard microbiological challenges were developed by surface-associating typed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores, or a clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain on stainless steel, polypropylene, or fabric. All test coupons were subjected to 20-min biocidal aerosols of chlorine-matched (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, or ECAS within a standard aerosolization chamber using a commercial humidifier under defined conditions. Biocidal treatment type and material surface had a significant effect on the number of microorganisms recovered from various material surfaces following treatment exposure. Under the conditions of the assay, the order of antimicrobial efficacy of biocidal aerosol treatment was as follows: ECAS > chlorine dioxide > sodium hypochlorite. For all biocides, greater antimicrobial reductions were seen when treating stainless steel and fabric than when treating plastic-associated microorganisms. The experimental fogging system and assay protocol designed within this study were shown capable of differentiating the comparative efficacies of multiple chlorine-matched biocidal aerosols against a spectrum of target organisms on a range of test surface materials and would be appropriate for testing other biocidal aerosol treatments or material surfaces. PMID:23459480

  17. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  18. Standards, calibration and quality assurance of 222Rn measurements in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, R.; Hagberg, N.; Mjönes, L.; Möre, H.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled decay products of 222Rn are the dominant components of the natural radiation exposure to the general population. Limits have been introduced in Sweden, and recommendations were made in 1980 for decreasing indoor 222Rn concentration. The need for the coordinated calibration of measuring instruments as well as for quality assurance was obvious for both health and economic reasons. 222Rn measurements in Sweden are based on standards traceable to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) through the use of standard reference material 226Ra. Standards for both 222Rn and short-lived 222Rn progeny are described together with the reference instrument adopted for these studies. The calibration of field instruments was performed in a "radon room", a climate chamber in which it is possible to vary and monitor the concentration of 222Rn as well as other characteristics of the indoor air such as temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and aerosol concentration. The rules and regulations for field measurements imply a calibration of the instruments yearly, as well as accreditation and training for the companies that carry out the measurements. Examples are given of the official measurement protocols used for the different types of instruments.

  19. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  20. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq {sup 226}Ra source, Phase 1 - the incident

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, B.; Andrews, M.; Hogan, A.

    1996-06-01

    In March 1995, a private citizen living in Bristol, Tennessee, went to a local garage sale and purchased a box containing old medical equipment and paraphernalia for $10.00. The man put the box in the trunk of his car where it remained for several weeks. He then took the box into his home where he examined all of the items, including a small wooden box with a metal sleeve. After significant effort, he managed to remove the inner box which bore the word {open_quotes}radium.{close_quotes} Unsure of what this meant, he called his son-in-law who understood that radium was a radioactive material and called the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health (TDRH). The TDRH investigation quickly located and isolated the source and determined that the contamination was spread throughout the man`s home and yard. Exposure rate readings as high as 160 mR h{sup -1} were found along with removable contamination as high as 3,000,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Over the next several days, the TDRH organized a voluntary effort for the medical evaluation of the man and his wife, the removal of the source, and the decontamination of the home, yard, car, etc. The two following papers will describe these aspects of this incident. On 26 May 1995, the remediation was completed, ending this unusual, but not unique, radiation incident.

  1. Ultrafast source-to-surface movement of melt at island arcs from 226Ra-230Th systematics.

    PubMed

    Turner, S; Evans, P; Hawkesworth, C

    2001-05-18

    Island arc lavas have radium-226 excesses that extend to higher values than those observed in mid-ocean ridge or ocean island basalts. The initial ratio of radium-226 to thorium-230 is largest in the most primitive lavas, which also have the highest barium/thorium ratios, and decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. Therefore, the radium-226 excesses appear to have been introduced into the base of the mantle melting column by fluids released from the subducting plate. Preservation of this signal requires transport to the surface arguably in only a few hundreds of years and directly constrains the average melt velocity to the order of 1000 meters per year. Thus, melt segregation and channel formation can occur rapidly in the mantle.

  2. Measurement of {sup 222}Rn flux, {sup 222}Rn emanation and {sup 226}Ra concentration from injection well pipe scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Kendrick, D.T.

    1996-02-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been recognized since the early 1930s in petroleum reservoirs and in oil and gas production and processing facilities. NORM was typically observed in barite scale that accumulated on the interior of oil production tubing and in storage tank and heater-treater separation sludge. Recent concern has been expressed over the health impacts from the uncontrolled release of NORM to the public. There are several potential exposure pathways to humans from oil-field NORM. Among these is inhalation of radon gas and its daughter products. For this exposure pathway to be of any significance, radon must first be released from the NORM matrix and diffuse in free air. The radon emanation fraction refers to the fraction of radon atoms produced by the decay of radium, that migrate from the bulk material as free gaseous atoms. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the radon release rates from NORM-scale contaminated production tubing being stored above ground, characterize the radon emanation fraction of the bulk scale material when removed from the tubing, and characterize the radium concentrations of the scale. Accurate characterization of {sup 222}Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale may dictate the type of disposal options available for this waste. Characterization of radon release from stored pipes will assist in determining if controls are needed for workers or members of the public downwind from the source. Due to the sensitive nature of this data, the location of this facility is not disclosed.

  3. An In Silico study of TiO2 nanoparticles interaction with twenty standard amino acids in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengtang; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is probably one of the most widely used nanomaterials, and its extensive exposure may result in potentially adverse biological effects. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of interaction involving TiO2 NPs and macromolecules, e.g., proteins, are still not well understood. Here, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between TiO2 NPs and the twenty standard amino acids in aqueous solution exploiting a newly developed TiO2 force field. We found that charged amino acids play a dominant role during the process of binding to the TiO2 surface, with both basic and acidic residues overwhelmingly preferred over the non-charged counterparts. By calculating the Potential Mean Force, we showed that Arg is prone to direct binding onto the NP surface, while Lys needs to overcome a ~2 kT free energy barrier. On the other hand, acidic residues tend to form “water bridges” between their sidechains and TiO2 surface, thus displaying an indirect binding. Moreover, the overall preferred positions and configurations of different residues are highly dependent on properties of the first and second solvation water. These molecular insights learned from this work might help with a better understanding of the interactions between biomolecules and nanomaterials. PMID:27883086

  4. Report of the CCQM-K97: measurement of arsenobetaine standard solution and arsenobetaine content in fish tissue (tunafish)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. D.; Wang, J.; WEI, C.; Kuroiwa, T.; Narukawa, T.; Ito, N.; HIOKI, A.; CHIBA, K.; Yim, Y. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, Y. R.; Turk, G. C.; Davis, C. W.; Mester, Z.; Yang, L.; McCooeye, M.; Maxwell, P.; Cankur, O.; Tokman, N.; Coskun, F. G.

    2017-01-01

    The CCQM-K97 key comparison was organized by the inorganic analysis working group (IAWG) of CCQM as a follow-up to completed pilot study CCQM-P96 and P96.1 to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of arsenobetaine (AsB) in standard solution and in fish tissue. A pilot study CCQM-P133 was parallelized with this key comparison. National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China and National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratories. Six NMIs participated in CCQM-K97 and two institutes participated in CCQM-P133, and all of them submitted the results. Some NMIs submitted more than one results by different methods. The results were in excellent agreement with each other, and obviously better than those of previous P96 and P96.1. Therefore the calibrant which each NMI used was comparable. It shows that the capabilities of some of the participants have been improved after the previous pilot studies. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. An In Silico study of TiO2 nanoparticles interaction with twenty standard amino acids in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengtang; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is probably one of the most widely used nanomaterials, and its extensive exposure may result in potentially adverse biological effects. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of interaction involving TiO2 NPs and macromolecules, e.g., proteins, are still not well understood. Here, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between TiO2 NPs and the twenty standard amino acids in aqueous solution exploiting a newly developed TiO2 force field. We found that charged amino acids play a dominant role during the process of binding to the TiO2 surface, with both basic and acidic residues overwhelmingly preferred over the non-charged counterparts. By calculating the Potential Mean Force, we showed that Arg is prone to direct binding onto the NP surface, while Lys needs to overcome a ~2 kT free energy barrier. On the other hand, acidic residues tend to form “water bridges” between their sidechains and TiO2 surface, thus displaying an indirect binding. Moreover, the overall preferred positions and configurations of different residues are highly dependent on properties of the first and second solvation water. These molecular insights learned from this work might help with a better understanding of the interactions between biomolecules and nanomaterials.

  6. [Validation Study on a Multi-Residue Method for Determination of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables and Fruits by using General Matrix Standard Solutions].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Takatori, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoko; Kitagawa, Yoko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Osakada, Masakazu; Kajimura, Keiji; Obana, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods using the matrix-matched standard solutions approach are widely used for multi-residue pesticide determination by GC-MS/MS to deal with the issue of matrix effects. However, preparing matrix-matched standard solutions in analyses of many kinds of samples is very time-consuming. In order to solve this problem, a method that employs general matrix standard solutions has been developed using polyethylene glycol (PEG), extract of vegetables-fruit juice (VFJm) and triphenyl phosphate (named the PEG-VFJm method). Here, a validation study for 168 pesticides was performed on three kinds of samples [potato, spinach and apple] at concentrations of 0.010 and 0.050 μg/g. In these three commodities, 144 to 158 pesticides satisfied the required criteria using the matrix-matched method and 129 to 149 pesticides satisfied the same criteria using the PEG-VFJm method. Our results suggest that application of general matrix standard solutions would enable rapid and effective analyses of pesticides.

  7. Innovative solutions: Standardized concentrations facilitate the use of continuous infusions for pediatric intensive care unit nurses at a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Roman, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    The pediatric intensive care unit at a community hospital successfully implemented the use of standardized concentrations. The process included deciding the standardized concentrations, use of titration charts, and integration of smart pump technology. Since the implementation of standardized concentrations, there has been no signal or sentinel events reported. It is safe and efficacious to use standardized concentrations combined with smart pump technology and abandon the use of the rule of 6 in the pediatric population.

  8. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-04-15

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}, 6d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several competitive {sup A}Ra{sup +} candidates, with A= 223-229, are identified. In particular, we show that the transition 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F=2,m{sub F}=0)-6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} (F=0,m{sub F}=0) at 828 nm in {sup 223}Ra{sup +}, with no linear Zeeman and electric quadrupole shifts, stands out as a relatively simple case, which could be exploited as a compact, robust, and low-cost atomic clock operating at a fractional frequency uncertainty of 10{sup -17}. With more experimental effort, the {sup 223,225,226}Ra{sup +} clocks could be pushed to a projected performance reaching the 10{sup -18} level.

  9. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  10. Standardized Patient Training Programs: an Efficient Solution to the Call for Quality Improvement in Oncologist Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Vapiwala, Neha

    2015-09-01

    Several key medical and oncologic professional societies have endorsed the importance of physician communication as a quality improvement metric. Despite this clear message, there remain substantial barriers to communication skills training (CST) in oncologic specialties. Herein, we describe the major barriers to communications training and propose standardized patient (SP) programs as efficient and strategic starting points and as expansion opportunities for new and existing CSTs.

  11. A primary standard source of radon-222 based on the HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, M Y A; Vasyanovich, M; Zhukovsky, M

    2017-02-01

    The present paper describes the prototype of a calibration standard system for radon concentrations to be used in establishing the traceability of radon concentration measurements in dwellings. Radon gas was generated with a radium-226 solid source in a certified volume as a closed system. The activity of the radon that was released in the closed system was determined from the difference between the absolute activity of the standard radium solid source and the residual radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). A high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, which was calibrated using gamma reference standard sources, was used to measure the activity of a radium solid source and radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). The emanation factor of the (226)Ra source was controlled online with the HPGe detector. Radon activity was achieved at ~1500±45Bq from the radium source at 3.95±0.2kBq under equilibrium conditions. After this activity, the radon gas was transferred into the closed system producing radon activity concentrations of 31.1±0.3kBq/m(3). Systematic errors were found of less than 4% with a random error around 0.5%. The random error is generally associated with the estimation of the count rate of the measured radon progenies ((214)Po and (214)Po for alpha measurements or (214)Pb and (214)Bi for gamma measurements), but systematic errors are associated with the errors introduced by the instrumentation and measurement technique. The system that was developed has a high degree of accuracy and can be recommended as a national or regional prototype standard of radon activity concentration to calibrate different working radon measurement devices.

