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Sample records for 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine

  1. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on diabetic elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Lu, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yu-Kang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Hung, Shou-Hung; Yang, Ming-Ching; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of pneumonia, and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is recommended for prevention of pneumonia. However, the effectiveness of PPV23 remains unclear in the older diabetic patients who usually have compromised immune function.We used data extracted from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2009 to conduct a population-based retrospective cohort study, comparing the incidence of pneumococcal diseases among PPV23-vaccinated and propensity-score matched PPV23-unvaccinated groups in diabetic elderly. The primary outcome was invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), and the secondary outcomes were medical utilization.PPV23-vaccinated group had reduced risks of IPD (adjusted OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.78-0.94), respiratory failure (0.84, 0.77-0.93), and shorter length of hospitalization (-1.27 ± 0.19 days, P value: 0.0012). In flu-vaccinated group, subjects who received PPV23 had reduced risks of IPD, hospitalization, and respiratory failure; had shorter lengths of hospitalization; and less medical costs, than those without receiving PPV23. In not flu-vaccinated group, PPV23 vaccination was associated with reduced risks of IPD and respiratory failure. Receiving both vaccines could bring better protection in IPD, hospitalization, visits of emergency department, and respiratory failure.PPV23 vaccination was effective in prevention of pneumococcal diseases and reduction of medical utilization in diabetic elderly aged 75 and more. Receiving both vaccines resulted in better outcomes than PPV vaccination alone. PMID:27368047

  2. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on diabetic elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chia-Sheng; Lu, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yu-Kang; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Hung, Shou-Hung; Yang, Ming-Ching; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of pneumonia, and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is recommended for prevention of pneumonia. However, the effectiveness of PPV23 remains unclear in the older diabetic patients who usually have compromised immune function. We used data extracted from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2009 to conduct a population-based retrospective cohort study, comparing the incidence of pneumococcal diseases among PPV23-vaccinated and propensity-score matched PPV23-unvaccinated groups in diabetic elderly. The primary outcome was invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), and the secondary outcomes were medical utilization. PPV23-vaccinated group had reduced risks of IPD (adjusted OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.78–0.94), respiratory failure (0.84, 0.77–0.93), and shorter length of hospitalization (−1.27 ± 0.19 days, P value: 0.0012). In flu-vaccinated group, subjects who received PPV23 had reduced risks of IPD, hospitalization, and respiratory failure; had shorter lengths of hospitalization; and less medical costs, than those without receiving PPV23. In not flu-vaccinated group, PPV23 vaccination was associated with reduced risks of IPD and respiratory failure. Receiving both vaccines could bring better protection in IPD, hospitalization, visits of emergency department, and respiratory failure. PPV23 vaccination was effective in prevention of pneumococcal diseases and reduction of medical utilization in diabetic elderly aged 75 and more. Receiving both vaccines resulted in better outcomes than PPV vaccination alone. PMID:27368047

  3. 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Uptake in the United States Air Force HIV Program.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Thad F; Le, Tuan; Matthews, Peter E; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a predominant cause of bacterial infection in HIV-infected individuals. However, reported rates of pneumococcal vaccination with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are variable. We evaluated uptake of PPV23 in patients diagnosed with HIV between 1996 and 2012 (n = 507) in the United States Air Force, a centralized HIV program with free access to care including vaccines and medications. A total of 411 (81.1%) patients received at least 1 PPV23 dose. The PPV23 vaccination within 1 year of diagnosis was greater for those diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 (n = 184, 86%) compared with 1996 to 2003 (n = 104, 56.5%; P < .001). For those with ≥6 years of follow-up, receipt of a second recommended PPV23 dose was greater for those diagnosed between 1996 and 2003 (n = 52, 57.8%) compared with 2004 to 2012 (n = 9, 28.1%; P = .004). Although first PPV23 vaccination was high in recent years, process improvement efforts are underway to overcome barriers and improve uptake of pneumococcal vaccines in our program.

  4. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Francesca; Belmonti, Simone; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Morandi, Matteo; Rossetti, Barbara; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18–65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50) received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50) received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100) were also enrolled as baseline controls. Results Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group. Conclusions In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433 PMID:27258647

  5. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

    PubMed

    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR.

  6. Clinical and Serologic Response to the 23-valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine in Children and Teens with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Selective Antibody Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Jaime; Najera, Maria; Pounds, Natalie; Catano, Gabriel; Infante, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    We report the clinical and serological response of 72 children and adolescents after immunization with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). All had been diagnosed with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and low antipneumococcal immunity. Forty-five (62%) of these patients had received PCV7, the 7-serotype pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (Prevnar7). After immunization with the polysaccharide vaccine, 69 (96%) patients, including 42 of the 45 who had previously been immunized with the conjugate vaccine, had a positive clinical response including 12 patients (17%) whose serological response to the polysaccharide vaccine was inadequate. Clinical and serological response to PPV23 was assessed at approximately 1, 3 and 6 months after immunization. Our study also confirmed that a small group of patients with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections are unable to develop a normal response to pneumococcal and other bacterial polysaccharides despite vaccination with the newer conjugated vaccines. This immunodeficiency has been named selective antibody deficiency with normal immunoglobulins or impaired polysaccharide responsiveness. These patients did well after administration of intravenous IgG.

  7. Clinical experience of the 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sheng, Wang-Hwei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2004-05-01

    To assess the impact of vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on the risks for development of pneumococcal disease, all-cause community-acquired pneumonia, HIV progression, and mortality and immunologic and virologic responses among HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we conducted a 2-year prospective observational cohort study at a university hospital in Taiwan. A total of 305 HIV-1-infected patients who received 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (vaccinees) and 203 patients who did not (non-vaccinees) were prospectively observed between 1 June 2000 and 31 October 2002. Changes of CD4+ and plasma viral load (PVL) from baseline to week 4 of vaccination were assessed in 31 randomly selected vaccinees. The incidence of pneumococcal disease and bacteremia of vaccinees was 2.1 per 1000 patient-years (PY) (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-2.5 per 1000 PY) over the median observation of 641 days (range, 37-832 days) following vaccination while that of non-vaccinee was 21.8 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 20.1-23.7 per 1000 PY) and 7.3 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 7.0-7.6 per 1000 PY), respectively, over the observation of 500 days (range, 32-851 days), with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for developing pneumococcal disease of 0.085 (95% CI, 0.010-0.735) and for bacteremia of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.018-2.561). The median CD4+ count increased by 45 x 10(6) l(-1) (P = 0.01) and median PVL change was 0 log(10) copies/ml (range of decrease, -0.74 to 2.47 log(10) copies/ml) after 1 month of pneumococcal vaccination among the subgroup of 31 vaccinees receiving HAART. The median CD4+ count increase from baseline to the end of study was 149 x 10(6) l(-1) for vaccinees and 107 x 10(6) l(-1) for non-vaccinees (P = 0.21). The AOR of developing all-cause community-acquired pneumonia and new AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (OI) of vaccinees as compared to non-vaccinees was 1.876 (95% CI, 0.785-4.485) and 0.567 (95% CI, 0

  8. Relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons, including the influence of the free vaccination campaign after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Naito, Toshio; Matsuda, Naoto; Tanei, Mika; Watanabe, Yukiko; Watanabe, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Low vaccination rates with pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons in Japan are thought to be related to low levels of public subsidy. To identify strategies to increase future pneumococcal vaccination rates, we examined the relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates. We also investigated the influence of free vaccinations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures of Japan. We surveyed a total of 1742 municipalities in Japan about whether public subsidies were available and their monetary amount. Vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were calculated as the "cumulative amount shipped to each municipality divided by the population aged ≥65 years." There were no subsidies in 773 municipalities (44.4%). In those municipalities with public subsidies, larger subsidies were significantly associated with elevated vaccination rates (p < 0.0001). Compared to a mean vaccination rate of 25.4% throughout Japan, the vaccination rate was 52.1% in municipalities where the full cost was subsidized. The three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima) most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake ranked as the top three prefectures for vaccination rates in Japan, presumably as a result of the free vaccination campaign for disaster victims. Our findings show that public subsidies play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate. The free vaccinations given to disaster victims after the Great East Japan Earthquake helped to achieve extremely high vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures. We suggest that such public subsidies should be promoted throughout Japan.

  9. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Followed by 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Aged ≥2 Years: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per; Juergens, Christine; Maertens, Johan; Selleslag, Dominik; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Giardina, Peter C.; Clarke, Keri; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections often occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); vaccination is important for prevention. Methods. In an open-label study, patients (n = 251) 3–6 months after allogeneic HSCT received 3 doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at 1-month intervals, a fourth dose 6 months later, and 1 dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 1 month later. Immunogenicity at prespecified time points and vaccine safety were assessed. Results. In the evaluable immunogenicity population (N = 216; mean age, 37.8 years), geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations from baseline to postdose 3 showed significant increases in antibody levels across all PCV13 serotypes (GMFR range, 2.99–23.85; 95% confidence interval lower limit, >1); there were significant declines over the next 6 months, significant increases from predose 4 to postdose 4 (GMFR range, 3.00–6.97), and little change after PPSV23 (GMFR range, 0.86–1.12). Local and systemic reactions were more frequent after dose 4. Six patients experienced serious adverse events possibly related to PCV13 (facial diplegia, injection-site erythema and pyrexia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and suspected lack of vaccine efficacy after dose 3 leading to pneumococcal infection), PCV13 and PPSV23 (Guillain-Barré syndrome), or PPSV23 (cellulitis). There were 14 deaths, none related to study vaccines. Conclusions. A 3-dose PCV13 regimen followed by a booster dose may be required to protect against pneumococcal disease in HSCT recipients. Dose 4 was associated with increased local and systemic reactions, but the overall safety profile of a 4-dose regimen was considered acceptable. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00980655. PMID:25870329

  10. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  11. Effectiveness of vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in preventing hospitalization with laboratory confirmed influenza during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Angela; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Saez, Marc; Soldevila, Núria; Astray, Jenaro; Mayoral, José María; Martín, Vicente; Quintana, José María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan Carlos; Tamames, Sonia; Castro, Ady; Baricot, Maretva; Garín, Olatz; Pumarola, Tomas; Working Group (Spain), CIBERESP Cases and Controls in Pandemic Influenza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since influenza predisposes to bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, studies have suggested that pneumococcal vaccination might reduce its occurrence during pandemics. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination alone and in combination with influenza vaccination in preventing influenza hospitalization during the 2009–2010 pandemic wave and 2010–2011 influenza epidemic. Methods: We conducted a multicenter case-control study in 36 Spanish hospitals. We selected patients aged ≥ 18 y hospitalized with confirmed influenza and two hospitalized controls per case, matched according to age, date of hospitalization and province of residence. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. Subjects were considered vaccinated if they had received the pneumococcal or seasonal influenza vaccine > 14 d (or > 7 d for pandemic influenza vaccine) before the onset of symptoms (cases) or the onset of symptoms in matched cases (controls). Results: 1187 cases and 2328 controls were included. The adjusted estimate of effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing influenza hospitalization was 41% (95% CI 8–62) in all patients and 43% (95% CI 2–78) in patients aged ≥ 65 y. The adjusted effectiveness of dual PPV23 and influenza vaccination was 81% (95% CI 65–90) in all patients and 76% (95% CI 46–90) in patients aged ≥ 65 y. The adjusted effectiveness of influenza vaccination alone was 58% (95% CI 38–72). Conclusions: In elderly people and adults with chronic illness, pneumococcal vaccination may reduce hospitalizations during the influenza season. In people vaccinated with both the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the benefit in hospitalizations avoided was greater than in those vaccinated only against influenza. PMID:23563516

  12. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV–23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV–13) are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV–23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV–13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV–23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV–23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot. Methods We performed economic evaluations to (1) evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV–23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2) investigate the efficiency of PCV–13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1) current PPSV–23 strategy, (2) 65 to 80 (as “65–80 PPSV–23 strategy”), and (3) 65 and older (as “≥65 PPSV–23 strategy”). We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY) and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥110) for PPSV–23 and ¥10,776 (US$98) for PCV–13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%. Results Compared to current PPSV–23 strategy, 65–80 PPSV–23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of ≥65 PPSV–23 strategy was ¥5,025,000 (US$45

  13. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  14. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Carlos G; Wunderink, Richard G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Balk, Robert; Fakhran, Sherene; Courtney, D Mark; Anderson, Evan J; Qi, Chao; Trabue, Christopher; Pavia, Andrew T; Moore, Matthew R; Jain, Seema; Edwards, Kathryn M; Self, Wesley H

    2015-12-01

    During an etiology study of adults hospitalized for pneumonia, in which urine specimens were examined for serotype-specific pneumococcal antigen detection, we observed that some patients received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine before urine collection. Some urine samples became positive for specific vaccine pneumococcal serotypes shortly after vaccination, suggesting false-positive test results. PMID:26512357

  15. [Pneumococcal vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for adults].

    PubMed

    Campins Martí, Magda

    2015-11-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and are one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Children under 2 years have a higher incidence rate, followed by adults over 64 years. The main risk group are individuals with immunodeficiency, and those with anatomical or functional asplenia, but can also affect immunocompetent persons with certain chronic diseases. Significant progress has been made in the last 10 years in the prevention of these infections. Until a few years ago, only the 23-valent non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was available. Its results were controversial in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, and with serious limitations on the type of immune response induced. The current possibility of using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in adults has led to greater expectations in improving the prevention of pneumococcal disease in these age groups.

  16. Theory and strategy for Pneumococcal vaccines in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Funatsu, Yohei; Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Kazuma; Asami, Takahiro; Asakura, Takanori; Suzuki, Shoji; Kamo, Testuro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine prevents invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), its effects on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain controversial. Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was released. The latest clinical study (CAPiTA study) showed that PCV13 reduced vaccine-type CAP and IPD. Based on these results, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended initial vaccination with PCV13 for the elderly. Scientific evidence regarding immunosenescence is needed to determine a more ideal vaccination strategy for the elderly with impaired innate and adaptive immunity. Continuing research on the cost effectiveness of new vaccine strategies considering constantly changing epidemiology is also warranted. PMID:26406267

  17. Theory and strategy for Pneumococcal vaccines in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Funatsu, Yohei; Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Kazuma; Asami, Takahiro; Asakura, Takanori; Suzuki, Shoji; Kamo, Testuro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine prevents invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), its effects on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain controversial. Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was released. The latest clinical study (CAPiTA study) showed that PCV13 reduced vaccine-type CAP and IPD. Based on these results, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended initial vaccination with PCV13 for the elderly. Scientific evidence regarding immunosenescence is needed to determine a more ideal vaccination strategy for the elderly with impaired innate and adaptive immunity. Continuing research on the cost effectiveness of new vaccine strategies considering constantly changing epidemiology is also warranted. PMID:26406267

  18. Pneumococcal vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal vaccine is an immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae , a bacterium that frequently causes meningitis and pneumonia in the elderly, and people with chronic illnesses. Pneumococcal pneumonia accounts for 10 ...

  19. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have each reduced the rate of pneumococcal infections caused by the organism S. pneumoniae. The first vaccine developed, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), protected adults and children older than 2 years of age against invasive disease caused by the 23 capsular serotypes contained in the vaccine. Because PPSV23 did not elicit a protective immune response in children younger than 2 years of age, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing seven of the most common serotypes from PPSV23 in pediatric invasive disease was developed for use in children younger than 2 years of age. The last vaccine to be developed, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), contains the seven serotypes in PCV7, five additional serotypes from PPSV23, and a new serotype not contained in PPSV23 or PCV7. Serotype replacement with virulent strains that are not contained in the polysaccharide vaccines has been observed after vaccine implementation and stresses the need for continued research into novel vaccine antigens. We describe eight potential protein antigens that are in the pipeline for new pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26997927

  20. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  1. Pneumococcal vaccines and the prevention of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease that frequently affects children and adults throughout the world. As it places a considerable burden on society and, particularly, healthcare resources, any means of reducing its incidence and impact arouses great interest. A substantial number of paediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae but, fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that are likely to have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on CAP in children and adults. The original 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) completely modified the total burden of pneumococcal diseases in vaccinated children and unvaccinated contacts of any age. However, the existence of some problems moderately reducing its preventive efficacy has led to the development of PCVs with a larger number of pneumococcal serotypes, including those that were previously of marginal importance but now cause of severe disease. It is reasonable to think that these PCVs (particularly PCV13, which includes all of the most important serotypes emerging since the introduction of PCV7) will further reduce the importance of pneumococcal diseases, although it is still not clear whether the replacement of the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine with PCV13 would be more protective in adults.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent in older adults in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia. Methods A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs. Results PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine. Conclusion PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. PMID:24679135

  3. Pneumococcal infections and pneumococcal vaccine: an update.

    PubMed

    Rytel, M W

    1982-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia continues to be an important disease in terms of prevalence, morbidity and mortality. With the discovery of penicillin and its wide clinical use, the overall mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia has been significantly reduced, but problems remain. These include: 1) death rate is uninfluenced by the antibiotic in the first five days of illness; 2) death rate in certain high risk groups and in patients infected with type 3 pneumococcus exceeds 25%; and 3) penicillin resistant strains of pneumococci have emerged. Because of these and other considerations, a modern 14-valent pneumococcal vaccine has been developed by Robert Austrian and his co-workers. The vaccine has been found to be immunogenic and effective in a number of populations studied. Additional efficacy studies are needed, however, particularly in certain high risk groups, such as the elderly and immunocompromised patients.

  4. Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... doses will depend on the child's age when vaccination begins. Ask your healthcare provider for details. Children ...

  5. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children following heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, R; Murdoch, C; Race, G; Burkinshaw, R; Shaw, L; Finn, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain whether the reduction in nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes induced by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) administered to infants persists beyond the age of 2 years. Methods: Non-randomised, unblinded controlled study of 2–5 year old children who had received three doses of heptavalent PnCV (7VPnCV) in infancy and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 13 months, and unimmunised controls. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken in summer (150 vaccinated subjects, 126 controls) and winter (143 vaccinated subjects, 188 controls). The swabs were cultured and serotyped for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results: Carriage rates (vaccinated subjects: 24.7% and 43.4%; controls: 27.0% and 41.0%, in summer and winter respectively) and carriage of vaccine serotypes (subjects: 10.0% and 30.0%; controls: 13.5% and 31.5%, in summer and winter respectively) were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Effects of vaccination in infancy on rates of nasal carriage of pneumococcus and serotype replacement in children living in a largely unvaccinated population are no longer evident by 2–5 years of age. PMID:12598380

  6. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Emily E.; Hoppe, Kara K.; Schulkin, Jay; Eckert, Linda O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%), pulmonary disease (77.3%), and HIV/AIDS (69.4%) are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%), diabetes (35.8%), asthma (42.8%), nephrotic syndrome (19.7%), and renal failure (33.6%) are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed. PMID:26949324

  7. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  8. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  9. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  10. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  11. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  12. Should Pneumococcal Vaccines Eliminate Nasopharyngeal Colonization?

    PubMed Central

    Swiatlo, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen. For more than 100 years, there have been vaccine efforts to prevent pneumococcal infection. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have significantly reduced invasive disease. However, these vaccines have changed pneumococcal ecology within the human nasopharynx. We suggest that elimination of the pneumococcus from the human nasopharynx can have consequences that should be considered as the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines is developed. PMID:27222469

  13. Pneumococcal vaccination in a remote population of high-risk Alaska Natives.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M; Chamblee, C; Campbell, H G; Bulkow, L R; Taylor, G E; Lanier, A P; Berner, J; Spika, J S; Williams, W W; Middaugh, J P

    1993-01-01

    In response to an increasing prevalence of serious pneumococcal disease among adult Alaska Natives of northwest Alaska, a 3-year program was begun in 1987 to identify residents of that remote region who were at high risk for developing invasive pneumococcal disease, to determine their pneumococcal vaccination status, and to deliver vaccine to at least 80 percent of those at risk. After reviewing public health nursing and Indian Health Service data bases, the authors identified 1,337 persons, 20 percent of the 6,692 residents of the region, at high risk for invasive pneumococcal infection, defined either by having a specific chronic disease or by age criteria. Cardiovascular disease and alcoholism were the two most common chronic diseases. Only 30 percent of those determined to be at high risk had received one or more doses of pneumococcal vaccine previously. Half of those persons had received their most recent vaccination 6 or more years earlier. The program used both customary and innovative methods to deliver 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine to 1,046 of those at high risk (78 percent), including 388 persons who were revaccinated. At the completion of the project, 1,123 persons, 84 percent of those at high risk, had received at least 1 dose. They included 1,088 persons, 81 percent of those at high risk, with vaccination within the previous 5 years as a result of the project, compared with a 15-percent rate prior to the vaccination phase of the project. The program demonstrated that high levels of vaccination against pneumococcal disease, exceeding Year 2000 objectives of 60 percent, are attainable in a remote rural Alaskan population. PMID:8341777

  14. Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: what are the advantages for the elderly?

    PubMed

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the elderly. There are three established approaches to pneumococcal vaccination: polysaccharide vaccines, protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and protein-based vaccines. This article reviews advances in anti-pneumococcal vaccines, with reference to advantages and shortcomings for the elderly in particular. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for high-risk patients and the general elderly population. Although the effectiveness of PPV against pneumonia is unclear, recent studies point to significant protective effects in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia and reducing the severity of disease in vaccinated elderly patients. PPV offers high serotype coverage and, although it is poorly immunogenic in some individuals, provides approximately 60% protection against invasive disease in the general elderly population. PPV vaccination appears cost effective for elderly patients although the vaccine might only be effective in preventing invasive disease. Additional benefits could mean a greater level of vaccine cost effectiveness. However, it is important to understand that PPV provides incomplete protection, especially in those with underlying high-risk conditions, and development of more effective pneumococcal vaccination strategies for elderly patients is still needed. In recent years, the most important advance in the prevention of pneumococcal infections in the elderly has been the introduction of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) as a routine vaccination for infants. In addition to dramatically reducing invasive infection in children, CPV has been observed to have a considerable indirect protective effect in parents and grandparents. While the possibility of using CPV in elderly patients has been suggested, currently there are only limited immunogenicity data and no efficacy data in adults. The low serotype coverage is an important

  15. Comparison of pneumococcal polysaccharide and CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal oligosaccharide vaccines in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed Central

    Shelly, M A; Jacoby, H; Riley, G J; Graves, B T; Pichichero, M; Treanor, J J

    1997-01-01

    Conjugation of carbohydrate antigens to protein carriers significantly improves the immune response to many carbohydrates. In order to evaluate the potential for this approach to improve the performance of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly, we evaluated pneumococcal polysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides conjugated to cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) (CRM-OS) in 49 older adults over 60 years of age (median age, 66 years) and compared the results to those from 50 younger adults under age 45 (median age, 27 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive licensed 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PS) which contain 25 micrograms of polysaccharide per serotype, or 5-valent CRM-OS, which contains 10 micrograms of oligosaccharide per serotype, in double-blind fashion. Both vaccines were associated with moderate local pain on administration. Antibody responses to type 14 were seen in the majority of both younger and older subjects following administration of both CRM-OS and PS, and there was no significant improvement of responses with CRM-OS in either age group. Antibody responses in young adults to the less immunogenic type 6B were seen in only 36% of subjects receiving PS and in 56% of subjects receiving CRM-OS (P = 0.15), and the geometric mean 6B titer 1 month after vaccination was higher in CRM-OS recipients (10.9 versus 3.7 micrograms/ml; P = 0.04). However, 6B responses were poor following the administration of either vaccine to elderly adults and there was no difference between results with CRM-OS and those with PS in this age group. Relatively few subjects developed measurable mucosal immunoglobulin A responses in nasal secretions following administration of either vaccine. Revaccination of CRM-OS recipients with PS at 2 months did not result in significant additional responses to 6B or 14. Though CRM-OS is possibly more immunogenic in young adults, the formulation of the pneumococcal glycoconjugate vaccine used in this study does not appear to offer

  16. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sadlier, C; O'Dea, S; Bennett, K; Dunne, J; Conlon, N; Bergin, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40-2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15-2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  17. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sadlier, C.; O’Dea, S.; Bennett, K.; Dunne, J.; Conlon, N.; Bergin, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40–2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22–2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15–2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  18. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination: patient perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, P.; Gibbons, Y; Primrose, W; Ellis, G; Downie, G

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of the influenza vaccine in reducing mortality and hospital admissions is established, particularly in the elderly. However, up to 50% of those at risk do not receive the vaccine. These patients are also at risk from pneumococcal infection and there is considerable overlap between the target group for each vaccine.
This study sought to identify at risk individuals from consecutive admissions to an acute geriatric unit and to gain an insight into their perceptions with regard to vaccination. The awareness of each vaccine was recorded, together with the vaccination history.
Seventy four per cent of the final cohort had heard of the influenza vaccine, while only 13% had heard of the pneumococcal vaccine. Fifty per cent perceived themselves to be at risk from influenza and its complications and 87% of the cohort believed it to be a serious infection.
Influenza vaccine was judged to confer good protection by 72% of the sample and yet up to 50% believed that the vaccine can make the recipient ill.
Influenza is perceived as a serious infection by patients and yet many do not believe themselves to be at particular risk. Although influenza vaccination is believed to confer protection, the decision whether, or not, to accept the vaccine is coloured by many factors, including popular myths and anecdotal information from friends and relatives. The uptake of influenza vaccine is suboptimal and the awareness of the pneumococcal vaccine certainly in the elderly is poor. The need for a comprehensive nationwide education campaign promoting both influenza and pneumococcal vaccine is highlighted.


Keywords: influenza vaccine; pneumococcal vaccine PMID:10727564

  19. [Pneumococcal vaccination for children and adults].

    PubMed

    Albrich, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococci are the leading bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are effective and safe in young children. Their introduction led to significant reductions of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, otitis media and antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal infections. Beyond these effects in the vaccinated age groups, there is a reduction in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and therefore in transmission. This in turn led to marked reductions in IPD and pneumonia in non-vaccinated age groups, particularly elderly adults as evidence of herd protection. Recently it was shown that the 13-valent PCV13 is effective and safe in adults leading to the age-independent recommendation of PCV13 in all persons with risk factors. PMID:27268445

  20. Chronic helminth infections impair pneumococcal vaccine responses.

    PubMed

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Iverson, Amy R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-09-22

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children and disproportionately affects developing countries. Vaccination campaigns against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of pneumonia, have recently been launched with a new conjugate vaccine in Africa. Using a mouse model, we assessed the potential role that the high burden of helminth infections in the countries targeted for vaccine might have on vaccine effectiveness. Mice vaccinated with either commercial conjugate or purified polysaccharide vaccines had impaired antibody responses if they were chronically infected with Taenia crassiceps. This translated to increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia and high mortality compared to helminth-negative vaccinated animals, which were fully protected from disease and death. Antibodies taken from Taenia-infected, vaccinated mice were unable to effectively opsonize S. pneumoniae for killing by alveolar macrophages, and did not protect against pneumococcal challenge when adoptively transferred into naïve animals. These data may have implications for vaccination programs in countries endemic with helminths.

  1. Clear not simple: an approach to community consultation for a maternal pneumococcal vaccine trial among Indigenous women in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M; Moberley, S; Nelson, S; Leach, A J; Andrews, R

    2007-03-22

    PneuMum is a randomised controlled maternal vaccination trial, using 23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (23vPPV) during the third trimester or at delivery compared to vaccination at 7 months post delivery. The primary outcomes are infant middle ear disease and nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage at 7 months of age. PneuMum is the first vaccine trial to be conducted among Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. We describe the study design and the approach taken to develop the PneuMum message in collaboration with key Indigenous stakeholders and then to communicate the PneuMum message with Indigenous communities and potential participants. We hope that these methods will provide a model for future research involving Indigenous communities to ensure Indigenous involvement in research and ultimate improvements in Indigenous health.

  2. Pneumococcal Vaccine in Diabetes: Relevance in India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, R Joshi; Samika, S Joshi; Siddharth, N Shah

    2015-04-01

    Currently we have more than 65 million Diabetes patients in India with estimated 80 million prediabetics. Diabetes is a immunologically vulnerable population to develop all types of microbial infections. Pneumoccocal infections do have a substantial morbidity and mortality burden in the community. India has a large geriatric pool now which has substantially increased pneumococcal disease burden. Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for pneumococcal infection and predisposes individuals to nasopharyngeal colonization with the pneumococcus which is associated with invasive infection. In diabetics who are elderly, with chronic kidney or pulmonary disease and long standing duration of the disease with poor glycemic control are the highest risk group susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease. With now availibilty of Pneumoccal vaccine in India, now it may be an preventive option which can be offered. Most global organisations recommend pneumococcal vaccination to diabetics. PMID:26562963

  3. A neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in Papua New guinea: study population, methods and operational challenges.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, S; Reeder, J C; Pomat, W S; Van den Biggelaar, A H J; Holt, P G; Saleu, G; Opa, C; Michael, A; Aho, C; Yoannes, M; Francis, J; Orami, T; Namuigi, P; Siba, P M; Richmond, P C; Lehmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are at a high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and a substantial burden of this falls on children less than six months old. PNG is planning to introduce a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants in the near future, but to make the maximum impact neonatal immunization will have to be considered. To provide evidence on safety and immunogenicity for neonatal and early infant immunization, we undertook an open randomized controlled trial of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV). 318 children received 7vPCV at ages 0, 1 and 2 months or at 1, 2 and 3 months or not at all. All children received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 9 months. This was a large and complex trial: village reporters visited participants weekly during the first year and fortnightly for a further 6 months and nurses monitored self-reported morbidity and collected many thousands of biological samples. The study team was remarkably successful in achieving the study aims, with 18-month follow-up completed on 77% of enrolled children and over 80% of scheduled samples collected. While the results of the trial will be reported elsewhere, this paper discusses the design of the study and dissects out some of the main reasons for its successful completion. Strong community engagement was an essential factor in success and the principles of equitable partnership and service provision led to a strong research partnership. A two-stage consent process, comprising primary assent followed by later informed consent, led to a high drop-out before initial enrolment, but an outstanding retention of those enrolled in the study. We conclude that factors such as strong community participation, reciprocity and a good relationship between the study team and participants are just as important as the technical elements of laboratory testing and data handling in ensuring the success of a vaccine trial in PNG. PMID:23163191

  4. Serotype Changes and Drug Resistance in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Adults after Vaccinations in Children, Japan, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Naoko; Hanada, Shigeo; Morozumi, Miyuki; Wajima, Takeaki; Shouji, Michi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    After 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) for children was introduced in Japan in November 2010, we examined changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and in genetic antimicrobial drug resistance of isolates from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. During April 2010–March 2013, a total of 715 isolates were collected from adults with invasive pneumococcal diseases. Seven-valent PCV serotypes in adults decreased from 43.3% to 23.8%, most noticeably for serotype 6B. Concomitantly, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) serotypes decreased from 82.2% to 72.2%; non-PPSV23 serotypes increased from 13.8% to 25.1%. Parallel with serotype changes, genotypic penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae decreased from 32.4% to 21.1%, and 6 non-PPSV23 serotypes emerged (6D, 15A, 15C, 16F, 23A, and 35B). Respective vaccine coverage rates for 13-valent PCV and PPSV23 differed by disease: 73.9% and 84.3% for patients with pneumonia, 56.4% and 69.2% for patients with bacteremia and sepsis, and 45.7% and 69.3% for patients with meningitis. PMID:26485679

  5. Validity of self-reported pneumococcal vaccination status in the elderly in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayas, José-María; Izquierdo, Conchita; Ruiz, Laura; Sintes, Xavier; Sousa, Dolores; Celorrio, José-Miguel; Varona, Wenceslao; Carratalà, Jordi; Nebot, Manel; Batalla, Joan; Sugrañes, Silvia; Manzur, Adriana; Terren, Angel; García, Carmen; Clemente, Esperanza; Rivera, Susana; Justo, Isabel; Arévalo, Ana; Salleras, Lluís; Domínguez, Angela

    2009-07-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of information reported by the elderly on 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) vaccination status. A cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in patients aged >or=65 years admitted to five Spanish hospitals. Data on 23vPPV vaccination history were obtained through interview of the patient or close relative and review of written medical information. The validity of the patient self-report was compared to the written medical information by calculation of the sensitivity, specificity, concordance, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). A total of 2484 patients were initially included of whom 1814 patients (73%) responded about their vaccination status. The global sensitivity of the patient self-report was 0.74 and the specificity 0.95. The PPV was 0.92, the NPV 0.84 and the concordance 87. Vaccination cards and centralized vaccination registries in primary health care centres and hospitals should be potentiated in order to ensure that neither more nor less vaccinations are administered than are necessary.

  6. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD.

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. PMID:25107494

  8. Persistent response to pneumococcal vaccine in individuals supplemented with a novel water soluble extract of Uncaria tomentosa, C-Med-100.

    PubMed

    Lamm, S; Sheng, Y; Pero, R W

    2001-07-01

    A human intervention study was carried out using male volunteers attending a General Practice Clinic in New York City involving comparison of individuals supplemented with 350 mg x 2 C-Med-100 daily dose for two months with untreated controls for their abilities to respond to a 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine. C-Med-100 is a novel nutraceutical extract from the South American plant Uncaria tomentosa or Cat's Claw which is known to possess immune enhancing and antiinflammatory properties in animals. There were no toxic side effects observed as judged by medical examination, clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. However, statistically significant immune enhancement for the individuals on C-Med-100 supplement was observed by (i) an elevation in the lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios of peripheral blood and (ii) a reduced decay in the 12 serotype antibody titer responses to pneumococcal vaccination at 5 months.

  9. Outpatient-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Campaign and Survey of Perceptions about Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joon Young; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccine, vaccination rates are quite low in South Korea. This study was designed to assess perceptions and awareness about pneumococcal vaccines among subjects at risk and find strategies to increases vaccine coverage rates. Materials and Methods A cross sectional, community-based survey was conducted to assess perceptions about the pneumococcal vaccine at a local public health center. In a tertiary hospital, an outpatient-based pneumococcal vaccine campaign was carried out for the elderly and individuals with chronic co-morbidities from May to July of 2007. Results Based on the survey, only 7.6% were ever informed about pneumococcal vaccination. The coverage rates of the pneumococcal vaccine before and after the hospital campaign showed an increased annual rate from 3.39% to 5.91%. The most common reason for vaccination was "doctor's advice" (53.3%). As for the reasons for not receiving vaccination, about 75% of high risk patients were not aware of the pneumococcal vaccine, which was the most important barrier to vaccination. Negative clinician's attitude was the second most common cause of non-vaccination. Conclusion Annual outpatient-based campaigns early in the influenza season may improve pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates. Doctor's advice was the most important encouraging factor for vaccination. PMID:23364983

  10. The acceptability of pneumococcal vaccine to older persons in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedford, D; Igoe, G; White, M; Parsons, B; Foyle, D; Howell, F; Corcoran, R

    2000-01-01

    A study was carried out to demonstrate in an Irish population whether older persons at risk from pneumococcal disease would accept an offer of the pneumococcal vaccine at the same time as their influenza vaccination. Of the 450 patients from 2 practices invited to attend for vaccination, 367 (81.6%) accepted both vaccines, a further 17 (3.8%) accepted the influenza vaccine only and a further 3 (0.7%) accepted the pneumococcal vaccine only. Three hundred and seven (68.2%) patients had received influenza vaccine at some time in previous years and these were statistically more likely to accept either vaccine than those who had not. This study has demonstrated that older persons at risk from pneumococcal disease will respond positively to a written invitation from their GP to avail of the pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:11037249

  11. Pneumococcal vaccination in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Orkin, Chloe

    2015-06-22

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV positive individuals. Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) reduces their risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD), however, it remains 20- to 40-fold greater than that of the general population. In HIV-infected adults, pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) induces more durable and functional antibody responses in individuals on ART at the time of vaccination than in ART-naive adults, independently of the baseline CD4+ cell count. National guidelines in the UK recommend vaccination in HIV-infected adults with CD4 count >200cells/mL and advise that it be considered for those with CD4 count <200cells/mL(3). We report data on IPD from a London HIV cohort of 3500 north-east London patients from 2009 to 2012. IPD was defined as a positive pneumococcal culture from blood, CSF, joint aspirate or pericardial fluid. HIV positive cases were identified by cross-referencing hospital identifiers with a positive HIV Ab/Ag test result or HIV viral load test result on the virology database. There were a total 189 cases of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease identified over the three years. 4.8% (n=9) were known to be HIV positive at the time of their Invasive Pneumococcal infection. The serotypes of S. pneumoniae in the HIV positive cases included 3, 7F, 10F, 19A (n=2), 19F and 31. The estimated incidence of IPD in our HIV cohort was 85.7 per 100,000, (based on an overall HIV cohort size of 3500) which is significantly higher when compared to the general population in London (local epidemiological data reported the incidence rate for IPD at 7.5 per 100,000 in London). Given the higher burden of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in this cohort, low levels of vaccination, and the predominance of vaccine sensitive strains in our cases, vaccination and strategies to improve vaccine uptake is a priority in this at risk group.

  12. [Pneumococcal vaccination in obstructive lung diseases -- what can we expect?].

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Lode, H; de Roux, A; Zielen, S

    2005-03-01

    Many countries' guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for patients suffering from obstructive airway disease. This paper reviews the literature as to immunogenicity and safety of this immunization. There is no evidence for a negative effect of pneumococcal vaccination on these patients. Only a few data exist on the preventive impact of pneumococcal vaccination as to exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases. Existing studies mostly took up this question as a side aspect. The effect in children and adults appears limited. On the other hand, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents life-threatening invasive infections in children younger than 5 years, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine protects healthy adults against bacteriaemic pneumonia. Thus, pneumococcal vaccination of patients suffering from obstructive airway disease is recommendable.

  13. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  14. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  15. Antibody and Plasmablast Response to 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients – Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Pasiarski, Marcin; Rolinski, Jacek; Grywalska, Ewelina; Stelmach-Goldys, Agnieszka; Korona-Glowniak, Izabela; Gozdz, Stanislaw; Hus, Iwona; Malm, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) leads to significant immune system dysfunction. The predominant clinical presentation in 50% of patients involves recurrent, often severe, infections. Infections are also the most common (60–80%) cause of deaths in CLL patients. The scope of infections varies with the clinical stage of the disease. Treatment-naive patients typically present with respiratory tract infections caused by encapsulated bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Since 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been recommended in the United States and some EU countries for pneumococcal infection prevention in patients with CLL (besides the long-standing standard, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, PPV23). The aim of this study was to compare the immune response to PCV13 in 24 previously untreated CLL patients and healthy subjects. Methods Both groups were evaluated for: the levels of specific pneumococcal antibodies, the levels of IgG and IgG subclasses and selected peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations including the frequency of plasmablasts before and after immunization. Results Adequate response to vaccination, defined as an at least two-fold increase in specific pneumococcal antibody titers versus pre-vaccination baseline titers, was found in 58.3% of CLL patients and 100% of healthy subjects. Both the CLL group and the control group demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the IgG2 subclass levels following vaccination (P = 0.0301). After vaccination, the frequency of plasmablasts was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in CLL patients in comparison to that in controls. Patients who responded to vaccination had lower clinical stage of CLL as well as higher total IgG, and IgG2 subclass levels. No significant vaccine-related side effects were observed. Conclusions PCV13 vaccination in CLL patients is safe and induces an effective immune response in a considerable

  16. The impact of 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on serotype 19A invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The circulation in the community of pneumococcal serotype 19A, a highly invasive and frequently extremely resistant pneumococcal strain, has increased the focus on methods to control its presence and effect. Two vaccines have been developed: the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Available data indicate that PCV13 is highly effective in reducing the risk of serotype 19A invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated adults. Positive data have also been published for PCV10 that suggest that the conjugated serotype 19F included in the vaccine could evoke a cross-reactive antibody response with serotype 19A. However, a great number of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases are associated with serotypes not included in either of the vaccines, and preparation of a vaccine containing all the serotypes is unrealistic. Protein vaccines are the real future to definitively reduce the pneumococcal disease burden.

  17. Vaccine Failures in Patients Properly Vaccinated with 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Catalonia, a Region with Low Vaccination Coverage.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando; Garcia-Garcia, Juan-Jose; Díaz-Conradi, Alvaro; Ciruela, Pilar; Martínez-Osorio, Johanna; González-Peris, Sebastià; Hernández, Sergi; de Sevilla, Mariona Fernández; Uriona, Sonia; Izquierdo, Conchita; Selva, Laura; Campins, Magda; Codina, Gemma; Batalla, Joan; Esteva, Cristina; Domínguez, Àngela; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Vaccine failures occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 3 pediatric hospitals in Barcelona (2012-2013) are described. PCV13 vaccine failure was defined as the occurrence of an invasive pneumococcal infection in children properly vaccinated by PCV13. Among 84 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, 32 had received at least one dose of PCV13. Seventeen of them had invasive pneumococcal infection produced by a PCV13 serotype. Among those, 9 patients were considered to have a PCV13 vaccine failure. Serotype 3 was isolated in 6 patients, serotype 19A in 2 and serotype 6B in 1. PMID:26658626

  18. Pneumococcal Disease Prevention Among Adults: Strategies for the Use of Pneumococcal Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Bennett, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the U.S. since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults. This paper reviews the evidence that led ACIP to make recommendations for PCV13 and PPSV23 use among adults, and highlights potential gaps to be addressed by future studies to inform adult vaccination policy. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia should be closely monitored to evaluate the effectiveness and continued utility of the current vaccination strategy, and to identify future directions for pneumococcal disease prevention among older adults.

  19. Pneumococcal disease prevention among adults: Strategies for the use of pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Bennett, Nancy M

    2015-11-27

    Use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children in the US since 2000 has dramatically reduced pneumococcal disease burden among adults. Significant vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections still remains, especially among older adults. The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recently recommended the routine use of both pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide vaccines (PPSV23) for adults ≥65 years. These recommendations were based on the remaining burden of illness among adults and the importance of non-bacteremic pneumonia prevention in light of new evidence confirming the efficacy of PCV13 to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia among older adults. This paper reviews the evidence that led the ACIP to make recommendations for PCV13 and PPSV23 use among adults, and highlights potential gaps to be addressed by future studies to inform adult vaccination policy. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia should be closely monitored to evaluate the effectiveness and continued utility of the current vaccination strategy, and to identify future directions for pneumococcal disease prevention among older adults.

  20. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high.

  1. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumococcal disease. Quick Facts About Pneumococcal Disease and Vaccination According to WHO, pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis are ... of antibiotic treatment. (9, 10, 11) Conjugate pneumococcal vaccination is safe and effective for preventing severe childhood ...

  2. Improving Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in Ambulatory Specialty Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pennant, Keyana N.; Costa, John J.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Sax, Paul E.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Lara E.; Coblyn, Jonathan; Desai, Sonali P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended for elderly and high-risk patients; however, rates of adherence are low. We sought to implement influenza and pneumococcal vaccine initiatives in 4 different ambulatory specialty practices, using 3 unique approaches. Methods. Four specialties with high-risk patient populations were selected for intervention: allergy (asthma), infectious disease (ID) (human immunodeficiency virus), pulmonary (chronic lung disease), and rheumatology (immunocompromised). Allergy and ID focused on influenza vaccination, and pulmonary and rheumatology focused on pneumococcal vaccination. We used 3 strategies for quality improvement: physician reminders, patient letters, and a nurse-driven model. Physicians were provided their performance data on a monthly basis and presented trended data on a quarterly basis at staff meetings. Results. All 4 specialties developed processes for improving vaccination rates with all showing some increase. Higher rates were achieved with pneumococcal vaccine than influenza. Pneumococcal vaccine rates showed steady improvement from year to year while influenza vaccine rates remained relatively constant. Allergy's influenza rate was 59% in 2011 and 64% in the 2014 flu season. Infectious disease influenza rates moved from 74% in the 2011 flu season to 86% for the 2014 season. Pneumococcal vaccine in pulmonary patients' rate was 52% at the start of intervention in February 2009 and 79% as of January 2015. Rheumatology rates rose from 50% in February 2009 to 87% in January 2015. Conclusions. Integrated routine workflow and performance data sharing can effectively engage specialists and staff in vaccine adherence improvement. Influenza vaccination may require other approaches to achieve the rates seen with pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:26430697

  3. Pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination among elderly patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-10-28

    Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease.

  4. Pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination among elderly patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gorska-Ciebiada, Małgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Małgorzata; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Both seasonal influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended for elderly diabetics. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination over the previous twelve months, pneumococcal vaccination over a lifetime, and to identify predictors which affect likelihood of vaccination. 219 diabetics elders were detailed questioned 3 months after the end of 2012/2013 influenza season. 26.48% of patients have been vaccinated against influenza in the last year and only 9.13% of patients reported pneumococcal vaccination in the past. The logistic regression analysis revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: higher number of anti-hyperglycemic medications, increased number of co-morbidities, higher patients' income, recommendation of vaccination from General Practitioners (GPs) and specialist. Significant predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake included increased number of co-morbidities and recommendation of vaccination received from GPs and specialist. The commonest reasons given by those unvaccinated were lack of information about immunization and low perceived benefits of vaccination. Of patients who were not treated with influenza vaccine 86.7% had never received recommendation from specialist and 71.4% had never been advised by GPs. Influenza vaccination was too expensive to 24.85% of patients. The vaccination rate among elderly diabetics in Poland is low. Lack of knowledge and patients' income are the main barriers. Increased awareness of healthcare professionals to educate and encourage vaccination and propagation of free vaccinations to all people at risk may increase the rate of vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal disease. PMID:26561844

  5. Development of pneumococcal mastoiditis due to multidrug-resistant serotype 19A despite three doses of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Richard C; Eberly, Matthew D

    2012-12-01

    Acute mastoiditis is a potential complication of acute otitis media (AOM), with Streptococcus pneumoniae historically the most common pathogen isolated. Following the release of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000, a marked decline in invasive pneumococcal disease and a smaller reduction in pneumococcal AOM were observed, but data regarding its impact on acute mastoiditis are limited. With the recent introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), it is anticipated that pneumococcal AOM and invasive disease will further diminish. We report a case of acute mastoiditis from a multidrug-resistant serotype 19A S. pneumoniae in an immunocompetent child who had received three PCV13 vaccinations.

  6. Impacts of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) currently covers the 7 PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and 6 additional serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A. After the first year of PCV13 applications in the immunization schedule in young children, global evaluation studies demonstrated that PCV13 provided a wider coverage and more effective prevention than PCV7 against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), mucosal pneumococcal diseases, and pneumococcal carriage. We reviewed the effects of PCV13 in the control of pneumococcal diseases in children based on previous studies.

  7. Impacts of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Applications of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the pediatric immunization schedule have dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated individuals of all ages. However, increased infections caused by non-PCV7 serotypes have been reported by several groups. To overcome this problem, new vaccines covering more serotypes including the emerging serotypes have been developed. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) currently covers the 7 PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and 6 additional serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, and 19A. After the first year of PCV13 applications in the immunization schedule in young children, global evaluation studies demonstrated that PCV13 provided a wider coverage and more effective prevention than PCV7 against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), mucosal pneumococcal diseases, and pneumococcal carriage. We reviewed the effects of PCV13 in the control of pneumococcal diseases in children based on previous studies. PMID:26351648

  8. Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen M; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Mulholland, E Kim; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The nasopharynx of children is often colonised by microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that can cause infections including pneumonia and otitis media. In this complex environment, bacteria and viruses may impact each other through antagonistic as well as synergistic interactions. Vaccination may alter colonisation dynamics, evidenced by the rise in non-vaccine serotypes following pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Discovery of an inverse relationship between S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage generated concern that pneumococcal vaccination could increase S. aureus carriage and disease. Here we review data on co-colonisation of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on S. pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. Thus far, pneumococcal vaccination has not had a sustained impact on S. aureus carriage but it is associated with an increase in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media aetiology. Advances in bacterial and viral detection methodologies have facilitated research in nasopharyngeal microbiology and will aid investigation of potential vaccine-induced changes, particularly when baseline studies can be conducted prior to pneumococcal vaccine introduction.

  9. Potential role for mucosally active vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Jambo, Kondwani C.; Sepako, Enoch; Heyderman, Robert S.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia is a life-threatening disease with high mortality and morbidity among children under 5 years of age, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Protection against pneumococcal pneumonia relies on successful regulation of colonisation in the nasopharynx and a brisk alveolar macrophage-mediated immune response in the lung. Therefore, enhancing pulmonary mucosal immunity (which includes a combination of innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity) through mucosal vaccination might be the key to prevention of pneumococcal infection. Current challenges include a lack of information in humans on mucosal immunity against pneumococci and a lack of suitable adjuvants for new vaccines. Data from mouse models, however, suggest that mucosally active vaccines will enhance mucosal and systemic immunity for protection against pneumococcal infection. PMID:20031415

  10. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Universal Routine Vaccination on Pneumococcal Disease in Italian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Cappelli, Maria Giovanna; Cozza, Vanessa; Prato, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the effectiveness of pneumococcal universal vaccination in preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the PCV7/PCV13 shifting period was estimated to be 84.3% (95% CI: 84.0–84.6%) in children <5 years. This study aims at corroborating the estimation of both the effectiveness (VE) of PCVs and its impact in reducing pneumococcal diseases. A 1 : 3 matched-case-control study was conducted among children <5 years old hospitalized for IPD or pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) between 2006 and 2012 in the Puglia region. Moreover, hospitalizations for pneumococcal outcomes in the pre- and postvaccination period and the hospitalization risk ratios (HRRs) with 95% CIs were computed in Italy and in the first eight regions that introduced PCVs in 2006. The overall effectiveness of PCVs was 75% (95% CI: 61%–84%); it was 69% (95% CI: 30%–88%) against IPD and 77% (95% CI: 61%–87%) against PP. PCVs showed a significant impact on IPD and acute otitis media either at a national level or in those regions with a longer vaccination history, with a nearly 40% reduction of hospitalizations for both outcomes. Our findings provide further evidence of the effectiveness of PCVs against pneumococcal diseases and its impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5 years, indicating the importance of maintaining high immunization coverage. PMID:26351644

  11. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children <5 years old, adults ≥50 years old, and people ≥6 years old with certain risk factors. These recommendations are based on the presence of a large number of comorbidities in Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856

  12. Economic perspectives on the advance market commitment for pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher M; Begor, Wills; Berndt, Ernst R

    2011-08-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have long been reluctant to invest in producing new vaccines for the developing world because they have little prospect of earning an attractive return. One way to stimulate such investment is the use of an advance market commitment, an innovative financing program that guarantees manufacturers a long-term market. Under this arrangement, international donors pay a premium for initial doses sold to developing countries. In exchange, companies agree to continue supplying the vaccine over the longer term at more sustainable prices. This article provides a preliminary economic analysis of a pilot advance market commitment program for pneumococcal vaccines, explaining the principles behind the program's design and assessing its early performance. Spurred by the advance market commitment--and other contemporaneous initiatives that also increased resources to vaccine suppliers--new, second-generation pneumococcal vaccines have experienced a much more rapid rollout in developing countries than older first-generation vaccines.

  13. Onset of Frozen Shoulder Following Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccinations

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Zeina M.; Faruqui, Sami; Foad, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adhesive capsulitis has been suggested as an adverse effect of vaccine administration into the shoulder area. The purpose of this case series is to report 3 cases of acute onset of adhesive capsulitis following pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Clinical Features Patients reported painful shoulder and limited motion following routine vaccination. After clinical examination, a diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis was noted. Intervention and Outcome All 3 patients were treated conservatively with physical therapy (active ranges of motion and active-assisted motion), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and activity modification with eventual resolution of symptoms. Conclusion Reports implicating vaccination with adhesive capsulitis are rare. This case series raises the awareness of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations as possible causes of adhesive capsulitis that appear to respond to standard treatment. Although vaccines are of tremendous importance in the prevention of serious illness, we emphasize the importance of administering them at the appropriate depth and location for each patient. PMID:26793041

  14. Antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide Enhance Pneumococcal Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Masahide; Gohil, Shruti; Coleman, J. Robert; Manix, Catherine; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS)-based vaccines has resulted in a substantial reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease. However, much remains to be learned about vaccine-mediated immunity, as seven-valent PPS-protein conjugate vaccine use in children has been associated with nonvaccine serotype replacement and 23-valent vaccine use in adults has not prevented pneumococcal pneumonia. In this report, we demonstrate that certain PPS-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) enhance the transformation frequency of two different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. This phenomenon was mediated by PPS-specific MAbs that agglutinate but do not promote opsonic effector cell killing of the homologous serotype in vitro. Compared to the autoinducer, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) alone, transcriptional profiling of pneumococcal gene expression after incubation with CSP and one such MAb to the PPS of serotype 3 revealed changes in the expression of competence (com)-related and bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) genes involved in pneumococcal quorum sensing. This MAb was also found to induce a nearly 2-fold increase in CSP2-mediated bacterial killing or fratricide. These observations reveal a novel, direct effect of PPS-binding MAbs on pneumococcal biology that has important implications for antibody immunity to pneumococcus in the pneumococcal vaccine era. Taken together, our data suggest heretofore unsuspected mechanisms by which PPS-specific antibodies could affect genetic exchange and bacterial viability in the absence of host cells. PMID:21917597

  15. [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance].

    PubMed

    Pletz, M W; Maus, U; Hohlfeld, J M; Lode, H; Welte, T

    2008-02-01

    Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers and the elderly. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides from 23 pneumococcal serotypes and induces only a limited B-cell response because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was launched in the U.S. The conjugation of capsular polysaccharides with a highly immunogenic diphtheria toxoid protein induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. Since children are the main reservoir of pneumococci, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine seems to eradicate the respective pneumococcal serotypes within the population, as demonstrated by recent US data. Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates. However, recent data suggest a replacement of vaccine-serotypes by non-vaccine serotypes, which conquer the ecological niche created by the vaccine. In order to encounter this problem a 13-valent conjugated vaccine is currently under development.

  16. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease. PMID:26706019

  17. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  18. Prevention of otitis media in children by pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Karma, P; Pukander, J; Sipilä, M; Timonen, M; Pöntynen, S; Herva, E; Grönroos, P; Mäkelä, H

    1985-01-01

    A total of 3,340 infants, 95 per cent of them 7 to 9 months old, were randomly vaccinated in a double-blind fashion with either the 14-valent pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide vaccine or a saline placebo in three urban areas in Finland. The second dose of the vaccine was given 5 months later. Age and sex distribution, recruitment of infants, and their otitis-related treatment and follow-up were similar in the study areas. Side effects after vaccination were mild and fewer than among older children. Antibody responses to vaccine polysaccharides varied from type to type, but were generally poor, especially to types most prevalent in otitis media. After the first dose of vaccine, the occurrence of otitis visits among the Pn-vaccinated, as compared with controls, showed inter-area differences, but ranged from not more than a 30 per cent reduction at its best to an increase in some areas and in some clinical categories. The respective figures for children with acute otitis media were similar between the vaccination groups and the study areas. The effect of the vaccine on acute otitis media caused by specific Pn types/groups represented in the vaccine was variable but generally poor. Group 6 attacks especially seemed to behave problematically. The second dose of the vaccine did not give additional benefit serologically or clinically. The efficacy of currently available pneumococcal vaccine against otitis media seemed poor in infants.

  19. Methodological criticisms in the evaluation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Trucchi, C; Paganino, C; Ansaldi, F

    2015-01-01

    Globally, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), cause considerable of morbidity and mortality in adults, especially in the elderly. In addition to age, underlying medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of CAP. From an aetiological point of view, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of adult CAP throughout the world. Two types of vaccine are available for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13). An accurate understanding of the LRTIs burden and the types of subjects at risk of CAP, allow to find an appropriately targeted immunization strategy and provide baseline data to evaluate pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness. Given the high variability in available estimates of LRTIs burden and associated risk factors, the objective of the study was to discuss the methodological criticism in its evaluation, in the light of the gradual introduction of PCV13 immunization strategy targeted to elderly and risk groups in middle-high income countries. PMID:26788736

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of Neonatal Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Papua New Guinean Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Francis, Jacinta; Jacoby, Peter; Siba, Peter M.; Alpers, Michael P.; Reeder, John C.; Holt, Patrick G.; Richmond, Peter C.; Lehmann, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal) schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant) schedule. Methods We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT) serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and proportions with concentration ≥0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. Results We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001) and 9V (p<0.05) and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001) at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7) than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7). PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. Conclusions PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. Trial Registration Clinical

  1. Pneumococcal vaccination rates in VHA patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Case, David J; Copeland, Laurel A; Stock, Eileen M; Herrera, Henry R; Pfanner, Timothy P

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition of the digestive tract not caused by infectious agents. Symptoms of IBD, such as diarrhea and pain, diminish one's quality of life. Underlying immune dysregulation may put IBD patients at risk for severe infectious disease making preventative vaccination highly recommended. Therefore, this study sought to assess rates of pneumococcal vaccination in patients with IBD.A cross-sectional observational study was employed utilizing administrative data extracts from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify patients diagnosed with IBD per International Classification of Diseases, Version 9, Clinical Modification codes. Their pneumococcal vaccine histories were determined from Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data were aggregated to the patient level and subjected to multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with receipt of the vaccination and 1-year mortality; survival analyses extended follow-up to as much as 4 years following IBD diagnosis.From October 2004 to September 2009, 49,350 patients were diagnosed with IBD in the VHA. Incidence was approximately 6000 cases/y. Patients averaged 62 years (±15, range 19-98) with 45% aged 65 or older. Approximately 6% were women, 21% were highly disabled from a military service-connected condition, 46% had hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia, and 18% diabetes. Only 20% of the cohort received pneumococcal vaccination including 5% vaccinated prior to IBD diagnosis, 2% on the date of diagnosis, and 13% subsequently. Being married, living outside the Northeast, and having more comorbidities were associated with vaccination before IBD diagnosis; models of vaccination at or after diagnosis demonstrated poor fit: little better than chance. Vaccinations before, after, and at diagnosis were protective against 1-year mortality adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates. Living in the South was an independent risk factor for death among IBD

  2. Risk factors for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in persons with HIV: brief report.

    PubMed

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Søgaard, Ole S; Harboe, Zitta B; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2012-04-01

    HIV-infected individuals have excess rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. We investigated risk factors for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization at baseline and after 9 months in 96 HIV patients immunized twice with 7- valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ±1mg CPG 7909. In total, 22 patients (23%) were colonized, 11 at baseline only, four at both baseline and 9 months, and seven at 9 months only. Compared to non-colonized patients, more colonized patients were smokers, had lower CD4+ nadir and had an AIDS-diagnosis. Immunization, antiretroviral treatment and the CPG adjuvant had no impact on colonization. These results suggest preventive strategies in addition to pneumococcal immunization. PMID:22384845

  3. The Majority of Adult Pneumococcal Invasive Infections in Portugal Are Still Potentially Vaccine Preventable in Spite of Significant Declines of Serotypes 1 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Diamantino-Miranda, Jorge; Aguiar, Sandra I.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José

    2013-01-01

    In Portugal, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been administered to children outside of the national immunization plan since 2001. We determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of 1265 isolates responsible for adult invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) between 2009 and 2011 and compared the results with previously published data from 1999 to 2008. Serotypes 3 (12.6%), 7F (10.0%), 19A (9.1%), 14 (8.4%), 1 (6.9%) and 8 (6.2%) were the most frequent and together accounted for 53.2% of adult IPD. Serotypes 1 and 5 declined significantly while serotype 34, not included in any vaccine, increased. Taken together, the serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) peaked among adult IPD isolates in 2008 (70.2%) and declined since then reaching 53.5% in 2011. The decline in the serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2007 was also significant but much more modest with 79.2% of the isolates causing IPD in 2011 expressing these serotypes. Since the changes in serotypes causing IPD in adults coincided with the 10-valent and PCV13 introduction in children, it is unlikely that vaccination triggered these changes although it may have accelerated them. The proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine remained stable (19.0%). Both penicillin non-susceptibility and erythromycin resistance increased in the study period, with serotypes 14 and 19A accounting for the majority of resistant isolates. PMID:24066064

  4. Serotype 6B from a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces cross-functional antibody responses in adults to serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Cross-reactivity of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides is a key element for formulating pneumococcal vaccines and evaluating vaccine efficacy. This study examined whether 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which only contains 6B, can elicit cross-functional immune responses against recently discovered serotypes (6C and 6D), as well as against 6A, in 2 adult age groups.Young adults (25-51 years; N = 28) and elderly subjects (over 65 years; N = 60) were immunized with PPSV23. Functional antibody responses were determined in pre- and postimmune sera via multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay against serotypes 6A/B/C/D.At postimmunization, the geometric mean opsonic indices (OIs) for 6B and nonvaccine serotypes (6A, 6C, and 6D) significantly increased in both age groups. The geometric fold increases of OIs for 6B/A/C/D significantly differed (18.2, 24.8, 3.1, and 7.1, respectively). Proportions of subjects with 4-fold increases in OIs for 6B/A/C/D were 73%, 70%, 31%, and 49%, respectively. Correlations of fold increases in OIs were highest between 6B and 6A, followed by 6B and 6D, then by 6B and 6C. Comparisons of young adults and the elderly revealed that most immunogenicity variables were higher in the former group.Our data demonstrated that 6B in PPSV23 induced cross-functional immune responses against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D, according to the degree of similarity in their capsular polysaccharide structures. In addition, we found significant age-related differences in PPSV23-induced cross-reactivity. PMID:27631247

  5. Advance market commitment for pneumococcal vaccines: putting theory into practice.

    PubMed

    Cernuschi, Tania; Furrer, Eliane; Schwalbe, Nina; Jones, Andrew; Berndt, Ernst R; McAdams, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Markets for life-saving vaccines do not often generate the most desired outcomes from a public health perspective in terms of product quantity, quality, affordability, programmatic suitability and/or sustainability for use in the lowest income countries. The perceived risks and uncertainties about sustainably funded demand from developing countries often leads to underinvestment in development and manufacturing of appropriate products. The pilot initiative Advance Market Commitment (AMC) for pneumococcal vaccines, launched in 2009, aims to remove some of these market risks by providing a legally binding forward commitment to purchase vaccines according to predetermined terms. To date, 14 countries have already introduced pneumococcal vaccines through the AMC with a further 39 countries expected to introduce before the end of 2013.This paper describes early lessons learnt on the selection of a target disease and the core design choices for the pilot AMC. It highlights the challenges faced with tailoring the AMC design to the specific supply situation of pneumococcal vaccines. It points to the difficulty - and the AMC's apparent early success - in establishing a long-term, credible commitment in a constantly changing unpredictable environment. It highlights one of the inherent challenges of the AMC: its dependence on continuous donor funding to ensure long-term purchases of products. The paper examines alternative design choices and aims to provide a starting point to inform discussions and encourage debate about the potential application of the AMC concept to other fields.

  6. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination of the elderly in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeong-Hwang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chou, Chih-Chieh; Su, Wen-Lin; Loh, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shih-Ha

    2004-07-29

    In 1998, Taiwan became the first country in Asia to provide free influenza vaccination to high-risk groups, mainly the elderly. The purpose of this study is to determine: (1) the annual mortality rate from influenza and pneumococcal-related illnesses such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and asthma and (2) the effectiveness of and adverse events associated with the influenza vaccination. In the elderly, influenza vaccination caused the annual death rate due chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and asthma to decline steadily but had no effect on the annual pneumonia death rate. The only adverse effect of concern was vertigo (in approximately 2-3%).

  7. Parental views on the introduction of an infant pneumococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Tracey; Newton, Sarah; Lees, Amanda; Diggle, Linda; Mayon-White, Richard; Pollard, A J; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of early childhood morbidity and mortality. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnC7) is licensed for use and could prevent the majority of infant invasive pneumococcal infections. A recent announcement confirmed its inclusion into the U.K. childhood immunisation programme. In anticipation of PnC7 being recommended for use, this study explored parental understanding of pneumococcal disease and their views on the possible introduction of this vaccine. Twenty three interviews and two focus groups were held with parents of children under two years of age. Four main themes emerged from the data analysis: 'Confidence and belief in immunisation'; 'Anxiety about immunisation'; 'Trust and understanding of immunisation information' and 'Response to a new immunisation'. Overall parental confidence in immunisation has been affected by the MMR controversy. With little knowledge of pneumococcal disease, parents want information about the safety and effectiveness of PnC7. Information needs to be conveyed in a way that restores parents' trust in immunisation. PMID:16878519

  8. Invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales: vaccination implications.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, K; Knox, K; George, R; Miller, E; Waight, P; Griffiths, D; Efstratiou, A; Broughton, K; Mayon-White, R T; Moxon, E R; Crook, D W

    2001-01-15

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) will aid in planning the use of pneumococcal vaccines. A United Kingdom (UK)-based surveillance in England and Wales (1995-1997) of 11,528 individuals with IPD and a local enhanced surveillance in the Oxford (UK) area (1995-1999) have been analyzed. IPD has a high attack rate in children, with 37.1-48.1 cases per 100,000 infants <1 year old per year, and in older persons, with 21.2-36.2 cases per 100,000 persons >65 years old per year, for England, Wales, and Oxford. The 7-valent conjugate vaccine includes serotypes causing < or =79% of IPD in children <5 years old, but only 66% in adults >65 years old. The data also indicate that IPD varies by serotype, age, and country, emphasizing that the epidemiology of IPD is heterogeneous and requires continued surveillance. PMID:11120930

  9. Benefits and Effectiveness of Administering Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: An Approach for Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Angeline; Levine, Orin

    2012-01-01

    For the influenza pandemic of 2009–2010, countries responded to the direct threat of influenza but may have missed opportunities and strategies to limit secondary pneumococcal infections. Delivering both vaccines together can potentially increase pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) immunization rates and prevent additional hospitalizations and mortality in the elderly and other high-risk groups. We used PubMed to review the literature on the concomitant use of PPV23 with seasonal influenza vaccines. Eight of 9 clinical studies found that a concomitant program conferred clinical benefits. The 2 studies that compared the cost-effectiveness of different strategies found concomitant immunization to be more cost-effective than either vaccine given alone. Policymakers should consider a stepwise strategy to reduce the burden of secondary pneumococcal infections during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. PMID:22397339

  10. Herd immunity and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a quantitative model.

    PubMed

    Haber, Michael; Barskey, Albert; Baughman, Wendy; Barker, Lawrence; Whitney, Cynthia G; Shaw, Kate M; Orenstein, Walter; Stephens, David S

    2007-07-20

    Invasive pneumococcal disease in older children and adults declined markedly after introduction in 2000 of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children. An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons >or=5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or >or=3 doses of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Prevnar (PCV7), containing serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. From 1994 to 2003, cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were prospectively identified in Georgia Health District-3 (eight metropolitan Atlanta counties) by Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs). From 2000 to 2003, vaccine coverage levels of PCV7 for children aged 19-35 months in Fulton and DeKalb counties (of Atlanta) were estimated from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). Based on incidence data and the estimated average number of doses received by 15 months of age, a Poisson regression model was fit, describing the trend in invasive pneumococcal disease in groups not targeted for vaccination (i.e., adults and older children) before and after the introduction of PCV7. Highly significant declines in all the serotypes contained in PCV7 in all unvaccinated populations (5-19, 20-39, 40-64, and >64 years) from 2000 to 2003 were found under the model. No significant change in incidence was seen from 1994 to 1999, indicating rates were stable prior to vaccine introduction. Among unvaccinated persons 5+ years of age, the modeled incidence of disease caused by PCV7 serotypes as a group dropped 38.4%, 62.0%, and 76.6% for 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, received on average by the population of children by the time they are 15 months of age. Incidence of serotypes 14 and 23F had consistent significant declines in all unvaccinated age groups. In contrast, the herd immunity effects on vaccine-related serotype 6A incidence were inconsistent. Increasing trends of non-vaccine

  11. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD. PMID:21193205

  12. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S

    2012-01-01

    nasopharynx of healthy children and adults. Pneumococcus can be transmitted from person to person during close contact. The bacteria can cause illnesses such as otitis media and sinusitis, and may become more aggressive and affect other areas of the body such as the lungs, brain, joints, and blood stream. More severe infections caused by pneumococcus are pneumonia, bacterial sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and in rare cases, endocarditis and pericarditis. People with impaired immune systems are susceptible to pneumococcal infection. Young children, elderly people, patients with underlying medical conditions including chronic lung or heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sickle cell disease, and people who have undergone a splenectomy are at a higher risk for acquiring pneumococcal pneumonia. Technology Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccines Trivalent Influenza Vaccines in Canada In Canada, 5 trivalent influenza vaccines are currently authorized for use by injection. Four of these are formulated for intramuscular use and the fifth product (Intanza®) is formulated for intradermal use. The 4 vaccines for intramuscular use are: Fluviral (GlaxoSmithKline), split virus, inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months; Vaxigrip (Sanofi Pasteur), split virus inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months; Agriflu (Novartis), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months; and Influvac (Abbott), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in persons ≥ 18 years of age. FluMist is a live attenuated virus in the form of an intranasal spray for persons aged 2 to 59 years. Immunization with current available influenza vaccines is not recommended for infants less than 6 months of age. Pneumococcal Vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have progressed from 2-valent vaccines to the current 23-valent vaccines to prevent

  13. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-01-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups.

  14. Functional Antibodies Elicited by Two Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial▿

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Väkeväinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM197 (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  15. Seasonality of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Rural Gambia Determined within the Context of a Cluster Randomized Pneumococcal Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bojang, Abdoulie; Jafali, James; Egere, Uzochukwu E.; Hill, Phillip C.; Antonio, Martin; Jeffries, David; Greenwood, Brian M.; Roca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted an ancillary study among individuals who had participated in a PCV-7 trial in rural Gambia, to determine the influence of season on the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage. Methods 636 individuals above 30 months of age were followed from 4 to 20 months after vaccination with PCV-7 or meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected periodically between November 2006 and June 2008. Overall, 4,495 NPS were collected. Results Prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the study subjects (median age 11 years) was 55.0%; this prevalence decreased linearly with increasing age (p = 0.001). Prevalence of carriage was significantly higher during the dry than the rainy season for any pneumococcal carriage [57.6% versus 47.8% (p<0.001)], pneumococcal vaccine serotype carriage [10.3% versus 6.5% (p< 0.001)] and non-vaccine serotype carriage [49.7% versus 42.7% (p<0.001)]. Differences remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusions In areas of Africa with marked variation in rainfall, seasonality of pneumococcal carriage needs to be considered when interpreting carriage data. PMID:26132206

  16. Factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination of the elderly in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project Pi12/02079 Working Group

    2016-07-01

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community.

  17. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jason S.; Miller, Hannah L.; Wasan, Sharmeel K.; Noronha, Ansu; Ardagna, Eileen; Sullivan, Kathleen; Jacobson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk for vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza. We hypothesized that a patient-directed educational program would increase vaccination rates of patients with IBD. We developed a written educational form that was given to all patients over a 15-month period. The form included information about the importance of vaccination and asked patients about their vaccination status. If patients indicated that they were not vaccinated, they were offered a vaccination at the time of their visit. For influenza, the vaccination rates during 3 seasons were compared. For pneumococcal pneumonia, the vaccination rates during a 6-month period before the introduction of the educational program and the rates during the 15-month period after implementation of the intervention were compared. Our form increased the percentage of patients who reported having an influenza vaccination (23% vs 47%; P<.001) and the percentage of patients who reported having a pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination (21% vs 32%; P<.001). We concluded that a simple written educational form designed to assess vaccination status and enable providers to offer same-day influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia vaccinations resulted in a significant increase in influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia vaccination rates among patients in an IBD specialty clinic. PMID:27118933

  18. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses.

  19. Cost of pneumococcal infections and cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal vaccination at risk adults and elderly in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Levent; Kaya, Mehmet; Altinel, Serdar; Durand, Laure

    2011-04-01

    Pneumococcal infections have a substantial burden in Turkey, particularly in the elderly (> 60 years) and at-risk adults (18-59 years). VCR are low at approximately 2%. The first aim of this study was the evaluation of the burden of pneumococcal infections (pneumonia and bacteremia) from a public payer perspective in elderly and at-risk adults. The second aim was the evaluation of cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in these populations. A decision tree model was employed using demographic and epidemiological input obtained from Turkish official sources and international literature. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% and 50% effectiveness against BPP in elderly and at-risk adults respectively. Vaccination effectiveness of 21% against NBPP was assumed for both populations. Costs input were obtained from a previous study conducted between 2002 and 2008 in a public university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Univariate sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo simulations were performed. The vaccination program was cost effective and cost saving compared to no vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination with 60% coverage led to a mean of 4,695 LYG in the elderly and 2,134 LYG in at-risk adults with 40% coverage. Mean incremental savings reached 45.4 million YTL in the elderly and 21.8 million YTL in at-risk adults. This analysis suggests that pneumococcal vaccination of elderly and at-risk adults is associated with a positive return on investment from a public payer perspective and supports the continued recommendation of pneumococcal vaccines, as well as their full funding in Turkey.

  20. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine distribution and use in primary care and hospital settings in Scotland: coverage, practice and policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kyaw, M. H.; Wayne, B.; Chalmers, J.; Jones, I. G.; Campbell, H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the coverage, distribution and the factors associated with use of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines among general practitioners (GPs) in primary care and in hospital settings was carried out in 53 general practices in Scotland taking part in the 'Continuous Morbidity Recording' (CMR) programme. The annual vaccine distribution increased substantially among 53 general practices from 1993 to 1999 and in Scotland as a whole from 1984 to 1999. From the questionnaire, overall coverage was 43% (95% CI 38-48) for influenza vaccine in the 2000-1 season and 13% (95% CI 9-16) for pneumococcal vaccine in the last 5 year period, in high-risk patients recommended for these vaccines by the Department of Health (DoH). Influenza vaccine coverage was highest in the elderly (65 years of age and above) at 62% (95% CI 59-74). Although pneumococcal vaccination is not currently recommended for all elderly, coverage of this vaccine was also higher in this group (22%, 95% CI 16-29). In the majority of patients (influenza vaccine, 98% and pneumococcal vaccine, 94%), vaccination was carried out in general practice. Only 2% of patients had received pneumococcal vaccination in a hospital setting. The level of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination varied with the level of deprivation. Most GPs considered that the responsibility for influenza and pneumococcal vaccination lay with them. Forty-five percent of GPs reported having a written policy with set target for influenza vaccination and 11% for pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:12113489

  1. Impact of the Hajj on pneumococcal transmission.

    PubMed

    Memish, Z A; Assiri, A; Almasri, M; Alhakeem, R F; Turkestani, A; Al Rabeeah, A A; Akkad, N; Yezli, S; Klugman, K P; O'Brien, K L; van der Linden, M; Gessner, B D

    2015-01-01

    Over two million Muslim pilgrims assemble annually in Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia, to complete the Hajj. The large number of people in a crowded environment increases the potential for pneumococcal carriage amplification. We evaluated pneumococcal carriage prevalence with four cross-sectional studies conducted at beginning-Hajj (Mecca) and end-Hajj (Mina) during 2011 and 2012. A questionnaire was administered and a nasopharyngeal swab was collected. The swab was tested for pneumococcus, serotype and antibiotic resistance. A total of 3203 subjects (1590 at beginning-Hajj and 1613 at end-Hajj) originating from 18 countries in Africa or Asia were enrolled. The overall pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 6.0%. There was an increase in carriage between beginning-Hajj and end-Hajj cohorts for: overall carriage (4.4% versus 7.5%, prevalence ratio (PR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3), and carriage of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine serotypes (2.3% versus 4.1%, PR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes (1.1% versus 3.6%, PR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.6), 10-valent PCV serotypes (0.6% versus 1.6%, PR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.3), antibiotic non-susceptible isolates (2.5% versus 6.1%, PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.6) and multiple non-susceptible isolates (0.6% versus 2.2%, PR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-7.9). Fifty-two different serotypes were identified, most commonly serotypes 3 (17%), 19F (5%) and 34 (5%). These results suggest that the Hajj may increase pneumococcal carriage-particularly conjugate vaccine serotypes and antibiotic non-susceptible strains, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. The Hajj may therefore provide a mechanism for the global distribution of pneumococci.