  12. A Singlet Extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Towards a More Natural Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    In this work, I present a generalization of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with an explicit μ-term and a supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield, as a route to alleviating the little hierarchy problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I analyze two limiting cases of the model, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield. The small and large limits of this mass parameter are studied, and I find that I can generate masses for the lightest neutral Higgs boson up to 140 GeV with top squarks below the TeV scale, all couplings perturbative up to the gauge unification scale, and with no need to fine tune parameters in the scalar potential. This model, which I call the S-MSSM is also embedded in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scheme. I find that even with a minimal embedding of the S-MSSM into a gauge mediated scheme, the mass for the lightest Higgs boson can easily be above 114 GeV, while keeping the top squarks below the TeV scale. Furthermore, I also study the forward-backward asymmetry in the t¯t system within the framework of the S-MSSM. For this purpose, non-renormalizable couplings between the first and third generation of quarks to scalars are introduced. The two limiting cases of the S-MSSM, characterized by the size of the supersymmetric mass for the singlet superfield is analyzed, and I find that in the region of small singlet supersymmetric mass a large asymmetry can be obtained while being consistent with constraints arising from flavor physics, quark masses and top quark decays.

  13. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 6, Supplemental standard for Durango processing site. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Excavation control to the 15 pCi/g radium-226 (Ra-226) standard at certain areas along the Animas River on the Durango Site would require extensive engineering and construction support. Elevated Ra-226 concentrations have been encountered immediately adjacent to the river at depths in excess of 7 feet below the present river stage. Decontamination to such depths to ensure compliance with the EPA standards will, in our opinion, become unreasonable. This work does not appear to be in keeping with the intent of the standards. Because the principal reason for radium removal is reduction of radon daughter concentrations (RDC) in homes to be built onsite, and because radon produced at depth will be attenuated in clean fill cover before entering such homes, it is appropriate to calculate the depth of excavation needed under a home to reduce RDC to acceptable levels. Potential impact was assessed through radon emanation estimation, using the RAECOM computer model. Elevated Ra-226 concentrations were encountered during final radium excavation of the flood plain below the large tailings pile, adjacent to the slag area. Data from 7 test pits excavated across the area were analyzed to provide an estimate of the Ra-226 concentration profile. Results are given in this report.

  14. Determination of acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous solution by the internal standard capillary electrophoresis method.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Joan Marc; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2014-12-01

    A set of 33 drugs with different solubilities, ranging from soluble to very insoluble, has been chosen in order to evaluate the performance of the internal standard CE method to determine acidity constants of compounds with limited solubility. The set of drugs tested in this work has been chosen as a function of their intrinsic solubility. For the most insoluble compounds, several analytical conditions to overcome the insolubility in aqueous buffers have been tested. This paper assesses the compound solubility limits for the IS-CE method in aqueous pKa determinations, and also compares the determined pKa s with the results from the literature data obtained by other methods. It is proved that IS-CE method determines acidity constants of sparingly soluble drugs in aqueous media (compounds with logS down to around -6), whereas other reference methods require the use of aqueous-organic solvent buffers and extrapolation procedures to obtain the aqueous pKa for the same compounds.

  15. Thiols in Hydrothermal Solution: Standard Partial Molal Properties and Their Role in the Organic Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell D.; Rogers, Karyn L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern seafloor hydrothermal systems are locations where great varieties of geochemistry occur due to the enormous disequilibrium between vent fluids and seawater. The disequilibrium geochemistry has been hypothesized to include reactions to synthesize organic compounds. Despite the incomplete understanding of the carbon budget in hydrothermal systems, the organic geochemistry of these sites has received little attention. Experimental simulations of these environments, however, indicate that organic compounds may have difficulty forming in a purely aqueous environment. On the other hand, thiols, thioesters and disulfides have been implicated as reaction intermediates between CO or CO2 in experiments of carbon reduction in hydrothermal environments, as well as in a variety of biological processes and other abiotic reactions. The reduction of CO2 to thesis, for example, is observed using the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple to provide the reducing power. We have used recent advances in theoretical geochemistry to estimate the standard partial moral thermodynamic properties and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for aqueous straight-chain alkyl thesis. With these data and parameters we have evaluated the role that organic sulfur compounds may play as reaction intermediates during organic compound synthesis. We conclude that organic sulfur compounds may hold the key to the organic chemistry leading to the origin of life in hydrothermal settings. These results may also explain the presence of sulfur in a number of biomolecules present in ancient thermophilic microorganisms.

  16. Radium migration through clay liners at waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Bosco, M E; Cunha, I I; Saito, R T

    2001-02-05

    The migration of 226Ra through the bottom compacted clay liner of the wastewater disposal reservoirs of an industrial plant that processes uranium ore was evaluated. An instrumental method for 226Ra analysis in soils, consisting of detector calibration, the determination of detector counting efficiency, cumulative counting of both background and soil samples in regular counting intervals, and photo-peak smoothing was developed. The 226Ra was analyzed by means of its granddaughter 214Bi, at a photo-peak of 609 keV. The results showed that most of the 226Ra which diffused from the solution into the soil was retained in the upper layer of the sample, and that just a small percentage migrated to the subjacent layers. This methodology is adequate for the assessment of the migration of radionuclides through soil layers and for environmental impact studies related to contamination of soils by radionuclides.

  17. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  18. Uptake of 226Ra by established vegetation and black cutworm larvae, Agrotis ipsilon (class Insecta: order Lepidoptera), on U mill tailings at Elliot Lake, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Cloutier, N R

    1988-07-01

    Radium-226 levels in samples from an inactive U tailings site at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, were: 9,140 +/- 500 mBq g-1 dry weight in the substrate; 62 +/- 1 mBq g-1 dry weight in rye, Secale cereale, and less than 3.7 mBq g-1 dry weight in oats, Avena sativa, the dominant species established by revegetation of the tailings; and 117 +/- 7 mBq g-1 dry weight in washed and unwashed black cutworm larvae. Concentration ratios were: vegetation to tailings 0.001-0.007; black cutworms to vegetation 3.6 and black cutworms to tailings 0.01. The values are considered too low to be considered a hazard to herring gulls, Larus argentatus, which occasionally feed on cutworms.

  19. Acute intradialytic cardiac function and inflammatory cytokine changes during high-efficiency online hemodiafiltration with acetate-free and standard dialysis solutions.

    PubMed

    Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Tangvoraphonkchai, Kamonwan; Srisawat, Nattachai; Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tungsanga, Kriang; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2015-06-01

    Acetate in standard acetate-containing bicarbonate (AC) dialysis fluid could induce peripheral vasodilatation, suppression of myocardial function, and inflammatory cytokine production, resulting in intradialytic hypotension in conventional hemodialysis (HD) patients. Online hemodiafiltration (HDF) provides superior hemodynamic stability over HD. The potentially additive hemodynamic benefits of the novel acetate-free bicarbonate (AF) dialysis fluid in online HDF have never been explored before. The present randomized, double-blind, crossover study was conducted in 22 online HDF patients to investigate the impact of AF dialysis fluid on hemodynamic and cytokine changes compared with AC dialysis fluid in online HDF. The results demonstrated the comparable changes of arterial pressure between AF and AC online HDF. During the study periods, the incidences of composite intradialytic hypotension and other adverse events were not different. The baseline and hourly changes of cardiac index, cardiac output, and peripheral vascular resistance during dialysis were comparable (P=0.534, 0.199, and 0.641, respectively). The percent reductions of NT-proBNP and cTnT were not significantly different (72.6 ± 12.3 vs. 72.6 ± 12.8%, P=0.99 and 35.2 ± 12.8 vs. 36.7 ± 12.0%, P=0.51). The changes of all pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) during dialysis were comparable between both groups. In conclusion, AF dialysis solution does not offer additional hemodynamic benefit for stable online HDF patients. The hemodynamic stability provided by online HDF might protect the adverse effects of acetate.

  20. Standard enthalpies of formation for L-tyrosine, DL-norleucine, DL-tryptophan, DL-α-alanyl-DL-norleucine, and products of their dissociation in an aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Krutova, O. N.; Damrina, K. V.

    2015-05-01

    Enthalpies of dissolution are determined for a series of crystal amino acids (L-tyrosine, DL-norleucine, and DL-tryptophan) and a DL-α-alanyl-DL-norleucine dipeptide in aqueous solutions of KOH at 298.15 K by means of direct calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation are determined for bioligands and products of their dissociation.

  1. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  2. Characterization of the International Humic Substances Society standard and reference fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Standard and reference samples of the International Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic reference fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil reference humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.

  3. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  4. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-15

    A solid {sup 222}Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of {sup 226}Ra and the sintering temperature. A {sup 226}Ra sulfate ({sup 226}RaSO{sub 4}) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmφ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing {sup 226}Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m{sup −3} at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min{sup −1}. By adjusting the {sup 226}Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from {sup 226}Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  5. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutsu, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A solid 222Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of 226Ra and the sintering temperature. A 226Ra sulfate (226RaSO4) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmϕ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing 226Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m-3 at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min-1. By adjusting the 226Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from 226Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  6. Development of radon sources with a high stability and a wide range.

    PubMed

    Fukutsu, K; Yamada, Y

    2013-12-01

    A solid (222)Rn (radon) source using a fibrous and porous SiC ceramic disk was developed. The emission rate of radon emanated from the disk depended on the content of (226)Ra and the sintering temperature. A (226)Ra sulfate ((226)RaSO4) solution was dropped on a fibrous SiC ceramic disk (33 mmφ) of 1 mm in thickness, and sintered at 400 °C. The radon concentration from a disk containing (226)Ra of 1.85 MBq was measured to be 38 kBq m(-3) at a carrier airflow rate of 0.5 L min(-1). By adjusting the (226)Ra content or the sweep airflow rate, the radon concentrations were easily controlled over a wide range of over three orders of magnitude. The concentration was very stable for a long term. The compactness of the source disk made is easy for handling the source container and the shielding of gamma radiation from (226)Ra and its decay products. Such advantages in a radon generation system are desirable for experiments of high-level, large-scale radon exposure.

  7. The Influence of Uncompensated Solution Resistance on the Determination and Standard Electrochemical Rate Constants Using Cyclic Voltammetry, and Some Comparisons with AC Voltammetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-25

    constants, k2ob, using cyclic voltammetry . The results are expressed in terms of systematic deviations of ’apparent measured’ rate constants, k2ob...Keywords: Digital simulation analysis, Uncompensated solution resistance, Electrochemical rate constants, Cyclic voltammetry .

  8. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  9. Emergency Radiobioassay Method for Determination of ⁹⁰Sr and ²²⁶Ra in a Spot Urine Sample.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki B; Fontaine, Allison; McAlister, Daniel; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-08-04

    A new radiobioassay method has been developed for simultaneous determination of (90)Sr and (226)Ra in a spot urine sample. The method is based on a matrix removal procedure to purify the target radionuclides from a urine sample followed by an automated high performance ion chromatographic (HPIC) separation of (90)Sr and (226)Ra and offline radiometric detection by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). A Sr-resin extraction chromatographic cartridge was used for matrix removal and purification of (90)Sr and (226)Ra from a urine sample prior to its introduction to the HPIC system. The HPIC separation was carried out through cation exchange chromatography using methanesulfonic acid (75 mM) as the mobile phase at 0.25 mL/min flow rate. The performance criteria of the method was evaluated against the American National Standard Institute ANSI/HPS N13.30-2011 standard for the root mean squared error (RMSE) of relative bias (Br) and relative precision (SB) at two different spiked activity levels. The RMSE of Br and SB for (90)Sr and (226)Ra were found to be satisfactory (≤0.25). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the method for (90)Sr and (226)Ra are 2 Bq/L and 0.2 Bq/L, respectively. The MDA values are at least 1/10th of the concentrations of (90)Sr (190 Bq/L) and (226)Ra (2 Bq/L) excreted in urine on the third day following an acute exposure (inhalation) that would lead to an effective dose of 0.1 Sv in the first year. The sample turnaround time is less than 8 h for simultaneous determination of (90)Sr and (226)Ra.