  2. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992-2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld's Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997-2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007-2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010-2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992-2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013-2014, as compared to 2010-2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing among adults. Eight

  3. Effects of Infant Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype Distribution in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children and Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Imöhl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in 2006 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults in Germany with a focus on the dynamics of serotype distribution in vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups. Over a period of 22 years (1992–2014), microbiological diagnostic laboratories from all over Germany have been sending isolates of IPD cases to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci on a voluntary basis. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped using Neufeld’s Quellung method. Among children <16 years, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes among isolates from IPD cases decreased from 61.8% before vaccination (1997–2006) to 23.5% in the early vaccination period (2007–2010; p = 1.30E-72) and sank further to 5.2% in the late vaccination period (2010–2014; p = 4.59E-25). Similar reductions were seen for the separate age groups <2 years, 2-4 years and 5-15 years. Among adults, the proportion of PCV7 serotypes decreased from 43.4% in the pre-vaccination period (1992–2006) to 24.7% (p = 3.78E-88) in the early vaccination period and 8.2% (p = 5.97E-161) in the late vaccination period. Both among children and among adults, the non-PCV7 serotypes 1, 3, 7F and 19A significantly increased in the early vaccination period. After the switch from PCV7 to PVC10/PCV13 for infant vaccination in 2010, serotypes 1, 6A and 7F significantly decreased. A decrease in serotype 19A was only observed in 2013–2014, as compared to 2010–2011 (children p = 4.16E-04, adults p = 6.98E-06). Among adults, serotype 3, which strongly increased in the early vaccination period (p = 4.44E-15), remained at a constant proportion in the late vaccination period. The proportion of non-PCV13 vaccine serotypes increased over the whole vaccination period, with serotypes 10A, 12F, 23B, 24F and 38 most significantly increasing among children and serotypes 6C, 12F, 15A, 22F and 23B increasing

  4. How many episodes of hospital care might be prevented by widespread uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, E

    2003-01-01

    Background: It is likely that disease specific infectious morbidity is under-reported. Microbiologically identifiable diseases may be "hidden" in ICD-10 code as "unspecified" disease. Aims: To estimate the proportion of "unspecified" morbidity of infectious cause in infants and young children reported by Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) in England in 1999 that could reasonably be attributed to Streptococcus pneumoniae, and to calculate what number and proportion of diseases could potentially be prevented by a programme of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Methods: Proportions of HES "unspecified" septicaemia, meningitis, and pneumonia attributable to pneumococcal infection were estimated by applying theoretical rates obtained from studies using highly sensitive diagnostic tests. The numbers obtained were added to those coded as pneumococcal in origin. The vaccine preventable proportion was then calculated using serogroup coverage, disease specific efficacy, and vaccine uptake. Results: For infants and children 3 months to 5 years of age in 1999, HES reported 134, 245, and 216 episodes of pneumococcal septicaemia, meningitis, and pneumonia respectively. In addition, 68, 36, and 2548 episodes of "unspecified" disease respectively are probably pneumococcal in origin. For hospitalisations in England in this age group, 157/202 (78%) cases of pneumococcal septicaemia, 218/281 (76%) cases of pneumococcal meningitis, and 452/2764 (16%) cases of pneumococcal pneumonia may be preventable annually by means of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Conclusions: Paediatric hospital morbidity in England due to pneumococcal septicaemia, meningitis, and pneumonia is under-reported by 34%, 13% and 92% respectively. A larger proportion of morbidity is preventable than implied by ICD-10 code alone. PMID:14500302

  5. Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide and Protein-Conjugate Vaccines Singly or Sequentially in Adults who have Recovered from Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Musher, Daniel M.; Rueda, Adriana M.; Nahm, Moon H.; Graviss, Edward A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Controversy persists over the benefits of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in at-risk adults. We studied PPV, protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), or immunologic ‘priming’ with PCV followed by ‘boosting’ with PPV in adults who recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Subjects received PPV followed in 6 months by PCV, or vice-versa. IgG to capsular polysaccharide and opsonophagocytic killing activity (OPK) were studied at baseline, 4–8 weeks and 6 months after each vaccination. Results PPV and PCV stimulated similar IgG levels and OPK at 4–8 weeks. Six months post-PPV, antibody declined to baseline but remained modestly elevated post-PCV. PCV given 6 months post-PPV stimulated modest IgG increases that failed to reach post-PPV peaks. In contrast, PPV 6 months after PCV caused dramatic increases in IgG and OPK to all polysaccharides, consistent with a booster effect. Six months after the second vaccination, however, IgG and OPK in all patients fell precipitously, returning toward original baseline levels. Conclusions In high-risk subjects, the effect of PPV is short-lived; PCV stimulates a more prolonged response. PPV as a booster following PCV causes early antibody rises, but IgG declines rapidly thereafter, consistent with induction of suppressor cells or tolerance. Protein vaccines may be needed for high-risk adults. PMID:18710324

  6. Using Inverse Problem Methods with Surveillance Data in Pneumococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Karyn L.; Banks, H. T.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The design and evaluation of epidemiological control strategies is central to public health policy. While inverse problem methods are routinely used in many applications, this remains an area in which their use is relatively rare, although their potential impact is great. We describe methods particularly relevant to epidemiological modeling at the population level. These methods are then applied to the study of pneumococcal vaccination strategies as a relevant example which poses many challenges common to other infectious diseases. We demonstrate that relevant yet typically unknown parameters may be estimated, and show that a calibrated model may used to assess implemented vaccine policies through the estimation of parameters if vaccine history is recorded along with infection and colonization information. Finally, we show how one might determine an appropriate level of refinement or aggregation in the age-structured model given age-stratified observations. These results illustrate ways in which the collection and analysis of surveillance data can be improved using inverse problem methods. PMID:20209093

  7. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S

    2012-08-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/- a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response. PMID:22854665

  8. Maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Bailey, Rachel R; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S

    2011-01-01

    Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L-1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L-124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L-187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L-13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm³/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on the

  9. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    PubMed

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v

  10. Pediatricians' perspectives on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: An exploratory study in the private sector.

    PubMed

    Zodpey, Sanjay; Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Chokshi, Maulik; Kumar, Balu Ravi; Thacker, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information on supply-side determinants, their utilization, and the access to pneumococcal vaccination in India. The objective of this exploratory study was to document the perceptions and perspectives of practicing pediatricians with regard to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in selected metropolitan areas of India. A qualitative study was conducted to generate evidence on the perspective of pediatricians practicing in the private sector regarding pneumococcal vaccination. The pediatricians were identified from 11 metropolitan areas on the basis of PCV vaccine sales in India through multilevel stratified sampling method. Relevant information was collected through in-depth personal interviews. Finally, qualitative data analysis was carried out through standard techniques such as the identification of key domains, words, phrases, and concepts from the respondents. We observed that the majority (67.7%) of the pediatricians recommended pneumococcal vaccination to their clients, whereas 32.2% recommended it to only those who could afford it. More than half (62.9%) of the pediatricians had no preference for any brand and recommended both a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and a 13-valent PCV (PCV13), whereas 8.0% recommended none. An overwhelming majority (97.3%) of the pediatricians reported that the main reason for a patient not following the pediatrician's advice for pneumococcal vaccination was the price of PCV. To reduce childhood pneumonia-related burden and mortality, pediatricians should use every opportunity to increase awareness about vaccine-preventable diseases, especially vaccine-preventable childhood pneumonia among their patients. PMID:26354401

  11. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  12. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevention among adults: is the herd effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in children as good a way as the active immunization of the elderly?

    PubMed

    Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The indirect protection of adults as a result of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants has been discussed from different epidemiological points of view. In some countries, including Italy, even after pediatric vaccination, vaccine serotypes are still responsible for most pneumonia and invasive diseases in the elderly. Although the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) produced encouraging results, it has not showed the efficacy of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia regardless of the number of episodes and serotype. Addressing these points by monitoring the direct impact of adult vaccination in real life distinguished from the effects of herd immunity will assist public health decision-making on the most effective adult pneumococcal vaccination strategies.

  13. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Huijts, Susanne M; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Postma, Douwe F; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M M; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J M; Vissink, Conrad E; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2015-11-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65-74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750-17,100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65-74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65-74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100.PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Huijts, Susanne M.; van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Postma, Douwe F.; Atwood, Mark; van Deursen, Anna M.M.; van der Ende, Arie; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Sato, Reiko; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Vissink, Conrad E.; Bonten, Marc J.M.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2015-01-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) demonstrated the efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in preventing vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease in elderly subjects. We examined the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 vaccination in the Netherlands. Using a Markov-type model, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of PCV13 vaccination in different age- and risk-groups for pneumococcal disease were evaluated using a societal perspective. Estimates of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, vaccine efficacy and epidemiological data were based on the CAPiTA study and other prospective studies. The base-case was PCV13 vaccination of adults aged 65–74 years compared to no vaccination, assuming no net indirect effects in base-case due to paediatric 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Analyses for age- and risk-group specific vaccination strategies and for different levels of hypothetical herd effects from a paediatric PCV programme were also conducted. The ICER for base-case was €8650 per QALY (95% CI 5750–17 100). Vaccination of high-risk individuals aged 65–74 years was cost-saving and extension to medium-risk individuals aged 65–74 years yielded an ICER of €2900. Further extension to include medium- and high-risk individuals aged ≥18 years yielded an ICER of €3100. PCV13 vaccination is highly cost-effective in the Netherlands. The transferability of our results to other countries depends upon vaccination strategies already implemented in those countries. PMID:26160871

  16. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Trumbo, Silas Pierson; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Sanwogou, N Jennifer; Toscano, Cristiana M

    2016-10-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcus has been estimated to cause 12,000-28,000 deaths, 182,000 hospitalizations, and 1.4 million clinic visits annually. Countries in the Americas have been among the first developing nations to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into their Expanded Programs on Immunization, with 34 countries and territories having introduced these vaccines as of September 2015. Lessons learned for successful vaccine introduction include the importance of coordination between political and technical decision makers, adjustments to the cold chain prior to vaccine introduction, and the need for detailed plans addressing the financial and technical sustainability of introduction. Though many questions on the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine remain unanswered, the experience of the Americas suggests that the vaccines can be introduced quickly and effectively.

  17. The economic burden of childhood invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumonia in Taiwan: Implications for a pneumococcal vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Chien; Lee, Pei-Lun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Shiou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia are the major causes of morbidity and deaths in children in the world. The management of IPD and pneumonia is an important economic burden on healthcare systems and families. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of IPD and pneumonia among younger children in Taiwan. We used a cost-illness approach to identify the cost categories for analysis in this study according to various perspectives. We obtained data of admission, outpatient, and emergency department visit data from the National Health Insurance Research (NHIR) database for children <5 y of age between January 2008 and December 2008. A prospective survey was administered to the families of patients to obtain detailed personal costs. All costs are presented in US dollars and were estimated by extrapolating 2008 cost data to 2013 price levels. We estimated the number of pneumococcal disease cases that were averted if the PCV-13 vaccine had been available in 2008. The total annual social and hospital costs for IPD were US $4.3 million and US $926,000, respectively. The total annual social and hospital costs for pneumonia were US $150 million and US $17 million, respectively. On average, families spent US $653 or US $218 when their child was diagnosed with IPD or pneumonia, respectively. This cost is approximately 27%-81% of the monthly salary of an unskilled worker. In conclusion, a safe and effective pediatric pneumococcal vaccine is needed to reduce the economic burden caused by pneumococcal infection. PMID:25874476

  18. The economic burden of childhood invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumonia in Taiwan: Implications for a pneumococcal vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Chien; Lee, Pei-Lun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Shiou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia are the major causes of morbidity and deaths in children in the world. The management of IPD and pneumonia is an important economic burden on healthcare systems and families. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of IPD and pneumonia among younger children in Taiwan. We used a cost-illness approach to identify the cost categories for analysis in this study according to various perspectives. We obtained data of admission, outpatient, and emergency department visit data from the National Health Insurance Research (NHIR) database for children <5 y of age between January 2008 and December 2008. A prospective survey was administered to the families of patients to obtain detailed personal costs. All costs are presented in US dollars and were estimated by extrapolating 2008 cost data to 2013 price levels. We estimated the number of pneumococcal disease cases that were averted if the PCV-13 vaccine had been available in 2008. The total annual social and hospital costs for IPD were US $4.3 million and US $926,000, respectively. The total annual social and hospital costs for pneumonia were US $150 million and US $17 million, respectively. On average, families spent US $653 or US $218 when their child was diagnosed with IPD or pneumonia, respectively. This cost is approximately 27%–81% of the monthly salary of an unskilled worker. In conclusion, a safe and effective pediatric pneumococcal vaccine is needed to reduce the economic burden caused by pneumococcal infection. PMID:25874476

  19. Serological criteria and carriage measurement for evaluation of new pneumococcal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The best method of evaluating the efficacy of a vaccine is to compare the incidence of the disease against which it is prepared in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials involving vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects. In the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the proposed alternatives are evaluations of the so-called “correlates of protection” (i.e. markers of the vaccine-induced immune response that predict protection from infection and disease) and nasopharyngeal carriage. The aim of this paper is to discuss the most important limitations of the immunological criteria suggested for licensing new pneumococcal vaccines, and comment on the use of carriage as an endpoint for evaluating efficacy. Data showed why the use of a single serological correlate of protection cannot be considered the best means of evaluating pneumococcal vaccines and highlighted the importance of using carriage for efficacy evaluation but in the meantime the need to develop new sensitive and specific methods. PMID:25970715

  20. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines - Meeting report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-05-17

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a "South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines" was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region.

  1. The host immune dynamics of pneumococcal colonization: Implications for novel vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M Nadeem; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The human nasopharynx (NP) microbiota is complex and diverse and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent member. In the first few years of life, children experience maturation of their immune system thereby conferring homeostatic balance in which pneumococci are typically rendered as harmless colonizers in the upper respiratory environment. Pneumococcal carriage declines in many children before they acquire capsular-specific antibodies, suggesting a capsule antibody-independent mechanism of natural protection against pneumococcal carriage in early childhood. A child's immune system in the first few years of life is Th2-skewed so as to avoid inflammation-induced immunopathology. Understanding Th1/Th2 and Th17 ontogeny in early life and how adjuvant vaccine formulations shift the balance of T helper-cell differentiation, may facilitate the development of new protein-based pneumococcal vaccines. This article will discuss the immune dynamics of pneumococcal colonization in infants. The discussion aims to benefit the design and improvement of protein subunit-based next-generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:25668673

  2. Interaction of Vaccination and Reduction of Antibiotic Use Drives Unexpected Increase of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    de Cellès, Matthieu Domenech; Pons-Salort, Margarita; Varon, Emmanuelle; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Ligier, Caroline; Letort, Véronique; Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-use policies may affect pneumococcal conjugate-vaccine effectiveness. The reported increase of pneumococcal meningitis from 2001 to 2009 in France, where a national campaign to reduce antibiotic use was implemented in parallel to the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, provides unique data to assess these effects. We constructed a mechanistic pneumococcal transmission model and used likelihood to assess the ability of competing hypotheses to explain that increase. We find that a model integrating a fitness cost of penicillin resistance successfully explains the overall and age-stratified pattern of serotype replacement. By simulating counterfactual scenarios of public health interventions in France, we propose that this fitness cost caused a gradual and pernicious interaction between the two interventions by increasing the spread of nonvaccine, penicillin-susceptible strains. More generally, our results indicate that reductions of antibiotic use may counteract the benefits of conjugate vaccines introduced into countries with low vaccine-serotype coverages and high-resistance frequencies. Our findings highlight the key role of antibiotic use in vaccine-induced serotype replacement and suggest the need for more integrated approaches to control pneumococcal infections. PMID:26063589

  3. Surveillance of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Gail L; Klugman, Keith P

    2016-01-01

    Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, especially in developing countries. With the support of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the majority of these countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into their national immunization programs and early data demonstrate a high degree of effectiveness, translating to enormous public health benefit through both direct and indirect (herd) effects. Future vaccination strategy may be focused on maintaining herd effects rather than individual protection. Evaluation of vaccine-type carriage, particularly in pneumonia cases, may be an easy, feasible way of measuring continued vaccine impact. PMID:26309055

  4. Children with otitis media mount a pneumococcal serotype specific serum IgG and IgA response comparable to healthy controls after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    PubMed

    Menon, Vinay J; Corscadden, Karli J; Fuery, Angela; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Richmond, Peter C; Wiertsema, Selma P

    2012-04-26

    It has been suggested that otitis-prone children have an impaired antibody response. To investigate this in the context of pneumococcal vaccination, we used a multiplex bead-based assay to measure serum IgG and IgA levels against pneumococcal serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) and 4 non-PCV7 serotypes (1, 5, 7F and 19A) in healthy (n=43) and otitis-prone children (n=75) before, 6 weeks after and 1 year after vaccination with one dose of PCV7. Pre-vaccination, otitis-prone children had significantly higher serum IgG levels against serotypes 4, 9V and 23F and against all non-PCV7 serotypes. One year following vaccination, there was no difference in IgG or IgA levels between healthy and otitis-prone children. The effect of the administration of one or two doses of PCV7 was investigated in otitis-prone children. After a second dose of PCV7, pneumococcal serotype specific IgG levels, but not IgA titres, were higher compared to the levels measured after the initial dose of PCV7. One year post PCV7 vaccination there was no difference in either IgG or IgA antibody levels to any of the PCV7 serotypes between children who received either one or two doses of PCV7. The finding that otitis-prone children do not have an impaired pneumococcal serotype-specific serum IgG or IgA response suggests that new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may be immunogenic in otitis-prone children, however, further investigations are necessary to determine the clinical impact of such vaccines against the development of recurrent acute otitis media.

  5. Assessing the Immunogenic Response of a Single Center's Pneumococcal Vaccination Protocol in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Myers, Leann; Kanter, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hematologic disorder in the United States. Patients with SCD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and are reliant on both early penicillin prophylaxis and antipneumococcal vaccination for prevention of infection. Although studies examining vaccine response have demonstrated a drop-off of titer response after 3 years, an optimal vaccination regimen has not been identified. Our study sought to assess the immunogenicity of our center's pneumococcal vaccination strategy, which included Prevnar (PCV-7) (before the introduction of PCV-13) followed by Pneumovax (PPV-23) given routinely at 2 and 5 years of age and then every 5 years thereafter. Our goal was to assess vaccine response in a population of patients with SCD who had received vaccines according to this regimen using multiplex bead analysis. Our study demonstrated a significant percentage of persons with SCD do not maintain a sufficient vaccination response to PPV-23 for 5 years. Our study revealed that only 36% of patients had protective levels of antipneumococcal antibody titers at an average of 37 months after vaccination. Most alarmingly, within the group of patients with subtherapeutic titers, 64% demonstrated vaccine response to <25% of the tested serotypes. These findings were significantly associated with duration of time since last vaccine administration, but the mean age of lack of response was below the 3-year window where vaccine response was previously reported to wane. Our results indicate antipneumococcal immunity may not be optimally maintained using this vaccination strategy in patients with SCD leaving them vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease. Many pediatric hematologists stop prophylactic penicillin at 5 years of age making these results alarming. We recommend further investigation into an optimal vaccine schedule and monitoring of antipneumococcal titers in at-risk patients. PMID:26886376

  6. Assessing the Immunogenic Response of a Single Center's Pneumococcal Vaccination Protocol in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Myers, Leann; Kanter, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hematologic disorder in the United States. Patients with SCD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and are reliant on both early penicillin prophylaxis and antipneumococcal vaccination for prevention of infection. Although studies examining vaccine response have demonstrated a drop-off of titer response after 3 years, an optimal vaccination regimen has not been identified. Our study sought to assess the immunogenicity of our center's pneumococcal vaccination strategy, which included Prevnar (PCV-7) (before the introduction of PCV-13) followed by Pneumovax (PPV-23) given routinely at 2 and 5 years of age and then every 5 years thereafter. Our goal was to assess vaccine response in a population of patients with SCD who had received vaccines according to this regimen using multiplex bead analysis. Our study demonstrated a significant percentage of persons with SCD do not maintain a sufficient vaccination response to PPV-23 for 5 years. Our study revealed that only 36% of patients had protective levels of antipneumococcal antibody titers at an average of 37 months after vaccination. Most alarmingly, within the group of patients with subtherapeutic titers, 64% demonstrated vaccine response to <25% of the tested serotypes. These findings were significantly associated with duration of time since last vaccine administration, but the mean age of lack of response was below the 3-year window where vaccine response was previously reported to wane. Our results indicate antipneumococcal immunity may not be optimally maintained using this vaccination strategy in patients with SCD leaving them vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease. Many pediatric hematologists stop prophylactic penicillin at 5 years of age making these results alarming. We recommend further investigation into an optimal vaccine schedule and monitoring of antipneumococcal titers in at-risk patients.

  7. Randomized, controlled trial efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against otitis media among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katherine L; David, Angeline B; Chandran, Aruna; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Weatherholtz, Robert; Santosham, Mathuram

    2008-01-01

    We report the phase III trial efficacy of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against clinical and culture proven otitis media (OM) among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants. Efficacy was -0.4% (95% CI: -19.4 to 15.6) for clinically-diagnosed OM, 5.1% (95% CI: -51.5 to 40.6) for severe OM, and 64% (95% CI: -34% to 90%) for vaccine serotype pneumococcal OM suggesting that this vaccine is efficacious for pneumococcal OM in this high risk population. PMID:18162944

  8. Vaccinating welders against pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Cosgrove, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011 the Department of Health in England recommended that welders should each receive a single dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). This review assesses the evidence behind the advice and its practical implications. Method The review was informed by a systematic search in Medline, which related pneumonia to welding and/or exposure to metal fume, and was supplemented using the personal libraries of the authors. Findings There is consistent evidence that welders die more often of pneumonia, especially lobar pneumonia, are hospitalised more often with lobar and pneumococcal pneumonia, and more often develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). It is estimated that one case of IPD may be prevented over a 10-year period by vaccinating 588 welders against pneumococcal infection. Conclusions A good case exists that employers should offer PPV23 vaccination to welders and other employees exposed to metal fume. Additionally, reasonable measures must be taken to minimise exposure to welding fume and welders should be encouraged not to smoke. PMID:22764269

  9. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines – Meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  10. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Hematological Malignancies: a Systematic Review of Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Safety

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; D’Egidio, Valeria; Sestili, Cristina; Spadea, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients, and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To assess flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in the scientific literature about the flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 22 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI=6–62%) for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI=23.2 – 63.3 %) and 39.6 % (95% CI=26%–54.1%) for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI=19.7–51.2%) for H1N1, 23% (95% CI=16.6–31.5%) for H3N2, 29% (95% CI=21.3–37%) for B. Conclusion Despite the low rate of response, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines.

  11. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Hematological Malignancies: a Systematic Review of Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Safety

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; D’Egidio, Valeria; Sestili, Cristina; Spadea, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of getting influenza and pneumococcal disease is higher in cancer patients, and serum antibody levels tend to be lower in patients with hematological malignancy. Objective To assess flu and pneumococcal vaccinations efficacy, effectiveness, and safety in onco-hematological patients. Methods Two systematic reviews and possible meta-analysis were conducted to summarize the results of all primary study in the scientific literature about the flu and pneumococcal vaccine in onco-hematological patients. Literature searches were performed using Pub-Med and Scopus databases. StatsDirect 2.8.0 was used for the analysis. Results 22 and 26 studies were collected respectively for flu and pneumococcal vaccinations. Protection rate of booster dose was 30% (95% CI=6–62%) for H1N1. Pooled prevalence protection rate of H3N2 and B was available for meta-analysis only for first dose, 42.6% (95% CI=23.2 – 63.3 %) and 39.6 % (95% CI=26%–54.1%) for H3N2 and B, respectively. Response rate of booster dose resulted 35% (95% CI=19.7–51.2%) for H1N1, 23% (95% CI=16.6–31.5%) for H3N2, 29% (95% CI=21.3–37%) for B. Conclusion Despite the low rate of response, flu, and pneumococcal vaccines are worthwhile for patients with hematological malignancies. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in particular rituximab, splenectomy, transplant recipient had lower and impaired response. No serious adverse events were reported for both vaccines. PMID:27648207

  12. The effect of physicians' awareness on influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates and correlates of vaccination in patients with diabetes in Turkey: an epidemiological Study "diaVAX".

    PubMed

    Satman, Ilhan; Akalin, Sema; Cakir, Bekir; Altinel, Serdar

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of increased physician awareness on the rate and determinants of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (n = 5682, mean [SD] age: 57.3 [11.6] years, 57% female) were enrolled by 44 physicians between Sept 2010 and Jan 2011. The physicians were initially questioned regarding vaccination practices, and then, they attended a training program. During the last five years, the physicians recommended influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations to 87.9% and 83.4% of the patients, respectively; however; only 27% of the patients received the influenza and 9.8% received the pneumococcal vaccines. One year after the training, the vaccination rates increased to 63.3% and 40.7%, respectively. The logistic regression models revealed that variables which increased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against influenza were: longer duration of diabetes, presence of hyperlipidemia and more use of concomitant medications whereas more use of anti-hyperglycemic medications was associated with increased odds of vaccination. On the other hand, older age, longer duration of diabetes and presence of a cardiovascular disease were variables which decreased the likelihood of having been vaccinated against pneumococcal disease during the past five years. However, during the study period, variables which decreased the odds of having been vaccinated included: older age and anti-hyperglycemic medications for influenza, and presence of hyperlipidemia and a family history of hypertension for pneumococcal disease. While variables which increased the likelihood of vaccination in the same period were: increased number of co-morbidities for influenza, and family history of diabetes for pneumococcal disease. We conclude that increased awareness of physicians may help improve vaccination rates against influenza and pneumococcal disease. However, diabetic patients with more severe health conditions are less likely to having been

  13. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Technical report: prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Overturf, G D

    2000-08-01

    Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections peaks in children younger than 2 years, reaching rates of 228/100,000 in children 6 to 12 months old. Children with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease [SCD]) and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection have pneumococcal infection rates 20- to 100-fold higher than those of healthy children during the first 5 years of life. Others at high risk of pneumococcal infections include children with congenital immunodeficiency; chronic cardiopulmonary disease; children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy; children with immunosuppressive neoplastic diseases; children with chronic renal insufficiency, including nephrotic syndrome; children with diabetes; and children with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Children of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent also have higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Outbreaks of pneumococcal infection have occurred with increased frequency in children attending out-of-home care. Among these children, nasopharyngeal colonization rates of 60% have been observed, along with pneumococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics to children involved in outbreaks of pneumococcal disease has had an inconsistent effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. In contrast, continuous penicillin prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with SCD has been successful in reducing rates of pneumococcal disease by 84%. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been recommended since 1985 for children older than 2 years who are at high risk of invasive disease, but these vaccines were not recommended for younger children and infants because of poor antibody response before 2 years of age. In contrast, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (Prevnar) induce proposed protective antibody responses (>.15

  14. Predicting the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: serotype composition is not enough.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard; Adegbola, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. A heptavalent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV) has proven highly effective in preventing pneumococcal disease in industrialized countries. Two higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are now widely available, even in the poorest countries. These differ from each other in the number of serotypes and carrier proteins used for their conjugation. Some have assumed that the only meaningful clinical difference between PCV formulations is a function of the number of serotypes each contains. A careful review of recent clinical data with these and several unlicensed PCV formulations points to important similarities but also that some key properties of each vaccine likely differ from one another.

  15. [Infection prevention following splenectomy: protective effect of a new 17-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    PubMed

    Tillmann, W; Burow, M; Schröter, W

    1983-12-01

    The antibody response to a new, 17-valent pneumococcal vaccine (Moniarix; Smith Kline-RIT) was tested in 43 splenectomised or functionally asplenic patients. The vaccine contained the following types of capsular antigens: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6A, 7F, 8, 9N, 11A, 12F, 14, 15F, 17F, 18C, 19F, 23F, 25 (Danish nomenclature). The vaccination was well tolerated. Local, reversible reddening and swelling was seen in 22 patients. The only systemic side effect was a rise of temperature in 13 patients. Serum titers of more than 300 ng/ml of specific antibodies were considered protective. A complete immunization of all patients was reached only with the capsular antigens 11A and 19F. The other antigens only induced protective serum concentrations in some of the patients. Considering the frequency of infections with the different types of antigens in Western Europe, percentage of asplenic patients at risk for infections with all pneumococcal types has been reduced by the vaccination to about 34%. It is proposed that the combination of pneumococcal vaccine and penicillin-prophylaxis provide effective protection for splenectomised patients against bacterial infections. The duration of penicillin-prophylaxis depends on the age of the patient at the time of splenectomy and the basic disease.

  16. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S. K.; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P.; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M.; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from −14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  17. Distance to health services affects local-level vaccine efficacy for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) among rural Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Lucero, Marilla; Nohynek, Hanna; Anthamatten, Peter; Thomas, Deborah S K; Tallo, Veronica; Tanskanen, Antti; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Puumalainen, Taneli; Lupisan, Socorro P; Ruutu, Petri; Ladesma, Erma; Williams, Gail M; Riley, Ian; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-03-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have demonstrated efficacy against childhood pneumococcal disease in several regions globally. We demonstrate how spatial epidemiological analysis of a PCV trial can assist in developing vaccination strategies that target specific geographic subpopulations at greater risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent PCV among children less than 2 y of age in Bohol, Philippines. Trial data were linked to the residential location of each participant using a geographic information system. We use spatial interpolation methods to create smoothed surface maps of vaccination rates and local-level vaccine efficacy across the study area. We then measure the relationship between distance to the main study hospital and local-level vaccine efficacy, controlling for ecological factors, using spatial autoregressive models with spatial autoregressive disturbances. We find a significant amount of spatial variation in vaccination rates across the study area. For the primary study endpoint vaccine efficacy increased with distance from the main study hospital from -14% for children living less than 1.5 km from Bohol Regional Hospital (BRH) to 55% for children living greater than 8.5 km from BRH. Spatial regression models indicated that after adjustment for ecological factors, distance to the main study hospital was positively related to vaccine efficacy, increasing at a rate of 4.5% per kilometer distance. Because areas with poor access to care have significantly higher VE, targeted vaccination of children in these areas might allow for a more effective implementation of global programs. PMID:24550454

  18. Compared effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with the 13-valent vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Gaillat, J

    2013-06-01

    13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.

  19. Assessment of vaccine coverage following the introduction of a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccine program for the elderly in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ross M

    2005-04-15

    In 1998, a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccine program was introduced for persons aged > or = 65 years in Victoria, Australia. In 2000, vaccine coverage over the previous 5 years was assessed through a telephone survey of 385 randomly selected subjects aged > or = 65 years. Self-reported pneumococcal vaccine coverage within the previous 5 years was 46.0% (95% CI 40.5-51.6). Self-report was validated against the medical records of the nominated provider for 278 (72%) subjects. Among this subgroup, self-reported coverage was 51.1% but was 57.9% according to medical records (positive predictive value 91.5%, negative predictive value 77.2%, sensitivity 80.7%, specificity 89.7%). After accounting for response bias among those subjects for whom self-report was not validated, the revised estimate of pneumococcal vaccine coverage within the previous 5 years was 50.5% (95% CI 44.8-56.1). Comparison of vaccine coverage over time suggests the introduction of the publicly funded program in Victoria has dramatically increased coverage among the elderly.

  20. Assignment of Weight-Based Antibody Units for Seven Additional Serotypes to a Human Pneumococcal Standard Reference Serum, 007sp.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, D; Tan, C Y; Burbidge, P; McElhiney, S; McLaughlin, L; Tucker, R; Rauh, M; Sidhu, M; Giardina, P C

    2015-11-01

    The pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reference standard serum, lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced in 2013 with a new reference standard, 007sp, that is projected to be available for the next 25 years. 007sp was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol; 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax II, and a unit of blood was obtained twice from each immunized subject within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma of 262 subjects, filled at 6 ml per vial, and lyophilized. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype-specific IgG assignments for 89SF to the new reference standard, 007sp, to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F) by using the WHO reference ELISA. In a second study involving three laboratories, a similar protocol was used to assign weight-based IgG concentrations in micrograms per ml to 007sp of seven serotypes (8, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 22F, and 33F) also present in the 23-valent pneumococcal unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine. In addition, the IgG assignments for a 12-member WHO quality control (QC) serum panel were also extended to cover these seven serotypes. Agreement was excellent, with a concordance correlation coefficient (r(c)) of >0.996 when each laboratory was compared to the assigned values for the 12 WHO QC serum samples. There are four remaining pneumococcal serotypes (2, 9N, 17F, and 20) found in Pneumovax II for which IgG assignments exist for 89SF and remain to be bridged.

  1. Making new vaccines affordable: a comparison of financing processes used to develop and deploy new meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James R; Greenwood, Brian; Clift, Charles; Goel, Akshay; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Smith, Richard; Heymann, David L

    2011-11-26

    Mechanisms to increase access to health products are varied and controversial. Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to establish capacity to manufacture a vaccine. The Advanced Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccines is a so-called pull mechanism that guarantees companies a supplement paid in addition to the purchase price for vaccines for a specific period. We compare these approaches, identifying key dimensions of each and considering their potential for replication. We also discuss issues that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) face now that these new vaccines are available. Progress towards GAVI's strategic aims is needed and funding is crucial. Approaches that decrease the financial pressure on GAVI and greatly increase political and financial engagement by low-income countries should also be considered. PMID:21664678

  2. Prediction of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Daniel M.; Harboe, Zitta B.; Flasche, Stefan; Scott, J. Anthony; Lipsitch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Before the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar-7), the relative prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae was fairly stable worldwide. We sought to develop a statistical tool to predict the relative frequency of different serotypes among disease isolates in the pre- and post-Prevnar-7 eras using the limited amount of data that is widely available. Methods We initially used pre-Prevnar-7 carriage prevalence and estimates of invasiveness derived from case-fatality data as predictors for the relative abundance of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease during the pre- and post-Prevnar-7 eras, using negative binomial regression. We fit the model to pre-Prevnar-7 invasive pneumococcal disease data from England and Wales and used these data to (1) evaluate the performance of the model using several datasets and (2) evaluate the utility of the country-specific carriage data. We then fit an alternative model that used polysaccharide structure, a correlate of prevalence that does not require country-specific information and could be useful in determining the post-vaccine population structure, as a predictor. Results Predictions from the initial model fit data from several pediatric populations in the pre-Prevnar-7 era. Following the introduction of Prevnar-7, the model still had a good negative predictive value, though substantial unexplained variation remained. The alternative model had a good negative predictive value but poor positive predictive value. Both models demonstrate that the pneumococcal population follows a somewhat predictable pattern even after vaccination. Conclusions This approach provides a preliminary framework to evaluate the potential patterns and impact of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease. PMID:21646962

  3. Evolving microbiology and molecular epidemiology of acute otitis media in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R

    2007-10-01

    The addition of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to the routine immunization schedule in the United States for infants has produced a much more favorable impact on the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) than anticipated. Because the serotypes included in PCV7 were those most frequently expressing antibiotic resistance in 2001, predictions were made that up to 98% of pneumococcal AOM episodes would be caused by penicillin susceptible strains. However, recent studies have shown that the benefits of PCV7 are becoming eroded. Replacement serotypes of pneumococci have emerged, expressing polysaccharide capsules different from those included in PCV7, with increasing frequency. These replacement strains are coming to dominate in the nasopharynx and in AOM isolates (and in invasive disease). Expansion in the isolation of serotypes 3, 7F, 15B/C/F, 19A, 22F, 33F, and 38 has been described in various surveillance systems. Pneumococcal strains expressing non-PCV7 capsular serotypes also appear to be rapidly acquiring resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. Emergence of strains of pneumococci expressing non-PCV7 capsular serotypes is occurring by multiple mechanisms including capsular switching as suggested by molecular epidemiology studies. Expansion of the number of serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is needed to sustain a long-term benefit from immunization against these bacteria.

  4. Reduction of Antibody Response to an 11-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Coadministered with a Vaccine Containing Acellular Pertussis Components

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Ron; Goldblatt, David; Maleckar, James R.; Yaïch, Mansour; Eskola, Juhani

    2004-01-01

    In pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), polysaccharide antigens are often conjugated to protein carriers related to other common vaccines. It is therefore important to test PCV interaction with other pediatric vaccines when administered simultaneously. We assessed the immune response to an 11-valent PCV conjugated to diphtheria and tetanus carriers (PncD/T11), administered concomitantly, but in separate sites, with a combined vaccine containing epitopes related antigenically to the carriers: polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus tox oid (PRP-T), diphtheria toxoid (DT), and tetanus toxoid (TT). In addition, these combinations contained inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and either whole-cell pertussis (wP) or acellular pertussis (aP) components. After coadministration of PncD/T11 with the combined vaccine containing wP (DTwP/IPV/PRP-T), the responses to all polysaccharides in the PncD/T11 were satisfactory. In contrast, when coadministered with an aP-containing combination (DTaP/IPV/PRP-T), the response to all seven pneumococcal conjugates to TT was significantly reduced after primary and booster immunization. The pneumococcal conjugates to DT were not significantly reduced after the primary series, but were somewhat reduced after booster. It is likely that some suppression of the tetanus-mediated response occurred even when the PncD/T11 was coadministered with wP, but this suppression was masked by the adjuvant effect of wP. By replacing wP with aP, this adjuvant effect was removed, unmasking the suppression of the tetanus-mediated response. With the increasing use of multiple aP-containing vaccines in infancy, novel approaches to adjuvants and carrier protein technology are likely to be required. PMID:15322036

  5. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely

  6. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will do a physical exam and health history. Possible tests may include blood, imaging, or lab tests. Treatment is with antibiotics. Vaccines can prevent pneumococcal infections. There are two ...

  7. Impact of routine PCV7 (Prevenar) vaccination of infants on the clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal disease is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as a priority for inclusion into national childhood immunization programmes. Pneumococcal vaccine has yet to be included as part of the national vaccination programme in Malaysia although it has been available in the country since 2005. This study sought to estimate the disease burden of pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and to assess the cost effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with PCV7. Methods A decision model was adapted taking into consideration prevalence, disease burden, treatment costs and outcomes for pneumococcal disease severe enough to result in a hospital admission. Disease burden were estimated from the medical records of 6 hospitals. Where local data was unavailable, model inputs were obtained from international and regional studies and from focus group discussions. The model incorporated the effects of herd protection on the unvaccinated adult population. Results At current vaccine prices, PCV7 vaccination of 90% of a hypothetical 550,000 birth cohort would incur costs of RM 439.6 million (US$128 million). Over a 10 year time horizon, vaccination would reduce episodes of pneumococcal hospitalisation by 9,585 cases to 73,845 hospitalisations with cost savings of RM 37.5 million (US$10.9 million) to the health system with 11,422.5 life years saved at a cost effectiveness ratio of RM 35,196 (US$10,261) per life year gained. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination of infants is expected to be cost-effective for Malaysia with an incremental cost per life year gained of RM 35,196 (US$10,261). This is well below the WHO's threshold for cost effectiveness of public health interventions in Malaysia of RM 71,761 (US$20,922). PMID:21936928

  8. Genetic conjugation of components in two pneumococcal fusion protein vaccines enhances paediatric mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pope, Caroline; Oliver, Elizabeth H; Ma, Jiangtao; Langton Hewer, Claire; Mitchell, Tim J; Finn, Adam

    2015-03-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonises the upper respiratory tract and can cause pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. Existing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are expensive to produce and only protect against 13 of the 90+ pneumococcal serotypes; hence there is an urgent need for the development of new vaccines. We have shown previously in mice that pneumolysin (Ply) and a non-toxic variant (Δ6Ply) enhance antibody responses when genetically fused to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA), a potentially valuable effect for future vaccines. We investigated this adjuvanticity in human paediatric mucosal primary immune cell cultures. Adenoidal mononuclear cells (AMNC) from children aged 0-15 years (n=46) were stimulated with conjugated, admixed or individual proteins, cell viability and CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses were assessed using flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was measured using multiplex technology. Proliferation of CD4+ T-cells in response to PsaAPly, was significantly higher than responses to individual or admixed proteins (p=0.002). In contrast, an enhanced response to PsaAΔ6Ply compared to individual or admixed proteins only occurred at higher concentrations (p<0.01). Evaluation of cytotoxicity suggested that responses occurred when Ply-induced cytolysis was inhibited, either by fusion or mutation, but importantly an additional toxicity independent immune enhancing effect was also apparent as a result of fusion. Responses were MHC class II dependent and had a Th1/Th17 profile. Genetic fusion of Δ6Ply to PsaA significantly modulates and enhances pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cell responses without the cytolytic effects of some other pneumolysoids. Membrane binding activity of such proteins may confer valuable adjuvant properties as fusion may assist Δ6Ply to deliver PsaA to the APC surface effectively, contributing to the initiation of anti-pneumococcal CD4+ T-cell immunity.