  10. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Roger G.; Bower, Vincent E.

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: Pt;H2,HCl(m),AgCl;Agthrough the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver–silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force. PMID:27500034

  11. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  12. Practical solution for control of the pre-analytical phase in decentralized clinical laboratories for meeting the requirements of the medical laboratory accreditation standard DIN EN ISO 15189.

    PubMed

    Vacata, Vladimir; Jahns-Streubel, Gerlinde; Baldus, Mirjana; Wood, William Graham

    2007-01-01

    This report was written in response to the article by Wood published recently in this journal. It describes a practical solution to the problems of controlling the pre-analytical phase in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. As an indicator of quality in the pre-analytical phase of sample processing, a target analyte was chosen which is sensitive to delay in centrifugation and/or analysis. The results of analyses of the samples sent by satellite medical practitioners were compared with those from an on-site hospital laboratory with a controllable optimized pre-analytical phase. The aim of the comparison was: (a) to identify those medical practices whose mean/median sample values significantly deviate from those of the control situation in the hospital laboratory due to the possible problems in the pre-analytical phase; (b) to aid these laboratories in the process of rectifying these problems. A Microsoft Excel-based Pre-Analytical Survey tool (PAS tool) has been developed which addresses the above mentioned problems. It has been tested on serum potassium which is known to be sensitive to delay and/or irregularities in sample treatment. The PAS tool has been shown to be one possibility for improving the quality of the analyses by identifying the sources of problems within the pre-analytical phase, thus allowing them to be rectified. Additionally, the PAS tool has an educational value and can also be adopted for use in other decentralized laboratories.

  13. A low-cost solution to measure mouse licking in an electrophysiological setup with a standard analog-to-digital converter.

    PubMed

    Hayar, Abdallah; Bryant, Jeri L; Boughter, John D; Heck, Detlef H

    2006-06-15

    Licking behavior in rodents is widely used to determine fluid consumption in various behavioral contexts and is a typical example of rhythmic movement controlled by internal pattern-generating mechanisms. The measurement of licking behavior by commercially available instruments is based on either tongue protrusion interrupting a light beam or on an electrical signal generated by the tongue touching a metal spout. We report here that licking behavior can be measured with high temporal precision by simply connecting a metal sipper tube to the input of a standard analog/digital (A/D) converter and connecting the animal to ground (via a metal cage floor). The signal produced by a single lick consists of a 100-800 mV dc voltage step, which reflects the metal-to-water junction potential and persists for the duration of the tongue-spout contact. This method does not produce any significant electrical artifacts and can be combined with electrophysiological measurements of single unit activity from neurons involved in the control of the licking behavior.

  14. Polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid-grafted-natural rubber as bio-adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous standard solution and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Phetphaisit, Chor Wayakron; Yuanyang, Siriwan; Chaiyasith, Wipharat Chuachuad

    2016-01-15

    Bio-adsorbent modified natural rubber (modified NR) was prepared, by placing the sulfonic acid functional group on the isoprene chain. This modification was carried out with the aim to prepare material capable to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. The structures of modified NR materials were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. Thermal gravimetric analysis of modified NR showed that the initial degradation temperature of rubber decreases with increasing amount of polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) in the structure. In addition, water uptake of the rubber based materials was studied as a function of time and content of PAMPS. The influence of the amount of PAMPS grafted onto NR, time, pH, concentration of metal ions, temperature, and regeneration were studied in terms of their influence on the adsorption of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+)). The adsorption isotherms of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, while Cu(2+) was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. However, the results from these two isotherms resulted in a similar behavior. The adsorption capacity of the modified NR for the various heavy metals was in the following order: Pb(2+)∼Cd(2+)>Cu(2+). The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 272.7, 267.2, and 89.7 mg/g of modified rubber, respectively. Moreover, the modified natural rubber was used for the removal of metal ions in real samples of industrial effluents where the efficiency and regeneration were also investigated.

  15. Treatment of NORM contaminated soil from the oilfields.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, W M; Al-Masri, M S

    2014-03-01

    Uncontrolled disposal of oilfield produced water in the surrounding environment could lead to soil contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Large volumes of soil become highly contaminated with radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). In the present work, laboratory experiments have been conducted to reduce the activity concentration of (226)Ra in soil. Two techniques were used, namely mechanical separation and chemical treatment. Screening of contaminated soil using vibratory sieve shaker was performed to evaluate the feasibility of particle size separation. The fractions obtained were ranged from less than 38 μm to higher than 300 μm. The results show that (226)Ra activity concentrations vary widely from fraction to fraction. On the other hand, leaching of (226)Ra from soil by aqueous solutions (distilled water, mineral acids, alkaline medias and selective solvents) has been performed. In most cases, relatively low concentrations of radium were transferred to solutions, which indicates that only small portions of radium are present on the surface of soil particles (around 4.6%), while most radium located within soil particles; only concentrated nitric acid was most effective where 50% of (226)Ra was removed to aqueous phase. However, mechanical method was found to be easy and effective, taking into account safety procedures to be followed during the implementation of the blending and homogenization. Chemical extraction methods were found to be less effective. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to approach the final option for disposal of NORM contaminated soil in the oilfields.

  16. An alternative method for Ra determinations in water

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, D.H.; Drake, E.N. 2d.

    1989-07-01

    Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra in 13 wells distributed throughout McCulloch and Mason counties in the Hickory Aquifer of the Llano Uplift Region of West-Central Texas are reported. Measurable alpha-particle activity is present in all wells, with seven wells having /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentrations greater than 185 Bq m-3 (5 pCi L-1). An alternative methodology for measuring /sup 226/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 228/Ra is described. The EPA-approved methodology for estimating total Ra is shown to be invalid for aquifers containing significant levels of /sup 224/Ra. Alpha-particle activity measurements made in the interval of 12 to 300 h after Ra isolation lead to self-consistent solutions for radioactivity concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 224/Ra, with negligible contributions from /sup 228/Ra. Radioactivity concentrations of /sup 228/Ra can be calculated from grow-in terms for this isotope used with alpha-particle activity measurements at post-isolation times significantly longer than 800 h. Comparison of the /sup 226/Ra radioactivity concentration with that reported previously by the Texas Department of Health for a single well indicates acceptable agreement. However, the radioactivity concentration attributable to /sup 228/Ra for the same well was found to be in significant disagreement with the Texas Department of Health value.

  17. Dissolution of [²²⁶Ra]BaSO₄ and partial separation of ²²⁶Ra from radium/barium sulfate: A new treatment method for NORM waste from petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Al Masri, M S; Amin, Yusr

    2016-01-01

    Complete dissolution of [(226)Ra]BaSO4 precipitate was successfully performed using NaNO2 as a reducing agent in acidic solution at room temperature. Results showed a significant effect of acid and NaNO2 concentrations and temperature on the dissolution efficiency. The method was successfully used for separation of radium from NORM scale samples from the petroleum industry; sufficient volume reduction of NORM waste was achieved. The obtained (226)Ra solution was purified using two separation methods. The dissolution method can be of great interest in the development of radiochemical analysis of radium isotopes.

  18. NDTA narcotics standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

  19. Natural radioactivity in phosphates, phosphogypsum and natural waters in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Azouazi, M; Ouahidi, Y; Fakhi, S; Andres, Y; Abbe, J C; Benmansour, M

    2001-01-01

    The contents of natural radionuclides (uranium, actinium and thorium series) were measured in sedimentary phosphate rock samples using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Data obtained for uranium content (ppm) were compared with the results obtained by a method based on the measurements using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the same samples. The potential leaching of radionuclides from sedimentary phosphate rock during the industrial production of the phosphoric acid was studied. The process of leaching of the radioisotopes from phosphogypsum was discussed. A method for the direct alpha counting of 226Ra thin source, elaborated by the deposition of Ra from aqueous solutions on manganese oxides film deposited on polyvinyl support, have been developed and applied for the determination of 226Ra in natural water samples. The results show that only the water sample from the mine area reveals the presence of 226Ra at a level of about 0.2 Bq l-1.

  20. Calibration of the KRISS reference ionization chamber for certification of ²²²Rn gaseous sources.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Lee, K B; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Park, T S; Kim, B C; Lee, M S

    2013-11-01

    A primary measurement system for gaseous (222)Rn based on the defined solid angle counting method has recently been constructed at KRISS and the reference ionization chamber used to measure the activities of gamma-emitting single radionuclides was adopted as a secondary standard for gaseous (222)Rn. A 20 mL flame-sealed glass ampoule source from the primary measurement system was used to calibrate the ionization chamber for (222)Rn. The (222)Rn efficiency of the ionization chamber was compared with that calculated by using a photon energy-dependent efficiency curve and that measured by using a standard (226)Ra solution. From the comparisons we draw the conclusion that the reference ionization chamber for gamma-emitting radionuclides can be a suitable secondary measurement system for gaseous (222)Rn sources.

  1. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  2. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  3. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  4. A new application of micellar liquid chromatography in the determination of free ampicillin concentration in the drug-human serum albumin standard solution in comparison with the adsorption method.

    PubMed

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E; Malinowska, Irena; Maciejewska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    The determination of free drug concentration is a very important issue in the field of pharmacology because only the unbound drug fraction can achieve a pharmacological effect. Due to the ability to solubilize many different compounds in micellar aggregates, micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) can be used for direct determination of free drug concentration. Proteins are not retained on the stationary phase probably due to the formation of protein - surfactant complexes which are excluded from the pores of stationary phase. The micellar method is simple and fast. It does not require any pre-preparation of the tested samples for analysis. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate a completely new applicability of the analytical use of MLC concerning the determination of free drug concentration in the standard solution of human serum albumin. The well-known adsorption method using RP-HPLC and the spectrophotometric technique was applied as the reference method. The results show that the free drug concentration value obtained in the MLC system (based on the RP-8 stationary phase and CTAB) is similar to that obtained by the adsorption method: both RP-HPLC (95.83μgmL(-1), 79.86% of free form) and spectrophotometry (95.71μgmL(-1), 79.76%). In the MLC the free drug concentration was 93.98μgmL(-1) (78.3%). This indicates that the obtained results are within the analytical range of % of free ampicillin fraction and the MLC with direct sample injection can be treated like a promising method for the determination of free drug concentration.

  5. Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano Giardino, Sergio

    2014-02-15

    The Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, i V{sub 0} + j W{sub 0} (V{sub 0}∈R , W{sub 0}∈C). The study shows two different solutions. The first one contains particle and anti-particle solutions and leads to the diffusion, tunneling, and Klein energy zones. The standard solution is recovered taking the complex limit of this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V{sub 0}-antiparticle or |W{sub 0}|-particle solution.

  6. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a {sup 241}Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage.

  7. Determination of 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra and uranium isotopes in drinking water in order to comply with the requirements of the EU ‘Drinking Water Directive.

    PubMed

    Vasile, M; Loots, H; Jacobs, K; Verheyen, L; Sneyers, L; Verrezen, F; Bruggeman, M

    2016-03-01

    The European Union published in 2013 a new Drinking Water Directive with stricter requirements for measuring natural radioactivity. In order to adhere to this, a method for sequential separation of 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U in drinking water was applied using UTEVA® and Sr resins. Polonium-210, 238U and 234U were quantified using alpha-particle spectrometry and 210Pb using liquid scintillation counting. Radium-226 and 228Ra were determined using 3M Empore Radium RAD Disks, and their quantification was done using a Quantulus™ 1220 liquid scintillation counter.

  8. 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria in dacite and plagioclase from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens: Chapter 36 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Kari M.; Donnelly, Carrie T.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    230Th)/(232Th) measured for the 1980s reference suite. However, (230Th)/(232Th) for plagioclase separates for dome samples erupted during October and November 2004 are significantly different from corresponding whole-rock values, which suggests that a large fraction (>30 percent) of crystals in each sample are foreign to the host liquid. Furthermore, plagioclase in the two 2004 samples have U-series characteristics distinct from each other and from plagioclase in dacite erupted in 1982, indicating that (1) the current eruption must include a component of crystals (and potentially associated magma) that were not sampled by the 1980-86 eruption, and (2) dacite magmas erupted only a month apart in 2004 contain different populations of crystals, indicating that this foreign component is highly heterogeneous within the 2004-5 magma reservoir.

  9. Theoretical studies of {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th-{sup 226}Ra and {sup 235}U-{sup 231}Pa disequilibria in young lavas produced by mantle melting

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, H.; Zindler, A.

    2000-05-01

    This paper provides ready-to-use equations to describe variations in uranium-series (U-series) disequilibrium as a function of elemental distribution coefficients, melting porosity, melting rate, and melting time. The effects of these melting parameters on U-series disequilibria are quantitatively evaluated in both an absolute and relative sense. The importance of net elemental fractionation and ingrowth of daughter nuclides are also described and compared in terms of their relative contributions to total U-series disequilibrium. In addition, the authors compare the production of U-series disequilibrium during mantle melting to trace element fractionations produced by melting in a similar context. Trace element fractionations depend externally on the degree to which a source is melted, whereas U-series disequilibrium depends upon both the degree and rate of melting. In contrast to previous models, their approach to modeling U-series disequilibrium during dynamic melting collapses simply to a description of trace element behavior during dynamic melting when the appropriate decay terms are omitted. Their formulation shows that extremely small degrees of melting, sometimes called upon to explain observed extents of U-series disequilibrium, are not always required.

  10. Training Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-09-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

  11. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  12. "There's Nothing Standard about Standards": Exploring Tensions between Two Standards Documents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Terri; Carter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Quality in education at the tertiary level is constantly questioned, and increasingly "professional standards" are offered as the solution to the perceived decline in quality. Foucauldian archaeological analysis of teacher graduate and geography graduate standards in Australia is conducted, revealing tensions between the different…

  13. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  14. Networking standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

  15. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  16. Infinite dilution partial molar properties of aqueous solutions of nonelectrolytes. 1. Equations for partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and standard thermodynamic functions of hydration of volatile nonelectrolytes over wide ranges of conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Plyasunov, A.V.; O'Connell, J.P.; Wood, R.H.

    2000-02-01

    A semitheoretical expression for partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of aqueous nonelectrolyte solutes has been developed employing the collection of properties from fluctuation solution theory for use over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The form of the solution expression was suggested by a comparison of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent direct correlations function integrals (DCFI). The selection of solvent density and compressibility as model variables provides a correct description in the critical region while second virial coefficients have been used to give a rigorous expression in the low density region. The formulation has been integrated to obtain analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of hydration at supercritical temperatures. The equation is limited to solutes for which B{sub 12} (the second cross virial coefficient between water and a solute molecule) is known or can be estimated. Regression of the three remaining parameters gives good correlations of the available experimental data. A strategy for estimating these parameters allows prediction from readily available data.

  17. Nanoparticle standards

    SciTech Connect

    Havrilla, George Joseph

    2016-12-08

    We will purchase a COTS materials printer and adapt it for solution printing of known elemental concentration solutions. A methodology will be developed to create deposits of known mass in known locations on selected substrates. The deposits will be characterized for deposited mass, physical morphology, thickness and uniformity. Once an acceptable methodology has been developed and validated, we will create round robin samples to be characterized by LGSIMS instruments at LANL, PNNL and NIST. We will demonstrate the feasibility of depositing nanoparticles in known masses with the goal of creating separated nanoparticles in known locations.

  18. 40 CFR 428.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.35 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards...

  19. 40 CFR 428.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.35 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards...

  20. 40 CFR 428.35 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.35 Standards of performance for new sources. The following standards...

  1. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  2. Rapid determination of the equivalence volume in potentiometric acid-base titrations to a preset pH-II Standardizing a solution of a strong base, graphic location of equivalence volume, determination of stability constants of acids and titration of a mixture of two weak acids.

    PubMed

    Ivaska, A

    1974-06-01

    A newly proposed method of titrating weak acids with strong bases is applied to standardize a solution of a strong base, to graphic determination of equivalence volume of acetic acid with an error of 0.2%, to calculate the stability constants of hydroxylammonium ion, boric acid and hydrogen ascorbate ion and to analyse a mixture of acetic acid and ammonium ion with an error of 0.2-0.7%.

  3. Software Solutions for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  4. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  5. Radioactivity levels and heavy metals in the urban soil of Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, B; Stajic, J M; Gulan, Lj; Zeremski, T; Nikezic, D

    2015-11-01

    Radioactivity concentrations and heavy metal content were measured in soil samples collected from the area of Kragujevac, one of the largest cities in Serbia. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in 30 samples were measured by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values ± standard deviations were 33.5 ± 8.2, 50.3 ± 10.6, 425.8 ± 75.7 and 40.2 ± 26.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs have shown normal distribution. The annual effective doses, radium equivalent activities, external hazard indexes and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. A RAD7 device was used for measuring radon exhalation rates from several samples with highest content of (226)Ra. The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured, as well as their EDTA extractable concentrations. Wide ranges of values were obtained, especially for Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The absence of normal distribution indicates anthropogenic origin of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Correlations between radionuclide activities, heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties of analysed soil were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found.

  6. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  7. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    PubMed

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops.

  8. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  9. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  10. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  11. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  12. Parenteral drug products containing aluminum as an ingredient or a contaminant: Response to Food and Drug Administration notice of intent and request for information. ASCN/A. S. P. E. N. Working Group on Standards for Aluminum Content of Parenteral Nutrition Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Aluminum remains a significant contaminant of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions and may be elevated in bone, urine, and plasma of infants receiving TPN. Aluminum accumulation in tissues of uremic patients and adult TPN patients has been associated with low-turnover bone disease. Furthermore, aluminum has also been linked with encephalopathy and anemia in uremic patients and with hepatic cholestasis in experimental animals. Because of the toxic effects of aluminum, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently published a notice of intent to set an upper limit of 25 micrograms/L for aluminum in large-volume parenterals and to require manufacturers of small-volume parenterals, such as calcium and phosphate salts, to measure aluminum content and note this content on the package label. The ASCN/A.S.P.E.N. Working Group on Standards for Aluminum Content of Parenteral Nutrition Solutions supports these intentions and further urges the FDA to require that cumulative aluminum intake in terms of safe, unsafe, and toxic quantities of aluminum per kilogram be made known to physicians and pharmacists preparing the TPN solutions, to ensure that manufacturers use appropriate control procedures in aluminum measurements, and to employ a standard unit of aluminum measurement.

  13. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  14. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections.

  15. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads’ stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls (“IHControls”). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories. PMID:25940339

  16. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  17. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  18. Determination of ²²⁶Ra, ²²⁸Ra and ²¹⁰Pb in NORM products from oil and gas exploration: problems in activity underestimation due to the presence of metals and self-absorption of photons.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Brabec, C; Canion, B; Hashem, J; Lu, C; Millsap, D; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Typical calibration of solid environmental samples for the determination of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb entails the use of standard reference materials which have a very similar matrix. However, TENORM samples from the oil and gas exploration contain unusually high amounts of calcium, strontium and barium which can severely attenuate the photons of (210)Pb and (226)Ra with their characteristic 46.1 keV and 186.2 keV gamma-rays, respectively and to some extent (228)Ra with the characteristic gamma-rays of 911.2 keV and 969.0 keV. We used neutron activation analysis to evaluate the content of TENORM for calcium, barium and strontium and then used a software program SELABS to determine the self-absorption. Our results confirm that even in Petrie containers with small dimensions the (210)Pb can be underestimated by almost by a factor of four while (226)Ra can be underestimated by 5%. The (228)Ra activities are virtually unaffected due to the higher energy gamma-rays. However, the implications for TENORM studies that employ large Marinelli containers having sample sizes between 0.25 and 1.0 L may be severely compromised by the presence of high Z elements in elevated concentrations. The usual spectral interferences on (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb coming from other radionuclides in the (234)U, (235)U and (238)U decay chains are virtually nonexistent due the very high activity levels of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb in the tens of thousands of Bq/kg.

  19. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  20. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, G.T. ); Tseytlin, A.A. )

    1994-10-15

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail.

  1. Standard atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Willis Ray

    1923-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

  2. Journal standards.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  3. High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

  4. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  5. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  6. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  7. Assessing Natural Radionuclide Migration in the Legacy Tailings of Uranium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G.; Koliabina, I.; Marinich, O.

    2011-12-01

    The former Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant in Dniprodzerzhynsk, Ukraine, processed uranium ore from 1949 until 1991. Multiple tailing ponds containing solid residual waste products from the uranium leaching and processing of uranium were accumulated along the Dnieper River, including the largest, adjacent to the Dnieper Reservoir, containing over 12 million tons of tailings. Samples for this study were selected from a core recovered from the Dnieper tailing pit in 2009, and used to assess radionuclide migration from tailing ponds. Samples were selected from different depths of the tailing pit core, analyzed for total radionuclide concentrations [Marinich et al., 2009], and successively leached using distilled water, followed by 1N ammonium acetate solution, and finally by 1N HCl solution. Leaching times were ~24 h at 15.17 °C. 238U, 230Th and 226Ra leachate activities were measured by γ-spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector. 210Pb activity was measured using a SEB-01 scintillation β-spectrometer. Errors depended on measuring method, radionuclide, activity and exposure time: 238U, 11.9%; 230Th, 10.9%; 226Ra, 9.3%; 210Pb ~30%. The average total 238U activity in the tailing profile was 4 Bq/g. The concentration of 238U in the water leachates increased with depth from 14.5% (7-7.5 m), to 43% (11-11.5 m). The concentration of 238U in the acid leachates behaved similarly, increasing from 5.5 % to 15.5% with depth. While the total 230Th activity in increased from 30 Bq/g (7-7.5 m) to 540 Bq/g (11-11.5 m), the 230Th concentration in ammonium acetate leachates decreased from ˜15% to ˜1%. The concentration of 226Ra in all leachates was <1%, indicating that, under conditions of the Dnieper tailing pit, 226Ra is essentially immobile. The concentration of 210Pb in the leachates was as high as 10%. In general, the magnitude of mobile activity from the Dnieper tailing pit core samples decreases in the order 238U>230Th≥210Pb> 226Ra. Secular radioactive equilibrium in the 238U

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. The Paperless Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.

  10. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  11. A new standard pulsar magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-20

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2001-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  14. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2004-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  15. Standards 101; the ASA standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul D.

    2002-11-01

    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  16. Radiation Driven Wind Solutions and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.

    2016-11-01

    The standard modified-CAK equation of motion is a non-linear differential equation that possesses many singular points and therefore many solutions. Apart from the standard solution, we have found three other physical solutions: i) when the rotational velocity is higher than 3/4 of the critical rotational speed; ii) when there is a high ionization change throughout the wind; and iii) when the k line force parameter is very high (k is the fraction of the total stellar flux which would be blocked in the photosphere if all lines were optically thick). We also show some applications of these solutions, e.g., the wind of a B[e] supergiant, the oblate wind of a Be star, and the winds of BA supergiants. Furthermore, we calculate synthetic spectra with FASTWIND, where we have used our new hydrodynamical solutions as input to the code.