  9. Modelling the effect of conjugate vaccines in pneumococcal disease: cohort or population models?

    PubMed

    Standaert, Baudouin; Demarteau, Nadia; Talbird, Sandra; Mauskopf, Josephine

    2010-11-19

    Cohort and population models estimate vaccine impact on disease events, and yield different estimates in countries with different demographic compositions. We compared administration of the new 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae-protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with no vaccination in two countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Mexico, using two modelling strategies: a cohort model and a population model. The cohort model followed a birth cohort over a lifetime, beginning 10 years after initiation of the vaccine program, when vaccine efficacy steady state had been reached. The population model examined the country-specific population over 1 year, also beginning 10 years after initiation of the vaccine program. Both models included the same age-specific disease rates of meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia, and otitis media. The output variables were the numbers of specific events, with and without indirect vaccine effects. Without indirect effects, the cohort and population models produced similar results for both countries (deviation of <20% difference per output measure for most outcomes). The difference between the model types was much greater when indirect vaccine effects were included, especially in Mexico (up to 120% difference). Cohort and population modelling methods produce different results depending on the disease, the intervention, the demographic composition, and the time horizon evaluated. Results from the two model types provide different information about the impact of interventions on events: accumulated vaccine benefit for an individual in a cohort model; vaccine benefit for a whole population at a specific time point in a population model.

  10. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p < 0.001). For 13-valent PCV serotypes, there was a decrease in incidence between 2011 and 2014 (9.8 to 5.3 cases per 100 000 population (p < 0.001)). Serotypes unique to PPV23 and those not included in a vaccine increased from 2.3 to 5.8 and from 2.4 to 7.2 cases per 100 000 population, respectively (p < 0.001). Interpretation: In older adults, among serotypes contained in PCVs, we have shown a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease. This is likely due to herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  11. Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children under Two Years of Age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Mark; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Perniciaro, Stephanie; Fitzner, Christina; Imöhl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we calculate the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children under the age of two years using the indirect cohort method. We also discuss the timeliness of vaccination and the residual cases of vaccine type IPD. Methods and Findings From July 2006 until June 2015, 921 IPD cases were reported and for 618 children (67.1%), the vaccination status at the time of infection could be accurately determined. Of these, 379 (61.3%) were vaccinated and 239 (38.7%) were not vaccinated. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) of PCV7 for all included serotypes + 6A was 80% (95% CI: 63–89) for at least one dose, 97% (89–100) after three primary doses (post primary) and 95% (57–100) post booster. The adjusted overall VE of PCV13 was 86% (74–93) for at least one dose, 85% (62–94) post primary and 91% (61–99) post booster. For the additional serotypes included in PCV13, the adjusted VE was 82% (66–91), 80% (46–93) and 90% (54–98) respectively. The serotype specific VE for at least one dose was high for serotypes 1 (83%; 15–97), 3 (74%; 2–93), 7F (84%; 18–98) and 19A (77%; 47–90). Only 39.5% of children with IPD obtained their first dose of PCV7 according to schedule (2nd dose: 32.9%, 3rd dose: 22.0%, booster dose: 63.6%). For children vaccinated with PCV13 values were slightly better: 43.8%, 33.5%, 26.3% and 74.3% respectively. Among 90 residual cases with PCV7 serotypes, 73 (81.1%) were in unvaccinated children, and 15 (16.7%) in children who had not obtained the number of doses recommended for their age, and only two (2.2%) in children vaccinated according to age. Of 82 cases with PCV13 serotypes occurring after the switch from PCV7 to PCV13, 56 (68.3%) were not vaccinated, 22 (26.8%) were incompletely vaccinated, and four (4.9%) were vaccinated according to age. Conclusions Our data show a high effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany

  12. Ten years of experience with the pneumococcal conjugate 7-valent vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Weil Olivier, C

    2013-08-01

    In children, pneumococcus became the predominant infectious agent, after the routine use of the Hib conjugate vaccine dramatically decreased Haemophilus Influenzae type b prevalence. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI) and of non-invasive infections due to vaccine serotypes (VS) decreased by 80% in Europe along with a 30-40% decrease in the global incidence of IPI in this age group, after the implementation of Prevenar 7(®) routine immunization in children below 2 years of age. The decrease of IPI due to VS in other age groups was an indirect benefit. The moderate increase of non-vaccinal serotype IPI incidence did not impede the benefit of the overall program. Serotype 19A was the most frequent and carried resistance to antibiotics. Prevenar 13(®), a second-generation vaccine with six new serotypes, replaced Prevenar 7(®) in most countries after 2010, with available evidence of its effectiveness (United Kingdom, US, France).

  13. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Toms, Cindy; de Kluyver, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, there were 1,883 cases (8.3 per 100,000 population) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) in 2011 and 1,823 cases (8.0 per 100,000) in 2012. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was 9 times the rate of IPD in non-Indigenous Australians in 2011 and 7 times in 2012. Following the July 2011 introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13vPCV) to the National Immunisation Program, rates of IPD in children aged less than 5 years decreased from 19.5 per 100,000 in 2011 to 12.6 per 100,000 in 2012. In Indigenous adults aged 50 years or over the rates of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) continued to increase in both 2011 (47.2 per 100,000) and 2012 (51.2 per 100,000). The rates of IPD in non-Indigenous adults aged 65 years or over caused by serotypes included in the 23vPPV also increased in 2011 (10.1 per 100,000) and 2012 (11.2 per 100,000). There were 134 deaths attributable to IPD in 2011 and 126 in 2012, although it should be noted that deaths may be under-reported. The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remained low and reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone/cefotaxime continued to be rare. PMID:27522138

  14. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  15. Budget impact analysis of a pneumococcal vaccination programme in the 65-year-old Spanish cohort using a dynamic model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the costs and clinical benefits of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administered annually to the 65-year-old cohort in Spain versus the alternative of not vaccinating patients and treating them only when infected. Methods Cases of pneumococcal disease avoided were calculated through a dynamic model based on the work of Anderson and May (1999). Sixty-six percent of the 65-year-old cohort was assumed to have been vaccinated with one PCV13 dose (304,492 subjects). Base-case estimated vaccine effectiveness and serotype coverage were 58% and 60%, respectively. Disease-related costs were calculated based on published data. Results Over the 5-year period, a total of 125,906 cases of pneumococcal disease would be avoided. Net savings of €102 million would be obtained. The cost-saving distribution was not homogeneous, starting in the 2nd year and increasing through the 5th. To demonstrate model robustness, an additional scenario analysis was performed using extreme values of model parameters (vaccination programme coverage, vaccine effectiveness, discount rate and disease costs). Under those scenarios, net savings were always achieved. Conclusions Based on the assumptions of the model, the 65-year-cohort pneumococcal vaccination campaign appears to be a cost-saving intervention in the Spanish population under different scenarios. PMID:23578307

  16. A protein-based pneumococcal vaccine protects rhesus macaques from pneumonia after experimental infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Denoël, Philippe; Philipp, Mario T; Doyle, Lara; Martin, Dale; Carletti, Georges; Poolman, Jan T

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Protein-based pneumococcal vaccines are envisaged to replace or complement the current polysaccharide-based vaccines. In this context, detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD) are two potential candidates for incorporation into pneumococcal vaccines. In this study, the protective efficacy of a PhtD-dPly vaccine was evaluated in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model of pneumonia. The animals were immunized twice with 10 µg of PhD and 10 µg of dPly formulated in the Adjuvant System AS02 or with AS02 alone, before they were challenged with a 19F pneumococcal strain. The survival was significantly higher in the protein-vaccinated group and seemed to be linked to the capacity to greatly reduce bacterial load within the first week post-challenge. Vaccination elicited high concentrations of anti-PhtD and anti-Ply antibodies and a link was found between survival and antibody levels. In conclusion, AS02-adjuvanted PhtD-dPly vaccine protects against S. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. It is probable that the protection is at least partially mediated by PhtD- and Ply-specific antibodies. PMID:21624422

  17. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) - What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... and older, people with certain medical conditions, and cigarette smokers are at the highest risk. Before there ... be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Your doctor should file this report, or ...

  18. Noninvasive Pneumococcal Clones Associated with Antimicrobial Nonsusceptibility Isolated from Children in the Era of Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Imelda; Meehan, Mary; Cafferkey, Mary; Cunney, Robert; Humphreys, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Carriage and noninvasive pneumococcal isolates frequently have a higher prevalence of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility than invasive isolates. From 2009 to 2014, we determined the associated clones in 169 pediatric noninvasive nonsusceptible pneumococci from a total of 506 isolates collected after 7- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine introduction (PCV7/13) to the Irish childhood immunization schedule in 2008 and 2010, respectively. We compared our results to those from 25 noninvasive pediatric pneumococcal isolates collected in 2007, the year before introduction of conjugate vaccines. In 2007, England14-9 and Spain9V-3 accounted for 12% and 32% of nonsusceptible clones, respectively, but in 2009 to 2014, their prevalence fell to 0% and 2.4%. Furthermore, there was a significant decline in Spain6B-2 and its variants from 2009 to 2014 (P = 0.0024). Fluctuations occurred in clonal complex 320 associated with serotype 19A. The prevalence of Sweden15A-25 and its variants and ST558 (a single-locus variant of Utah35B-24) associated with nonvaccine serotypes (NVT) 15A and 35B increased from 0% and 8% in 2007 to 19% and 16% in 2013 to 2014, respectively. Pilus locus 1 (PI-1) is associated with the spread of some nonsusceptible pneumococcal clones. PI-1 was more frequently associated with PCV7/13 serotypes than NVT (P = 0.0020). Our data highlight the value of surveillance of noninvasive pneumococci following conjugate vaccine introduction. Importantly, emerging clones associated with NVT may limit the effectiveness of PCV7/13 in reducing the high rate of nonsusceptibility among pediatric noninvasive pneumococci, with implications for empirical treatment strategies. PMID:26169397

  19. Noninvasive pneumococcal clones associated with antimicrobial nonsusceptibility isolated from children in the era of conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    McElligott, Martha; Vickers, Imelda; Meehan, Mary; Cafferkey, Mary; Cunney, Robert; Humphreys, Hilary

    2015-09-01

    Carriage and noninvasive pneumococcal isolates frequently have a higher prevalence of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility than invasive isolates. From 2009 to 2014, we determined the associated clones in 169 pediatric noninvasive nonsusceptible pneumococci from a total of 506 isolates collected after 7- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine introduction (PCV7/13) to the Irish childhood immunization schedule in 2008 and 2010, respectively. We compared our results to those from 25 noninvasive pediatric pneumococcal isolates collected in 2007, the year before introduction of conjugate vaccines. In 2007, England(14)-9 and Spain(9V)-3 accounted for 12% and 32% of nonsusceptible clones, respectively, but in 2009 to 2014, their prevalence fell to 0% and 2.4%. Furthermore, there was a significant decline in Spain(6B)-2 and its variants from 2009 to 2014 (P = 0.0024). Fluctuations occurred in clonal complex 320 associated with serotype 19A. The prevalence of Sweden(15A)-25 and its variants and ST558 (a single-locus variant of Utah(35B)-24) associated with nonvaccine serotypes (NVT) 15A and 35B increased from 0% and 8% in 2007 to 19% and 16% in 2013 to 2014, respectively. Pilus locus 1 (PI-1) is associated with the spread of some nonsusceptible pneumococcal clones. PI-1 was more frequently associated with PCV7/13 serotypes than NVT (P = 0.0020). Our data highlight the value of surveillance of noninvasive pneumococci following conjugate vaccine introduction. Importantly, emerging clones associated with NVT may limit the effectiveness of PCV7/13 in reducing the high rate of nonsusceptibility among pediatric noninvasive pneumococci, with implications for empirical treatment strategies. PMID:26169397

  20. In situ pneumococcal vaccine production and delivery through a hybrid biological-biomaterial vector

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Beitelshees, Marie; Fang, Lei; Hill, Andrew; Ahmadi, Mahmoud Kamal; Chen, Mingfu; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul; Smith, Randall J.; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Hakansson, Anders P.; Jones, Charles H.; Pfeifer, Blaine A.

    2016-01-01

    The type and potency of an immune response provoked during vaccination will determine ultimate success in disease prevention. The basis for this response will be the design and implementation of antigen presentation to the immune system. Whereas direct antigen administration will elicit some form of immunological response, a more sophisticated approach would couple the antigen of interest to a vector capable of broad delivery formats and designed for heightened response. New antigens associated with pneumococcal disease virulence were used to test the delivery and adjuvant capabilities of a hybrid biological-biomaterial vector consisting of a bacterial core electrostatically coated with a cationic polymer. The hybrid design provides (i) passive and active targeting of antigen-presenting cells, (ii) natural and multicomponent adjuvant properties, (iii) dual intracellular delivery mechanisms, and (iv) a simple formulation mechanism. In addition, the hybrid format enables device-specific, or in situ, antigen production and consolidation via localization within the bacterial component of the vector. This capability eliminates the need for dedicated antigen production and purification before vaccination efforts while leveraging the aforementioned features of the overall delivery device. We present the first disease-specific utilization of the vector toward pneumococcal disease highlighted by improved immune responses and protective capabilities when tested against traditional vaccine formulations and a range of clinically relevant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. More broadly, the results point to similar levels of success with other diseases that would benefit from the production, delivery, and efficacy capabilities offered by the hybrid vector. PMID:27419235

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of general immunisation of infants and young children with the heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Katja; Pichlbauer, Ernest; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Background The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) granted market authorisation to the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar (Wyeth) in the year 2001. The indication of Prevenar is the active immunisation of infants and young children under the age of two against invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumonia serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F. At the time of this study the German vaccination scheme advises the immunisation with Prevenar only for children at high risk. Objectives The objective of the study is first to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of the immunisation of all children with the heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Germany and second, whether a general recommendation for vaccination of all children would be cost-effective. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in 29 relevant databases for the period of January 1999 to June 2004. Thus 1,884 articles were identified which were then assessed according to predefined selection criteria. Results There is evidence for the medical effectiveness of Prevenar against invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the covered serotypes from a major double-blinded RCT undertaken in California. The vaccine shows lower values of effectiveness against otitis media and pneumonia. The values for effectiveness of the vaccine in Germany are below the data for California because of the different incidence of Serotypes. The cost-effectiveness rates for an immunisation of all children with Prevenar vary across different countries. One reason - besides different Health Systems - can be seen in the uncertainty about the duration of protection, another in the assumption on regional serotype coverage of the vaccine. From the healthcare payers' perspective a general vaccination of all children in Germany is not cost-effective, from a societal perspective the benefits from vaccination could prevail the cost. The actual price of the vaccine (if financed by the

  2. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in children--host factors and vaccination response.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Helene Andrea Sinclair

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in young children world-wide with over half a million children dying annually from pneumococcal disease.  Some children are prone to repeated episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) because of an underlying predisposing disease. Recurrent IPD (rIPD) is a rarity and published reports on rIPD are limited by having few children included, selected groups of patients or short follow-up periods. Deficiencies in the innate or adaptive immune system have been described in children with rIPD, but the frequency of immunodeficiency among such patients is unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to examine paediatric cases of laboratory-confirmed rIPD, over a 33-year period in Denmark, to determine risk factors and study aspects of the immunological background for this problem in children. In October 2007, a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented in the Danish infant immunization programme. An additional aim of the thesis was to examine the impact of vaccination on a population level, following the first three years of general PCV7 vaccination in Denmark. The thesis consists of three papers, which are all directly or indirectly based on data retrieved from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry. This registry is nationwide and dates back to 1938. The registry contains data from all laboratory-confirmed cases of IPD in Denmark and is continually updated for national surveillance. In Paper 1, we conducted a 33-year retrospective nationwide study of paediatric rIPD. By using data from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry combined with clinical data from hospital records, we could describe one of the largest known cohorts of children (n:59) with rIPD . We covered epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of this clinical entity. Of all children experiencing rIPD, 47% had a known predisposing underlying disease at the time of

  3. The impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of childhood community-acquired pneumonia and bacteriologically confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Naito, S; Tanaka, J; Nagashima, K; Chang, B; Hishiki, H; Takahashi, Y; Oikawa, J; Nagasawa, K; Shimojo, N; Ishiwada, N

    2016-02-01

    Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to Japan in 2010. We investigated the impact of PCV7 on childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP). Children aged <5 years living in Chiba city, Japan, who were admitted to hospitals were enrolled to estimate the incidence of CAP based on the mid-year population. PP was determined by the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cultured blood and/or sputum samples of CAP patients. The incidence of CAP and S. pneumoniae isolated from PP patients was compared before (April 2008-March 2009) and after (April 2012-March 2013) the introduction of PCV7 immunization. The annual incidence of CAP was reduced [incidence rate ratio 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·73-0·90]. When comparing post-vaccine with pre-vaccine periods, the odds ratio for PP incidence was 0·60 (95% CI 0·39-0·93, P = 0·024). PCV7-covered serotypes markedly decreased (66·6% in pre-vaccine vs. 15·6% in post-vaccine, P < 0·01), and serotypes 6C, 15A, 15C and 19A increased. Multidrug-resistant international clones in the pre-vaccine period (Spain6B-2/ST90, Taiwan19F-14/ST236) decreased, while Sweden15A-25/ST63 was the dominant clone in the post-vaccine period. A significant reduction in the incidence of both CAP hospitalizations and culture-confirmed PP of vaccine serotypes was observed at 2 years after PCV7 vaccination. PMID:26122538

  4. Parental caregivers of children with developmental disabilities mount a poor antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    In older populations, caregiving for a spouse with dementia has been associated with a poor antibody response to vaccination. The present study examined whether younger caregivers, specifically the parents of children with developmental disabilities, would also show a diminished antibody response to vaccination. At baseline assessment, 30 parents of children with developmental disabilities and 29 parents of typically developing children completed standard measures of depression, perceived stress, social support, caregiver burden, and child problem behaviours. They also provided a blood sample and were then vaccinated with a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Further blood samples were taken at 1- and 6-month follow-ups. Caregivers mounted a poorer antibody response to vaccination than control parents at both follow-ups. This effect withstood adjustment for a number of possible confounders and appeared to be, at least in part, mediated by child problem behaviours. The negative impact of caregiving on antibody response to vaccination is not restricted to older spousal caregivers, but is also evident in younger parents caring for children with developmental disabilities. The behavioural characteristics of the care recipients may be a key consideration in whether or not immunity is compromised in this context.

  5. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki.

  6. The composition of demand for newly launched vaccines: results from the pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine introductions in Ethiopia and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Williams, B Adam; Kidane, Teklay; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Tesfaye, Neghist; Prescott, Marta R; Scotney, Soleine T; Valle, Moussa; Abebe, Sintayehu; Tambuli, Adija; Malewezi, Bridget; Mohammed, Tahir; Kobayashi, Emily; Wootton, Emily; Wong, Renee; Dosani, Rahima; Subramaniam, Hamsa; Joseph, Jessica; Yavuz, Elif; Apple, Aliza; Le Tallec, Yann; Kang'ethe, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Understanding post-launch demand for new vaccines can help countries maximize the benefits of immunization programmes. In particular, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should ensure adequate resource planning with regards to stock consumption and service delivery for new vaccines, whereas global suppliers must produce enough vaccines to meet demand. If a country underestimates the number of children seeking vaccination, a stock-out of commodities will create missed opportunities for saving lives. We describe the post-launch demand for the first dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV1) in Ethiopia and Malawi and the first dose of rotavirus vaccine (Rota1) in Malawi, with focus on the new birth cohort and the 'backlog cohort', comprised of older children who are still eligible for vaccination at the time of launch. PCV1 and Rota1 uptake were compared with the demand for the first dose of pentavalent vaccine (Penta1), a routine immunization that targets the same age group and immunization schedule. In the first year, the total demand for PCV1 was 37% greater than that of Penta1 in Ethiopia and 59% greater in Malawi. In the first 6 months, the demand of Rota1 was only 5.9% greater than Penta1 demand in Malawi. Over the first three post-introduction months, 70.7% of PCV1 demand in Ethiopia and 71.5% of demand in Malawi came from children in the backlog cohort, whereas only 28.0% of Rota1 demand in Malawi was from the backlog cohort. The composition of demand was impacted by time elapsed since vaccine introduction and age restrictions. Evidence suggests that countries' plans should account for the impact of backlog demand, especially in the first 3 months post-introduction. LMICs should request for higher stock volumes when compared with routine needs, plan social mobilization activities to reach the backlog cohort and allocate human resources and cold chain capacity to accommodate high demand following vaccine introduction.

  7. Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia: Report of a Case With Pulmonary Involvement and Recurrent Pneumococcal Sepsis After Pneumococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Mathew, Mary

    1984-01-01

    A patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia who presented with pleuropulmonary manifestations is described. The course was complicated by recurrent Streptococcus pneumoniae infections despite pneumococcal immunization. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:6423829

  8. Insight Into Resistance Phenotypes of Emergent Non 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Type Pneumococci Isolated From Invasive Disease After 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation in France

    PubMed Central

    Janoir, Claire; Lepoutre, Agnès; Gutmann, Laurent; Varon, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2010, the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 6 additional serotypes including the multidrug-resistant 19A, replaced the PCV7 in France. This study aimed at analyzing trends in antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in France after PCV13 introduction. Methods. A total of 5243 pneumococci isolated from IPD in 2008–2009 (late PCV7 era) and 2011–2012 (PCV13 era) were studied according to their serotype and antibiotic resistance profile. Multilocus sequence typing analysis was performed on strains of the predominant serotypes (12F and 24F) isolated from young children. Results. Overall, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance decreased in France (−21.5% for penicillin from 2008–2009 to 2011–2012), mainly driven by the decline of the 19A serotype. Among non-PCV13 serotypes that concomitantly emerged, serotypes 12F, 24F, 15A, and 35B were consistently associated with resistance to 1 or more antibiotics. In children under 2 years, serotypes 15A, 35B, and 24F accounted together for 37.8% and 31.9% of penicillin-nonsusceptible and erythromycin-resistant isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole resistance were mainly associated with serotypes 12F and 24F, respectively. Genetic analysis showed that although emergence of serotype 12F pneumococci resulted from the expansion of various pre-existing lineages, increase in serotype 24F was related to the clonal expansion of the ST162 penicillin-susceptible cotrimoxazole-resistant lineage. Conclusions. We showed that decline of PCV13-related IPD was associated with a decline in antibiotic resistance in France, but that it likely favored the spread of several resistant nonvaccine serotypes. However, antibiotic resistance does not seem to be the only element that may drive this phenomenon. PMID:26955644

  9. Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sophie E.; Richards, Anna A.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. PMID:22609011

  10. Automated capillary Western dot blot method for the identity of a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Melissa; Ha, Sha; Rustandi, Richard R

    2015-06-01

    Simple Western is a new technology that allows for the separation, blotting, and detection of proteins similar to a traditional Western except in a capillary format. Traditionally, identity assays for biological products are performed using either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a manual dot blot Western. Both techniques are usually very tedious, labor-intensive, and complicated for multivalent vaccines, and they can be difficult to transfer to other laboratories. An advantage this capillary Western technique has over the traditional manual dot blot Western method is the speed and the automation of electrophoresis separation, blotting, and detection steps performed in 96 capillaries. This article describes details of the development of an automated identity assay for a 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV15-CRM197, using capillary Western technology.

  11. Patterns of pneumococcal vaccination and revaccination in elderly and non-elderly adults: a Vaccine Safety Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and for younger adults with high-risk conditions. While data from national surveys provide information on the proportion of adults 65 years of age and older reporting ever receipt of PPV they do not collect more detailed information, such as age at vaccination or the total number of vaccinations received. In addition, there is relatively little information available on PPV coverage in younger adults with chronic conditions. To assess contemporary patterns of pneumococcal vaccination and revaccination of adults, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in medical care organizations (MCOs) participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. Methods The study population included 1.5 million adults 25 years of age and older enrolled in the four participating MCOs on December 1, 2006. PPVs administered to members of the study population prior to that date were identified from computerized immunization registries maintained by the MCOs. Results Among the general population of adults 25 through 64 years of age, vaccine coverage increased from 2% in the 25–29 year old age-group to 26% in the 60–64 year old age-group. In all age-groups, coverage was substantially higher in persons defined as having a chronic high risk condition. This was particularly true for diabetes mellitus, with vaccine coverage of over 50% in the lower age-groups and 75% in those 60–64 years of age. Among adults 65 years of age and older, 82% had received at least one PPV and 18% had received two or more PPVs. Conclusion We found higher levels of PPV coverage among adults 65 years of age and older and among younger adults with diabetes mellitus than reported by national surveys and for those groups PPV coverage approached the Healthy People 2010 national objectives. These results suggest that achieving those objectives for PPV is possible and that high vaccination coverage

  12. Potential carrier priming effect in Australian infants after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Mohamed; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Harboe, Zitta B; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate evidence of clinical protection in infants after one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) owing to carrier priming. METHODS Using Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data, we conducted a descriptive analysis of cases of vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) during “catch-up” years, when 7vPCV was carrier primed by prior administration of DTPa vaccine. We compared the number of VT-IPD cases occurring 2-9 wk after a single dose of 7vPCV (carrier primed), with those < 2 wk post vaccination, when no protection from 7vPCV was expected yet. Further comparison was conducted to compare the occurrence of VT-IPD cases vs non-VT-IPD cases after a single carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. RESULTS We found four VT-IPD cases occurring < 2 wk after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV while only one case occurred 2-9 wk later. Upon further comparison with the non-VT-IPD cases that occurred after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV, two cases were detected within 2 wk, whereas seven occurred within 2-9 wk later; suggesting a substantial level of protection from VT-IPD occurring from 2 wk after carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. CONCLUSION This data suggest that infants may benefit from just one dose of 7vPCV, likely through enhanced immunity from carrier priming effect. If this is proven, an adjusted 2-dose schedule (where the first dose of PCV is not given until after DTPa) may be sufficient and more cost-effective. PMID:27610348

  13. Concomitant administration of zoster and pneumococcal vaccines in adults ≥60 years old.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, C Raina; Egerton, Tony; McCaughey, Malcolm; Parrino, Janie; Campbell, Bernadette V; Su, Shu-Chih; Pagnoni, Marco F; Stek, Jon E; Xu, Jin; Annunziato, Paula W; Chan, Ivan S F; Silber, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated safety & immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX® (zoster vaccine: ZV) administered concomitantly versus nonconcomitantly with PNEUMOVAX® 23 (pneumococcal vaccine: PPV23). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 473 subjects ≥60 years old in 1:1 ratio to receive ZV & PPV23 concomitantly (Day 1) or nonconcomitantly (PPV23 Day 1, ZV Week 4). Blood samples obtained for pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPs) antibody (Ab) testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Ab testing by glycoprotein ELISA. Subjects followed for adverse experiences (AEs) for 28 days postvaccination. Mean baseline VZV geometric mean titers (GMT) in nonconcomitant group were lower than concomitant group. Four weeks postvaccination with ZV, VZV Ab response in concomitant group was not similar to nonconcomitant group; estimated VZV GMT ratio [concomitant/nonconcomitant] was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.61-0.80). VZV Ab response was acceptable in concomitant group; estimated geometric mean foldrise (GMFR) from baseline was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.7-2.1). PnPs serotype-specific Ab responses were similar in both groups. All 6 reported serious AEs were deemed not related to study vaccine. Postvaccination of ZV, incidence of injection-site AEs was similar in both groups; clinical AEs were numerically but not significantly higher in nonconcomitant group. In summary, VZV GMT Ab response induced by ZV administered concomitantly with PPV23 was inferior to that induced nonconcomitantly. These results indicate that, to avoid a potential decrease in ZV immunogenicity, ZV & PPV23 should not be given concomitantly. Concomitant administration did not affect response to PPV23 serotypes tested. When administered concomitantly, ZV & PPV23 vaccines were generally well tolerated.

  14. Potential carrier priming effect in Australian infants after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Tashani, Mohamed; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Harboe, Zitta B; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate evidence of clinical protection in infants after one dose of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) owing to carrier priming. METHODS Using Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data, we conducted a descriptive analysis of cases of vaccine type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) during “catch-up” years, when 7vPCV was carrier primed by prior administration of DTPa vaccine. We compared the number of VT-IPD cases occurring 2-9 wk after a single dose of 7vPCV (carrier primed), with those < 2 wk post vaccination, when no protection from 7vPCV was expected yet. Further comparison was conducted to compare the occurrence of VT-IPD cases vs non-VT-IPD cases after a single carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. RESULTS We found four VT-IPD cases occurring < 2 wk after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV while only one case occurred 2-9 wk later. Upon further comparison with the non-VT-IPD cases that occurred after one carrier primed dose of 7vPCV, two cases were detected within 2 wk, whereas seven occurred within 2-9 wk later; suggesting a substantial level of protection from VT-IPD occurring from 2 wk after carrier-primed dose of 7vPCV. CONCLUSION This data suggest that infants may benefit from just one dose of 7vPCV, likely through enhanced immunity from carrier priming effect. If this is proven, an adjusted 2-dose schedule (where the first dose of PCV is not given until after DTPa) may be sufficient and more cost-effective.

  15. Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults with pneumonia: findings from the Community Acquired Pneumonia Impact Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) almost triples for older adults aged 65 years or older. In Canada, CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Although CAP is very prevalent, complications due to CAP may be reduced with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among community-dwelling older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. Methods A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community. Results The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0); at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24); having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28); being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40); having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3); having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73); and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67). Conclusions A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV. PMID:20591180

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes. PMID:26451658

  17. Alignment of absolute and relative molecular size specifications for a polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PNEUMOVAX 23).

    PubMed

    MacNair, John E; Desai, Tejal; Teyral, Jennifer; Abeygunawardana, Chitrananda; Hennessey, John P

    2005-03-01

    An approach was developed to align release and end-expiry specifications for molecular size for the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PNEUMOVAX 23). Each of the 23 polysaccharide components of the vaccine was separately subjected to ultrasonication to produce a series of preparations of decreasing weight-average molecular mass (Mw). These size-reduced polysaccharides were analysed as monovalent solutions by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index (RI) detection to measure their Mw. These samples were also analysed by HPSEC with rate nephelometry (RN) detection to measure their relative molecular size (r-MS). The data from the two molecular size measurements established a correlation between Mw and r-MS. For each polysaccharide component of the vaccine, this correlation permits the direct alignment of the r-MS specification in the final formulated product with the Mw specification for the monovalent polysaccharide preparation. The alignment of specifications provides a high level of assurance that the quality control of the final vaccine product is consistent with that of the polysaccharide starting materials.

  18. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination at birth in a high-risk setting: No evidence for neonatal T-cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H.J.; Pomat, William; Bosco, Anthony; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Devitt, Catherine J.; Nadal-Sims, Marie A.; Siba, Peter M.; Richmond, Peter C.; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the risk of inducing immune deviation-associated “neonatal tolerance” as described in mice have restricted the widespread adoption of neonatal vaccination. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunological feasibility of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) which could potentially protect high-risk infants in resource poor countries against severe pneumococcal disease and mortality in the early critical period of life. Papua New Guinean infants were randomized to be vaccinated with the 7-valent PCV (7vPCV) at birth, 1 and 2 months (neonatal group, n = 104) or at 1, 2 and 3 months of age (infant group, n = 105), or to not receive 7vPCV at all (control group, n = 109). Analysis of vaccine responses at 3 and 9 months of age demonstrated persistently higher type-1 (IFN-γ) and type-2 (IL-5 and IL-13) T-cell responses to the protein carrier CRM197 and IgG antibody titres to 7vPCV serotypes in children vaccinated with 7vPCV according to either schedule as compared to unvaccinated children. In a comprehensive immuno-phenotypic analysis at 9 months of age, no differences in the quantity or quality of vaccine-specific T cell memory responses were found between neonatal vaccinations versus children given their first PCV dose at one month. Hospitalization rates in the first month of life did not differ between children vaccinated with PCV at birth or not. These findings demonstrate that neonatal 7vPCV vaccination is safe and not associated with immunological tolerance. Neonatal immunisation schedules should therefore be considered in high-risk areas where this may result in improved vaccine coverage and the earliest possible protection against pneumococcal disease and death. PMID:21645573

  19. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination at birth in a high-risk setting: no evidence for neonatal T-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William; Bosco, Anthony; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Devitt, Catherine J; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Siba, Peter M; Richmond, Peter C; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2011-07-26

    Concerns about the risk of inducing immune deviation-associated "neonatal tolerance" as described in mice have restricted the widespread adoption of neonatal vaccination. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the immunological feasibility of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) which could potentially protect high-risk infants in resource poor countries against severe pneumococcal disease and mortality in the early critical period of life. Papua New Guinean infants were randomized to be vaccinated with the 7-valent PCV (7vPCV) at birth, 1 and 2 months (neonatal group, n=104) or at 1, 2 and 3 months of age (infant group, n=105), or to not receive 7vPCV at all (control group, n=109). Analysis of vaccine responses at 3 and 9 months of age demonstrated persistently higher type-1 (IFN-γ) and type-2 (IL-5 and IL-13) T-cell responses to the protein carrier CRM(197) and IgG antibody titres to 7vPCV serotypes in children vaccinated with 7vPCV according to either schedule as compared to unvaccinated children. In a comprehensive immuno-phenotypic analysis at 9 months of age, no differences in the quantity or quality of vaccine-specific T cell memory responses were found between neonatal vaccinations versus children given their first PCV dose at one month. Hospitalization rates in the first month of life did not differ between children vaccinated with PCV at birth or not. These findings demonstrate that neonatal 7vPCV vaccination is safe and not associated with immunological tolerance. Neonatal immunisation schedules should therefore be considered in high-risk areas where this may result in improved vaccine coverage and the earliest possible protection against pneumococcal disease and death. PMID:21645573

  20. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  1. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Grant A; Plumb, Ian D; Sambou, Sana; Saha, Debasish; Uchendu, Uchendu; Akinsola, Bolanle; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Baldeh, Ignatius; Usuf, Effua; Touray, Kebba; Jasseh, Momodou; Howie, Stephen R C; Wattiaux, Andre; Lee, Ellen; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Levine, Orin S; Greenwood, Brian M; Adegbola, Richard A; Hill, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  2. Efficacy of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Acute Otitis Media Caused by Serotype 6C Pneumococcus.

    PubMed

    Palmu, Arto A; Kaijalainen, Tarja; Jokinen, Jukka; Kilpi, Terhi M

    2015-07-01

    A new pneumococcal serotype 6C, earlier typed as 6A, was discovered in 2007. We retyped all 6A isolates to evaluate vaccine efficacy against 6C acute otitis media (AOM) in the phase III randomized, double-blind Finnish Otitis Media trial conducted in 1995-1999. Efficacy against 6C AOM was -1 (95% confidence interval: -248 to 71) during the per protocol follow-up period. The updated vaccine efficacy estimate for serotype 6A AOM was 65% (95% confidence interval: 31-82). Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine offered excellent cross-protection against 6A AOM, but our data do not support cross-protection against 6C AOM.

  3. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on microbial epidemiology and clinical outcomes of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Hau, Isabelle; Levy, Corinne; Caeymaex, Laurence; Cohen, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the leading bacterial infection in childhood and the main reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children. The success of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease has been demonstrated in many studies. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the two main bacterial species implicated in AOM, the incidence and characteristics of AOM might also be modified by PCVs. Pre-licensure controlled studies showed that the effect was modest. However, after PCV7 implementation, the impact on the AOM burden appeared to be more marked, despite the fact that serotype replacement in the nasopharynx was almost complete. Most data on the impact of PCVs on nasopharyngeal flora have been drawn from studies with PCV7. No difference was observed with PCV10 compared with PCV7 concerning S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza carriage. For PCV13 compared with PCV7, additional reduction of carriage of serotypes 1, 6A, 7F, 6C, 19A, and 19F was observed, but for the other serotypes, the two PCVs seemed to have the same effect.

  4. [Statement of the Advisory Immunization Committee of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases on the emergence of serotype 19A pneumococcal infection and the use of pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in Chilean children].

    PubMed

    Potin, Marcela; Fica, Alberto; Wilhem, Jan; Cerda, Jaime; Contreras, Lily; Escobar, Carola; Moreno, Gabriela; Muñoz, Alma; Véliz, Liliana

    2016-06-01

    Inclusion of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV10) in the Chilean infant vaccination Program in 2011 was followed by a reduction of hospital admissions and pneumonia-related deaths in this age group. However, a progressive increase of serotype 19A pneumococcal isolates (not included in PCV10) has been observed. According to the analysis of pneumococcal strains performed by the national reference laboratory of the Institute of Public Health as part of a national surveillance on invasive pneumococcal infections, the relative proportion of serotype 19A isolates increased from <5% before 2010 to 12-23% in years 2014-2015. Serotype 19A represented 4-8% of the isolates in the pre-vaccine era among children less than 2 years, increasing to 25% during 2014. This increase has been documented in two-thirds of the national territory. Aimong children <5 years of age, 25% of 19A serotype isolates from non-meningeal infections were penicillin resistant wheras from meningeal infections near 100% were penicillin resistant. Genetic analysis indicates that 48% of these 19A strains belong to clonal complex 320, recognized for its pandemic potential and high antimicrobial resistance. Among children, most invasive infections secondary to serotype 19A have occurred in patients fully vaccinated with PCV10. These epidemiological changes indicate an increase in invasive pneumococcal infections by serotype 19A in Chile and the need to control this problem by changing the current PCV10 for the PCV13 vaccine containing serotype 19A. PMID:27598280

  5. Prospective safety monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae type b and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Junichiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Imuta, Naoko; Minami, Taketsugu; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Objective severe adverse events included anaphylactoid reaction, encephalitis/encephalopathy, neurological events, severe focal reactions, systemic eruption/urticaria, fever above 39℃ within 2 days after inoculation, and other complications requiring hospitalization. The incidences of these events for PRP-T and PCV7 administration were 0.68% (76/11,197) and 0.92% (28/3,049), respectively. No deaths or subsequent complications were reported during the course of the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events between the single and co-administration groups for both vaccines: PRP-T, 0.55% (31/5,662) versus 0.81% (45/5,535; P = 0.11); PCV7, 0.88% (11/1,247) versus 0.94% (17/1,802; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of vaccines including PRP-T and/or PCV7 does not increase the incidence of severe adverse events in Japanese children.