  17. 1993 DOE technical standards managers workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This workshop is focused on the benefits of the DOE technical standards program, which is focused toward the preferred use of non-Government standards for DOE activities and the development of DOE technical standards when non-Government standards are not available or are inappropriate. One goal of the program is to replace redundant site-specific standards with more universally accepted documents that have been scrutinized by experts. This replacement is discussed at the workshop along with the problems encountered and solutions found. The workshop provided an opportunity for geographically dispersed people to meet and advance their standards knowledge and efforts to support the program. Safety issues have been the driving force behind the program to date. Several companies offer products and services that support the development, processing, and retrieval of standards. This document mostly comprise vugraphs.

  18. A Calibration and Quality Assurance Program for Environmental Radon Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Fisenne, Isabel M.; George, Andreas C.; Keller, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    The ideal facility for assessing the quality of radon measurements at environmental levels consists of: (1) an instrument whose response to radon and its progeny is determined from measurements of a certified or standard 226Ra source, and (2) a calibration room with a known radon concentration. The linkage between these two elements and additional quality control requirements are discussed here for some Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon measurements programs. PMID:28179764

  19. Lead-210, polonium-210, manganese and iron in the Cariaco Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Michael P.; Brewer, Peter G.; Spencer, Derek W.; Murray, James W.; Goddard, John

    1980-02-01

    Measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sulfide, 226Ra, Mn, Fe, 210Pb, 210Po, and total suspended matter from three cruises of R.V. Atlantis II in the Cariaco Trench are reported. Distributions of dissolved and particulate Mn and Fe are similar to those for the Black Sea and reflect similar diffusion and redox-potential controls. Results for 210Pb and 226Ra in the anoxic deep water indicate a residence time for 210Pb in solution of less than two years. Particulate 210Pb results suggest that removal occurs largely by incorporation into metal sulfide phases forming in the water column. There is also evidence for precipitation of 210Pb with manganese oxide or iron hydroxide just above the O 2-H 2S interface. In the upper 300 m, 210Po is enriched by 55% over radioactive equilibrium with 210Pb. Possible sources of this excess include the bottom sediments and the water upwelling along the Venezuelan coast.

  20. Dissolution of alkaline earth sulfates in the presence of montmorillonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Landa, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the effect of montmorillonite on the dissolution of BaSO4 (barite), SrSO4 (celestite), and 226Ra from U mill tailings, it was found that: (1) More of these substances dissolve in an aqueous system that contains montmorillonite than dissolve in a similar system without clay, due to the ion exchange properties of the clay; (2) Na-montmorillonite is more effective in aiding dissolution than is Ca-montmorillonite; (3) the amount of Ra that moves from mill tailings to an exchanger increases as solution sulfate activity decreases. Leaching experiments suggest that 226Ra from H2SO4-circuit U mill tailings from Edgemont, South Dakota, is not present as pure Ra sulfate or as an impurity in anhydrite or gypsum; it is less soluble, and probably occurs as a trace constituent in barite.

  1. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  2. SU(5) heterotic Standard Model bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Björn; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2012-04-01

    We construct a class of stable SU(5) bundles on an elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold with two sections, a variant of the ordinary Weierstrass fibration, which admits a free involution. The bundles are invariant under the involution, solve the topological constraint imposed by the heterotic anomaly equation and give three generations of Standard Model fermions after symmetry breaking by Wilson lines of the intermediate SU(5) GUT-group to the Standard Model gauge group. Among the solutions we find some which can be perturbed to solutions of the Strominger system. Thus these solutions provide a step toward the construction of phenomenologically realistic heterotic flux compactifications via non-Kähler deformations of Calabi-Yau geometries with bundles. This particular class of solutions involves a rank two hidden sector bundle and does not require background fivebranes for anomaly cancellation.

  3. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  5. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  6. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  7. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  8. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  9. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  10. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  11. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  12. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section... ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity,...

  13. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and... requirements, and expiration date. Deteriorated or outdated reagents and solutions shall not be used....

  14. Standards for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borson, Eugene N.

    2004-10-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job. Standards that are used in contamination control have increased in numbers over the years as more industries have had to improve their manufacturing processes to enhance reliability or yields of products. Some older standards have been revised to include new technologies, and many new standards have been developed. Some of the new standards were written for specific industries while others apply to many industries. Many government standards have been replaced with standards from nongovernmental standards organizations. This trend has been encouraged by U.S. law that requires the government to use commercial standards where possible. This paper reviews some of the more important standards for the aerospace industry, such as IEST-STD-CC1246 and ISO 14644-1, that have been published in recent years. Benefits, usage, and problems with some standards will be discussed. Some standards are referenced, and websites of some standards organizations are listed.

  15. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    PubMed

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  16. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  17. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color... of water and thoroughly mixed. Fifty ml of this colored solution is compared, using Nessler tubes, with 50 ml of a standard color solution containing 5 grams of CuSO4·5H2 O, C.P. in 100 ml of water....

  18. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  19. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  20. CERN single sign on solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormancey, E.

    2008-07-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  1. Time scale of hydrothermal water-rock reactions in Yellowstone National Park based on radium isotopes and radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jordan F.; Turekian, Karl K.

    1990-02-01

    We have measured 224Ra (3.4 d), 228Ra (5.7 yr), and 226Ra (1620 yr) and chloride in hot spring waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, Yellowstone National Park. Two characteristic cold-water components mix with the primary hydrothermal water: one for the travertine-depositing waters related to the Mammoth Hot Springs and the other for the sinter-depositing Norris Geyser Basin springs. The Mammoth Hot Springs water is a mixture of the primary hydrothermal fluid with meteoric waters flowing through the Madison Limestone, as shown by the systematic decrease of the ( {228Ra}/{226Ra}) activity ratio proceeding northward. The Norris Geyser Basin springs are mixtures of primary hydrothermal water with different amounts of cold meteoric water with no modification of the primary hydrothermal ( {228Ra}/{226Ra}) activity ratio. Using a solution and recoil model for radium isotope supply to the primary hydrothermal water, a mean water-rock reaction time prior to expansion at 350°C and supply to the surface is 540 years assuming that 250 g of water are involved in the release of the radium from one gram of rock. The maximum reaction time allowed by our model is 1150 years.

  2. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  3. Medical Assisting Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the medical assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  4. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  5. Stricter clean air standards

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    1997-07-01

    New standards for ozone and particulate matter stir a debate between the EPA and industrial groups. The article discusses both the history of the ozone and particulates standards, the goal of the EPA to protect health and evaluation of what the standards mean to health, and the industrial response.

  6. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  7. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  8. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and…

  9. ALA Standards Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.

    This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

  10. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  11. Standards for excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A history of the development of standard units and regulations of measurement are discussed in this educational video. John Aston narrates the historical background, from colonial times to the present, of the need for measurement standardization and discusses the conception of the National Bureau of Standards (1901), of the United States Department of Commerce. Historical photography and film footage is included.

  12. Standards for Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

  13. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  14. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  15. Permanent Turbidity-Standards

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, William G.; Brewer, Carl R.

    1967-01-01

    Permanent turbidity reference standards suitable for measurement of microbial suspensions were prepared by suspending finely divided titanium dioxide in aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde or methylstyrene resins. Turbidities of these standards, adjusted to a useful range for microbiological and immunological studies, were compared with other reference standards in use today. Tube holders for a Coleman Photonephelometer and a Nepho-Colorimeter were modified to eliminate the water well and to allow use of optically standardized 10-, 16-, or 18-mm test tubes. The standards and the tube holders have been used satisfactorily for more than 12 years. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6077410

  16. Airborne Network Camera Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 10 standards for command and control over a...cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision1 (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 102 standards for command and control over a variety of... standard is primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GEV standard and the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 standard document. RCC Document

  17. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  18. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  19. Isotopic delta values of molybdenum reference solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean; Cloquet, Christophe; Zhu, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yuxu

    2010-05-01

    We report the isotopic composition of five molybdenum (Mo) standard reference solutions and four fractions from one of these solutions eluted through anion resin column relative to a sixth reference solution. Measurements were conducted using Isoprobe multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) at the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (France) and Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at either the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (France) or the Laboratory of Isotope Geology in the Ministry of Land and Resources (China). The sample-standard bracketing method was employed to correct the mass bias for Mo isotopes during instrumental measurement. Except for the Merck Mo solution, all the Mo solutions were identical in isotopic composition within error. Although the JMC Mo solution has been used as the internal reference material by various groups, uncertainty may still occur with different lot numbers and availability might be limited. Here, we propose the NIST 3134 Mo solution as a new candidate for delta zero reference material, used for reporting Mo isotopic composition of natural samples. Isotopic compositions for four eluted fractions of the Sigma-Aldrich Mo solution range from 2.2 ‰ to -2.0 ‰ for δ97/95Mo relative to the NIST Mo standard. These values span the range of reported isotopic composition for natural terrestrial and experimental samples (approximately -0.5‰ to 1.6‰ for δ97/95Mo). We propose these eluted fractions to be used as secondary reference for Mo isotope measurements.

  20. Effects of Electronic-State-Dependent Solute Polarizability: Application to Solute-Pump/Solvent-Probe Spectra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Ladanyi, Branka M; Stratt, Richard M

    2015-07-23

    Experimental studies of solvation dynamics in liquids invariably ask how changing a solute from its electronic ground state to an electronically excited state affects a solution's dynamics. With traditional time-dependent-fluorescence experiments, that means looking for the dynamical consequences of the concomitant change in solute-solvent potential energy. But if one follows the shift in the dynamics through its effects on the macroscopic polarizability, as recent solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra do, there is another effect of the electronic excitation that should be considered: the jump in the solute's own polarizability. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of this solute polarizability change in the classic example of the solvation dye coumarin 153 dissolved in acetonitrile. After demonstrating that standard quantum chemical methods can be used to construct accurate multisite models for the polarizabilities of ground- and excited-state solvation dyes, we show via simulation that this polarizability change acts as a contrast agent, significantly enhancing the observable differences in optical-Kerr spectra between ground- and excited-state solutions. A comparison of our results with experimental solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra supports our interpretation and modeling of this spectroscopy. We predict, in particular, that solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra should be sensitive to changes in both the solvent dynamics near the solute and the electronic-state-dependence of the solute's own rotational dynamics.

  1. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  2. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  3. Static solutions of Einstein's equations with cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-11-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is curved. These solutions appear in the literature, but in different forms, corresponding to different definitions of the radial coordinate. Because all the vacuum solutions are singular on the axis, we attempt to match them to 'interior' solutions with nonvanishing energy density and pressure. In addition to the well-known 'cosmic string' solution joining on to the cone, we find some numerical solutions that join on to the other exterior solutions.

  4. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  5. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  6. Evolving Parts Standardization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 2 • Supports nearly...RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 5 • Limited at DLA – Legacy systems with MIL- STD -965 requirements – Few parts review for MIL- STD -3018 • Standardization...Standardization by natural selection – Performance characteristics – MIL- STD -3018 – Availability, usage on other systems, environmental

  7. Flexible solution for interoperable cloud healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mihaela Marcella; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena

    2012-01-01

    It is extremely important for the healthcare domain to have a standardized communication because will improve the quality of information and in the end the resulting benefits will improve the quality of patients' life. The standards proposed to be used are: HL7 CDA and CCD. For a better access to the medical data a solution based on cloud computing (CC) is investigated. CC is a technology that supports flexibility, seamless care, and reduced costs of the medical act. To ensure interoperability between healthcare information systems a solution creating a Web Custom Control is presented. The control shows the database tables and fields used to configure the two standards. This control will facilitate the work of the medical staff and hospital administrators, because they can configure the local system easily and prepare it for communication with other systems. The resulted information will have a higher quality and will provide knowledge that will support better patient management and diagnosis.

  8. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  9. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  10. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  11. Avionic standard module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Stanley C.; Cormier, Edmond P.; Piszkin, Thomas A.

    Avionics standard modules with redundancy offer substantial economic benefits compared to special-purpose processor units for the orbital transfer vehicle and advanced launch vehicle programs. A fiber optic, serial vehicle bus provides high throughput with modest hardware. A bistage, split tapered, star optical coupler uses a token-pass/token-demand protocol. It is reported that a standard module implementation of the above is a feasible, cost-effective approach to avionics design using standard buses and standard packaging. The VHSIC integrated package readily accommodates higher-speed VLSI chips as they become available.

  12. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  13. The International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.

    1961-01-01

    Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087

  14. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 145) Promethium 147 (Pm 147) Promethium 149 (Pm 149) Radium 223 (Ra 223) Radium 226 (Ra 226) b Rhenium... 99) b Discrete sources of radium-226 (Ra-226). Tellurium 125m (Te 125m) Tellurium 127m (Te...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Discrete sources of radium-226 (Ra-226). Actinium 225 (Ac 225) Actinium 227 (Ac 227) Actinium 228 (Ac 228... 149 (Pm 149) Radium 223 (Ra 223) Radium 226 (Ra 226) b Rhenium 186 (Re 186) Rhenium 188 (Re...

  16. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  17. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  18. Rewriting the Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, aggressive leadership from the National Association for Music Education resulted in the adoption of the nine National Standards for Music Education. Now, almost two decades later, much has changed. Standards have been studied and critiqued, and scholars have undertaken a great deal of research to identify best practices not only for…

  19. The Standards Projects: Agricultural Education Standards; Industrial Arts Education Standards; Vocational Home Economics Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Harold R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three program areas in vocational education which now have nationally developed and validated standards: agriculture and agribusiness education, home economics, and industrial arts. Standards cover curriculum, students served, instructional staff, administration and supervision, support systems, teaching methods, public relations, safety…

  20. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  1. Appliance Standard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  2. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  3. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. ); Lebot, B. )

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  4. Smithsonian Microbeam Standards.

    PubMed

    Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This is a short history of the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards; their sources, selection, preparation, and analyses. Fifty-eight minerals, natural glasses, and synthetic samples have been characterized in the past 25 years. During that time, over 750 requests were received for approximately 11 000 individual samples. These reference samples are referred to as the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards.

  5. Standardized Developmental Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlam, David; Byrne, Maureen

    The feasibility of standardized assessment of features of children's organization of knowledge and the demonstration of differences in organization between stages of development were investigated. It was possible to standardize developmentally derived instruments, in the same way as empirically derived tests because such evaluations concern the…

  6. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  7. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  8. New Source Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

    1972-01-01

    This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

  9. Why Standards Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  10. [CAS General Standards 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  11. Technological Literacy Standards Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Creating programs and curricular offerings that are standards-based is a worthwhile goal that can best be achieved by using the many and varied resources available to educators and others. This article describes several such resources, including the ITEA Annual Conference, ITEA-CATTS Standards Specialists, ITEA-CATTS Engineering byDesign[TM]…

  12. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Oregon Social Sciences Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

  14. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  15. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  16. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  17. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  18. Appliance Standard Testing

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  19. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  20. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  1. Standards in Science Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    The final version of standards aimed at reshaping the focus and delivery of science instruction in U.S. schools was publicly unveiled last week, setting the stage for states--many of which helped craft the standards--to take the next step and consider adopting them as their own. More than three years in the making, the Next Generation Science…

  2. Minnesota Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document contains all of the Minnesota kindergarten academic standards in the content areas of Arts, English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. For each content area there is a short overview followed by a coding diagram of how the standards are organized and displayed. This document is adapted from the official versions…

  3. Extemporaneous preparation of antibiotic ophthalmic solutions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, R W; Walker, T P; McClung, H F; Edmondson, W

    1996-03-01

    Until the introduction of ocular ciprofloxacin, the standard of practice in treating bacterial corneal ulcers required topical antibiotic ophthalmic solutions that were either not commercially available or not available in the higher concentrations needed. A survey was mailed to 125 hospital pharmacies and 125 community pharmacies in Oklahoma to determine the availability of extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions. Of 72 hospital pharmacies and 60 community pharmacies that responded, 17 hospital and 2 community pharmacies reported that they do compound these solutions. The main reasons given by the other pharmacies for not offering this service were the lack of a laminar flow hood or other equipment and lack of an aseptic environment. If extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions are needed to treat corneal ulcers, then pharmacists have a responsibility to prepare them. The recent publication of a handbook providing formulations for those products and the "ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Pharmacy-Prepared Ophthalmic Products" may encourage more pharmacies to provide this needed service.

  4. GRACE Harmonic and Mascon Solutions at JPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Yuan, D.; Kuang, D.; Bertiger, W.; Kim, M.; Kruizinga, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    Gravity field solutions at JPL over the past few years have explored use of range, range-rate, and range-acceleration K/Ka-band satellite-satellite data types (with and without GPS), and with both spherical harmonic and mascon-type local mass representations. Until recently, resource and computing limitations have limited the scope of our mascon and other local solutions to a few months and/or small spatial regions and the standard GRACE products have remained spherical harmonic fields. The use of a new very large (~500 node) beowulf machine at JPL is now enabling a wider range of solutions over longer time spans and deeper understanding of their characteristics. These include much higher spherical harmonic degrees, mascons, and hybrids of the two. We will present the current status for several solution types, strengths and weaknesses of each, and our assessments of limiting errors including data noise and aliasing sensitivity.

  5. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  6. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  7. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  8. Image sharing: evolving solutions in the age of interoperability.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, David S; Erickson, Bradley J; Choy, Garry

    2014-12-01

    Interoperability is a major focus of the quickly evolving world of Health IT. Easy, yet secure and confidential exchange of imaging exams and the associated reports must be a part of the solutions that are implemented. The availability of historical exams is essential in providing a quality interpretation and reducing inappropriate utilization of imaging services. Today, the exchange of imaging exams is most often achieved via a compact disc. We describe the virtues of this solution as well as challenges that have surfaced. Internet- and cloud-based technologies employed for many consumer services can provide a better solution. Vendors are making these solutions available. Standards for Internet-based exchange are emerging. Just as radiology converged on DICOM as a standard to store and view images, we need a common exchange standard. We will review the existing standards and how they are organized into useful workflows through Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise profiles. Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise and standards development processes are discussed. Health care and the domain of radiology must stay current with quickly evolving Internet standards. The successful use of the "cloud" will depend on both the technologies and the policies put into place around them, both of which we discuss. The radiology community must lead the way and provide a solution that works for radiologists and clinicians with use of the electronic medical record. We describe features we believe radiologists should consider when adding Internet-based exchange solutions to their practice.

  9. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  10. Bolting multicenter solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  11. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  12. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  13. Standardization in optics characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev

    2000-11-01

    In many advanced fields of optical technology, progresses are extremely dependent on reliable characterization procedures employed for quality assessment in volume manufacturing as well as for the optimization of high performance optical components. With the rapid development of laser technology and modern optics, especially optical metrology gained of importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical components. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered nowadays as common quality factors, which are often indicated in optics catalogues and are considered by the customers for the design of optical systems. As a consequence of this trend, standardization of measurement procedures for the characterization of optical components became a crucial point for the optics industry and for critical applications of optical components in laser systems as well as conventional optical devices. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) resulting in practical International Standards or Draft Standards for the measurement of optical absorption, scattering, reflectance and laser induced damage thresholds. In this paper, the current state of standardized characterization techniques for optical components is summarized. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO/DIS 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO/DIS 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of recent trends in laser technology and its applications in semiconductor lithography.

  14. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  15. Implementation Of Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pates, Don

    1981-01-01

    The application of the proposed ASHRAE Standard "Application of Infrared Sensing Devices to the Assessment of Building Heat Loss Characteristics" afford the design professional and the construction industry with a standard of performance and a test of the quality of the Building Envelope. An established standard is required to communicate a uniform performance test that can be included in Section 00200 supplementary conditions of a new project specifications or contracted for as a special test before commencing a remodeling -retrofit project. Thermograms provided to the design professionals will assist in more thermally effective future designs.

  16. Vegetation-derived insights on the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides from the Nopal I natural analog site, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, B.W.; Pickett, D.A.; Pearcy, E.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico is a source term and contaminant transport natural analog to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In an attempt to characterize the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nopal I deposit, vegetation growing on ore piles was analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th decay-series isotopes. Specimens of Phacelia robusta growing on high-grade piles of U ore were collected and analyzed by alpha autoradiography, and by alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activities for U, thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) isotopes (Bq/kg dried plant) were 300, 1,000, and 7,000 for {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The {sup 226}Ra activities in these specimens are among the highest ever measured for plants; furthermore, the plant-to-soil {sup 226}Ra concentration ratio is higher than expected. These results demonstrate the large mobility and bio-availability of Ra in the Nopal I environment, and support previous indications of recent loss of {sup 226}Ra from the ore body. Comparison between the activities of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay-chain Th isotopes in the plants and in the ore substrate indicate that relative mobilization into pore solutions of {sup 228}Th > {sup 230}Th > {sup 232}Th, in a ratio of about 50--25:4:1, respectively. The similarity of the plant's {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio ({approximately}1.2) to that of a caliche deposit that formed adjacent to the Nopal ore body around 54 ka suggests the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio of U released from the ore is approximately 1.2. The U and {sup 226}Ra isotope activities of the plants and ore substrate, and solubility considerations, are used to assess a source term model of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These results suggest the use of a natural analog source term model in performance assessments may be non-conservative.

  17. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  18. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, James H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  19. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  20. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  1. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  2. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  3. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  4. Setting the Cleaning Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care. (GR)

  5. ISBD: Standard or Secret?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    The author, a working librarian-programmer, wonders how such a far-reaching recommended standard could have reached this advanced stage of development with so little public notice. (38 references) (Author/NH)

  6. How Can International Standards Support Scientific Lineage Needs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recording the provenance of large-scale scientific datasets is an incredible challenge that will attracted a significant number of creative solutions. Many of these solutions will likely be customized in order to address specific needs of organizations that develop them. At the same time, standard representations of the provenance are required for preservation and ease of understanding by a wide variety of non-expert users. Emerging international metadata standards include mechanisms for describing provenance that are necessarily general and simplified. We will describe these mechanisms and some applications to begin to characterize situations in which these standards are useful.

  7. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  8. Standardization Today and Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Order for the Whole World) Eberstein, H.-H.: Sicherheitstechnisches Recht und Normen ; in: Peters. 0. H. u. A. Meyna: Handbuch der Si- cherheitstechnik...on the Protection of Labor for the Development and Design Sector) Landis, J. W.: Freie Welt - freier Handel - freie Normen ; in: DIN-Mitteilungen 57...Norm auf die Vielfalt effect of company standard on variety KonformitAt zu nationalen Normen conformity to national standards Konformit6t zu

  9. SAE Standards Support

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.

  10. Secure Hash Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology FIPS PUB 180-1 FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Department of Commerce , Technology Administration, NIST 9...National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Issued April 17, 1995 U.S. Department of Commerce Ronald H. Brown, Secretary

  11. Cytometry standards continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Spidlen, Josef; Brinkman, Ryan R.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction: The International Society for Analytical Cytology, ISAC, is developing a new combined flow and image Analytical Cytometry Standard (ACS). This standard needs to serve both the research and clinical communities. The clinical medicine and clinical research communities have a need to exchange information with hospital and other clinical information systems. Methods: 1) Prototype the standard by creating CytometryML and a RAW format for binary data. 2) Join the ISAC Data Standards Task Force. 3) Create essential project documentation. 4) Cooperate with other groups by assisting in the preparation of the DICOM Supplement 122: Specimen Module and Pathology Service-Object Pair Classes. Results: CytometryML has been created and serves as a prototype and source of experience for the following: the Analytical Cytometry Standard (ACS) 1.0, the ACS container, Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt), and Requirements for a Data File Standard Format to Describe Flow Cytometry and Related Analytical Cytology Data. These requirements provide a means to judge the appropriateness of design elements and to develop tests for the final ACS. The requirements include providing the information required for understanding and reproducing a cytometry experiment or clinical measurement, and for a single standard for both flow and digital microscopic cytometry. Schemas proposed by other members of the ISAC Data Standards Task Force (e.g, Gating-ML) have been independently validated and have been integrated with CytometryML. The use of netCDF as an element of the ACS container has been proposed by others and a suggested method of its use is proposed.