  6. Assessment of Health Benefits and Cost-Effectiveness of 10-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Ayieko, Philip; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Ndiritu, Moses; Moisi, Jennifer; Mugoya, Isaac K.; Kamau, Tatu; English, Mike; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The GAVI Alliance supported10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) introduction in Kenya. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of introducing either PCV10 or the13-valent vaccine (PCV13) from a societal perspective and explored the incremental impact of including indirect vaccine effects. Methods The costs and effects of pneumococcal vaccination among infants born in Kenya in 2010 were assessed using a decision analytic model comparing PCV10 or PCV13, in turn, with no vaccination. Direct vaccine effects were estimated as a reduction in the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis, sepsis, bacteraemic pneumonia and non-bacteraemic pneumonia. Pneumococcal disease incidence was extrapolated from a population-based hospital surveillance system in Kilifi and adjustments were made for variable access to care across Kenya. We used vaccine efficacy estimates from a trial in The Gambia and accounted for serotype distribution in Kilifi. We estimated indirect vaccine protection and serotype replacement by extrapolating from the USA. Multivariable sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. We assumed a vaccine price of US$ 3.50 per dose. Findings The annual cost of delivering PCV10 was approximately US$14 million. We projected a 42.7% reduction in pneumococcal disease episodes leading to a US$1.97 million reduction in treatment costs and a 6.1% reduction in childhood mortality annually. In the base case analysis, costs per discounted DALY and per death averted by PCV10, amounted to US$ 59 (95% CI 26–103) and US$ 1,958 (95% CI 866–3,425), respectively. PCV13 introduction improved the cost-effectiveness ratios by approximately 20% and inclusion of indirect effects improved cost-effectiveness ratios by 43–56%. The break-even prices for introduction of PCV10 and PCV13 are US$ 0.41 and 0.51, respectively. Conclusions Introducing either PCV10 or PCV13 in Kenya is highly cost-effective from a societal perspective. Indirect effects, if they

  7. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease in children--host factors and vaccination response.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Helene Andrea Sinclair

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a leading cause of septicaemia, pneumonia and meningitis in young children world-wide with over half a million children dying annually from pneumococcal disease.  Some children are prone to repeated episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) because of an underlying predisposing disease. Recurrent IPD (rIPD) is a rarity and published reports on rIPD are limited by having few children included, selected groups of patients or short follow-up periods. Deficiencies in the innate or adaptive immune system have been described in children with rIPD, but the frequency of immunodeficiency among such patients is unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to examine paediatric cases of laboratory-confirmed rIPD, over a 33-year period in Denmark, to determine risk factors and study aspects of the immunological background for this problem in children. In October 2007, a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented in the Danish infant immunization programme. An additional aim of the thesis was to examine the impact of vaccination on a population level, following the first three years of general PCV7 vaccination in Denmark. The thesis consists of three papers, which are all directly or indirectly based on data retrieved from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry. This registry is nationwide and dates back to 1938. The registry contains data from all laboratory-confirmed cases of IPD in Denmark and is continually updated for national surveillance. In Paper 1, we conducted a 33-year retrospective nationwide study of paediatric rIPD. By using data from the National Streptococcus Pneumoniae Registry combined with clinical data from hospital records, we could describe one of the largest known cohorts of children (n:59) with rIPD . We covered epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of this clinical entity. Of all children experiencing rIPD, 47% had a known predisposing underlying disease at the time of

  8. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices.

  9. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. PMID:26368398

  10. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  11. Optimising assessments of the epidemiological impact in The Netherlands of paediatric immunisation with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using dynamic transmission modelling.

    PubMed

    De Cao, Elisabetta; Melegaro, Alessia; Klok, Rogier; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify the overall effects of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) vaccination programme in the Dutch population taking into account all the direct and indirect effects of the vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease. Using available Dutch data, a dynamic transmission model for the spread of pneumococci and potential subsequent invasive pneumococcal disease has been adapted to the Dutch setting. Overall, invasive pneumococcal disease cases in the Netherlands are predicted to decrease from a pre-vaccination level of 2623 cases annually to 2475, 2289, 2185, 2179, and 2178 cases annually 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-years, respectively, post-vaccination. Therefore, vaccination with PCV13 in the Netherlands is predicted to lower invasive pneumococcal disease cases per year by up to 445 cases in the medium- to long-term. The results are quite robust for the sensitivity analyses performed on the parameters that regulate herd immunity and competition between vaccine and non-vaccine types.

  12. Assessment of the safety of a third dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the Vaccine Safety Datalink population.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lisa A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Whitney, Cynthia G; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Benson, Patti; Malais, Darren; Baggs, James; Mullooly, John; Black, Steve; Shay, David K

    2006-01-12

    There is little information on the safety of administration of a third dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). The authors conducted a retrospective assessment of 316,995 adult members of three health maintenance organizations who had received one, two, or three PPV doses. Medical encounters associated with diagnosis codes potentially indicative of an injection site reaction in the week following a first, second, or third PPV dose were identified. These presumptive events occurred in 0.3% (911/279504) of the first PPV group, 0.7% (257/36888) of the second PPV group, and 0.5% (3/603) of the third PPV group (p>0.5 for both comparisons with the third PPV group). These findings do not suggest that a third PPV dose is associated with an increased risk of medically attended injection site reactions compared with a first or second PPV dose.

  13. The composition of demand for newly launched vaccines: results from the pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine introductions in Ethiopia and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Teklay; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Tesfaye, Neghist; Prescott, Marta R; Scotney, Soleine T; Valle, Moussa; Abebe, Sintayehu; Tambuli, Adija; Malewezi, Bridget; Mohammed, Tahir; Kobayashi, Emily; Wootton, Emily; Wong, Renee; Dosani, Rahima; Subramaniam, Hamsa; Joseph, Jessica; Yavuz, Elif; Apple, Aliza; Le Tallec, Yann; Kang’ethe, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Understanding post-launch demand for new vaccines can help countries maximize the benefits of immunization programmes. In particular, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should ensure adequate resource planning with regards to stock consumption and service delivery for new vaccines, whereas global suppliers must produce enough vaccines to meet demand. If a country underestimates the number of children seeking vaccination, a stock-out of commodities will create missed opportunities for saving lives. We describe the post-launch demand for the first dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV1) in Ethiopia and Malawi and the first dose of rotavirus vaccine (Rota1) in Malawi, with focus on the new birth cohort and the ‘backlog cohort’, comprised of older children who are still eligible for vaccination at the time of launch. PCV1 and Rota1 uptake were compared with the demand for the first dose of pentavalent vaccine (Penta1), a routine immunization that targets the same age group and immunization schedule. In the first year, the total demand for PCV1 was 37% greater than that of Penta1 in Ethiopia and 59% greater in Malawi. In the first 6 months, the demand of Rota1 was only 5.9% greater than Penta1 demand in Malawi. Over the first three post-introduction months, 70.7% of PCV1 demand in Ethiopia and 71.5% of demand in Malawi came from children in the backlog cohort, whereas only 28.0% of Rota1 demand in Malawi was from the backlog cohort. The composition of demand was impacted by time elapsed since vaccine introduction and age restrictions. Evidence suggests that countries’ plans should account for the impact of backlog demand, especially in the first 3 months post-introduction. LMICs should request for higher stock volumes when compared with routine needs, plan social mobilization activities to reach the backlog cohort and allocate human resources and cold chain capacity to accommodate high demand following vaccine introduction. PMID:26856361

  14. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine in Gambian children aged 2-4 years: A phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Odutola, A; Ota, M O; Ogundare, E O; Antonio, M; Owiafe, P; Worwui, A; Greenwood, B; Alderson, M; Traskine, M; Verlant, V; Dobbelaere, K; Borys, D

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been successful in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease but effectiveness has been challenged by replacement of vaccine serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes. Vaccines targeting common pneumococcal protein(s) found in most/all pneumococci may overcome this limitation. This phase II study assessed safety and immunogenicity of a new protein-based pneumococcal vaccine containing polysaccharide conjugates of 10 pneumococcal serotypes combined with pneumolysin toxoid(dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D(PhtD) (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) in African children. 120 Gambian children (2-4 years, not previously vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae) randomized (1:1) received a single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 or PCV13. Adverse events occurring over 4 d post-vaccination were reported, and blood samples obtained pre- and 1-month post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were reported for 6 months post-vaccination. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were reported at similar frequency in each group. One child (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 group) reported a grade 3 local reaction to vaccination. Haematological and biochemical parameters seemed similar pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in each group. High pre-vaccination Ply and PhtD antibody concentrations were observed in each group, but only increased in PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees one month post-vaccination. One month post-vaccination, for each vaccine serotype ≥96.2% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees had serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody concentrations ≥0.20µg/mL except serotypes 6B (80.8%) and 23F (65.4%), and ≥94.1% had OPA titres of ≥8 except serotypes 1 (51.9%), 5 (38.5%) and 6B (78.0%), within ranges seen in PCV13-vaccinated children. A single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccine, administered to Gambian children aged 2-4 y not previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine, was well-tolerated and immunogenic.

  15. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine in Gambian children aged 2–4 years: A phase II randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Odutola, A; Ota, MO; Ogundare, EO; Antonio, M; Owiafe, P; Worwui, A; Greenwood, B; Alderson, M; Traskine, M; Verlant, V; Dobbelaere, K; Borys, D

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been successful in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease but effectiveness has been challenged by replacement of vaccine serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes. Vaccines targeting common pneumococcal protein(s) found in most/all pneumococci may overcome this limitation. This phase II study assessed safety and immunogenicity of a new protein-based pneumococcal vaccine containing polysaccharide conjugates of 10 pneumococcal serotypes combined with pneumolysin toxoid(dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D(PhtD) (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) in African children. 120 Gambian children (2–4 years, not previously vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae) randomized (1:1) received a single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 or PCV13. Adverse events occurring over 4 d post-vaccination were reported, and blood samples obtained pre- and 1-month post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were reported for 6 months post-vaccination. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were reported at similar frequency in each group. One child (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 group) reported a grade 3 local reaction to vaccination. Haematological and biochemical parameters seemed similar pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in each group. High pre-vaccination Ply and PhtD antibody concentrations were observed in each group, but only increased in PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees one month post-vaccination. One month post-vaccination, for each vaccine serotype ≥96.2% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees had serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody concentrations ≥0.20µg/mL except serotypes 6B (80.8%) and 23F (65.4%), and ≥94.1% had OPA titres of ≥8 except serotypes 1 (51.9%), 5 (38.5%) and 6B (78.0%), within ranges seen in PCV13-vaccinated children. A single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccine, administered to Gambian children aged 2–4 y not previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine, was well-tolerated and immunogenic. PMID:26618243

  16. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in children on serotype distribution in adult community-acquired pneumonia using the serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay.

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W; Ewig, Santiago; Rohde, Gernot; Schuette, Hartwig; Rupp, Jan; Welte, Tobias; Suttorp, Norbert; Forstner, Christina

    2016-04-29

    The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of the vaccine-serotypes covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) in adult patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in Germany between the periods 2002-2006 and 2007-2011 using a novel serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay (SSUA). Vaccination of children started with PCV7 in 2007, which was replaced by PCV13 in 2010. Following confirmation of the accuracy of SSUA in long-term stored urine samples from 112 patients with confirmed pneumonia and known pneumococcal serotype, urine samples of 391 CAPNETZ patients with documented pneumococcal pneumonia (i.e. positive BinaxNOW) Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test) but unknown serotype were tested for the 13 vaccine-serotypes using SSUA. The proportion of PCV7-serotypes significantly decreased in adult patients with pneumonia from 30.6% (2002-6) to 13.3% (2007-11, p < 0.001); in bacteremic pneumonia, PCV7-serotypes completely disappeared (3/14 versus 0/19, p = 0.058). Conversely, pneumococcal serotypes included by PCV13 remained stable during study period with a coverage of 61.5% (2002-06) and 59.7% (2007-11) in non-bacteremic pneumonia and 79% (for both periods) in bacteremic pneumonia, mainly due to an increase in pneumococcal serotypes 1, 3 and 7F during the second period. Thus, implementation of PCV7 in children in Germany in 2007 was associated with a significant decrease in vaccine-serotypes covered by PCV7 in adult patients with non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and with an elimination of PCV7 vaccine-serotypes in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. PCV13 coverage remained high up to 2011, mainly due to an increase in serotypes 1, 3 and 7F.

  17. Methods and challenges in measuring the impact of national pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine introduction on morbidity and mortality in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kapanda, Lester; King, Carina; Beard, James; Phiri, Tambosi; Mvula, Hazzie; Crampin, Amelia C.; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Verani, Jennifer R.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are leading causes of vaccine-preventable childhood morbidity and mortality. Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines to the immunisation programme in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Evaluating their effectiveness is vital to ensure optimal implementation and justify sustained investment. Methods/Design A national evaluation platform was established to determine vaccine effectiveness and impact in Malawi. Impact and effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease, radiological pneumonia and rotavirus gastroenteritis are investigated using before-after incidence comparisons and case-control designs, respectively. Mortality is assessed using a prospective population cohort. Cost-effectiveness evaluation is nested within the case-control studies. We describe platform characteristics including strengths and weaknesses for conducting vaccine evaluations. Discussion Integrating data from individual level and ecological methods across multiple sites provides comprehensive information for policymakers on programme impact and vaccine effectiveness including changes in serotype/genotype distribution over time. Challenges to robust vaccine evaluation in real-world conditions include: vaccination ascertainment; pre-existing rapid decline in mortality and pneumococcal disease in the context of non-vaccine interventions; and the maintenance of completeness and quality of reporting at scale and over time. In observational non-randomised designs ascertainment of vaccine status may be biased particularly in infants with fatal outcomes. In the context of multiple population level interventions targeting study endpoints attribution of reduced incidence to vaccine impact may be flawed. Providing evidence from several independent but complementary studies will provide the greatest confidence in assigning impact. Welcome declines in disease incidence and in child mortality make accrual of required sample sizes

  18. Rituximab and abatacept but not tocilizumab impair antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of newer biologic treatments including rituximab, abatacept and tocilizumab on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination using a 7-valent conjugate vaccine in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA receiving rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) participated in the study. Specific IgG antibodies against 23F and 6B serotypes were measured at vaccination and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination using standardised ELISA. Geometric mean antibody levels (GML) were calculated. Antibody response (AR) was defined as the ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibody levels and a positive antibody response (posAR) was AR ≥2. Results In total, 88 patients were enrolled in the study. Of 55 patients treated with rituximab, 26 (46%) were on concomitant MTX. Of patients receiving abatacept (n = 17) and tocilizumab (n = 16) biologic treatment was given in combination with MTX in 13 (76%) and 9 (56%) patients, respectively. Patients treated with rituximab had significantly lower AR compared to those on tocilizumab, as well as compared to previously reported RA patients on MTX and controls (spondylarthropathy patients treated with NSAIDs and/or analgesics). In total, 10.3% of patients on rituximab monotherapy and no patient on rituximab + MTX had posAR for both serotypes. For abatacept and tocilizumab the corresponding figures were 17.6% and 50%. Conclusion In this cohort of patients with established RA, treatment with rituximab and abatacept was associated with diminished antibody response but this was most pronounced for rituximab. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administrated during ongoing tocilizumab treatment seems to be associated with sufficient antibody response. Pneumococcal vaccination should preferably be encouraged before initiation of rituximab or abatacept treatment. Trial registration NCT

  19. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Susan; Cohen, Cheryl; Quan, Vanessa; de Gouveia, Linda; Feldman, Charles; Karstaedt, Alan; Klugman, Keith P.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rabie, Helene; Sriruttan, Charlotte; von Gottberg, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use. Methods National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES) hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2009. Results In South Africa, from 2003–2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734) of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000), with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190). HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV) than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544) vs. 19% (790/4190), p<0.001). During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7–1.1). Conclusion Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk

  20. Evolving microbiology of complicated acute otitis media before and after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Damien; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; François, Martine; Doit, Catherine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Bidet, Philippe; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bingen, Edouard

    2010-09-01

    We compare the microbiology of otopathogens causing recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) or AOM treatment failure in 600 children during 2000 to 2008 before and after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). Streptococcus pneumoniae predominated before PCV-7 introduction and during 2007 to 2008, whereas Haemophilus influenzae predominated during 2005 to 2006. S. pneumoniae 19A became the most frequent serotype after PCV-7 introduction.

  1. Geographic Information System and tools of spatial analysis in a pneumococcal vaccine trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this Geographic Information System (GIS) study was to obtain accurate information on the locations of study subjects, road network and services for research purposes so that the clinical outcomes of interest (e.g., vaccine efficacy, burden of disease, nasopharyngeal colonization and its reduction) could be linked and analyzed at a distance from health centers, hospitals, doctors and other important services. The information on locations can be used to investigate more accurate crowdedness, herd immunity and/or transmission patterns. Method A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (11PCV) was conducted in Bohol Province in central Philippines, from July 2000 to December 2004. We collected the information on the geographic location of the households (N = 13,208) of study subjects. We also collected a total of 1982 locations of health and other services in the six municipalities and a comprehensive GIS data over the road network in the area. Results We calculated the numbers of other study subjects (vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively) within the neighborhood of each study subject. We calculated distances to different services and identified the subjects sharing the same services (calculated by distance). This article shows how to collect a complete GIS data set for human to human transmitted vaccine study in developing country settings in an efficient and economical way. Conclusions The collection of geographic locations in intervention trials should become a routine task. The results of public health research may highly depend on spatial relationships among the study subjects and between the study subjects and the environment, both natural and infrastructural. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN62323832 PMID:22264271

  2. The potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa: Considerations and early lessons learned from the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Madhi, Shabir A; Nunes, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into the South African public immunization program since 2009 adopted a novel vaccination schedule of 3 doses at 6, 14 and 40 weeks of age. Over the past 5 y it has been shown that infant PCV immunization in South Africa is effective in reducing the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. Furthermore, indirect protection of unvaccinated age-groups (including high risk groups such as HIV-infected adults) against IPD was demonstrated despite the absence of any substantial catch-up campaign of older children. This indirect effect against IPD is corroborated by the temporal reduction in vaccine-serotype colonization among age-groups targeted for PCV immunization as well as unvaccinated HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults, which was evident within 2 y of PCV introduction into the immunization program. Vaccine effectiveness has also been demonstrated in children against presumed bacterial pneumonia. The evaluation of the impact of PCV in South Africa, however, remains incomplete. The knowledge gaps remaining include the evaluation of PCV on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among vaccinated and unvaccinated age-groups. Furthermore, ongoing surveillance is required to determine whether there is ongoing replacement disease by non-vaccine serotypes, which could offset the early gains associated with the immunization program in the country. PMID:26317537

  3. Pneumococcal Carriage in Young Children One Year after Introduction of the 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Romina; Daprai, Laura; Cavrini, Francesca; Lombardo, Donatella; D’Ambrosio, Fabio; Del Grosso, Maria; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; Landini, Maria Paola; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Torresani, Erminio; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Sambri, Vittorio; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2013-01-01

    Background In mid 2010, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was replaced by the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for childhood immunization in Italy. Our objective in this study was to obtain a snapshot of pneumococcal carriage frequency, colonizing serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in healthy children in two Italian cities one year after PCV13 was introduced. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 571 children aged 0-5 years from November 2011-April 2012. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Penicillin and/or erythromycin non-susceptible isolates were analyzed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results Among the children examined, 81.2% had received at least one dose of PCV7 or PCV13 and 74.9% had completed the recommended vaccination schedule for their age. Among the latter, 57.3% of children had received PCV7, 27.1% PCV13, and 15.6% a combination of the two vaccines. The overall carriage rate was 32.9%, with children aged 6-35 months the most prone to pneumococcal colonization (6-23 months OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.19-6.43 and 24-35 months OR: 3.15, 95%CI: 2.36-4.22). A total of 184 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and divided into PCV7 (5.4%), PCV13 (18.0%), and non-PCV13 (82.0%) serotypes. Serotypes 6C, 24F, and 19A were the most prevalent (10.3%, 8.6%, and 8.1%, respectively). The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC >0.6 mg/L) isolates was 30.9%, while 42.3% were erythromycin resistant. Non-PCV13 serotypes accounted for 75.4% and 70.8% of the penicillin and erythromycin non-susceptible isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our results revealed low rates of PCV7 and PCV13 serotypes in Italian children, potentially due to the effects of vaccination. As the use of PCV13 continues, its potential impact on vaccine serotypes such as 19A and cross-reactive serotypes such as 6C will be assessed, with this study providing a baseline for further analysis of surveillance isolates. PMID

  4. Inflammatory Markers and Immune Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in HIV-Positive and -Negative Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, David J.; Ohtola, Jennifer A.; Saul-McBeth, Jessica L.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Westerink, M. A. Julie

    2016-01-01

    could contribute to the design of improved pneumococcal vaccines. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02515240 PMID:26930208

  5. Impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive disease, antimicrobial resistance and colonization in Alaska Natives: progress towards elimination of a health disparity.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Singleton, Rosalyn J; Bulkow, Lisa R; Bruden, Dana L; Hurlburt, Debby A; Parks, Debra; Moore, Matthew; Parkinson, Alan J; Schuchat, Anne; Butler, Jay C

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), antimicrobial resistance and nasopharyngeal colonization before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Alaska Natives (AN), a population with high IPD rates. We obtained IPD rates from population-based surveillance. Colonization was determined from annual surveys among rural AN of all ages and from urban children. After vaccine introduction, vaccine-type IPD rates declined by 91% among AN children <2 years, by 80% among non-Natives <2 years, and by 40% for adults of all races (P<0.001 each). IPD decreased for isolates resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole (P<0.001 each). Vaccine-type colonization decreased among rural and urban children <5 years and among rural adults (P<0.001 each). PCV7 vaccine has eliminated a longstanding disparity of vaccine-type IPD for AN children. Decreased vaccine-type colonization and IPD in adults demonstrate indirect vaccine effects.

  6. Protective humoral response against pneumococcal infection in mice elicited by recombinant bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccines expressing pneumococcal surface protein A

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a cell-surface protein present on all strains of pneumococci, has been shown to elicit protective antibody responses in mice in the absence of capsular polysaccharide. Whereas PspA is polymorphic, considerable cross-reactivity and cross- protection have been demonstrated among PspA proteins of pneumococci exhibiting different capsular and PspA serotypes. A gene segment encoding the nonrepetitive variable NH2-terminal portion of PspA has been cloned into three distinct recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vectors, allowing for expression of PspA as a cytoplasmic or secreted protein, or a chimeric exported membrane-associated lipoprotein. All rBCG-PspA strains elicited comparable anti-PspA ELISA titers, ranging from 10(4) to 10(5) (reciprocal titers) in both BALB/c and C3H/HeJ mice. However, protective responses were observed only in animals immunized with the rBCG-PspA vaccines expressing PspA as a secreted protein or chimeric exported lipoprotein. In addition, anti- PspA immune sera elicited by the rBCG vaccines passively protected X- linked immunodeficient mice from lethal challenge with the highly virulent, encapsulated WU2 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and two additional virulent strains exhibiting heterologous PspA and capsular serotypes. These studies confirm previous PspA immunization studies showing cross-protection against heterologous serotypes of S. pneumoniae and demonstrate a potential for rBCG-based PspA vaccines to elicit protective humoral responses against pneumococcal disease in humans. PMID:7964500

  7. Longitudinal study on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Madhi, Shabir A.; Izu, Alane; Nunes, Marta C.; Violari, Avye; Cotton, Mark F.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Klugman, Keith P.; von Gottberg, Anne; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are all potentially pathogenic, which frequently colonize the nasopharynx (NP) prior to causing disease. We studied bacterial NP-colonization in 321 HIV-infected and 243 HIV-uninfected children vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Methods HIV-uninfected infants included those born to HIV-uninfected (HUU) and HIV-infected women (HEU); HIV-infected children with CD4+ lymphocyte ≥25% were randomised to initiate antiretroviral therapy immediately (ART-Immed) or when clinically indicated (ART-Def). Nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture were taken prior to each PCV7 dose (Visits 1–3) and at 20, 39, 47 and 67 weeks of age (Visits 4–7). Swabs were cultured by standard methods and pneumococcal serotyping done by the Quellung method. Results Colonization patterns for pneumococcus, H. influenzae and S. aureus did not differ between HUU and HEU children; and were also generally similar between ART-Def and ART-Immed children. Prevalence of PCV7-serotype colonization was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, however, overall pneumococcal and specifically non-vaccine serotype colonization tended to be lower in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had a 44% lower prevalence of S. aureus colonization at Visit-1 (p=0.010); and H. influenzae colonization was also lower among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children at Visit-2, Visit-3, Visit-6 and Visit-7. Conclusion Vaccine-serotype colonization is similar in PCV-immunized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We, however, identified a lower prevalence of overall-pneumococcal and H. influenzae colonization in HIV-infected children post-PCV vaccination, the clinical-relevance of which warrants further study. PMID:25910923

  8. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants. PMID:26348230

  9. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar) in Germany: considering a high-risk population and herd immunity effects.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adam; Patel, Nishma; Scott, David A; Runge, Claus; Claes, Christa; Rose, Markus

    2008-02-01

    In Germany, the seven-valent conjugate vaccine Prevenar is recommended for use in children at high risk of pneumococcal disease. Recent data suggest that giving conjugate vaccine to all children may lead to a decline in pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated adults, a phenomenon known as herd immunity. This analysis evaluated the cost and economic consequences in Germany of vaccinating (1) children at high risk, (2) all children when considering only benefits for vaccinated individuals and (3) all children when also considering herd immunity benefits. Costs in the model included vaccination, management of meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia and acute otitis media, insurance payments to parents and the costs of care for long-term disabilities. The model estimated that the cost-effectiveness of vaccination would be 38,222 euros per life year gained in children at high risk and 100,636 euros per life year gained in all children when not considering herd immunity. When considering herd immunity effects, the model estimated that offering vaccination for all children would reduce adult deaths by 3,027 per year, and vaccination would be broadly cost neutral. The findings are sensitive to the effect of conjugate vaccine on the rates of pneumonia and invasive disease in the elderly. If the herd immunity effect of conjugate vaccination in Germany is similar to that observed elsewhere, offering vaccine to all children will be more attractive than the current policy of restricting vaccination to children at high risk of pneumococcal disease.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility rates of invasive pneumococci before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany.

    PubMed

    Imöhl, Matthias; Reinert, Ralf René; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Continuous nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in Germany. A total of 22,208 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease were collected between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 2013. The present study was conducted to analyze changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and pneumococcal vaccine coverage after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany. Most of the isolates originated from adults ≥16 years (82.5%), while 17.5% were obtained from children <16 years. Penicillin resistance was observed in 7.2% of meningitis cases both among children and adults during the entire study period. In the post-PCV13 period, the resistance rate was 11.3% in children and 10.0% in adults, which is higher than in the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV7 periods. In the non-meningitis group, an overall penicillin nonsusceptibility rate (intermediate resistance and resistance) of 0.5% was detected both among children and adults. Nonsusceptibility rates among children were 6.3% (pre-PCV7), 7.6% (post-PCV7) and 9.0% (post-PCV13). The corresponding nonsusceptibility rates among adults were 4.4%, 6.0% and 7.9%, respectively. Concerning cefotaxime, in meningitis cases 0.8% of all isolates were intermediate and 0.5% resistant among children, while among adults, 0.9% were intermediate and 0.2% resistant. In non meningitis cases, cefotaxime nonsusceptibility rates were 0.5% in children and 0.3% in adults. Macrolide nonsusceptibility rates were lower in the post-PCV13 period (children 8.2%; adults 8.8%) than in the post-PCV7 period (children 17.3%; adults 13.0%) and the pre-PCV7 period (children 24.8%; adults 13.3%). In the pre-PCV7 period, macrolide resistance was mainly caused by M-phenotype clones carrying the mefA gene. In the post-PCV7/13 period, ermB (MLSb-phenotype) was the dominant resistance marker. Overall nonsusceptibility rates were 5.5% for clindamycin (intermediate 0.3%, resistant 5.2%), 0.7% for levofloxacin (intermediate 0

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility rates of invasive pneumococci before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany.

    PubMed

    Imöhl, Matthias; Reinert, Ralf René; van der Linden, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Continuous nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in Germany. A total of 22,208 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease were collected between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 2013. The present study was conducted to analyze changes in antimicrobial susceptibility and pneumococcal vaccine coverage after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany. Most of the isolates originated from adults ≥16 years (82.5%), while 17.5% were obtained from children <16 years. Penicillin resistance was observed in 7.2% of meningitis cases both among children and adults during the entire study period. In the post-PCV13 period, the resistance rate was 11.3% in children and 10.0% in adults, which is higher than in the pre-PCV7 and post-PCV7 periods. In the non-meningitis group, an overall penicillin nonsusceptibility rate (intermediate resistance and resistance) of 0.5% was detected both among children and adults. Nonsusceptibility rates among children were 6.3% (pre-PCV7), 7.6% (post-PCV7) and 9.0% (post-PCV13). The corresponding nonsusceptibility rates among adults were 4.4%, 6.0% and 7.9%, respectively. Concerning cefotaxime, in meningitis cases 0.8% of all isolates were intermediate and 0.5% resistant among children, while among adults, 0.9% were intermediate and 0.2% resistant. In non meningitis cases, cefotaxime nonsusceptibility rates were 0.5% in children and 0.3% in adults. Macrolide nonsusceptibility rates were lower in the post-PCV13 period (children 8.2%; adults 8.8%) than in the post-PCV7 period (children 17.3%; adults 13.0%) and the pre-PCV7 period (children 24.8%; adults 13.3%). In the pre-PCV7 period, macrolide resistance was mainly caused by M-phenotype clones carrying the mefA gene. In the post-PCV7/13 period, ermB (MLSb-phenotype) was the dominant resistance marker. Overall nonsusceptibility rates were 5.5% for clindamycin (intermediate 0.3%, resistant 5.2%), 0.7% for levofloxacin (intermediate 0

  13. Pneumococcal serotypes in sputum isolates during acute respiratory illness in Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Gould, G A; Rhind, G B; Morgan, A D; Williamson, G; Calder, M A

    1987-08-01

    During the years 1978-83 serotyping was carried out on all sputum isolates of pneumococci obtained from patients in the chest wards of the City Hospital, Edinburgh. In 402 patients with acute respiratory illness the peak isolation rates occurred from January to April, and the serotype distribution was similar to that seen in previous UK studies, the commonest types being 3, 6, 9, 19, 23, and 8. The overall mortality rate was 8.7%, the serotype distribution in fatal cases reflecting the distribution of the whole group. The presence of mixed infection, predominantly with Haemophilus influenzae, was associated with a lower mortality rate of 3.5%. Nearly all patients (92%) were either elderly or had a chronic underlying disease and only one death occurred in a patient under 70 years who had no pre-existing disease. Of the pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the 292 patients with chronic chest disease, 82% are included in the new 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine and the efficacy of this needs to be assessed further in high risk patients.

  14. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children morbidity and mortality in Peru: Time series analyses.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Victor; Michel, Fabiana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Gonzales, Marco; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Andrus, Jon K; de Oliveira, Lucia H

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children worldwide. Despite available evidence on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact on pneumonia hospitalizations in children, studies demonstrating PCV impact in morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries are still scarce. Given the disease burden, PCV7 was introduced in Peru in 2009, and then switched to PCV10 in late 2011. National public healthcare system provides care for 60% of the population, and national hospitalization, outpatient and mortality data are available. We thus aimed to assess the effects of routine PCV vaccination on pneumonia hospitalization and mortality, and acute otitis media (AOM) and all cause pneumonia outpatient visits in children under one year of age in Peru. We conducted a segmented time-series analysis using outcome-specific regression models. Study period was from January 2006 to December 2012. Data sources included the National information systems for hospitalization, mortality, outpatient visits, and RENACE, the national database of aggregated weekly notifications of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases (both hospitalized and non-hospitalized). Study outcomes included community acquired pneumonia outpatient visits, hospitalizations and deaths (ICD10 codes J12-J18); and AOM outpatient visits (H65-H67). Monthly age- and sex-specific admission, outpatient visit, and mortality rates per 100,000 children aged <1year, as well as weekly rates for pneumonia and AOM recorded in RENACE were estimated. After PCV introduction, we observed significant vaccine impact in morbidity and mortality in children aged <1year. Vaccine effectiveness was 26.2% (95% CI 16.9-34.4) for AOM visits, 35% (95% CI 8.6-53.8) for mortality due to pneumonia, and 20.6% (95% CI 10.6-29.5) for weekly cases of pneumonia hospitalization and outpatient visits notified to RENACE. We used secondary data sources which are usually developed for other non

  15. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children morbidity and mortality in Peru: Time series analyses.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Victor; Michel, Fabiana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Gonzales, Marco; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Ruiz Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Andrus, Jon K; de Oliveira, Lucia H

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children worldwide. Despite available evidence on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact on pneumonia hospitalizations in children, studies demonstrating PCV impact in morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries are still scarce. Given the disease burden, PCV7 was introduced in Peru in 2009, and then switched to PCV10 in late 2011. National public healthcare system provides care for 60% of the population, and national hospitalization, outpatient and mortality data are available. We thus aimed to assess the effects of routine PCV vaccination on pneumonia hospitalization and mortality, and acute otitis media (AOM) and all cause pneumonia outpatient visits in children under one year of age in Peru. We conducted a segmented time-series analysis using outcome-specific regression models. Study period was from January 2006 to December 2012. Data sources included the National information systems for hospitalization, mortality, outpatient visits, and RENACE, the national database of aggregated weekly notifications of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases (both hospitalized and non-hospitalized). Study outcomes included community acquired pneumonia outpatient visits, hospitalizations and deaths (ICD10 codes J12-J18); and AOM outpatient visits (H65-H67). Monthly age- and sex-specific admission, outpatient visit, and mortality rates per 100,000 children aged <1year, as well as weekly rates for pneumonia and AOM recorded in RENACE were estimated. After PCV introduction, we observed significant vaccine impact in morbidity and mortality in children aged <1year. Vaccine effectiveness was 26.2% (95% CI 16.9-34.4) for AOM visits, 35% (95% CI 8.6-53.8) for mortality due to pneumonia, and 20.6% (95% CI 10.6-29.5) for weekly cases of pneumonia hospitalization and outpatient visits notified to RENACE. We used secondary data sources which are usually developed for other non

  16. Non-Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Portugal—Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Lopes, Joana P.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the serotypes causing non-invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (NIPP). Our aim was to characterize pneumococci causing NIPP in adults to determine recent changes in serotype prevalence, the potential coverage of pneumococcal vaccines and changes in antimicrobial resistance. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a sample of 1300 isolates recovered from adult patients (≥18 yrs) between 1999 and 2011 (13 years) were determined. Serotype 3 was the most frequent cause of NIPP accounting for 18% of the isolates. The other most common serotypes were 11A (7%), 19F (7%), 19A (5%), 14 (4%), 22F (4%), 23F (4%) and 9N (4%). Between 1999 and 2011, there were significant changes in the proportion of isolates expressing vaccine serotypes, with a steady decline of the serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine from 31% (1999–2003) to 11% (2011) (P<0.001). Taking together the most recent study years (2009–2011), the potential coverage of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine was 44% and of the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine was 66%. While erythromycin resistance increased from 8% in 1999–2003 to 18% in 2011 (P<0.001), no significant trend was identified for penicillin non-susceptibility, which had an average value of 18.5%. The serotype distribution found in this study for NIPP was very different from the one previously described for IPD, with only two serotypes in common to the ones responsible for half of each presentation in 2009–2011 – serotypes 3 and 19A. In spite of these differences, the overall prevalence of resistant isolates was similar in NIPP and in IPD. PMID:25075961

  17. [Indirect, population effect of mass pneumococcal vaccinations (PCV7) on all-cause pneumonia incidence in Kielce, Poland].

    PubMed

    Patrzałek, Marian; Albrecht, Piotr; Sobczyński, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    In these article they made analysis of indirect, population effects of mass, free of charge, pneumococcal vaccinations (PCV7) on all-cause pneumonia incidence in Kielce, Poland. The strongest and significant fall (p=0.00079) in all-cause pneumonia incidence in the analyzed period 2005-2009 compared with remaining groups were observed in the group of children under 2 of years of life. He amounted to the 74% (around 25/1000 in 2005; 6/1000 in 2009). In the entire ancient group 0-29, embracing children under 2 yrs of life the fall of pneumonia incidence rate amounted to the 48% (from 2.8/1000 in 2005; 1.5/1000 in 2009). In the age 65+ group the fall in the incidence amounted to the 45% (19/1000 in 2005; <11/1000 in 2009 r.). At the moment they didn't observe, of such a fall in age groups 30-49 yrs and 50-64 yrs. Presented results are pointing population effectiveness of applied in Kielce mass vaccination in a 2+1 scheme. Analyzing only pneumonia requiring the hospitalization they tried at work to estimate, in the definitely simplified way, financial effects of mass pneumococcal vaccination in Kielce. Analysis showed at children up to 2 yrs frugalities of the row of the 174,420 zloty annually. In the group above 1 year of life analogous analysis showed frugalities of row 789,480 zloty. Results presented by us should, in our opinion, to induce decision-makers for free of charge mass pneumococcal vaccinations to entire Poland.

  18. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Uptake in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Immunosuppressive Therapy in the UK: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L.; Pye, Stephen R.; Brown, Benjamin; Dixon, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) recommend using influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations to mitigate infection risk. The level of adherence to these guidelines is not well known in the UK. The aims of this study were to describe the uptake of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in patients with RA in the UK, to compare the characteristics of those vaccinated to those not vaccinated and to compare vaccination rates across regions of the UK. Methods A retrospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with incident RA and treated with non-biologic immunosuppressive therapy, using data from a large primary care database. For the influenza vaccination, patients were considered unvaccinated on 1st September each year and upon vaccination their status changed to vaccinated. For pneumococcal vaccination, patients were considered vaccinated after their first vaccination until the end of follow-up. Patients were stratified by age 65 at the start of follow-up, given differences in vaccination guidelines for the general population. Results Overall (N = 15,724), 80% patients received at least one influenza vaccination, and 50% patients received a pneumococcal vaccination, during follow-up (mean 5.3 years). Of those aged below 65 years (N = 9,969), 73% patients had received at least one influenza vaccination, and 43% patients received at least one pneumococcal vaccination. Of those aged over 65 years (N = 5,755), 91% patients received at least one influenza vaccination, and 61% patients had received at least one pneumococcal vaccination. Those vaccinated were older, had more comorbidity and visited the GP more often. Regional differences in vaccination rates were seen with the highest rates in Northern Ireland, and the lowest rates in London. Conclusions One in five patients received no influenza vaccinations and one in two patients received no pneumonia vaccine over five years of follow-up. There remains significant scope to improve

  19. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7–36), 19 days (IQR 8–36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3–46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes. PMID:27152612

  20. Kinetics and Avidity of Antibodies Evoked by Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines PncCRM and PncOMPC in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Åhman, Heidi; Verho, Jouko; Jokinen, Jukka; Väkeväinen, Merja; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2005-01-01

    The licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) relies on immunogenicity data. When defining correlates of protection, vaccine efficacy data must be included. In the FinOM Vaccine Efficacy Trial, the PncOMPC vaccine showed an efficacy profile similar to that of the licensed PncCRM vaccine despite different antibody responses after primary and booster vaccinations. We determined antibody kinetics and avidities in a subgroup of infants participating in the FinOM trial. A total of 166 infants in three vaccine groups were immunized at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age with 7-valent PCV, PncCRM or PncOMPC, or hepatitis B vaccine. Concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides were determined at 2, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age, and the avidity index (AI) to serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined at 7, 12, 13, and 24 months of age by enzyme immunoassay. Both PCVs were highly immunogenic, but they demonstrated different kinetics of antibody response; the concentration of IgG against serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F declined faster after the third and fourth doses of vaccine in the PncCRM group than in the PncOMPC group. For both PCVs, the mean AI of anti-6B and -23F, but not of anti-19F, increased during the follow-up, which is in line with serotype-specific protection in the FinOM trial. Our data suggest that the kinetics and avidities of antibodies should be considered, in addition to antibody responses, when defining correlates of protection. PMID:15618174

  1. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp.) bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g) at the screening visit (V1-Day 0) and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2). They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31), as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51) and 42 days (V5-Day 72) after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific) were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific) were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F) at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002) and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041). These same subtypes (18C and 23F) also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001) and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003). Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no

  2. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Carriage among Healthy Children in Cyprus Post Widespread Simultaneous Implementation of PCV10 and PCV13 Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Efstathiou, Elisavet; Alexandrou, Maria; Panayiotou, Loukia; Zachariadou, Chrystalla; Petrou, Panayiotis; Papaevangelou, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the incidence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal isolates in healthy children aged 6 to 36 months following the implementation of conjugate vaccines. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected from 1105 healthy children following a stratified random sampling between September 2013 and April 2014. Demographics, vaccination status and data on possible risk factors were recorded. Isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The nasopharyngeal carriage rate was 25.3%. Among 1105 children enrolled, 393 had received PCV13 and 685 PCV10. The prevailing isolated serotypes were: 23A (14.3%), 15A (8.9%), 6C (8.6%), 23B (7.5%), 19A (5.4%) and 15B (5%). The proportion of non-vaccine serotypes, PCV10 serotypes, PCV13 additional serotypes (3, 6A, 19A) was 76.8%, 2.1% and 10.4% respectively. Although children, who were fully or partially vaccinated with PCV13, were 63% less likely to be colonized with additional PCV13 serotypes compared to those vaccinated with PCV10, the difference is not significant (95%Cl = 0.14–1.02, p = 0.053). The highest antibiotic non-susceptible rates were found for erythromycin (28.2%) and penicillin (27.9%). The overall multidrug resistance rate was 13.2%, with serotypes 24F (4/6), 15A (14/25) and 19A (6/15) being the main contributors. Carriage rate was similar between children vaccinated with PCV10 or PCV13. The high incidence of 15A serotype which is also multidrug resistant should be underlined. Ongoing surveillance is needed to monitor the dynamics on nasopharyngeal carriage. PMID:27706247

  3. Postlicensure surveillance for pre-specified adverse events following the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Weintraub, Eric; Yih, Katherine; Baxter, Roger; Glanz, Jason M; Donahue, James; Naleway, Allison; Nordin, James; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-05-24

    Although no increased risk was detected for serious adverse events in the prelicensure trials for the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, Prevnar 13(®) (PCV13), continued monitoring of rare but serious adverse events is necessary. A surveillance system using cohort study design was set up to monitor safety of PCV13 immediately after it was included in the childhood immunization program in the United States. The exposed population included children of 1 month to 2 years old who received PCV13 from April, 2010 to January, 2012 from the eight managed care organizations participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project in the United States. The historical unexposed population was children of the same age who received the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar 7(®) (PCV7) in 2007 (or 2005 depending on the outcome of interest) to 2009. The risk of pre-specified adverse events in the risk window following PCV13 was repeatedly compared to that in the historical comparison group. The number of doses included in the study was 599,229. No increased risk was found for febrile seizures, urticaria or angioneurotic edema, asthma, thrombocytopenia, or anaphylaxis. An increased risk for encephalopathy was not confirmed following the medical record review. The relative risk for Kawasaki disease in 0-28 days following vaccination was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-4.86), comparing PCV13 to PCV7. Comparing to PCV7 vaccine, we identified no significant increased risk of pre-specified adverse events in the Vaccine Safety Datalink study cohort. The possible association between PCV13 and Kawasaki disease may deserve further investigation.

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  5. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two of the most prevalent causes of severe bacterial meningitis in children, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are preventable by existing vaccines increasingly available in developing countries. Our objective was to estimate the dose-specific effect of Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) on childhood meningitis mortality in low-income countries for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We systematically searched and reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials and observational studies reporting the effect of Hib or PCV vaccines on organism-specific meningitis, bacterial meningitis and all-cause meningitis incidence and mortality among children less than five years old in low- and middle-income countries. Data collection and quality assessments were performed using standardized guidelines. For outcomes available across multiple studies (≥2) and approximating meningitis mortality, we pooled estimates reporting dose-specific effects using random effects meta-analytic methods, then combined these with meningitis etiology data to determine the preventable fraction of childhood meningitis mortality for inclusion in LiST. Results We identified 18 studies of Hib conjugate vaccines reporting relevant meningitis morbidity and mortality outcomes (2 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], 16 observational studies) but few provided dose-specific effects. A meta-analysis of four case-control studies examined the dose-specific effect of Hib conjugate vaccines on Hib meningitis morbidity (1 dose: RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.38-1.06; 2 doses: RR=0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.27; 3 doses: RR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.22), consistent with results from single RCTs. Pooled estimates of two RCTs provided evidence for the effect of three doses of PCV on vaccine-serotype meningitis morbidity (RR=0.16, 95% CI 0.02-1.20). We considered these outcomes of severe disease as proxy estimates for meningitis mortality and combined the estimates of protective effects

  6. Health Gains and Financial Protection from Pneumococcal Vaccination and Pneumonia Treatment in Ethiopia: Results from an Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Pecenka, Clint; Jamison, Dean T.; Verguet, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia and pneumococcal disease cause a large disease burden in resource-constrained settings. We pursue an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) of two fully publicly financed interventions in Ethiopia: pneumococcal vaccination for newborns and pneumonia treatment for under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods We apply ECEA methods and estimate the program impact on: (1) government program costs; (2) pneumonia and pneumococcal deaths averted; (3) household expenses related to pneumonia/pneumococcal disease treatment averted; (4) prevention of household medical impoverishment measured by an imputed money-metric value of financial risk protection; and (5) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country population. Available epidemiological and cost data from Ethiopia are applied and the two interventions are assessed separately at various incremental coverage levels. Results Scaling-up pneumococcal vaccines at around 40% coverage would cost about $11.5 million and avert about 2090 child deaths annually, while a 10% increase of pneumonia treatment to all children under 5 years of age would cost about $13.9 million and avert 2610 deaths annually. Health benefits of the two interventions publicly financed would be concentrated among the bottom income quintile, where 30–40% of all deaths averted would be expected to occur in the poorest quintile. In sum, the two interventions would eliminate a total of $2.4 million of private household expenditures annually, where the richest quintile benefits from around 30% of the total private expenditures averted. The financial risk protection benefits would be largely concentrated among the bottom income quintile. The results are most sensitive to variations in vaccine price, population size, number of deaths due to pneumonia, efficacy of interventions and out-of-pocket copayment share. Conclusions Vaccine and treatment interventions for children, as shown with the illustrative examples of

  7. A live-attenuated pneumococcal vaccine elicits CD4+ T-cell dependent class switching and provides serotype independent protection against acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Jason W; Iverson, Amy R; Humann, Jessica; Mann, Beth; Gao, Geli; Vogel, Peter; Mina, Michael; Murrah, Kyle A; Perez, Antonia C; Edward Swords, W; Tuomanen, Elaine I; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae remains one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide despite widespread vaccination. A major limitation of the currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines is the lack of efficacy against mucosal disease manifestations such as AOM, acute bacterial sinusitis and pneumonia. We sought to generate a novel class of live vaccines that (1) retain all major antigenic virulence proteins yet are fully attenuated and (2) protect against otitis media. A live vaccine candidate based on deletion of the signal recognition pathway component ftsY induced potent, serotype-independent protection against otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Protection was maintained in animals coinfected with influenza virus, but was lost if mice were depleted of CD4(+) T cells at the time of vaccination. The live vaccine induced a strong serum IgG2a and IgG2b response that correlated with CD4(+) T-cell mediated class switching. Deletion of genes required for microbial adaptation to the host environment is a novel live attenuated vaccine strategy yielding the first experimental vaccine effective against pneumococcal otitis media.

  8. Pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine: optimization of cell growth of unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae in bioreactor using animal-free medium.

    PubMed

    Liberman, C; Takagi, M; Cabrera-Crespo, J; Sbrogio-Almeida, M E; Dias, W O; Leite, L C C; Gonçalves, V M

    2008-11-01

    The high cost of the available pneumococcal conjugated vaccines has been an obstacle in implementing vaccination programs for children in developing countries. As an alternative, Malley et al. proposed a vaccine consisting of inactivated whole-cells of unencapsulated S. pneumoniae, which provides serotype-independent protection and involves lower production costs. Although the pneumococcus has been extensively studied, little research has focused on its large-scale culture, thus implying a lack of knowledge of process parameters, which in turn are essential for its successful industrial production. The strain Rx1Al- eryR was originally cultured in Todd-Hewitt medium (THY), which is normally used for pneumococcus isolation, but is unsuitable for human vaccine preparations. The purposes of this study were to compare the strains Rx1Al- eryR and kanR, develop a new medium, and generate new data parameters for scaling-up the process. In static flasks, cell densities were higher for eryR than kanR. In contrast, the optical density (OD) of the former decreased immediately after reaching the stationary phase, and the OD of the latter remained stable. The strain Rx1Al- kanR was cultivated in bioreactors with medium based on either acid-hydrolyzed casein (AHC) or enzymatically hydrolyzed soybean meal (EHS). Biomass production in EHS was 2.5 times higher than in AHC, and about ten times higher than in THY. The process developed for growing the strain Rx1Al- kanR in pH-controlled bioreactors was shown to be satisfactory to this fastidious bacterium. The new culture conditions using this animal-free medium may allow the production of the pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine.

  9. Factors Associated with Influenza Vaccination of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Àngela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús; Force, Lluís; Morales, María; Mayoral, José María; Egurrola, Mikel; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Astray, Jenaro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of influenza in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in hospitalized patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized due to causes unrelated to influenza in Spain. We carried out a cross-sectional study. Bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking in to account sociodemographic variables and medical risk conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. We included 1038 patients: 602 (58%) had received the influenza vaccine in the 2013-14 season. Three or more general practitioner visits (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.19-2.18); influenza vaccination in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 13.57; 95% CI 9.45-19.48); and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.38-2.80) were associated with receiving the influenza vaccine. Vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low in Spain and some predisposing characteristics influence vaccination coverage. Healthcare workers should take these characteristics into account and be encouraged to proactively propose influenza vaccination to all patients aged ≥ 65 years.

  10. Factors Associated with Influenza Vaccination of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Àngela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús; Force, Lluís; Morales, María; Mayoral, José María; Egurrola, Mikel; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Astray, Jenaro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of influenza in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to causes unrelated to influenza in Spain. We carried out a cross-sectional study. Bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking in to account sociodemographic variables and medical risk conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. We included 1038 patients: 602 (58%) had received the influenza vaccine in the 2013–14 season. Three or more general practitioner visits (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.19–2.18); influenza vaccination in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 13.57; 95% CI 9.45–19.48); and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.38–2.80) were associated with receiving the influenza vaccine. Vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low in Spain and some predisposing characteristics influence vaccination coverage. Healthcare workers should take these characteristics into account and be encouraged to proactively propose influenza vaccination to all patients aged ≥65 years. PMID:26824383

  11. A review of economic evaluations of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults and the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Dirmesropian, S; Wood, JG; MacIntyre, CR; Newall, AT

    2015-01-01

    The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) is already recommended for some adult groups and is being considered for wider use in many countries. In order to identify the strengths and limitations of the existing economic evaluation studies of PCV13 in adults and the elderly a literature review was conducted. The majority of the studies identified (9 out of 10) found that PCV13 was cost-effective in adults and/or the elderly. However, these results were based on assumptions that could not always be informed by robust evidence. Key uncertainties included the efficacy of PCV13 against non-invasive pneumonia and the herd immunity effect of childhood vaccination programs. Emerging trial evidence on PCV13 in adults from the Netherlands offers the ability to parameterize future economic evaluations with empirical efficacy data. However, it is important that these estimates are used thoughtfully when they are transferred to other settings. PMID:25933180

  12. Prevalence of Heptavalent Vaccine-related Pneumococcal Serotypes in Nasopharyngeal carrier in children under five years old in Shahrekord, Iran by Multiplex-PCR during 2010- 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rastabi, Reza Imani; Doosti, Abbas; Askari, Shahin; Hafizi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine which included pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 9V,14, 18C, 19F and 23F has been regularly used and is effective on preventing invasive pneumococcal infection. This study aimed to determine vaccine-related serotype distribution in nasopharyngeal carrier and healthy children under five years old. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from September 2010 to September 2011, 363 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from healthy children in day care centers. In positive cultures of streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumonia) distribution, serotypes were detected by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Electrophoresis of PCR products was used for detection of serotypes of S. pneumoniae. Results: The carrier rate of S. pneumoniae was 29.5% with 95% confidence interval as 24.8- 34.5%. Electrophoresis of PCR products for detection of serotypes of S. pneumonia revealed 430, 220, 753, 189, 573, 304, and 384 bp (s) for 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F serotypes of S. pneumoniae, respectively. The frequency of 23F, 6B, 19F, and 18C serotypes were 43%, 34%, 18%, and 5% respectively, but other serotypes (4, 9V and 14) were not detected. Conclusion: Based on the 30% carrier rate and high prevalence of most of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes in our study, this vaccine should be used for prevention of invasive infection in Iranian children. PMID:25584276

  13. The Impact of Order Set Use on Pneumococcal Vaccination at the Time of Admission and at the Time of Discharge for Adult Patients in an Acute Inpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pneumococcal vaccination (PV) is important as Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for one third of all hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia. In 2009, 1.1 million people in the U.S. were hospitalized with pneumonia and more than 50,000 people died from the disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that…

  14. [Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccination in Children and Adolescents at High Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease].

    PubMed

    Tendais-Almeida, Marta; Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Alves, Inês; Tavares, Margarida; Azevedo, Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal, a vacinação anti-pneumocócica é gratuita e recomendada pela Direção-Geral da Saúde na população pediátrica de alto risco para doença invasiva pneumocócica. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cumprimento vacinal numa população pediátrica seguida em consulta hospitalar. Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, em crianças com diagnóstico de alto risco de doença invasiva pneumocócica e consulta num hospital nível três, entre julho e dezembro de 2014. Os dados foram obtidos através do processo clínico, Boletim Individual de Saúde e Plataforma de Dados da Saúde®. Resultados: Dos 122 participantes, 95,9% realizaram, pelo menos, uma dose de vacina mas, destes, só 64,8% efetuaram o esquema completo. O cumprimento do esquema vacinal foi melhor nos de idade inferior a cinco anos (p < 0,01). A proporção de crianças com esquema completo foi de: 100% nas hemoglobinopatias, 100% nas infeções por vírus da imunodeficiência humana, 66,7% nos prematuros com idade gestacional ⤠28 semanas, 62,5% nos esplenectomizados e 54,7% na síndrome de Down. As crianças têm mais esquemas completos quando são seguidas em consulta de Infeciologia (100%) e de Pneumologia pediátricas (88,2%). O grupocom idade superior a cinco anos está mais vacinado com a vacina polissacarida 23-valente do que o dos 2-5 anos (74,5% vs 40,5%; p < 0,01).Discussão: A maioria da nossa população de alto risco para doença invasiva pneumocócica efetuou vacinação anti-pneumocócica, mas apenas dois terços completaram o esquema recomendado, sendo a maior falha na administração da vacina polissacarida 23-valente. Conclusões: Embora estes resultados sejam melhores do que em países europeus com recomendações semelhantes, é necessário explorar as causas das falhas observadas para otimizar a vacinação.

  15. Vaccination status of people living with HIV/AIDS in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Medeiros, Camila Martins de; Rocha, Ryvanne Paulino; Lima, Maria Amanda Correia; Fechine, Francisco Vagnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS, thus necessitating health promotion practice with immunization. Vaccines are critical components for protecting people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purpose of study was to analyze the vaccination status of PLWHA in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Cross-sectional study performed from June 2014 to June 2015. The screening was done with patients in antiretroviral therapy, 420 patients underwent screening, but only 99 met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected for interviews using forms to characterize sociodemographic, clinical and vaccination situations. Only 14 patients had complete vaccination schedules. The most used vaccines were hepatitis B, influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal. There was no difference between men and women regarding the proportion of PLWHA with full vaccination schedule or between sex, skin color, marital status, sexual orientation, religion or occupational status. There was no difference between having or not having a complete vaccination schedule and age, years of education, family income or number of hospitalizations. CD4+ T-cells count of patients with incomplete immunization was lower than patients with complete immunization. Health education strategies can be done individually or in groups to explain the importance of vaccination and to remind about doses to be administered. Most patients did not have proper adherence to vaccination schedules, especially due to lack of guidance. Results implied that education in health is important for vaccination adhesion, knowledge of adverse events and continuation of schemes. PMID:27542868

  16. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection. PMID:26341563

  17. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection.

  18. Effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type invasive disease among children in Uruguay: an evaluation using existing data.

    PubMed

    Picón, Teresa; Alonso, Lucía; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Speranza, Noelia; Casas, Mariana; Arrieta, Fernando; Camou, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Verani, Jennifer Rabke

    2013-07-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Uruguay in March 2008 with a 2-dose primary series (given at 2 and 4 months) plus a booster (at 12 months) and a catch-up campaign (two doses given at 15 and 17 months). We used a case-control methodology and existing laboratory surveillance and immunization registry data from Uruguay to evaluate PCV7 effectiveness against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD). Cases of VT-IPD (with pneumococcus obtained from a normally sterile site) were identified through the National Reference Laboratory. Age- and neighborhood-matched controls were obtained through a national immunization registry in which all children are enrolled at birth regardless of vaccine receipt; all eligible controls were included. Immunization status of cases and controls was assessed through the immunization registry, and conditional logistic regression was used to calculate PCV7 effectiveness. Between April 2008 and February 2010, 44 cases of VT-IPD among children<5 years were identified; 43 (98%) of those children were located in the registry. Among located case patients, 7 (16.3%) were age-eligible to have received at least one dose of PCV7. A total of 637 matched controls were included. Vaccine effectiveness was 91.3% (95% CI: 46.4, 98.6) for ≥ 1 PCV7 doses and 94.8% (95% CI: 43.1, 99.5) for ≥ 2 PCV7 doses. Using existing data we demonstrated high effectiveness of PCV7 against VT-IPD in Uruguay-a middle-income country using a 2-dose primary series plus a booster dose and a limited catch-up campaign. These data also highlight the utility of surveillance and high-quality immunization registries for evaluating the effectiveness of vaccines.

  19. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  20. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  1. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  2. The Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA): what is the future of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in elderly?

    PubMed

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly. In the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 84,496 community-dwelling immunocompetent adults over 65 years of age, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) reduced the incidence of first episode of vaccine-type (VT) PCAP with 38 and of VT-IPD with 76% in the modified intention-to-treat population. In The Netherlands, where PCV7 immunization of newborns was introduced in 2007 and replaced by PCV10 in 2011, introduction of PCV13 immunization of elderly--based on 2012 data--would be highly cost effective. However, this is probably different in countries where the VT disease burden has declined more, for instance due to herd effects following child immunization with PCV13. Apart from cost-effectiveness analyses, ethical aspects of PCAP prevention should be taken into account in policy making for pneumococcal vaccination in elderly.

  3. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia incidence, severe morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Jhass, Arnoupe; Madhi, Shabir A; Clark, Andrew; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bhopal, Sunil; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Background With the aim of populating the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) with parameters of effectiveness of existing interventions, we conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal (PC) conjugate vaccines on incidence, severe morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia. Methods We summarized cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) and case–control studies of Hib conjugate vaccines and RCTs of 9- and 11-valent PC conjugate vaccines conducted in developing countries across outcome measures using standard meta-analysis methods. We used a set of standardized rules developed for the purpose of populating the LiST tool with required parameters to promote comparability across reviews of interventions against the major causes of childhood mortality. The estimates could be adjusted further to account for factors such as PC vaccine serotype content, PC serotype distribution and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence but this was not included as part of the LiST model approach. Results The available evidence from published data points to a summary effect of the Hib conjugate vaccine on clinical pneumonia of 4%, on clinical severe pneumonia of 6% and on radiologically confirmed pneumonia of 18%. Respective effectiveness estimates for PC vaccines (all valent) on clinical pneumonia is 7%, clinical severe pneumonia is 7% and radiologically confirmed pneumonia is 26%. Conclusions The findings indicated that radiologically confirmed pneumonia, as a severe morbidity proxy for mortality, provided better estimates for the LiST model of effect of interventions on mortality reduction than did other outcomes evaluated. The LiST model will use this to estimate the pneumonia mortality reduction which might be observed when scaling up Hib and PC conjugate vaccination in the context of an overall package of child health interventions. PMID:20348119

  4. Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Serotype-Specific Carriage and Invasive Disease in England: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Flasche, Stefan; Van Hoek, Albert Jan; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Waight, Pauline; Andrews, Nick; Sheppard, Carmen; George, Robert; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programme in England on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease to help understand its role in serotype replacement and predict the impact of higher valency vaccines. Methods and Findings Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from children <5 y old and family members (n = 400) 2 y after introduction of PCV7 into routine immunization programs. Proportions carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype distribution among carried isolates were compared with a similar population prior to PCV7 introduction. Serotype-specific case∶carrier ratios (CCRs) were estimated using national data on invasive disease. In vaccinated children and their contacts vaccine-type (VT) carriage decreased, but was offset by an increase in non-VT carriage, with no significant overall change in carriage prevalence, odds ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.76–1.49). The lower CCRs of the replacing serotypes resulted in a net reduction in invasive disease in children. The additional serotypes covered by higher valency vaccines had low carriage but high disease prevalence. Serotype 11C emerged as predominant in carriage but caused no invasive disease whereas 8, 12F, and 22F emerged in disease but had very low carriage prevalence. Conclusion Because the additional serotypes included in PCV10/13 have high CCRs but low carriage prevalence, vaccinating against them is likely to significantly reduce invasive disease with less risk of serotype replacement. However, a few serotypes with high CCRs could mitigate the benefits of higher valency vaccines. Assessment of the effect of PCV on carriage as well as invasive disease should be part of enhanced surveillance activities for PCVs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21483718

  5. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  6. Characterization of a recombinant pneumolysin and its use as a protein carrier for pneumococcal type 18C conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, J; Douglas, M; Ree, H K; Lindberg, A A

    1995-01-01

    Pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and purified by affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The purified recombinant pneumolysin (rPL), with a molecular mass of 53 kDa, had a specific activity of 3 x 10(5) hemolytic units per mg of protein on rabbit erythrocytes and reacted identically in immunodiffusion with the antisera against native pneumolysin. The rPL was used as a protein carrier to prepare conjugate vaccine with pneumococcal type 18C polysaccharide (PS18C). The PS18C was directly coupled to rPL by reductive animation or was indirectly coupled to rPL via a spacer molecule, adipic acid dihydrazide. The conjugates were nontoxic for mice and guinea pigs at 100 micrograms per dose. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of both conjugates were tested in mice. A single dose of either of the vaccines elicited a rise in immunoglobulin G antibody production; after two booster injections of the vaccines, statistically significant booster responses (P < 0.001) to both rPL and PS18C were produced. The sera containing the antibodies to rPL were capable of neutralizing the hemolytic activity of rPL to rabbit erythrocytes and the cytotoxicity of rPL to bovine pulmonary endothelial cells. Immunization with the conjugate vaccines conferred statistically significant protection in mice against lethal challenge with type 18C pneumococci. PMID:7790088

  7. Response to Wu et al. — Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Lijoy; Mungall, Bruce; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A recently published paper that assessed the comparative cost-effectiveness of the 2 pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in Malaysia and Hong Kong reported that the 13-valent PCV vaccine (PCV13) is a better choice compared to the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV or PCV10) from both a payer and societal perspective as well as under various scenarios. However, the analysis relied on a large number of assumptions that were either erroneous or did not take into account the most recent body of evidence available. A rigorous evaluation of the underlying assumptions is necessary to present a fair and balanced analysis for decision-making. PMID:27459265

  8. Vaccination Coverage and Compliance with Three Recommended Schedules of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine during the First Year of Its Introduction in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced to Brazil’s National Immunization Program (NIP) in 2010. During the first year of vaccine introduction three schedules were used to deal with age at initiation of PCV for catch-up purposes: 3 primary doses + 1 booster (for children aged ≤6 months), a catch-up schedule of 2 doses + 1 booster (7-11 months), and a catch-up schedule of a single dose (12-15 months). The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for under-vaccination or lack of on time vaccination six to eight months after PCV10 introduction. A household survey was conducted in the municipality of Goiania with 1,237 children, who were retroactively classified into one of three age groups, as a factor of the child’s age relatively to 30 days after PCV10 introduction. Socioeconomic characteristics and vaccination dates were obtained during home interviews. Vaccination coverage was defined as the percentage of children who completed the recommended number of doses. Compliance with recommended schedules was defined as the percentage of children who received all valid doses at the NIP recommended time interval. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) of variables independently associated with coverage and compliance were estimated by log binomial regression. Coverage of DTP-Hib was used for comparison purposes. Overall, vaccination coverage was 54.6% (95% CI 52.1-57.7%), lower than DTP-Hib coverage (93.0%; 95% CI 91.5-94.3%). Compliance with recommended schedules was 16.8% (95% CI: 14.7-18.6%). Children 7-11 months old had lower coverage (40.7%) and compliance (6.3%) compared to children aged 12-15 months (coverage: 88.8%; compliance: 35.6%) and ≤6 months old (coverage: 54%; compliance: 18.8%). Having private health insurance was associated with higher PCV10 coverage (PR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.47, p=0.007), and compliance (PR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16, p=0.015). Although PCV10 coverage rapidly increased shortly

  9. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV. PMID:26647277

  10. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults.  Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas.    Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV. PMID:26647277

  11. Pneumococcal serotype distribution in adults with invasive disease and in carrier children in Italy: Should we expect herd protection of adults through infants' vaccination?

    PubMed

    Azzari, Chiara; Cortimiglia, Martina; Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Mattei, Romano; Zuliani, Massimo; Adriani, Beatrice; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Consales, Guglielmo; Aquilini, Donatella; Bini, Giancarlo; Di Natale, Massimo Edoardo; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; de Vitis, Elisa; Mangone, Giusi; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Pasinato, Angela; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) produced a significant herd protection in unvaccinated adult population mostly because of pneumococcus carriage decrease in vaccinated children. It is not known if the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine can give similar effect on adults. Aims of the work were to evaluate whether the 6 additional serotypes are present in nasopharynx of children and serotype distribution in invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) in adults. Realtime-PCR was used to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes in adults with confirmed IPD and in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) from 629 children not vaccinated or vaccinated with PCV7 and resident in the same geographical areas. Two hundred twenty-one patients (116 males, median 67.9 years) with IPD were studied (pneumonia n = 103, meningitis n = 61 sepsis n = 50, other n = 7). Two hundred twelve were serotyped. The most frequent serotypes were 3, (31/212; 14.6%), 19A, (19/212; 9.0%), 12 (17/212; 8.0%), 7F, (14/212; 6.6%). In NP of children, the frequency of those serotypes causing over 50% of IPD in adults was very low, ranging from 0.48% for serotype 7F to 7.9% for serotype 19A. On the other side serotype 5, very frequent in NP (18.7%) caused <1% IPD. In conclusion serotypes causing IPD in adults are very rarely found in children NP. We suggest that herd protection obtainable with the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 may be more limited than that demonstrated with PCV7 in the past. In order to reduce the burden of disease in adults, adults should be offered a specific vaccination program with highly immunogenic PCV.

  12. 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers.

    PubMed

    Muema, D M; Nduati, E W; Uyoga, M; Bashraheil, M; Scott, J A G; Hammitt, L L; Urban, B C

    2015-08-01

    Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

  13. 10‐valent pneumococcal non‐typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein‐D conjugate vaccine (PHiD‐CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nduati, E. W.; Uyoga, M.; Bashraheil, M.; Scott, J. A. G.; Hammitt, L. L.; Urban, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Memory B cells are long‐lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma‐cell pool or making recall responses upon re‐exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti‐pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12–23 months who received pneumococcal non‐typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein‐D conjugate vaccine (PHiD‐CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD‐CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3–45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21–66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13–36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24–42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21–40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time‐points (day 30: non‐carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non‐carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD‐CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. PMID:25845628

  14. Poor Correlation between Pneumococcal IgG and IgM Titers and Opsonophagocytic Activity in Vaccinated Patients with Multiple Myeloma and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Johanna; Roalfe, Lucy; Hogevik, Harriet; Zancolli, Marta; Andréasson, Björn; Goldblatt, David; Wennerås, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma and other B cell disorders respond poorly to pneumococcal vaccination. Vaccine responsiveness is commonly determined by measuring pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by a functional opsonophagocytosis assay (OPA), or by both assays. We compared the two methods in vaccinated elderly patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Postvaccination sera from 45 patients (n= 15 from each patient group) and 15 control subjects were analyzed by multiplexed OPA for pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 14, and 23F, and the results were compared to IgG and IgM antibody titers measured by ELISA. While there were significant correlations between pneumococcal OPA and IgG titers for all serotypes among the control subjects (correlation coefficients [r] between 0.51 and 0.85), no significant correlations were seen for any of the investigated serotypes in the myeloma group (r= -0.18 to 0.21) or in the group with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (borderline significant correlations for 2 of 4 serotypes). The MGUS group resembled the control group by having good agreement between the two test methods for 3 of 4 serotypes (r= 0.53 to 0.80). Pneumococcal postvaccination IgM titers were very low in the myeloma patients compared to the other groups and did not correlate with the OPA results. To summarize, our data indicate that ELISA measurements may overestimate antipneumococcal immunity in elderly subjects with B cell malignancies and that a functional antibody test should be used specifically for myeloma and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia patients. PMID:26912783

  15. Decline in Child Hospitalization and Mortality After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugative Vaccine in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Rurangwa, Janvier; Rujeni, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Pneumonia is a public health problem in the tropics, and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugative vaccine (PCV-7) has been introduced in an effort to prevent the disease and therefore reduce childhood mortality. In Rwanda, PCV-7 was introduced in 2009, and we aimed to determine its impact on the rate of child hospitalization/mortality due to pneumonia. A retrospective survey was conducted on hospitalization rates and pediatric deaths between two periods, that is, before the introduction of PCV-7 (2007-2009) and after the introduction of PCV-7 (2010-2013) in Kabutare District Hospital. There was a 53% reduction in hospitalization, with a significant decline in in-hospital deaths between the two periods. There was also a significant correlation between vaccination coverage and decline in hospitalization rates between 2009 and 2013. We conclude that PCV-7 vaccine is associated with significant reduction in the rate of child hospitalization and mortality but more mechanistic studies are warranted to determine the immunological impact, especially in the context of coinfections and malnutrition. PMID:27430538

  16. A longitudinal study of streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in healthy children in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Daprai, Laura; Bedogni, Giorgio; Faccini, Marino; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Torresani, Erminio; Gramegna, Maria; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Few epidemiological data are available after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We performed repeat nasopharyngeal swabs and evaluated the serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and its association with PCV13 vaccine status in healthy Italian children aged 3–59 months. SP serotypes were assessed by the Quellung reaction. 618 children appropriately (28%) or incompletely (72%) vaccinated for age with PCV13 were available at baseline (T0). 515 were re-evaluated at 6 months from baseline (T6) and 436 at 12 months from baseline (T12). The percentage of appropriately vaccinated subjects at T0, T6 and T12 was 28%, 67% and 92%, respectively. Random effects logistic regression models with robust 95% confidence intervals was used to estimate the time-related changes in SP and PCV13 carriage and marginal probabilities were obtained from such models. The age-corrected probability of SP carriage was 0.31 (95% CI 0.22 - 0.41) at T0, 0.32 (0.24 - 0.40) at T6 and 0.28 (0.20 - 0.35) at T12. The probability of PCV13 serotypes carriage was 0.025 (0.001 - 0.050) at T0, 0.018 (0.001 - 0.039) at T6 and 0.010 (0.001 - 0.023) at T12. A decrease in PCV13 serotypes and a shift in non-PCV13 serotypes colonization was observed. In particular, the 15A serotype accounted for 4%, 8% and 23% of SP isolates at T0, T6 and T12, respectively. In conclusion, the benefits of the PCV13 vaccination on SP carriage increase with increasing coverage rates. The shift of SP isolates toward non-PCV13 serotypes needs to be studied further. PMID:25751237

  17. Identification of Potential New Protein Vaccine Candidates through Pan-Surfomic Analysis of Pneumococcal Clinical Isolates from Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the “shaving” proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called “pan-surfome”, consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  18. Identification of potential new protein vaccine candidates through pan-surfomic analysis of pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults.

    PubMed

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the "shaving" proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called "pan-surfome", consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  19. Safety of the 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae-derived protein D in the first 2 years of life and immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and control hepatitis A vaccines.