  12. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  13. Theory of dipolaron solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmatov, Dima; Bastrukov, S.; Lai, P.-Y.; Molodtsova, I.

    2014-07-01

    A fundamental task of statistical physics is to predict the system's statistical properties and compare them with observable data. We formulate the theory of dipolaron solutions and analyze the screening effects for permanent and field-induced dipolarons. The mathematical treatment of the collective behavior and microscopical morphology of dipolaron solutions are discussed. The presented computations show that the electric field shielding of dipolarons in dielectric nanosolutions is quite different from that of counterionic nano-complexes of Debye-Hückel theory of electrolytes. The limiting case of screening length λ=0 in dipolaron solutions corresponds to Coulomb's law for the potential and field of uniformly charged sphere.

  14. Defense Standardization Program (DSP): Policies and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    insertion of new technology into systems and equipment. i. Sustain anU improve the industrial and technology base. j. Promote competition. k. Improve...allows the Department of Defense to take advan- tage of proven, current technology ; reduces risks associated with development; and supports our...manage" requirements can constrain or reduce technological innova- tions and cost-effective solutions. Standardization documents shall describe what

  15. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  16. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  17. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  18. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  19. Peritoneal dialysis solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gault, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094

  20. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Polybenzoxazole (PBO) Polybenzthiozole (PBT) Dry-Jet Wet Spinning Cone-and-Plate Rheometry 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and identify...by block number) The solution processing of polybenzoxazole (PBO) and polybenzthiozole (PBT) to form oriented solids is discussed. The rheological...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent

  1. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  3. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  4. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  5. The standard cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.

    2006-06-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high-energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire three-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realization of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Although it is natural to see analogies between the two Standard Models, some intrinsic differences also exist, which are discussed here. Nevertheless, a truly fundamental theory will have to explain both the SMPP and SMC, and this must include an appreciation of which elements are deterministic and which are accidental. Considering different levels of stochasticity within cosmology may make it easier to accept that physical parameters in general might have a nondeterministic aspect.

  6. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1995-09-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who`s Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed.

  7. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  8. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed.

  9. 23 CFR 625.4 - Standards, policies, and standard specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards, policies, and standard specifications. 625.4 Section 625.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN STANDARDS FOR HIGHWAYS § 625.4 Standards, policies, and standard...

  10. Standardizing medical data.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, M G

    1997-01-01

    Congress passed The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 in the doldrums of last Summer, and promptly charged the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics to begin working on the regulations that will help providers, payers, and all members of the public adhere to the spirit of the law. What does this legislation portend for the health care industry? Standardization of information systems will play a large role in assuring the portability of health care insurance from one employer and payer to another in this legislation. Accountability, too, will depend on those same data standards to allow comparisons of processes and outcomes of care across health plans, providers, communities, states, and regions. In fact, without standardized data describing patients and their treatments, there can be no comparisons of their outcomes of care, or the processes used to treat them.

  11. Fractional dissipative standard map.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Edelman, M

    2010-06-01

    Using kicked differential equations of motion with derivatives of noninteger orders, we obtain generalizations of the dissipative standard map. The main property of these generalized maps, which are called fractional maps, is long-term memory. The memory effect in the fractional maps means that their present state of evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. Already a small deviation of the order of derivative from the integer value corresponding to the regular dissipative standard map (small memory effects) leads to the qualitatively new behavior of the corresponding attractors. The fractional dissipative standard maps are used to demonstrate a new type of fractional attractors in the wide range of the fractional orders of derivatives.

  12. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  13. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  14. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  15. Analytical Ferrography Standardization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    normalized density readings versus slide position * Lease Squares Line: Y = ax + b * Mean Value of Density: YBAR * Standard Deviation of Density Distribution...11 =ZU U) y U)U 0 z w) LU Rip > -(0> > < cn z -U cc L c 0D CD Cl)>> >< > = 0 0 facilities, as illustrated in Figure 5. Upon receipt of the sample set...the standard deviation of the y population for a given x. The definition is: n-2 where Yi = actual values of y yic = values of y computed from the

  16. Standards for laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    After years of review by all of the CAP resource and other committees and councils, the Commission on Laboratory Accreditation developed a revised Standards for Accreditation of Medical Laboratories (Last revision, 1974). They were approved by the House of Delegates and, in the February issue of Pathologist '82, comments were solicited from the entire membership. Presented in the following pages are the final Standards for Laboratory Accreditation, which the Board of Governors adopted as CAP policy at its Sept. 2-4 meeting in Traverse City, Mich.

  17. Department of Energy Standards Index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Electrician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: electrician I and II. The 11 units in electrician I are as follows: orientation; safety; tools, equipment, materials/supplies; basic principles and theory; DC circuits; AC circuits; blueprints and load calculations; load centers and…

  19. Preservice and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelfelt, Roy

    This paper, prepared for the September 5, 1968, National Education Association (NEA) Staff Conference, presents the NEA position, program, and strategy with regard to preservice and inservice teacher education and professional standards. Introductory remarks include a list of seven priorities which form the "framework of context of the NEA…

  20. Quantum primordial standard clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Yi E-mail: mohammad.namjoo@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we point out and study a generic type of signals existing in the primordial universe models, which can be used to model-independently distinguish the inflation scenario from alternatives. These signals are generated by massive fields that function as standard clocks. The role of massive fields as standard clocks has been realized in previous works. Although the existence of such massive fields is generic, the previous realizations require sharp features to classically excite the oscillations of the massive clock fields. Here, we point out that the quantum fluctuations of massive fields can actually serve the same purpose as the standard clocks. We show that they are also able to directly record the defining property of the scenario type, namely, the scale factor of the primordial universe as a function of time a(t), but through shape-dependent oscillatory features in non-Gaussianities. Since quantum fluctuating massive fields exist in any realistic primordial universe models, these quantum primordial standard clock signals are present in any inflation models, and should exist quite generally in alternative-to-inflation scenarios as well. However, the amplitude of such signals is very model-dependent.

  1. Latin Curriculum Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    Delaware's state standards for the Latin curriculum in the public schools are presented. An introductory section outlines the goals of the Latin program for reading, cultural awareness, grammar, writing, and oral language and briefly discusses the philosophy of and approaches to Latin instruction in elementary and middle schools. Three subsequent…

  2. Helping Teachers Embrace Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardillo, Darlene S.

    2005-01-01

    This article details how the author, the director of educational technology for the schools in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany, New York, adapted the National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS.S) and created assessment tools for her teachers. It describes the system that was devised to hold teachers accountable for…

  3. Distributed Learning Metadata Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Significant economies can be achieved in distributed learning systems architected with a focus on interoperability and reuse. The key building blocks of an efficient distributed learning architecture are the use of standards and XML technologies. The goal of plug and play capability among various components of a distributed learning system…

  4. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  5. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  6. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  7. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  8. Safety Standards for Projectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

  9. Standards and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph has grown out of a series of discussions and a six-month period of reading and reflecting on the literature which were initiated by Fritz Mosher's suggestions to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to examine the "standards" question. Conversations with Mosher himself and the staff of NAEP have been most…

  10. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  12. Iranian Special Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purposes of these standards are: (1) to suggest the steps necessary for the establishment of special libraries; (2) for those recently established, to suggest the steps necessary to achieve satisfactory performance levels in all areas, and finally, (3) for well established libraries, to suggest the steps necessary to achieve excellence. These…

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Carpentry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: carpentry I and II. The seven units in carpentry I are as follows: introduction and orientation; safety; measurement; tools and equipment; basic concepts in carpentry; reading blueprints and working drawings; and foundations.…

  14. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  15. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  16. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  17. A Standard of Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Dave; Cramer, James E.; Cramer, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Principals can support teachers' pursuit of National Board of Professional Teaching Standards certification by learning about the NBPTS's certification process, putting candidates in contact with NBPTS support programs, facilitating access to technology, providing building access on weekends, volunteering to photocopy or obtain needed materials,…

  18. On solutions of polynomial growth of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, I. P.

    We present a theorem on the existence of solutions of polynomial growth of ordinary differential equations of type E: {dY}/{dX} = F(X, Y) , where F is of class C1. We show that the asymptotic behaviour of these solutions and the variation of neighbouring solutions are obtained by solving an asymptotic functional equation related to E, and that this method has practical value. The theorem is standard; its nonstandard proof uses macroscope and microscope techniques. The result is an extension of results by F. and M. Diener and G. Reeb on solutions of polynomial growth of rational differential equations.

  19. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  20. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  1. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  2. The Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial standard observer is a computational model that provides a measure of the visibility of a target in a uniform background image or of the visual discriminability of two images. Standard observers have long been used in science and industry to quantify the discriminability of colors. Color standard observers address the spectral characteristics of visual stimuli, while the spatial standard observer (SSO), as its name indicates, addresses spatial characteristics. The SSO is based on a model of human vision. The SSO was developed in a process that included evaluation of a number of earlier mathematical models that address optical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects of spatial characteristics of human visual perception. Elements of the prior models are incorporated into the SSO, which is formulated as a compromise between accuracy and simplicity. The SSO operates on a digitized monochrome still image or on a pair of such images. The SSO consists of three submodels that operate sequentially on the input image(s): 1. A contrast model, which converts an input monochrome image to a luminance contrast image, wherein luminance values are expressed as excursions from, and normalized to, a mean; 2. A contrast-sensitivity-filter model that includes an oblique-effect filter (which accounts for the decline in contrast sensitivity at oblique viewing angles); and 3. A spatial summation model, in which responses are spatially pooled by raising each pixel to the power beta, adding the results, and raising the sum to the 1/b power. In this model, b=2.9 was found to be a suitable value. The net effect of the SSO is to compute a numerical measure of the perceptual strength of the single image, or of the visible difference (denoted the perceptual distance) between two images. The unit of a measure used in the SSO is the just noticeable difference (JND), which is a standard measure of perceptual discriminability. A target that is just visible has a measure of 1 JND.

  3. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  4. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  5. Crystallochemiluminescence of solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, A. P.; Nekrasova, L. P.; Gornakova, A. S.; Shikunova, I. A.

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the chemiluminescence intensity from luminol solutions reaches a maximum when the latter are crystallized. This phenomenon is explained by the complex dynamics of the phase transition, chemical reactions, and degradation of electronic excitation energy. Luminescence of new type, called crystallochemiluminescence, is revealed.

  6. Let's Talk about Solutions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Grace

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of using Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) in an adult learning environment. Within this discourse, special attention is given to show how SFBT can be used effectively to support the increasing number of adults who find themselves out of work who are now returning to education. Key ideas within SFBT will…

  7. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  8. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  9. Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bery, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)

  10. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  11. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  12. Solution to spurious bands and spurious real solutions in the envelope-function approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmulowicz, Frank

    2005-06-01

    The envelope-function approximation (EFA) can suffer from the appearance of spurious bands and below-barrier propagating (nonnormalizable) wave functions whose origin are the spurious real solutions kS of the inverse kzvsE(k‖,kz) problem in the k•p theory for coupled valence-conduction band manifolds. However, in the standard EFA, kS solutions are required mathematically in the construction of the envelope function in order to satisfy boundary conditions (BC’s). Here, it is reasoned that the effect of spurious real solutions should not depend on variations in interface positions smaller than the distance between interface atoms. Away from interfaces, coherent superpositions of spurious real solutions that satisfy BC’s for interface boundaries varying on the scale of kS-1 (about 1 Å—i.e., less than a typical interface width or the physical precision of defining an interface) are shown to suffer a total destructive interference. In the interfacial region, the rapid oscillations of spurious solutions carry no physical information, so they can be replaced with exponentials that decay within the oscillation period of the spurious real solutions so that spurious bands and nonnormalizability are eliminated. The resulting envelope functions remain continuous across interfaces The present solution holds for any number of bands, any order of k•p theory, and is also applicable to the EFA with generalized BC’s.