    PubMed

    Prymula, Roman; Chlibek, Roman; Splino, Miroslav; Kaliskova, Eva; Kohl, Igor; Lommel, Patricia; Schuerman, Lode

    2008-08-18

    This randomized (1:1), double-blind, multicenter study, included 4,968 healthy infants to receive either the 11-valent pneumococcal protein D (PD)-conjugate study vaccine or the hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) (control) at 3, 4, 5, and 12-15 months of age. The three-dose primary course of both vaccines was co-administered with combined hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. The pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine did not impact the immune response of co-administered hexavalent vaccine and the control HAV vaccine induced seropositivity (antibodies >or=15 mIU/mL) in all infants. The incidence of solicited symptoms was higher with the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate study vaccine, yet similar to that induced by concomitant DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine. Overall, the reactogenicity and safety profile of the 11-valent pneumococcal PD-conjugate vaccine when co-administered with the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine, as well as the immunogenicity of the co-administered hexavalent vaccine, were consistent with previous reports for the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  20. Persistence of antibody response 1.5 years after vaccination using 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with arthritis treated with different antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the persistence of an antibody response 1.5 years after vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthropathy (SpA) treated with different antirheumatic drugs. Methods Of 505 patients initially recruited, data on current antirheumatic treatment and blood samples were obtained from 398 (79%) subjects after mean (SD, range) 1.4 (0.5; 1 to 2) years. Antibody levels against pneumococcal serotypes 23F and 6B were analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Original treatment groups were as follows: (a) RA receiving methotrexate (MTX); (b) RA taking anti-TNF monotherapy; (c) RA taking anti-TNF+MTX; (d) SpA with anti-TNF monotherapy; (e) SpA taking anti-TNF+MTX; and (f) SpA taking NSAID/analgesics. Geometric mean levels (GMLs; 95% CI) and proportion (percentage) of patients with putative protective antibody levels ≥1 mg/L for both serotypes, calculated in different treatment groups, were compared with results 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination. Patients remaining on initial treatment were included in the analysis. Possible predictors of persistence of protective antibody response were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. Results Of 398 patients participating in the 1.5-year follow up, 302 patients (RA, 163, and SpA, 139) had unchanged medication. Compared with postvaccination levels at 1.5 years, GMLs for each serotype were significantly lower in all groups (P between 0.035 and <0.001; paired-sample t test), as were the proportions of patients with protective antibody levels for both serotypes (P < 0.001; χ2 test). Higher prevaccination antibody levels for both serotypes 23F and 6B were associated with better persistence of protective antibodies (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with protective antibody levels at 1.5 years, those not having protective antibody levels were older, more often women, had longer disease duration

  1. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Used in Children on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children and Adults in the United States: Analysis of Multisite, Population-based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew R.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Schaffner, William; Lynfield, Ruth; Lexau, Catherine; Bennett, Nancy M.; Petit, Susan; Zansky, Shelley M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Reingold, Arthur; Miller, Lisa; Scherzinger, Karen; Thomas, Ann; Farley, Monica M.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pondo, Tracy; Rodgers, Loren; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard; Jorgensen, James H.; Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In 2000, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. and resulted in dramatic reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and modest increases in non-PCV7-type IPD. In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the U.S. immunization schedule. We evaluated the effect of PCV13 use in children on IPD in children and adults in the U.S. Methods We used laboratory- and population-based data on incidence of IPD from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program / Active Bacterial Core surveillance in a time-series model to estimate the impact of vaccination. Cases of IPD during July 2004–June 2013 were classified as being caused by the PCV13 serotypes against which PCV7 has no effect (PCV13/nonPCV7). Findings Compared with incidence expected among children <5 years old if PCV7 alone had been continued, incidence of IPD overall and IPD caused by PCV13/nonPCV7 serotypes declined by 64% (95% interval estimate [IE] 59–68 %) and 93% (95%IE 91–94), respectively, by July 2012–June 2013. Among adults, incidence of IPD overall and PCV13/nonPCV7-type IPD also declined by 12–32% and 58–72%, respectively, depending on age. In all age groups, reductions were driven principally by changes in incidence of serotypes 19A and 7F. We estimate that over 30,000 cases of IPD and 3,000 deaths were averted in the first 3 years following PCV13 introduction. Interpretation PCV13 has reduced IPD among all ages when used routinely in children in the U.S. Serotypes 19A and 7F, which emerged after PCV7 introduction, have been effectively controlled. PMID:25656600

  2. Nanogel-based pneumococcal surface protein A nasal vaccine induces microRNA-associated Th17 cell responses with neutralizing antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae in macaques.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Y; Yuki, Y; Katakai, Y; Harada, N; Takahashi, H; Takeda, S; Mejima, M; Joo, S; Kurokawa, S; Sawada, S; Shibata, H; Park, E J; Fujihashi, K; Briles, D E; Yasutomi, Y; Tsukada, H; Akiyoshi, K; Kiyono, H

    2015-09-01

    We previously established a nanosized nasal vaccine delivery system by using a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan nanogel (cCHP nanogel), which is a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free nasal vaccination. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system safety and efficacy of nasal vaccination with our developed cCHP nanogel containing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-nanogel) against pneumococcal infection in nonhuman primates. When [(18)F]-labeled PspA-nanogel was nasally administered to a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), longer-term retention of PspA was noted in the nasal cavity when compared with administration of PspA alone. Of importance, no deposition of [(18)F]-PspA was seen in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination effectively induced PspA-specific serum IgG with protective activity and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) Ab responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nasal PspA-nanogel-induced immune responses were mediated through T-helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokine responses concomitantly with marked increases in the levels of miR-181a and miR-326 in the serum and respiratory tract tissues, respectively, of the macaques. These results demonstrate that nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination is a safe and effective strategy for the development of a nasal vaccine for the prevention of pneumonia in humans. PMID:25669148

  3. Nanogel-based pneumococcal surface protein A nasal vaccine induces microRNA-associated Th17 cell responses with neutralizing antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae in macaques

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Y; Yuki, Y; Katakai, Y; Harada, N; Takahashi, H; Takeda, S; Mejima, M; Joo, S; Kurokawa, S; Sawada, S; Shibata, H; Park, E J; Fujihashi, K; Briles, D E; Yasutomi, Y; Tsukada, H; Akiyoshi, K; Kiyono, H

    2015-01-01

    We previously established a nanosized nasal vaccine delivery system by using a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan nanogel (cCHP nanogel), which is a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free nasal vaccination. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system safety and efficacy of nasal vaccination with our developed cCHP nanogel containing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-nanogel) against pneumococcal infection in nonhuman primates. When [18F]-labeled PspA-nanogel was nasally administered to a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), longer-term retention of PspA was noted in the nasal cavity when compared with administration of PspA alone. Of importance, no deposition of [18F]-PspA was seen in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination effectively induced PspA-specific serum IgG with protective activity and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) Ab responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nasal PspA-nanogel-induced immune responses were mediated through T-helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokine responses concomitantly with marked increases in the levels of miR-181a and miR-326 in the serum and respiratory tract tissues, respectively, of the macaques. These results demonstrate that nasal PspA-nanogel vaccination is a safe and effective strategy for the development of a nasal vaccine for the prevention of pneumonia in humans. PMID:25669148

  4. Non-invasive pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities in a paediatric hospital in the era of conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    McElligott, Martha; Vickers, Imelda; Cafferkey, Mary; Cunney, Robert; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction to the routine childhood immunisation schedule in 2008 and its replacement by PCV13 in 2010 in Ireland, we surveyed the serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 339 pneumococci associated with carriage and non-invasive infection (NII) in a Dublin paediatric hospital from 2009 to 2012. Furthermore, we compared the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes collected from 2009 to 2012 to 105 NII pneumococci isolated in 2007, the year before conjugate vaccine introduction. PCV7 serotypes declined from 2007 to 2012 as follows: carriage, 67-23% (p=0.0004); conjunctivitis, 58-0% (p<0.0001); non-bacteraemic lower respiratory tract infection, 50-19% (p=0.0363) and otitis media 54-27%. Notably, antimicrobial resistant (AMR) PCV7 serotypes showed a significant decrease by the end of the study period (i.e. 2012) (p<0.0001). Compared with 2007 the overall occurrence of serotype 19A increased from 1.9 to 10% in 2010 (p=0.0132) and to 15% in 2011 (p=0.0005). Importantly, serotype 19A declined significantly from 2011 levels to an overall prevalence of 4.8% in 2012 (p=0.0243). Most striking was the significant reduction of AMR 19A (p=0.0195). Conversely, increases were observed in non-vaccine type (NVT) pneumococci in 2009-2012, of which serotypes 11A (n=30), 15B/C (n=17), 22F (n=14), 35Bn=13), non-typeable pneumococci (n=13) and 23A (n=12) were the most prevalent. Moreover, an increase in NVT non-susceptible to at least one antimicrobial in 2009-2012 was noted, attributable to serotypes 35B (n=10) and 15A (n=7). In summary, this study has shown that PCV7 and PCV13 introduction has had a positive impact on their target serotypes and antimicrobial resistance amongst pneumococci within a paediatric hospital within a short time period. However, the increase in NVT prevalence highlights the need for continued surveillance. PMID:24795223

  5. Population snapshot of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in South Africa prior to introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ndlangisa, Kedibone M; du Plessis, Mignon; Wolter, Nicole; de Gouveia, Linda; Klugman, Keith P; von Gottberg, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We determined the sequence types of isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) prior to routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in South Africa. PCV-13 serotypes and 6C isolates collected in 2007 (1 461/2 437, 60%) from patients of all ages as part of on-going, national, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD, were selected for genetic characterization. In addition, all 134 non-PCV isolates from children <2 years were selected for characterization. Sequence type diversity by serotype and age category (children <5 years vs. individuals ≥5 years) was assessed for PCV serotypes using Simpson's index of diversity. Similar genotypes circulated among isolates from children and adults and the majority of serotypes were heterogeneous. While globally disseminated clones were common among some serotypes (e.g., serotype 1 [clonal complex (CC) 217, 98% of all serotype 1] and 14 [CC230, 43%)]), some were represented mainly by clonal complexes rarely reported elsewhere (e.g., serotype 3 [CC458, 60%] and 19A [CC2062, 83%]). In children <2 years, serotype 15B and 8 were the most common serotypes among non-PCV isolates (16% [22/134] and 15% [20/134] isolates, respectively). Sequence type 7052 and 53 were most common among serotypes 15B and 8 isolates and accounted for 58% (7/12) and 64% (9/14) of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 19F, 14, 19A and 15B had the highest proportions of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Genotypes rarely reported in other parts of the world but common among some of our serotypes highlight the importance of our data as these genotypes may emerge post PCV introduction.

  6. Nasopharyngeal colonization of Gambian infants by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Usuf, E.; Bojang, A.; Hill, P.C.; Bottomley, C.; Greenwood, B.; Roca, A.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly colonize the upper respiratory tract and can cause invasive disease. Several studies suggest an inverse relationship between these two bacteria in the nasopharynx. This association is of particular concern as the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) that affect pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage become widespread. A cohort of children in rural Gambia were recruited at birth and followed for 1 year, before the introduction of PCV into the routine immunization program. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken immediately after birth, every 2 weeks for the first 6 months and then every other month. The presence of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae was determined using conventional microbiologic methods. Prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 71.6% at birth, decreasing with age to reach a plateau at approximately 20% between 10 to 20 weeks of age. Carriage with any S. pneumoniae increased during the first 10 weeks of life to peak at approximately 90%, mostly of PCV13 serotypes. Although in the crude analysis S. aureus carriage was inversely associated with carriage of any S. pneumoniae and PCV13 serotypes, after adjusting by age and season, there was a positive association with any carriage (odds ratio 1.32; 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.64; p 0.009) and no association with carriage of PCV13 serotypes (odds ratio 0.99; 95% confidence interval 0.70–1.41; p 0.973). Among Gambian infants, S. aureus and S. pneumoniae are not inversely associated in nasopharyngeal carriage after adjustment for age. Further carriage studies following the introduction of PCV are needed to better understand the relationship between the two bacteria. PMID:26909154

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae oropharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.

  8. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: A randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Anita. H.J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A.; Devitt, Catherine J.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM197 compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  9. Neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization primes T cells for preferential Th2 cytokine expression: a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nadal-Sims, Marie A; Devitt, Catherine J; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; Holt, Patrick G

    2009-02-25

    The effects of neonatal immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) on development of T-cell memory and general immune maturation were studied in a cohort of Papua New Guinean newborns. Neonatal 7vPCV priming (followed by a dose at 1 and 2 months of age) was associated with enhanced Th2, but not Th1, cytokine responses to CRM(197) compared to 7vPCV at 1 and 2 months of age only. T cell responses to non-7vPCV vaccine antigens were similar in all groups, but TLR-mediated IL-6 and IL-10 responses were enhanced in 7vPCV vaccinated compared to controls. Neonatal 7vPCV vaccination primes T cell responses with a polarization towards Th2 with no bystander effects on other T cell responses. PMID:19150378

  10. Serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from pediatric patients with acute otitis media and invasive infections, and potential coverage of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Reijtman, Vanesa; Fossati, Sofía; Hernández, Claudia; Sommerfleck, Patricia; Bernáldez, Patricia; Litterio, Mirta; Berberian, Griselda; Regueira, Mabel; Lopardo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    A 16-month prospective, descriptive study was conducted on pneumococcal serotype distribution isolated from children with acute otitis media (AOM) and invasive infections (INV). Eighty-nine children with pneumococcal INV and 324 with a first episode of AOM were included. Bacterial pathogens (N = 326) were isolated from the middle-ear fluid of 250 patients. A total of 30 pneumococcal serotypes were identified. Prevalent serotypes were 14, 19A, 9V, 3, 19F, 6A, 23F, and 18C in AOM and 14, 1, 19A, 5, 12F, 6B, and 18C in INV. Potential coverage with PCV10 vaccine would be 46.5 % and 60.7 % for pneumococci involved in AOM and INV, respectively; it would be 71.7 % and 73 % with PCV13. PCV10, conjugated with a Haemophilus protein, would have an immunologic coverage of 39.9 % for AOM vs. 18.5 % with PCV13. However, differences in the prevention of INV were crucial for the decision to include the 13-valent vaccine in the national calendar for children less than two years old in Argentina.

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype Distribution and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Serotype Coverage among Pediatric Patients in East and Southeast Asia, 2000–2014: a Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Stanley S.

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children of developing and underdeveloped countries. Capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are available for the prevention of this disease. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 for use in children less than two years of age. Subsequently, to broaden the protection, 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines were licensed in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All of these conjugate vaccines elicit an immune response that only provides protection against the infection of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the formulation. Profiles of S. pneumoniae serotype distribution and serotype coverage for both PCV7 and PCV13 have been reported in some Asian countries/territories. But the published results cannot provide conclusive information due to the difference in studied population and geographic areas. The goals of this review are to obtain an accurate estimate of serotype coverage for PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 and examine the change in the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution after PCV7 use among pediatric patients in East and Southeast Asia through the analysis of pooled data that were published in the English literature between 2000 and 2014. PMID:26907356

  12. Dynamics of pneumococcal transmission in vaccine-naive children and their HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected mothers during the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Tinevimbo; Auranen, Kari; Nunes, Marta C; Adrian, Peter V; van Niekerk, Nadia; de Gouveia, Linda; von Gottberg, Anne; Klugman, Keith P; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-01

    Pneumococcal vaccine-naïve mother-child dyads in South Africa had nasopharyngeal swabs taken 9 times within the first 2 years of the children's lives between January 2007 and May 2009. To quantify the strength of the association of serotype-specific carriage in mother-child dyads, a stochastic transmission model was fitted to the data. Children were more susceptible to individual serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) transmitted by their mothers than vice versa; however, children infected their mothers with these serotypes more frequently than mothers infected children. The child-to-mother steady-state forces of pneumococcal acquisition were between 0.36 and 3.29 (per 1,000 days) compared with 0.06-0.51 for mother-to-child transmission. Although children of mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more often exposed to PCV7 serotypes by their mothers, their risk of acquisition remained low compared with the risk of child-to-mother transmission. Mothers acquired pneumococci at lower rates (per 1,000 days) from unmeasured exposure within families and in the wider community (range, 0.12-1.69 per 1,000 days) than did children (range, 1.10-5.21 per 1,000 days). Pneumococcal immunization of young children is expected to have an indirect effect of reducing PCV7 serotype maternal colonization and possibly disease even in settings such as ours, in which there is a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers.

  13. Serotype 3 Remains the Leading Cause of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults in Portugal (2012–2014) Despite Continued Reductions in Other 13-Valent Conjugate Vaccine Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Horácio, Andreia N.; Silva-Costa, Catarina; Lopes, Joana P.; Ramirez, Mário; Melo-Cristino, José; Vaz, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010 the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) as the leading pneumococcal vaccine used in children through the private sector. Although, neither of the PCVs were used significantly in adults, changes in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were expected due to herd protection. We characterized n = 1163 isolates recovered from IPD in adults in 2012–2014 with the goal of documenting possible changes in serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. Among the 54 different serotypes detected, the most frequent, accounting for half of all IPD, were serotypes: 3 (14%), 8 (11%), 19A (7%), 22F (7%), 14 (6%), and 7F (5%). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes remained stable during the study period (14%), but was smaller than in the previous period (19% in 2009–2011, p = 0.003). The proportion of IPD caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased from 51% in 2012 to 38% in 2014 (p < 0.001), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 7F and 19A. However, PCV13 serotype 3 remained relatively stable and the most frequent cause of adult IPD. Non-PCV13 serotypes continued the increase initiated in the late post-PCV7 period, with serotypes 8 and 22F being the most important emerging serotypes. Serotype 15A increased in 2012–2014 (0.7% to 3.5%, p = 0.011) and was strongly associated with antimicrobial resistance. However, the decreases in resistant isolates among serotypes 14 and 19A led to an overall decrease in penicillin non-susceptibility (from 17 to 13%, p = 0.174) and erythromycin resistance (from 19 to 13%, p = 0.034). Introduction of PCV13 in the NIP for children, as well as its availability for adults may further alter the serotypes causing IPD in adults in Portugal and lead to changes in the proportion of resistant isolates. PMID:27790208

  14. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada, 2011-2014: Characterization of new candidate 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes 22F and 33F.

    PubMed

    Golden, Alyssa R; Adam, Heather J; Zhanel, George G

    2016-05-17

    Emerging non-PCV-13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 22F and 33F are included in a new 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. This study assessed the antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of these two emerging pneumococcal serotypes. Of the 5075 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada from 2011 to 2014, 9.8% (497/5075) were serotype 22F and 3.2% (160/5075) were serotype 33F. Despite being among the top 4 most common serotypes collected each study year, serotype 22F demonstrated ≥98% susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested except clarithromycin and few were multi-drug resistant (MDR) (0.8%, 4/497). Serotype 22F isolates were highly clonal (ST433), with two isolates showing high relatedness to MDR international clone Sweden(15A)-25 (ST63). Conversely, serotype 33F showed greater antimicrobial resistance, greater genetic diversity and a higher proportion of MDR isolates (8.8%, 14/160). The prevalence of serotype 33F increased significantly during 2011-2014 (p=0.005).

  15. The PneuCarriage Project: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study to Identify the Best Serotyping Methods for Examining Pneumococcal Carriage in Vaccine Evaluation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Satzke, Catherine; Dunne, Eileen M.; Porter, Barbara D.; Klugman, Keith P.; Mulholland, E. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background The pneumococcus is a diverse pathogen whose primary niche is the nasopharynx. Over 90 different serotypes exist, and nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple serotypes is common. Understanding pneumococcal carriage is essential for evaluating the impact of pneumococcal vaccines. Traditional serotyping methods are cumbersome and insufficient for detecting multiple serotype carriage, and there are few data comparing the new methods that have been developed over the past decade. We established the PneuCarriage project, a large, international multi-centre study dedicated to the identification of the best pneumococcal serotyping methods for carriage studies. Methods and Findings Reference sample sets were distributed to 15 research groups for blinded testing. Twenty pneumococcal serotyping methods were used to test 81 laboratory-prepared (spiked) samples. The five top-performing methods were used to test 260 nasopharyngeal (field) samples collected from children in six high-burden countries. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined for the test methods and the reference method (traditional serotyping of >100 colonies from each sample). For the alternate serotyping methods, the overall sensitivity ranged from 1% to 99% (reference method 98%), and PPV from 8% to 100% (reference method 100%), when testing the spiked samples. Fifteen methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect the dominant (major) serotype, whilst only eight methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect minor serotypes. For the field samples, the overall sensitivity ranged from 74.2% to 95.8% (reference method 93.8%), and PPV from 82.2% to 96.4% (reference method 99.6%). The microarray had the highest sensitivity (95.8%) and high PPV (93.7%). The major limitation of this study is that not all of the available alternative serotyping methods were included. Conclusions Most methods were able to detect the dominant serotype in a sample, but many performed poorly in detecting the minor

  16. Association of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination with rates of ventilation tube insertion in Denmark: population-based register study

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Christina; Thomsen, Reimar W; Ovesen, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine if the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in Denmark was associated with a decrease in the rate of ventilation tube (VT) insertions performed by office-based practising ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists. Design Population-based register study based on prospectively collected data. Setting Central Denmark Region. Data on VT insertions performed by any office-based practising ENT specialist in the region were collected from the National Health Service Registry. Participants All children below the age of 2 years with a first-time VT insertion from 2001 through 2011. Main outcome measures Age-stratified and gender-stratified standardised incidence rates of first-time VT insertion, and incidence rate ratio for PCV period 2008–2011 compared with pre-PCV period 2001–2007. Results The annual incidence rate of first-time VT insertion in small children increased steadily from 64/1000 person-years in 2001 to 100/1000 person-years in 2011. The incidence rate ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.30) in the PCV period compared with the pre-PCV period. Conclusions The introduction of PCV into the Danish childhood immunisation programme in 2007 was not associated with a subsequent decrease in the rate of VT insertions among children below the age of 2 years. Instead, the rate continued to rise, as before the introduction of PCV. Trial registration number Danish Data Protection Agency: 2007-58-0010. PMID:26048205

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3–4–5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17–19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  18. Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Neha; Genschmer, Kristopher R; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Jeong Ah; Briles, David E; Rhee, Dong Kwon; Carbis, Rodney

    2014-09-29

    In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries.

  19. Concomitant administration of hepatitis A vaccine with measles/mumps/rubella/varicella and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy 12- to 23-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Yetman, Robert J; Shepard, Julie S; Duke, Anton; Stek, Jon E; Petrecz, Maria; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian P; Lee, Andrew W

    2013-08-01

    This open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study evaluated immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of concomitant (Group 1; n=330) vs. non-concomitant (Group 2; n=323) VAQTA™ (25U/0.5 mL) (hepatitis A vaccine; HAV) with ProQuad™ (measles/mumps/rubella/varicella; MMRV) and Prevnar™ (7-valent pneumococcal; PCV-7) in healthy, 12-23 mo old children. Group 1 received HAV/MMRV/PCV-7 concomitantly on Day 1 and second doses of HAV/MMRV at Week 24. Group 2 received MMRV/PCV-7 on Day 1, HAV at Weeks 6 and 30 and MMRV at Week 34. Hepatitis A seropositivity rate (SPR: ≥10 mIU/mL; 4 weeks postdose 2), varicella zoster-virus (VZV) SPR (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) to S. pneumoniae were examined. Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) and daily temperatures were collected. Hepatitis A SPR were 100% for Group 1 and 99.4% for Group 2 after two HAV doses; risk difference=0.7 (95%CI: -1.4,3.8, non-inferior) regardless of initial serostatus. VZV SPR was 93.3% for Group 1 and 98.3% for Group 2; risk difference=-5.1 (95%CI: -9.3, -1.4; non-inferior). S. pneumoniae GMT fold-difference (7 serotypes) ranged from 0.9 to 1.1; non-inferior. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of individual AEs were seen when HAV was administered concomitantly vs. non-concomitantly. Three (all Group 2 post-administration of MMRV/PCV-7) of 11 serious AEs were considered possibly vaccine-related: dehydration and gastroenteritis (same subject) on Day 52; febrile seizure on Day 9. No deaths were reported. Antibody responses to each vaccine given concomitantly were non-inferior to HAV given non-concomitantly with MMRV and PCV-7. Administration of HAV with PCV-7 and MMRV had an acceptable safety profile in 12- to 23-mo-old children.

  20. Immunogenicity of a Heptavalent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine Administered Concurrently with a Combination Diphtheria, Tetanus, Five-Component Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Polio, and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine and a Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine at 2, 3, and 4 Months of Age ▿

    PubMed Central

    Moss, S. J.; Fenton, A. C.; Toomey, J.; Grainger, A.; Borrow, R.; Balmer, P.; Smith, J.; Gennery, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The immunogenicities of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated when they are administered at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. There is a paucity of data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine when it is administered concurrently with other vaccines in the primary immunization schedule of the United Kingdom. We immunized 55 term infants at 2, 3, and 4 months of age with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccine, and the diphtheria, tetanus, five-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP5/IPV/Hib-TT) vaccine. The immune responses to the H. influenzae type b (Hib), MCC, and tetanus vaccines were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months of age; and the immune responses to PCV7 were measured at 2 and 5 months and then either at 12 months or following a 4th dose of PCV7. There were increases in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of all antigens postimmunization. Greater than or equal to 90% of the infants achieved putatively protective levels postimmunization for all vaccine antigens except pneumococcal serotype 6B and Hib. The GMCs of the PCV7 serotypes increased following a 4th dose, although one infant had not reached putative levels of protection against serotype 6B. In conclusion, when infants were vaccinated according to the schedule described above, they had lower postprimary immunization responses to Hib, meningococcus group C capsular polysaccharide, and pneumococcal serotype 6B than the responses demonstrated by use of the other schedules. Despite this finding, there was a good response following a 4th dose of PCV7. PMID:20042517

  1. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization in children and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of carriage isolates

    PubMed Central

    Utterson, Elizabeth C.; Todd, Elizabeth M.; McFarland, Michelle; Sivapalan, Janardan; Niehoff, Joan M.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Morley, S. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nasopharyngeal (NP) pneumococcal carriage predisposes children to pneumococcal infections. Defining the proportion of pneumococcal isolates that are antibiotic-resistant enables the appropriate choice of empiric therapies. We have defined the antibiogram of NP carriage isolates derived from a pediatric population following introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. PMID:26327122

  2. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine=MPSV4 Meningococcal conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants ... References FACT SHEET What You Should Know Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cochlear Implant Candidates and ...

  3. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Deron C.; Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Audi, Allan O.; Williamson, John; Munge, Kenneth; Wafula, Jackline; Ouma, Dominic; Khagayi, Sammy; Mugoya, Isaac; Mburu, James; Muema, Shadrack; Bauni, Evasius; Bwanaali, Tahreni; Feikin, Daniel R.; Ochieng, Peter M.; Mogeni, Ondari D.; Otieno, George A.; Olack, Beatrice; Kamau, Tatu; Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Chen, Robert; Farrington, Paddy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2015-01-01

    There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10). We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants) were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance) and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance). Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator). A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose). The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000) vs first (33 per 100,000) vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–4.06). The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12–8.56) and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14–0.54) when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study. PMID:26509274

  4. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Audi, Allan O; Williamson, John; Munge, Kenneth; Wafula, Jackline; Ouma, Dominic; Khagayi, Sammy; Mugoya, Isaac; Mburu, James; Muema, Shadrack; Bauni, Evasius; Bwanaali, Tahreni; Feikin, Daniel R; Ochieng, Peter M; Mogeni, Ondari D; Otieno, George A; Olack, Beatrice; Kamau, Tatu; Van Dyke, Melissa K; Chen, Robert; Farrington, Paddy; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F; Scott, J Anthony G; Laserson, Kayla F

    2015-01-01

    There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10). We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants) were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance) and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance). Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator). A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose). The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000) vs first (33 per 100,000) vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-4.06). The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12-8.56) and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.54) when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study.

  5. Did introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in the Netherlands decrease the need for respiratory antibiotics in children? Analysis of 2002 to 2013 data.

    PubMed

    Gefenaite, G; Bijlsma, M J; Bos, H J; Hak, E

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the effect of the introduction of the 7- and 10-valentpneumococcal vaccines in 2006 and 2011, respectively in the Netherlands, we assessed respiratory antibiotic use in one to nine year-old children between 2002 and 2013. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average models were applied to estimate the percentage reduction in respiratory antibiotic use. When compared with the pre-vaccination period, the proportion of respiratory antibiotic prescriptions fell by 4.94% (95% CI: 4.63 to 5.26) and 9.02% (95% CI: 2.83 to 14.82) after the introduction of the 7-valent vaccine in children aged three and four years, respectively. After the introduction of the 10-valent vaccine, we observed a reduction of 13.04% (95% CI: 2.76 to 22.23), 20.31% (95% CI: 13.50 to 26.58), 16.92% (95% CI: 3.07 to 28.80), 22.34% (95% CI: 3.73 to 37.35), 23.75% (95% CI: 2.37 to 40.44) in two, three, four, six and seven year-old children, respectively. Thus, our results indicate a reduction in respiratory antibiotic prescriptions in young children after introduction of the pneumococcal vaccines. As only children in our study population aged one and two years born after March 2011 had received the 10-valent vaccine, the effects of the 10-valent vaccine in children aged three to nine years likely reflect the effects of the 7-valent vaccine and herd immunity.

  6. Direct Comparison of Immunogenicity Induced by 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine around the 11-Month Booster in Dutch Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J.; van Westen, Els; Knol, Mirjam J.; Jongerius, Riet M. C.; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; van Gageldonk, Pieter G. M.; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Since 2009/10, a 10- and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are available, but only the 10-valent vaccine is now being used for the children in the Netherlands. As the vaccines differ in number of serotypes, antigen concentration, and carrier proteins this study was designed to directly compare quantity and quality of the antibody responses induced by PCV10 and PCV13 before and after the 11-month booster. Methods Dutch infants (n = 132) were immunized with either PCV10 or PCV13 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB at the age of 2, 3, 4 and 11 months. Blood samples were collected pre-booster and post-booster at one week and one month post-booster for quantitative and qualitative immunogenicity against 13 pneumococcal serotypes, as well as quantitative immunogenicity against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We compared immunogenicity induced by PCV13 and PCV10 for their ten shared serotypes. Results One month post-booster, pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for the PCV13 group were higher compared with the PCV10 group for six serotypes, although avidity was lower. Serotype 19F showed the most distinct difference in IgG and, in contrast to other serotypes, its avidity was higher in the PCV13 group. One week post-booster, opsonophagocytosis for serotype 19F did not differ significantly between the PCV10- and the PCV13 group. Conclusion Both PCV10 and PCV13 were immunogenic and induced a booster response. Compared to the PCV10 group, the PCV13 group showed higher levels for serotype 19F GMCs and avidity, pre- as well as post-booster, although opsonophagocytosis did not differ significantly between groups. In our study, avidity is not correlated to opsonophagocytotic activity (OPA) and correlations between IgG and OPA differ per serotype. Therefore, besides assays to determine IgG GMCs, assays to detect opsonophagocytotic activity, i.e., the actual killing of the pneumococcus, are

  7. The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on markers of systemic inflammation, immunoglobulin levels and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this research was to study the influence of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on immune response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, immunoglobulin levels (Ig) and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathy (SpA). Methods In total, 505 patients were vaccinated. Six pre-specified groups were enrolled: RA on methotrexate (MTX) treatment in some cases other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (I); RA on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as monotherapy (II); RA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (III); SpA on anti-TNF as monotherapy (IV); SpA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (V); and SpA on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or analgesics (VI). Smoking (pack-years) and alcohol consumption (g/week) were calculated from patient questionnaires. Ig, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined at vaccination. IgG antibodies against serotypes 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and after four to six weeks using standard ELISA. Immune response (ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibodies; immune response (IR)) and positive immune response (≥2-fold increase in pre-vaccination antibodies; posIR) were calculated. Results Eighty-eight patients (17.4%) were current smokers. Smokers had higher CRP and ESR, lower IgG and lower IR for both serotypes (P between 0.012 and 0.045). RA patients on MTX who smoked ≥1pack-year had lower posIR for both serotypes (P = 0.021; OR 0.29; CI 0.1 to 0.7) compared to never-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with lower CRP (P = 0.05) and ESR (P = 0.003) but did not influence IR or Ig levels. Conclusion Smoking predicted impaired immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in RA patients on MTX. Smokers with arthritis had higher inflammatory markers and lower IgG regardless of diagnosis and treatment. Low to moderate alcohol consumption was related

  8. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ≥ 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ≥2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n = 10,295; control, n = 10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p = 0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n = 10,211; control, n = 10,140) and AOM (n = 3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: −1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p = 0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM

  9. Levofloxacin-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: evidence for clonal spread and the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W R; McGee, Lesley; Jorgensen, James; Beall, Bernard; Facklam, Richard R; Whitney, Cynthia G; Klugman, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in sterile-site isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae is documented in this study characterizing all invasive levofloxacin-resistant (MIC, > or = 8 mg/liter) S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 50) obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Active Bacterial Core Surveillance from 1998 to 2002. Resistance among all isolates increased from 0.1% in 1998 to 0.6% in 2001 (P = 0.008) but decreased to 0.4% in 2002, while resistance among vaccine serotypes continued to increase from 0.3% in 1998 to 1.0% in 2002, suggesting that fluoroquinolones continue to exert selective pressure on these vaccine serotypes. Only 22% of resistant isolates were not covered by the conjugate vaccine serogroups. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that 58% of resistant strains were related to five international clones identified by the Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network, with the Spain(23F)-1 clone being most frequent (16% of all isolates). Thirty-six percent of the isolates were coresistant to penicillin, 44% were coresistant to macrolides, and 28% were multiresistant to penicillin, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones. Fifty percent of the isolates were resistant to any three drug classes. Ninety-four percent of the isolates had multiple mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In 16% of the isolates, there was evidence of an active efflux mechanism. An unusual isolate was found that showed only a single parE mutation and for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was lower (2 mg/liter) than that of levofloxacin (8 mg/liter). Our results suggest that invasive pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin in the United States show considerable evidence of multiple resistance and of clonal spread. PMID:15328116

  10. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods. A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results. In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], −21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, −31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions. PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  11. Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Simell, Birgit; Nurkka, Anu; Ekström, Nina; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Käyhty, Helena; Dagan, Ron

    2012-10-01

    In immunogenicity trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), only IgG antibody concentrations to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPSs) are usually determined, along with the opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) of antipneumococcal antibodies. We aimed to determine the role of both IgG and IgM in OPA in toddlers receiving one dose of 9-valent PCV (PCV9). The IgG and IgM antibody concentrations to PPSs of serotypes 6A, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by enzyme immunoassay in sera from toddlers (ages 18 to 35 months) 1 month after a single PCV9 dose. The OPA for the same serotypes was measured by multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay (MOPA). Further, IgG and IgM concentrations and MOPA were measured to PPS of serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F in sera collected 12 months after vaccination. The detected MOPA titers were high in comparison to the IgG concentrations 1 month after immunization. The IgM concentrations were higher than IgG concentrations for serotypes 6A and 14 (P < 0.001) and as high as IgG for serotypes 9V, 19F, and 23F. Correlation of the IgM antibody concentrations with MOPA (r = 0.35 to 0.65) was stronger compared to that of the IgG antibodies (r = 0.07 to 0.41). The depletion of IgG antibodies in three sets of pooled sera only slightly decreased the OPA activity against serotype 14. At 12 months after immunization, 50 to 100% of serum samples still showed detectable MOPA activity against serotypes 6A, 14, and 19F. Our results suggest that IgM contributes to OPA 1 month after a single PCV9 vaccination in toddlers and that functionally active IgM and IgG antibodies persist for at least a year. PMID:22875604

  12. The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on carriage of and disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D in southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Porat, Nurith; Benisty, Rachel; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Trefler, Ronit; Dagan, Ron

    2016-05-27

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) followed by PCV13 resulted in a dramatic reduction in carriage and disease rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) serotype 6B (Sp6B) and Sp6A. The structural modifications of the capsule of Sp6A and Sp6B to become Sp6C and Sp6D, respectively, raised a concern that eradication of Sp6A/Sp6B by PCV could be accompanied by an increase in Sp6C/Sp6D. This study examines the dynamics and clonal distribution of Sp6C/Sp6D relative to Sp6A/Sp6B during 1999-2014, pre- and post-PCV implementation. Sp were cultured from Blood/CSF and MEF of children <2 years, and from conjunctiva and nasopharynx of children <5 years. PCR was applied for Sp6C and Sp6D identification. Clonality was determined by PFGE and MLST. PCV introduction resulted in decreased carriage rates and conjunctivitis caused by serogroup 6 serotypes. Incidence of Sp6A, Sp6B and Sp6D in otitis media dropped gradually along with PCV7/13 introduction, whereas Sp6C rates increased in the PCV7 period and then decreased following PCV13 implementation. In invasive pneumococcal disease, complete elimination of serogroup 6 was found in the PCV era. Similar clonal composition was found for Sp6C and Sp6D pre- and post-PCV. We conclude that Sp6C and Sp6D do not act as replacement serotypes for Sp6A and Sp6B following vaccination with PCV13. The major Sp6C and Sp6D clones present pre-PCV persisted also post-PCV implementation, suggesting that these clones possess an advantage retained post-vaccination. PMID:27113163

  13. The data management of a phase III efficacy trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and related satellite studies conducted in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large phase III placebo-controlled, randomized efficacy trial of an investigational 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumonia in children less than 2 years of age was conducted in the Philippines from July 2000 to December 2004. Clinical data from 12,194 children who were given either study vaccine or placebo was collected from birth up to two years of age for the occurrence of radiologically proven pneumonia as the primary endpoint, and for clinical pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease as the secondary endpoints. Several tertiary endpoints were also explored. Along the core trial, several satellite studies on herd immunity, cost-effectiveness of the study vaccine, acute otitis media, and wheezing were conducted. Results We describe here in detail how the relevant clinical records were managed and how quality control procedures were implemented to ensure that valid data were obtained respectively for the core trial and for the satellite studies. We discuss how the task was achieved, what the challenges were and what might have been done differently. Conclusions There were several factors that made the task of data management doable and efficient. First, a pre-trial data management system was available. Secondly, local committed statisticians, programmers and support staff were available and partly familiar to clinical trials. Thirdly, the personnel had undergone training during trial and grew with the task they were supposed to do. Thus the knowledge needed to develop and operate clinical data system was fully transferred to local staff. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62323832 PMID:22676626

  14. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on the Incidence of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children after Five Years of Its Introduction in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, María; Estevan, Miguel; Meny, Miguel; Iraola, Inés; Laurani, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the most frequent serotypes demonstrated that invasive disease and pneumonia were important manifestations affecting children under 5 years of age. Therefore, pneumococcal diseases prevention became a public health priority. Uruguay was the first Latin American country to incorporate PCV7 into its National Immunization Program. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence rates for hospitalized pneumonia in children from the pre PCV introduction period and the following five years of PCVs application in Uruguay. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance of pneumonia hospitalization rates, in children, less than 14 years of age, had been performed prior pneumococcal vaccination, and continued following PCV7 introduction and PCV13 replacement, using the same methodology. Hospitalized children with pneumonia were enrolled from January 1, 2009 through December 31st, 2012. The study was carried out in an area with a population of 238,002 inhabitants of whom 18, 055 were under five years of age. Patients with acute lower respiratory infections for whom a chest radiograph was performed on admission were eligible. Digitalized radiographs were interpreted by a reference radiologist, using WHO criteria. Pneumonia was confirmed in 2,697 patients, 1,267 with consolidated and 1,430 with non consolidated pneumonia of which incidence decrease, between 2009 and 2012, was 27.3% and 46.4% respectively. 2001–2004 and 2009–2012 comparison showed a significant difference of 20.4% for consolidated pneumonia hospitalizations. A significant incidence decline was recorded among children 6 to 35 months of age. Conclusions An overall significant reduction in pneumonia hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of PCV7 and furthermore following the change to PCV13. PMID:24905093

  15. Effectiveness of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV-10) in Children in Chile: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Nationwide Pneumonia Morbidity and Mortality Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Cristiana M.; Alencar, Gizelton P.; Alvarez, Andrés; Valenzuela, Maria T.; Andrus, Jon; del Aguila, Roberto; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Araya, Pamela; Pidal, Paola; Matus, Cuauhtemoc R.; de Oliveira, Lucia H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Chilean National Immunization Program (NIP) in January 2011 with a 3+1 schedule (2, 4, 6 and 12 months) without catch-up vaccination. We evaluated the effectiveness of PCV10 on pneumonia morbidity and mortality among infants during the first two years after vaccine introduction. Methods This is a population-based nested case-control study using four merged nationwide case-based electronic health data registries: live birth, vaccination, hospitalization and mortality. Children born in 2010 and 2011 were followed from two moths of age for a period of two years. Using four different case definitions of pneumonia hospitalization and/or mortality (all-cause and pneumonia related deaths), all cases and four randomly selected matched controls per case were selected. Controls were matched to cases on analysis time. Vaccination status was then assessed. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results There were a total of 497,996 children in the 2010 and 2011 Chilean live-birth cohorts. PCV10 VE was 11.2% (95%CI 8.5–13.6) when all pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths were used to define cases. VE increased to 20.7 (95%CI 17.3–23.8) when ICD10 codes used to denote viral pneumonia were excluded from the case definition. VE estimates on pneumonia deaths and all-cause deaths were 71.5 (95%CI 9.0–91.8) and 34.8 (95% CI 23.7–44.4), respectively. Conclusion PCV10 vaccination substantially reduced the number of hospitalizations due to pneumonia and deaths due to pneumonia and to all-causes over this study period. Our findings also reinforce the importance of having quality health information systems for measuring VE. PMID:27058873

  16. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    MedlinePlus

    ... opisthotonos ) Pneumococcal meningitis is an important cause of fever in children. ... room if you suspect meningitis in a young child who has the following ... fever Call the local emergency number if you develop ...