  13. Challenges and progress in digital photography standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    2003-12-01

    The ISO TC42/WG18-20-22-23 and ANSI/I3A IT10 Technical Committees have now been developing digital photography standards for over a decade. This work has led to the publication of standards on digital imaging terminology, digital camera ISO speed measurements, resolution measurements, OECF (linearity) measurements, image formats and metadata, and picture transfer protocol (PTP). More recently, standards on color encoding specifications and color architectures, a JPEG 2000 profile for digital cameras, camera noise and dynamic range measurements, digital camera specification reporting, and scanner resolution have been finalized. Work in progress includes image quality subjective testing methods, digital camera color characterization, and scanner dynamic range measurements. This paper will review past and current technical challenges, and the state of the solutions provided. In most cases, development includes a significant and innovative research component, which is discussed in relation to fundamental imaging issues. These standards are viewed from a broad digital photography perspective, and placed in context with other work in this area. In addition to providing a forum for the development of standards, technical committees are an important avenue for interaction between companies, user groups, and the government. Such avenues can have a great impact on emerging technologies.

  14. Status of Standardization Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    28787 121B MODULEE STANDARD ELECT SH NW Dl 912 912 912 G SH N 5963 N757 MIL M 28787 2168 MODULES STANDARD ELECTR SH NW Cl 911 931 931 A SH N 5963 N759...6130 N314 MIL P 21454 2 1 POWER SUPPLIES METALLIC SH H5 902 904 904 A N C 6130 N321 MIL P XXX POWEP SUPPLY UNINTERRUPTIBLE SH A4 904 924 924 A N 6130...70822 POWER CONTROL UNIT COMMON AR B4 893 894 894 A AR N C 1290 A440 MIL-M-70881 MODULE AMI FILTER ASSY AR B4 893 894 894 A AR N C 13GP AO1O MIL-HDBK XXX

  15. Wind turbine acoustic standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise standards for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used to design specifications. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of acoustic criteria/standards are described.

  16. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  17. US Topo Product Standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    A full-size style sheet template in PDF that defines the placement of map elements, marginalia, and font sizes and styles accompanies this standard. The GeoPDF US Topo maps are fashioned to conform to this style sheet so that a user can print out a map at the 1:24,000-scale using the dimensions of the traditional standard 7.5-minute quadrangle. Symbology and type specifications for feature content are published separately. In addition, the GeoPDF design allows for custom printing, so that a user may zoom in and out, turn layers on and off, and view or print any combination of layers or any map portion at any desired scale.

  18. [Standardization of technical terminology].

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Tilmann

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the example of the publishers Oldenbourg and the publication of the 'Illustrierte Technische Wörterbücher' (ITW), a multilingual dictionary which competed with a similar project that the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) had already initiated. Its willingness to challenge the vast and well-funded VDI with this project--and to tackle the immense difficulties associated with the dictionary itself, which pioneered the standardization of technical terminology across six languages--indicates that for Oldenbourg, this project was of paramount importance to its reputation. The decision to take the challenge and publish the ITW was the starting point of Alfred Schlomann's career as well as the foundation of Oldenbourgs reputation as a premier publishing house and pioneered the standardization of technical terminology. The example shows that the publishers' decisions had been of paramount importance not only for scientists' careers and as gatekeeper of the scientific community but can also influence the development of science.

  19. Beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  20. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  1. Landsat US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery of the continental U.S., Alaska and Hawaii acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  2. A standardized kinesin nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dawe, R. Kelly; Christie, Karen R.; Cleveland, Don W.; Dawson, Scott C.; Endow, Sharyn A.; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.; Goodson, Holly V.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Howard, Jonathon; Malmberg, Russell L.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Miki, Harukata; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Okada, Yasushi; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.; Saxton, William M.; Schliwa, Manfred; Scholey, Jonathan M.; Vale, Ronald D.; Walczak, Claire E.; Wordeman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    In recent years the kinesin superfamily has become so large that several different naming schemes have emerged, leading to confusion and miscommunication. Here, we set forth a standardized kinesin nomenclature based on 14 family designations. The scheme unifies all previous phylogenies and nomenclature proposals, while allowing individual sequence names to remain the same, and for expansion to occur as new sequences are discovered. PMID:15479732

  3. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  4. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    report on our measurement of the Hg gj factor. This was an important step in the project because of the necessity of "mixing" the Zeeman 201Hg th 201...reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. in April, concentrates on detailed measurements made of systematic effects in this system. Two key features are: (1) an...stored ion frequency standard systematic effects since laser cooling is easier to achieve than in Hg . 2. "Strongly coupled" liquid and solid plasmas

  5. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  6. Raising the Standards for Standards: A Call for Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia Freitag

    2005-01-01

    The educational enterprise is awash in standards, but little attention is paid to what the term really means. Without carefully crafted, widely accepted definitions of standards, standards projects are rife with problems and frequently fail. The absence of careful definitions typically leads to confusion, rejection of standards, and can actually…

  7. Implementing PAT with Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  8. Progress on GPS standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    It has been clear for some time that a desirable and necessary step for improvement of the accuracy of GPS time comparisons is to establish GPS standards which may be adopted by receiver designers and users. For this reason, a formal body, the CCDS Group on GPS Time Transfer Standards (CGGTTS), was created in 1991. It operates under the auspices of the permanent CCDS Working Group on TAI, with the objective of recommending procedures and models for operational time transfer by the GPS common-view method. It works in close cooperation with the Subcommittee on Time of the Civil GPS Service Interface Committee. The members of the CGGTTS have met in December 1991 and in June 1992. Following these two formal meetings, a number of decisions were taken for unifying the treatment of GPS short-term data and for standardizing the format of GPS data files. A formal CGGTTS Recommendation is now being written concerning these points. This paper relates on the work carried out by the CGGTTS.

  9. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  10. Swimming of bacteria in polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexander; Martinez, Vincent; Schwarz-Linek, Jana; Reufer, Mathias; Wilson, Laurence; Poon, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    The ``standard model'' of bacteria swimming in polymer solutions consists of experimental observations that the swimming speed first increases and then decreases as the function of the polymer concentration. This non-monotonic behaviour is usually explained by either swimming in pores in the polymer solutions or by its viscoelasticity. Using new, high-throughput methods for characterising motility, we have measured the swimming speed and the angular frequency of cell-body rotation of motile Escherichia coli as a function of polymer concentration in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Ficoll solutions of different molecular weights. We find that non-monotonic speed-concentration curves are typically due to low-molecular weight impurities and, when cleaned, most molecular weight solutions exhibit Newtonian behaviour. For the highest molecular weight of PVP we observe non-newtonian effects. We present a simple theory that consists of the fast-rotating flagella ``seeing'' a lower viscosity than the cell body but otherwise Newtonian in nature. We show that our theory successfully describes the experimental observations and suggest that flagella can be seen as nano-rheometers for probing the non-newtonian behaviour of high polymer solutions on a molecular scale.

  11. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  12. Are dialysis adequacy indices independent of solute generation rate?

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    KT/V is by definition independent of solute generation rate. Alternative dialysis adequacy indices (DAIs) such as equivalent renal clearance (EKR), standard KT/V (stdKT/V), and solute removal index (SRI) are estimated as the ratio of solute mass removed to an average solute mass in the body or solute concentration in blood; both nominator and denominator in these formulas depend on the solute generation rate. Our objective was to investigate whether and under which conditions the alternative DAIs are independent of solute generation rate. By using general compartment modeling, we show that for the metabolically stable patient (in whom the solute generated during the dialysis cycle, typically, 1 week, is equal to the solute removed from the body), DAIs estimated for the dialysis cycle are in general independent of the average solute generation rate (although they may depend on the pattern of oscillations in the generation rate). However, the alternative adequacy parameters (such as EKR, stdKT/V, and SRI) may depend on solute generation rate for metabolically unstable patients.

  13. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  14. Lattice model for water-solute mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, A. P.; Almarza, N. G.; Barbosa, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction of solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting in, hydrophilic, inert, and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out, and the behavior of pure components and the excess properties of the mixtures have been studied. The pure components, water (solvent) and solute, have quite similar phase diagrams, presenting gas, low density liquid, and high density liquid phases. In the case of solute, the regions of coexistence are substantially reduced when compared with both the water and the standard ALG models. A numerical procedure has been developed in order to attain series of results at constant pressure from simulations of the lattice gas model in the grand canonical ensemble. The excess properties of the mixtures, volume and enthalpy as the function of the solute fraction, have been studied for different interaction parameters of the model. Our model is able to reproduce qualitatively well the excess volume and enthalpy for different aqueous solutions. For the hydrophilic case, we show that the model is able to reproduce the excess volume and enthalpy of mixtures of small alcohols and amines. The inert case reproduces the behavior of large alcohols such as propanol, butanol, and pentanol. For the last case (hydrophobic), the excess properties reproduce the behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

  15. Constraint-based solution finding for multidiscipline products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Hans C. H.; Huang, Mei

    2000-10-01

    A standard verbal description, which consists of function verbs, function adverbials and function sinks, is suggested for the common understanding of the design task. Three general purpose design catalogues: principle catalogue, module library and artifact store are introduced to arrange the design knowledge in accordance with the abstraction level of solutions. Based on the formal task description and the layered design catalogues, a systematic solution finding process is presented. The efficiency of a computer aided solution finding process can be drastically improved by using the constraints obtained from the function sinks. With the help of a component library the solutions, which are presented as a special function structure, can be adapted with the proven solutions. This adapted solution in form of connected available components can be further simulated and handed to the embodiment design. The whole process is explained with a design scenario of a gripper.

  16. β2-Adrenergic receptor solutions for structural biology analyzed with microscale NMR diffusion measurements.

    PubMed

    Horst, Reto; Stanczak, Pawel; Stevens, Raymond C; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2013-01-02

    Microcoil NMR measurements were performed to determine the final composition of solutions of the β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) reconstituted with a detergent and to study the hydrodynamic properties of the detergent micelles containing β(2)AR. Standards are established for the reproducible preparation of G-protein-coupled receptor solutions for crystallization trials and solution NMR studies.

  17. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber...

  18. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb...

  19. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber...

  20. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb...

  1. 40 CFR 428.30 - Applicability; description of the solution crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... solution crumb rubber subcategory. 428.30 Section 428.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.30 Applicability; description of the solution crumb...

  2. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  3. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  12. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  13. Solution of Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. R.

    1960-01-01

    The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.

  14. Solute transport in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, David E.

    Continued research interest in transport in the subsurface was demonstrated at the “Solute Transport in Groundwater” session held at the 1985 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. This session, following on the heels of the very successful special symposium on “Coupling Geochemical and Hydrologic Models for Subsurface Solute Transport,” was organized by Lenny Konikow of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, Reston, Va.) and copresided by Steve Gorelick (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) and David Dougherty (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.). Participation was strong, with 12 contributed papers and about 150 attendees. The papers addressed a wide variety of topics, ranging from the theoretical to the applied, from physics to numerical methods.

  15. Analytic Parabolic Equation Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    problem involving a line source in a homogeneous ocean above a homogeneous , semi-infinite, fast fluid bottom has been analyzed in detail. Various...excited duct with laterally homogeneous bilinear height profile. An exact numerical reference solution can be constructed by modal summation for...have been well documented in the literature [1]. Since the final-field is constructed by beam shooting, one avoids the need for eigenray search which

  16. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  17. [Debating on the formulation of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion, Part I: Moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Chu, Hao-Ran; Yang, Jun; Liu, Gang

    2010-06-01

    Main difficulties and solutions in working out the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part I: Moxibustion are explained in this paper so as to promote the implementation and application of this national standard, including the definition of moxibustion, selection of pertinent literature, expiration date of moxa stick, quantification of moxibustion amount and the problems needing attention.

  18. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  19. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  20. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.