  17. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from healthy children in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Mameli, Chiara; Daprai, Laura; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Dilillo, Dario; Bedogni, Giorgio; Faccini, Marino; Gramegna, Maria; Torresani, Erminio; Ballerini, Emanuela; Benincaso, Annarita; Bonvissuto, Milena; Bricalli, Dorella; Brioschi, Manuela; Calloni, Cinzia Simona; Camiletti, Marina Irene; Colella, Giacomo; De Angelis, Laura; Decarlis, Silvia; Di Nello, Francesca; Dozzi, Massimiliano; Galli, Erica; Gandini, Vera; Giuliani, Maria Grazia; Laviola, Franca; Loda, Barbara; Macedoni, Maddalena; Mazzucchi, Elisabetta; Metta, Maria Gabriella; Moscatiello, Anna; Nannini, Pilar; Petruzzi, Mariangela; Picicco, Damiano; Picciotti, Michela; Pisanelli, Stefania; Porta, Norberto; Ramponi, Giulia; Redaelli, Francesca; Rubini, Riccardo; Sala, Natascia; Saitta, Vincenzo; Scelza, Giuseppina; Tiso, Rosa Maria; Tomasetto, Mariangela; Torcoletti, Matteo; Travaini, Marta; Valentini, Maurizio; Vessia, Chiara

    2014-01-23

    Few epidemiological data are available since the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy Italian infants and young children and to evaluate the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal colonization. In the trimester September-December 2011 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy children aged 3-59 months presenting for routine well careat 16 primary care pediatricians in Milan. SP carriage isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial resistance using EUCAST breakpoints. Among 1250 enrolled children, 618 had received at least 1 dose of PCV13, 292 at least 1 dose of PCV7, 94 a combination of the two vaccines and 246 were not vaccinated. The prevalence of SP carriage was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25-30). At multivariable analysis, age≥25 months (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.74) and use of antibiotics in the previous 3 months (PR=0.67) were associated with lower SP carriage prevalence. Having siblings (PR=1.79 for 1 sibling and PR=2.23 for ≥2 siblings), day-care attendance (PR=2.27) and respiratory tract infections in the previous 3 months (PR=1.39) were associated with higher SP carriage prevalence. The immunization status for SP was not associated with SP carriage at univariable or at multivariable analysis. The most common carriage isolates were 6C, 19A and 23A. The prevalence of the six additional PCV13 serotypes carriage in children appropriately vaccinated with PCV13 was lower than in children appropriately vaccinated with PCV7 (0 vs. 0.060); the greater reduction in prevalence of carriage was observed for serotype 19A (0 vs. 0.041). Serotype 6C was the most common drug-resistant serotype (17.2%). Further epidemiological studies are needed to assess changes in circulating SP serotypes following the large-scale introduction of PCV13. PMID:24342249

  18. Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ziane, Hanifa; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Moura, Inês B.; Bektache, Soumia; Tazir, Mohamed; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p < 0.01), whereas serotype 6A was exclusively isolated from carriers (p < 0.01). Deaths associated with IPD were related to serotypes 19A, 14, 18C, and one non-typeable isolate. Among IPD related to vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods. PMID:27379023

  19. Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ziane, Hanifa; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Moura, Inês B; Bektache, Soumia; Tazir, Mohamed; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p < 0.01), whereas serotype 6A was exclusively isolated from carriers (p < 0.01). Deaths associated with IPD were related to serotypes 19A, 14, 18C, and one non-typeable isolate. Among IPD related to vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods.

  20. Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ziane, Hanifa; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Moura, Inês B; Bektache, Soumia; Tazir, Mohamed; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p < 0.01), whereas serotype 6A was exclusively isolated from carriers (p < 0.01). Deaths associated with IPD were related to serotypes 19A, 14, 18C, and one non-typeable isolate. Among IPD related to vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods. PMID:27379023

  1. Efficacy of PPV23 in Preventing Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults at Increased Risk – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner-Rohe, Julia; Witt, Annika; Hemmerling, Jana; von Eiff, Christof; Leverkus, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (pCAP) is the most frequent form of pneumonia. The elderly and adults with underlying diseases are at an increased risk of developing pCAP. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was licensed over 30 years ago and is recommended as the standard intervention in many countries across the globe, although its efficacy continues to be debated. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of PPV23 for preventing pCAP in adults ≥60 years of age. Methods An existing Cochrane Review was updated to Oct 2014 using a systematic literature search to select appropriate RCTs. DerSimonian and Laird random-effects meta-analyses were performed and odd ratios (OR) with 95%-confidence intervals (CI) and p-values were calculated for the descriptive analyses. Reasons for heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses. Results Meta-analysis of PPV23 efficacy included four studies. Three of them did not demonstrate efficacy for PPV23. The body of evidence indicated statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 78%, p = 0.004) that could be explained by subgroup analysis by “study setting”. Further effect modifiers for pCAP were “continent of trial” (p<0.01), and “method of pneumococcal diagnostics” (p = 0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that the only study showing efficacy for PPV23 was an outlier. Overall, the validity of the meta-analytic PPV23 efficacy assessment was confirmed by the meta-analysis of all-cause CAP including six studies. Discussion Inconsistencies in PPV23 treatment effects to prevent pCAP could solely be explained by one outlier study that was performed in nursing homes in Japan. The effect modifier “method of pneumococcal diagnostics” should be interpreted carefully, since methodological weaknesses are not restricted to one special method only, which would justify the exclusion of certain studies. Overall, we conclude from our

  2. Necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A in a healthy 4-year-old girl after one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shay; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Tsao, Ten-Fu; Liao, Pei-Fen; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infectious diseases in children that may lead to life-threatening complications. Acute purulent pericarditis is an uncommon complication of S. pneumoniae in the antibiotic era. A healthy 4-year-old girl was admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion. She had received one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age. She rapidly developed necrotizing pneumonia, complicated by bronchopleural fistula presenting as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax and acute purulent pericarditis. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A was subsequently identified from blood, empyema and pericardial fluid cultures. After appropriate antibiotic therapy and a right lower lobectomy, her condition stabilized and she promptly recovered. This case highlights two rare potential clinical complications of pneumococcal disease in a child: necrotizing pneumonia and acute purulent pericarditis. This is the first report of a child who received just one catch-up dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2 years of age, as per the United States' Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice's recommendations, but who still developed severe invasive pneumococcal disease with life-threatening complications caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A.

  3. Estimates on state-specific Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV) coverage in the private sector in the year 2012: Evidence from PCV utilization data.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Zodpey, Sanjay; Chokshi, Maulik; Thacker, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is not available through universal immunization programs but is available through private healthcare providers. Because the PCV coverage rates are unknown, we developed a Microsoft Excel-based coverage assessment model to estimate state-specific PCV coverage for the year 2012. Our findings suggest that in the private sector, the "overall PCV coverage" was around 0.33% that ranged between a minimum of 0.07% for Assam, India and a maximum of 2.38% for Delhi, India. Further, in major metropolitan areas, overall PCV coverage rates were: 2.28% for Delhi, India, 13.31% for Mumbai (Maharashtra), India 0.76% for Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), India, 1.93% for Kolkata (West Bengal), India, and 4.92% for Chennai (Tamil Nadu), India highlighting that urban centers are major drivers for PCV utilization driver in the states with high PCV consumption. Hence, to improve PCV coverage, both demand side (increasing consumer awareness about pneumonia prevention) and supply side (controlling vaccine prices and indigenous vaccine production) interventions are required. PMID:27350710

  4. Do Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Represent Good Value for Money in a Lower-Middle Income Country? A Cost-Utility Analysis in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Haasis, Manuel Alexander; Ceria, Joyce Anne; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Teerawattananon, Yot; Alejandria, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is lacking in other previous studies. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted. A Markov simulation model was constructed to examine the costs and consequences of PCV10 and PCV13 against the current scenario of no PCV vaccination for a lifetime horizon. A health system perspective was employed to explore different funding schemes, which include universal or partial vaccination coverage subsidized by the government. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in Philippine peso (Php) per QALY gained (1 USD = 44.20 Php). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Results With universal vaccination at a cost per dose of Php 624 for PCV10 and Php 700 for PCV13, both PCVs are cost-effective compared to no vaccination given the ceiling threshold of Php 120,000 per QALY gained, yielding ICERs of Php 68,182 and Php 54,510 for PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. Partial vaccination of 25% of the birth cohort resulted in significantly higher ICER values (Php 112,640 for PCV10 and Php 84,654 for PCV13) due to loss of herd protection. The budget impact analysis reveals that universal vaccination would cost Php 3.87 billion to 4.34 billion per annual, or 1.6 to 1.8 times the budget of the current national vaccination program. Conclusion The inclusion of PCV in the national immunization program is recommended. PCV13 achieved better value for money compared to PCV10. However, the affordability and sustainability of PCV implementation over the long-term should be considered by decision makers. PMID:26131961

  5. The kinetics and phenotype of the human B-cell response following immunization with a heptavalent pneumococcal-CRM197 conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Salt, Penny; Oh, Sarah; Marchant, Arnaud; Beverley, Peter; Pollard, Andrew John

    2006-01-01

    Primary immunization of infants with protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines induces antipolysaccharide antibody and is highly effective in preventing invasive disease caused by encapsulated bacteria. However, recent experience from the UK indicates that this immunity is not sustained in the absence of booster doses of vaccine. This study aimed to establish the kinetics and phenotype of B-cell subpopulations responding to booster immunization with a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Pnc7), which is to be introduced into the primary immunization schedule in the UK during 2006. Six adult volunteers received a booster dose of Pnc7 12–18 months after primary immunization. CD27hi CD38hi CD20+/– IgG antibody-forming cells were detected in peripheral blood with maximum frequency at days 6–7 after immunization. This was accompanied by a more prolonged rise in memory B cells that required in vitro stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain and interleukin-2 to induce antibody secretion. These data provide evidence for at least two subsets of antibody-forming cells involved in the secondary humoral response to a glycoconjugate vaccine in primed individuals. A briefly circulating subset of B cells that spontaneously secrete immunoglobulin G may be responsible for early defence against re-encountered encapsulated bacteria. However, the kinetics of the appearance of these cells may indicate that the humoral immune response is too slow in defence against an organism that invades within days of acquisition. The more sustained presence of a memory population may provide persistence of antipolysaccharide antibody after a booster dose of vaccine and may also include re-circulatory populations responsible for further anamnestic responses. PMID:17067312

  6. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... years of age who has a long-term health problem such as: heart disease, lung disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, alcoholism, cirrhosis, ... sources of information. Call your local or state health department. Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): call 1-800-232- ...

  7. Decrease in Hospitalizations for Pneumonia in Children under Five Years of Age in an Indian Reservation in Panama after the Introduction of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7)

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Guevara, Javier; Daza, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies the impact of Heptavalent-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) in Panama on indigenous children younger than 5 years old, based on clinical pneumonia cases. This study demonstrates a significant 41.2% reduction in hospitalizations and 38.6% reduction in referrals for pneumonia following the introduction of PCV7. Burden of disease from pneumonia appears reduced in the ≤12-month- and 13-to-24-month-old groups. PMID:23762081

  8. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2-dose catch-up vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children in the second year of life: Results from an open study

    PubMed Central

    Dicko, Alassane; Dicko, Yahia; Barry, Amadou; Sidibe, Youssoufa; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Santara, Gaoussou; Dolo, Amagana; Diallo, Aminata; Doumbo, Ogobara; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is still the leading cause of death among African children with pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 being dominant in the below 5 y of age group. The present study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children. This phase III, open-label study (NCT00985465) was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and July 2010. The study population consisted of PHiD-CV unprimed Malian children previously enrolled in the control group of study NCT00678301 receiving a 2-dose catch-up vaccination with PHiD-CV in the second year of life. Adverse events were recorded following each PHiD-CV dose. Antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured pre-vaccination and after the second PHiD-CV catch-up dose. Swelling and fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) were the most frequently reported solicited symptoms following either PHiD-CV dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms were reported. Large swelling reactions and serious adverse events were not reported. Post-catch-up vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 94.7% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.5%) and 23F (87.7%). At least 94.0% of subjects had OPA titres ≥ 8, except for serotype 19F (89.4%). The geometric mean concentration for antibodies against protein D was 839.3 (95% CI: 643.5-1094.6) EL.U/ml. Two-dose PHiD-CV catch-up regimen in the second year of life was well-tolerated and immunogenic for all vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D when administered to Malian children PMID:26020101

  9. Long-term immune responses and comparative effectiveness of one or two doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in HIV-positive adults in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aristine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Tsai, Mao-Song; Su, Yi-Ching; Liu, Wen-Chun; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection impairs maintenance of immunological memory, yet few studies of HIV-positive adults receiving 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) have followed them beyond the first year. We determined and compared the durability of serological responses and the clinical outcomes of HIV-positive adults annually for five years following vaccination with one or two doses of PCV7. Methods In this non-randomized clinical trial, 221 pneumococcal vaccine-naïve HIV-positive adults receiving one (n=109) or two doses four weeks apart (n=112) of PCV7 between 2008 and 2010 were longitudinally followed for evaluation of significant serological response and for episodes of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Results At the time of vaccination, the two groups were well matched for age, risk factors, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) coverage, CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA load (PVL). At the end of five years, the CD4 counts for the one- and two-dose groups had increased from 407 and 406 to 550 and 592 cells/µL, respectively, and 82.4 and 81.6% of the participants had fully suppressed PVL. Significant immune responses to ≥2 serotypes persisted for 67.9 vs 78.6%, 64.2 vs 71.4%, 66.1 vs 71.4%, 57.8 vs 69.6% in the second, third, fourth and fifth years after one and two doses of PCV7 in the intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. In multivariate analysis, immunization with two doses of PCV7 (odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.65, p=0.016), concurrent cART (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.00, p=0.015) and CD4 proliferation (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27, p=0.031) were predictive of persistent serological responses in the fifth year. Only one patient in the one-dose group had documented pneumococcal pneumonia (non-bacteraemic) and none had invasive pneumococcal disease in the 6.5 years of follow-up. Conclusions One or two doses of PCV7 achieve durable seroprotective responses in HIV-treated participants; however, two

  10. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010–2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3–59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥2 PCV7 doses or ≥1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9

  11. Invasive pneumococci before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Turkey: antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype distribution, and molecular identification of macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Altun, Hatice Uludag; Hascelik, Gülsen; Gür, Deniz; Eser, Özgen Köseoglu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotype distributions of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) isolates identified in a Turkish hospital before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The susceptibilities of all isolates were determined by evaluating six antibiotics: penicillin (PEN), ceftriaxone (CRO), levofloxacin (LEV), erythromycin (ERY), clindamycin (CD), and vancomycin (VAN). Serotyping and amplification of macrolide resistance genes were performed. Sixteen (50%) and four (2%) isolates were resistant to PEN and LEV, respectively. No isolates demonstrated VAN resistance. Intermediate resistance to CRO was found in 4% of all invasive isolates. Twenty-three (12.6%) isolates were resistant to ERY. Four (2%) invasive SP isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. Serogroups 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 23 were the most common in both age groups. The potential coverage rates of PCV7 and PCV13 were 44.1 and 66.1% in children and 39.8 and 71.5% in adults, respectively. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is required.

  12. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Dagan, Ron; Sayiner, Abdullah; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Dinleyici, Ener Çağrı; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Kulcsár, Andrea; Mad'arová, Lucia; Pazdiora, Petr; Sidorenko, Sergey; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Yeraliyeva, Lyazzat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease associated with S. pneumoniae is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (e.g. PCV7, PCV13) provide protection from invasive pneumococcal disease as well as non-invasive infection (pneumonia, acute otitis media), and decrease vaccine-type nasopharyngeal colonisation, thus reducing transmission to unvaccinated individuals. PCVs have also been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal disease. Surveillance for pneumococcal disease is important to understand local epidemiology, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance rates. Surveillance systems also help to inform policy development, including vaccine recommendations, and monitor the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. National pneumococcal surveillance systems exist in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (such as Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), and some have introduced PCVs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia and Turkey). Those countries without established programs (such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) may be able to learn from the experiences of those with national surveillance systems. The serotype distributions and impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumococcal diseases are relatively similar in different parts of the world, suggesting that approaches to vaccination used elsewhere are also likely to be effective in Central and Eastern Europe. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, presents the latest surveillance data from Central and Eastern Europe, and discusses any similarities and differences in these data as well the potential implications for vaccination policies in the region. PMID:27096714

  13. Reactogenicity and tolerability of a non-adjuvanted 11-valent diphtheria-tetanus toxoid pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Ugpo, Juanita; Lucero, Marilla; Williams, Gail; Lechago, Marites; Nillos, Leilani; Tallo, Veronica; Nohynek, Hanna

    2009-05-01

    In a phase three randomized, double-blind, saline-placebo controlled study conducted in Bohol, Philippines, we assessed the reactogenicity of an 11-valent PCV (11PCV) when given simultaneously with EPI vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age in a subset of 252 and 126 children who were followed-up by passive and active surveillance, respectively. In passive surveillance (parents' observation), redness was observed in 14.4% vs. 11.8%, swelling in 8% vs. 3.9%, induration in 13.6% vs. 8.6%, and pain in 54.4% vs. 47.2% of 11PCV and placebo infants, respectively, after the first dose of the vaccine. Redness at injection site was significantly more common with 11PCV than placebo infants after the third dose (13.6% vs. 3.2%, p=0.005). Crying (53.6% vs. 48%), irritability (48% vs. 46.4%), and fever (22.4% vs. 19.6%) were commonly observed in 11PCV and placebo infants, respectively, after the first dose. Loss of appetite was significantly more common among 11PCV (12%) than placebo (4.7%) infants but only after the first dose of the vaccine (P=0.04). The number of reactions decreased in both groups with subsequent doses. The non-adjuvanted 11PCV vaccine was found to be well-tolerated among Filipino infants. PMID:18977267

  14. Pneumococcal immunizations at flu clinics: the impact of community-wide outreach.

    PubMed

    Shenson, D; Quinley, J; DiMartino, D; Stumpf, P; Caldwell, M; Lee, T

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a community-wide outreach campaign to promote the use of pneumococcal vaccine at public flu immunization clinics, and assessed whether this intervention was more effective than simply making pneumococcal vaccination available at such clinics. In 1997, a community-wide outreach campaign promoting pneumococcal and influenza immunizations was launched in a 17 zip code area of Dutchess County, NY. The campaign was aimed at 7,961 Medicare beneficiaries urging them to obtain pneumococcal immunization from local flu clinics. Medicare reimbursement data were used to assess the countywide pneumococcal vaccination rate, and to analyze differences between rates for beneficiaries in the target area and elsewhere in the county. Between 1996 and 1997 there was a 94% increase in pneumococcal vaccination billed to Medicare beneficiaries in Dutchess County. The 1997 annual rate of pneumococcal immunization in the target area reached 16.3% versus 12.2% elsewhere in the county (p < 0.001), with an increase over the previous year of 8.7% and 5.6%, respectively. Nearly all of the increase is accounted for by pneumococcal vaccination delivered at flu clinics. It is possible to significantly increase the use of pneumococcal immunization by linking its delivery to community-based flu clinics and by developing local outreach strategies. The outreach campaign has a significant additive effect over simply making PPV available at flu shot clinics. Additional community-wide outreach can further improve pneumococcal immunization utilization rates. PMID:11478565

  15. Prevention of pneumococcal infections during mass gathering.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    The interest in mass gathering and its implications has been increasing due to globalization and international travel. The potential occurrence of infectious disease outbreaks during mass gathering is most feared. In this context, respiratory tract infections are of great concern due to crowding in a limited space which facilitates and magnifies the potential of disease spread among attendees. Pneumococcal disease is best described among pilgrims to Makkah and vaccination is one of the methods for the prevention of this disease. Pneumonia was described in a mass gathering with a prevalence of 4.8/100,000 pilgrims and contributes to 15-39% of hospitalizations. Various studies showed that 7-37% of pilgrims are 65 y of age or older. The uptake of pneumococcal vaccine among pilgrims is low at 5%. There is no available data to make strong recommendations for S. pneumoniae vaccination of all pilgrims, it is important that a high risk population receive the indicated vaccination. We reviewed the available literature on the burden of pneumococcal infections during mass gathering and evaluate the available literature on pneumococcal vaccinations for attendees of mass gathering.

  16. Prevention of pneumococcal infections during mass gathering

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    The interest in mass gathering and its implications has been increasing due to globalization and international travel. The potential occurrence of infectious disease outbreaks during mass gathering is most feared. In this context, respiratory tract infections are of great concern due to crowding in a limited space which facilitates and magnifies the potential of disease spread among attendees. Pneumococcal disease is best described among pilgrims to Makkah and vaccination is one of the methods for the prevention of this disease. Pneumonia was described in a mass gathering with a prevalence of 4.8/100,000 pilgrims and contributes to 15–39% of hospitalizations. Various studies showed that 7–37% of pilgrims are 65 y of age or older. The uptake of pneumococcal vaccine among pilgrims is low at 5%. There is no available data to make strong recommendations for S. pneumoniae vaccination of all pilgrims, it is important that a high risk population receive the indicated vaccination. We reviewed the available literature on the burden of pneumococcal infections during mass gathering and evaluate the available literature on pneumococcal vaccinations for attendees of mass gathering. PMID:26176306

  17. Antigen processing of glycoconjugate vaccines; the polysaccharide portion of the pneumococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine co-localizes with MHC II on the antigen processing cell surface.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R

    2009-05-21

    Pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharides (PS) are T-independent (TI) antigens and do not induce immunological memory or antibodies in infants. Conjugation of PnPS to the carrier protein CRM(197) induces PS-specific antibody in infants, and memory similar to T-dependent (Td) antigens. Conjugates have improved immunogenicity via antigen processing and presentation of carrier protein with MHC II and recruitment of T cell help, but the fate of the PS attached to the carrier is unknown. To determine the location of the PS component of PnPS-CRM(197) in the APC, we separately labeled PS and protein and tracked their location. The PS of types 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was specifically labeled by Alexa Fluor 594 hydrazide (red). The CRM(197) was separately labeled red in a reaction that did not label PS. Labeled antigens were incubated with APC which were fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-MHC II antibody labeled green by Alexa Fluor 488, followed by confocal microscopy. Labeled CRM(197) was presented on APC surface and co-localized with MHC II (yellow). Labeled unconjugated 14 or 19F PS did not go to the APC surface, but PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was internalized and co-localized with MHC II. Monoclonal antibody to type 14 PS bound to intracellular type 14 PS and PS-CRM(197). Brefeldin A and chloroquine blocked both CRM(197) and PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) from co-localizing with MHC II. These data suggest that the PS component of the CRM(197) glycoconjugate enters the endosome, travels with CRM(197) peptides to the APC surface and co-localizes with MHC II.

  18. Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID conducts and supports research to find innovative technologies to improve vaccine production flexibility; new more broadly ... drug resistance. This includes the support of innovative technologies used to design drugs that target specific viral ...

  19. A current and historical perspective on disparities in US childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine adherence and in rates of invasive pneumococcal disease: Considerations for the routinely-recommended, pediatric PCV dosing schedule in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, John M; Utt, Eric A; Hill, Nina M; Welch, Verna L; Power, Edward; Sylvester, Gregg C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that reducing the US 4-dose PCV13 schedule to a 3-dose schedule may provide cost savings, despite more childhood pneumococcal disease. The study also stressed that dose reduction should be coupled with improved PCV adherence, however, US PCV uptake has leveled-off since 2008. An estimated 24–36% of US children aged 5–19 months are already receiving a reduced PCV schedule (i.e., missing ≥1 dose). This raises a practical concern that, under a reduced, 3-dose schedule, a similar proportion of children may receive ≤2 doses. It is also unknown if a reduced, 3-dose PCV schedule in the United States will afford the same disease protection as 3-dose schedules used elsewhere, given lower US PCV adherence. Finally, more assurance is needed that, under a reduced schedule, racial, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities in PCV adherence will not correspond with disproportionately higher rates of pneumococcal disease among poor or minority children. PMID:26376039

  20. Significant decline in pneumonia admission rate after the introduction of routine 2+1 dose schedule heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children under 5 years of age in Kielce, Poland.

    PubMed

    Patrzałek, M; Albrecht, P; Sobczynski, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on the pneumonia admission rate in children younger than 5 years of age, after the introduction of routine 2+1 dose schedule immunization. We compared the pneumonia admission rate (number of cases per 1,000 population) 2 years before and 2 years after the introduction of PCV7 in 2006. Only children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were analyzed. The vaccination rate in the analyzed periods was around 99%. In the period preceding the implementation of PCV7, the average pneumonia admission rate was 41.48/1,000 and 6.15/1,000 for 1-year-old and 2-4-year-old children, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant fall in this rate in two consecutive years after PCV7 implementation (p < 0.0000001 for 1-year-old and p = 0.011 for 2-4-year-old children, respectively). In the first year of vaccination, the admission number decreased in these two groups by about 65 and 23%, respectively. In the second year, only a few percent fall in the admission rate was noted. In children younger than 2 years of age, the age group targeted for vaccination, pneumonia-related healthcare utilization declined substantially following PCV7 introduction. These results suggest that PCV7 may play an important role in reducing the burden of pneumonia in Poland.

  1. Adult zebrafish model for pneumococcal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saralahti, Anni; Piippo, Hannaleena; Parikka, Mataleena; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Rämet, Mika; Rounioja, Samuli

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis. Due to incomplete understanding of the host and bacterial factors contributing to these diseases optimal treatment and prevention methods are lacking. In the present study we examined whether the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of pneumococcal diseases. Here we show that both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections of the pneumococcal strain TIGR4 cause a fulminant, dose-dependent infection in adult zebrafish, while isogenic mutant bacteria lacking the polysaccharide capsule, autolysin, or pneumolysin are attenuated in the model. Infection through the intraperitoneal route is characterized by rapid expansion of pneumococci in the bloodstream, followed by penetration of the blood-brain barrier and progression to meningitis. Using Rag1 mutant zebrafish, which are devoid of somatic recombination and thus lack adaptive immune responses, we show that clearance of pneumococci in adult zebrafish depends mainly on innate immune responses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the adult zebrafish can be used as a model for a pneumococcal infection, and that it can be used to study both host and bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis. However, our results do not support the use of the zebrafish in studies on the role of adaptive immunity in pneumococcal disease or in the development of new pneumococcal vaccines.

  2. Further available immunization option to prevent pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Vojtek, Ivo; Hoet, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In their recent review, Charles Feldman and Ronald Anderson provide an overview of various clinical aspects of pneumococcal infections. We would like to complete this report by providing some additional information on a widely-used immunization option, which was not originally mentioned in the article. The protein D pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) has been pre-approved by WHO and its impact is supported by real-life data from the regions of its use. PMID:25866621

  3. Further available immunization option to prevent pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, Ivo; Hoet, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In their recent review, Charles Feldman and Ronald Anderson provide an overview of various clinical aspects of pneumococcal infections. We would like to complete this report by providing some additional information on a widely-used immunization option, which was not originally mentioned in the article. The protein D pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) has been pre-approved by WHO and its impact is supported by real-life data from the regions of its use.

  4. Point of care experience with pneumococcal and influenza vaccine documentation among persons aged ≥65 years: high refusal rates and missing information.

    PubMed

    Brownfield, Elisha; Marsden, Justin E; Iverson, Patty J; Zhao, Yumin; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P

    2012-09-01

    Missed opportunities to vaccinate and refusal of vaccine by patients have hindered the achievement of national health care goals. The meaningful use of electronic medical records should improve vaccination rates, but few studies have examined the content of these records. In our vaccine intervention program using an electronic record with physician prompts, paper prompts, and nursing standing orders, we were unable to achieve national vaccine goals, due in large part to missing information and patient refusal.

  5. Pneumococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Farsi (فارسی) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Thai ( ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Farsi (فارسی) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine English (Farsi) واکسن توأمان ...

  6. Serotype-Specific Pneumococcal Status prior to PCV 13 Administration in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Targońska, Brygida; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Karolewska-Bochenek, Katarzyna; Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Łazowska-Przeorek, Izabella; Kotowska, Maria; Sienkiewicz, Edyta; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Gregorek, Hanna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Albrecht, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype-specific pneumococcal status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination before administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13). This was an open, prospective study on children and adolescents aged 5-18 years who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. A single dose of PCV 13 was administered to each patient. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were measured for all 13 serotypes. A total of 122 subjects completed the study. Prevaccination GMCs ranged from 0.55 μg/ml (serotype 4) to 4.26 μg/mI (serotype 19A). Prior to the administration of PCV 13, high GMCs were detected in older children and adolescents who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:27281998

  7. [Vaccination in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kwetkat, A; Pletz, M W

    2013-10-01

    The aging immune system, so-called immunosenescence, is well documented as the cause of increased infection rates and severe, often complicated course of infections in the elderly with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it can lead to decreased efficacy of vaccination. The administration of more immunogenic vaccines can be beneficial in the elderly. Implementing vaccination recommendations for the elderly by STIKO can reduce burden of infectious diseases by prevention of infection or reduction of severity of infection. The following vaccinations are recommended by STIKO for all persons aged 60 and above: annual influenza vaccination (additionally all nursing home residents independently of age), once only pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, completion of tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccination as well as regular revaccination. All adults should be vaccinated against pertussis with Tdap vaccine once. Meanwhile, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is allowed for administration in adults but is not recommended by STIKO yet. A lifelong course of vaccination may help to attenuate the effect of immunosenescence.

  8. Lower respiratory tract infections: prevention using vaccines.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Harper, Scott A

    2004-12-01

    In summary, vaccines are available to prevent two of the most common and most deadly causes of lower respiratory tract infections: pneumococcal disease and influenza. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine prevents pneumococcal bacteremia; influenza vaccines prevent influenza as well as several complications of influenza. Despite all that is known about how well these vaccines work, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are underused markedly, especially among some minority groups that are affected dis-proportionately by disease. Coverage also remains low among health care workers, although providing influenza vaccine to health care workers saves lives among patients. Tools such as standing orders can help clinicians increase vaccine coverage in their patient populations. While research for new and improved vaccines to prevent lower respiratory tract infections continues,focusing on simple measures for increasing vaccine use can help prevent morbidity and mortality now.

  9. [Vaccinations 1979].

    PubMed

    Herzog, C; Just, M

    1980-05-17

    On the basis of the Federal Health Department's "Swiss Vaccination Scheme" of 1976, some up to data additions and alterations are proposed mainly with regard to combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccination during the second year of life together with the first tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis booster. Oral vaccination against poliomyelitis is not contraindicated during pregnancy. Among the inoculations not considered in the official vaccination scheme, regular influenza vaccination is only indicated for certain chronically ill people. Whether this is also true of the pneumococcal vaccine newly licensed in Switzerland remains uncertain. The (likewise new) meningococcal vaccine is only effective against type A and C and not against the type B meningococci prevalent in Switzerland. In view of its safety, only HDC vaccine produced with human tissue cultures should be used for anti-rabies vaccination. For counselling prior to travel abroad, a simple vaccination scheme is provided and the importance of other prophylactic measures is emphasized. PMID:7394495

  10. Higher levels of mucosal antibody to pneumococcal vaccine candidate proteins are associated with reduced acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in young children.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Casey, J R; Pichichero, M E

    2015-09-01

    Mucosal immunity has a crucial role in controlling human respiratory tract infections. This study characterizes the naturally acquired mucosal antibody levels to three Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) protein antigens, pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and pneumolysin (Ply), and assesses the association of the mucosal antibody levels with occurrence of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Spn. Both nasopharyngeal (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA levels to all three proteins slightly decreased in children from 6 to 9 months of age and then gradually increased through 24 months of age. Spn NP colonization was associated with higher mucosal antibody levels to all three proteins. However, children with Spn AOM had 5-8-fold lower IgG and 3-6-fold lower IgA levels to the three proteins than children without AOM but asymptomatically colonized with Spn. Antigen-specific antibody levels in the middle ear fluid (MEF) were correlated with antibody levels in the NP. Children with AOM caused by Spn had lower antibody levels in both the MEF and NP than children with AOM caused by other pathogens. These results indicate that higher naturally acquired mucosal antibody levels to PhtD, PcpA and Ply are associated with reduced AOM caused by Spn.

  11. Higher Levels of Mucosal Antibody to Pneumococcal Vaccine Candidate Proteins Are Associated with Reduced Acute Otitis Media Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal immunity plays a crucial role in controlling human respiratory tract infections. This study characterizes the naturally acquired mucosal antibody levels to three Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) protein antigens, pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and pneumolysin (Ply), and assesses the association of the mucosal antibody levels with occurrence of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Spn. Both nasophargyeal (NP) IgG and IgA levels to all three proteins slightly decreased in children from 6 to 9 months of age and then gradually increased through 24 months of age. Spn NP colonization was associated with higher mucosal antibody levels to all three proteins. However, children with Spn AOM had 5-8 fold lower IgG and 3-6 fold lower IgA levels to the three proteins than children without AOM but asymptomatically colonized with Spn. Antigen-specific antibody levels in the middle ear fluid (MEF) were correlated with antibody levels in the NP. Children with AOM caused by Spn had lower antibody levels in both the MEF and NP than children with AOM caused by other pathogens. These results indicate that higher naturally acquired mucosal antibody levels to PhtD, PcpA and Ply are associated with reduced AOM caused by Spn. PMID:25648056

  12. Adult Vaccinations | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 ... high-risk medical conditions had received a pneumococcal vaccination. Only about 1 out of 4 (24 percent) ...

  13. Genetic stability of pneumococcal isolates during 35 days of human experimental carriage

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, R.A.; Gritzfeld, J.F.; Coupland, P.; Gordon, S.B.; Bentley, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal carriage is a reservoir for transmission and a precursor to pneumococcal disease. The experimental human pneumococcal carriage model provides a useful tool to aid vaccine licensure through the measurement of vaccine efficacy against carriage (VEcol). Documentation of the genetic stability of the experimental human pneumococcal carriage model is important to further strengthen confidence in its safety and conclusions, enabling it to further facilitate vaccine licensure through providing evidence of VEcol. Methods 229 isolates were sequenced from 10 volunteers in whom experimental human pneumococcal carriage was established, sampled over a period of 35 days. Multiple isolates from within a single volunteer at a single time provided a deep resolution for detecting variation. HiSeq data from the isolates were mapped against a PacBio reference of the inoculum to call variable sites. Results The observed variation between experimental carriage isolates was minimal with the maximum SNP distance between any isolate and the reference being 3 SNPs. Conclusion The low-level variation described provides evidence for the stability of the experimental human pneumococcal carriage model over 35 days, which can be reliably and confidently used to measure VEcol and aid future progression of pneumococcal vaccination. PMID:26006086

  14. Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Impact of Age on Booster Responses to the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Children in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥95.2% (early booster) and ≥93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥96.7% and ≥93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ≥8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥88.6% and ≥96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥71.4% and ≥90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ≥8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have

  15. Health-system pharmacists' role in immunizing adults against pneumococcal disease and influenza.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, J D; Bonasso, J

    1999-09-01

    The role of pharmacists in immunizing adults against pneumococcal disease and influenza is discussed. Pneumococcal disease and influenza each cause up to 40,000 deaths annually in the United States. Vaccination against these diseases is encouraged for all people 65 years of age or older and for those with certain chronic diseases or immunosuppression. Influenza virus vaccine should also be given to residents of long-term-care facilities, many pregnant women, and health care workers. Pneumococcal vaccine is usually given once in a lifetime; influenza virus vaccine is given annually in the fall. Advocacy of immunization is consistent with the precepts of pharmaceutical care, and pharmacists can promote immunization by assuming the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. Despite lack of specific mention of it in accreditation standards, health-system personnel have a duty to vaccinate adults, just as they do pediatric patients. Pharmacists should review immunization records with patients periodically and at the time of immunization. As with other drug products, formulary decisions and the distribution, storage, and handling of vaccines are important pharmacist responsibilities. Pharmacoeconomic studies have demonstrated the value of pneumococcal and influenza virus vaccines. Medicare covers these vaccines under Part B. Pharmacists have an important role to play in promoting adult immunizations against pneumococcal disease and influenza.

  16. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9

  17. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9

  18. Incidence of Hospitalized Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Adults in Guatemala, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Carmen Lucía; Verani, Jennifer R.; Lopez, María Renee; Paredes, Antonio; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Roldan, Aleida; Arvelo, Wences; Lindblade, Kim A.; McCracken, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia worldwide. However, the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults in low- and middle-income countries is not well described. Methods Data from 2008–2012 was analyzed from two surveillance sites in Guatemala to describe the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. A case of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was defined as a positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test or blood culture in persons aged ≥ 18 years hospitalized with an acute respiratory infection (ARI). Results Among 1595 adults admitted with ARI, 1363 (82%) had either urine testing (n = 1286) or blood culture (n = 338) performed. Of these, 188 (14%) had pneumococcal pneumonia, including 173 detected by urine only, 8 by blood culture only, and 7 by both methods. Incidence rates increased with age, with the lowest rate among 18–24 year-olds (2.75/100,000) and the highest among ≥65 year-olds (31.3/100,000). The adjusted incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia was 18.6/100,000 overall, with in-hospital mortality of 5%. Conclusions An important burden of hospitalized pneumococcal pneumonia in adults was described, particularly for the elderly. However, even adjusted rates likely underestimate the true burden of pneumococcal pneumonia in the community. These data provide a baseline against which to measure the indirect effects of the 2013 introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in Guatemala. PMID:26488871

  19. Pneumococcal Capsules and Their Types: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Geno, K. Aaron; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Song, Joon Young; Skovsted, Ian C.; Klugman, Keith P.; Jones, Christopher; Konradsen, Helle B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Its virulence is largely due to its polysaccharide capsule, which shields it from the host immune system, and because of this, the capsule has been extensively studied. Studies of the capsule led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material, identification of many different capsular serotypes, and identification of the serotype-specific nature of protection by adaptive immunity. Recent studies have led to the determination of capsular polysaccharide structures for many serotypes using advanced analytical technologies, complete elucidation of genetic basis for the capsular types, and the development of highly effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Conjugate vaccine use has altered the serotype distribution by either serotype replacement or switching, and this has increased the need to serotype pneumococci. Due to great advances in molecular technologies and our understanding of the pneumococcal genome, molecular approaches have become powerful tools to predict pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, more-precise and -efficient serotyping methods that directly detect polysaccharide structures are emerging. These improvements in our capabilities will greatly enhance future investigations of pneumococcal epidemiology and diseases and the biology of colonization and innate immunity to pneumococcal capsules. PMID:26085553

  20. Pneumococcal Capsules and Their Types: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Geno, K Aaron; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Song, Joon Young; Skovsted, Ian C; Klugman, Keith P; Jones, Christopher; Konradsen, Helle B; Nahm, Moon H

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Its virulence is largely due to its polysaccharide capsule, which shields it from the host immune system, and because of this, the capsule has been extensively studied. Studies of the capsule led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material, identification of many different capsular serotypes, and identification of the serotype-specific nature of protection by adaptive immunity. Recent studies have led to the determination of capsular polysaccharide structures for many serotypes using advanced analytical technologies, complete elucidation of genetic basis for the capsular types, and the development of highly effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Conjugate vaccine use has altered the serotype distribution by either serotype replacement or switching, and this has increased the need to serotype pneumococci. Due to great advances in molecular technologies and our understanding of the pneumococcal genome, molecular approaches have become powerful tools to predict pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, more-precise and -efficient serotyping methods that directly detect polysaccharide structures are emerging. These improvements in our capabilities will greatly enhance future investigations of pneumococcal epidemiology and diseases and the biology of colonization and innate immunity to pneumococcal capsules. PMID:26085553

  1. Pneumococcal disease in the Arabian Gulf: recognizing the challenge and moving toward a solution.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Abdulkarim, Emad; Alattar, Fatma; Al Lawati, Faryal; Al Khatib, Hisham; Al Maslamani, Muna; Al Obaidani, Idris; Al Salah, Mosaab; Farghaly, Mohamed; Husain, Entesar H; Mokadas, Eiman

    2013-12-01

    Pneumococcal disease has substantial incidence, morbidity and mortality in older adults. Decreased birth rates and longer lifespans indicate that the global population is aging, although rates of aging differ between countries [1]. In 2010, the proportion of the population aged >60 years in the general Arab Region was 7%, and this proportion is expected to rise to 19% by 2050 for the region as a whole [2]; the United Nations estimates for the individual countries of the Arabian Gulf by 2050 are 25.7%, 24.9%, 20.7%, 26.7% and 10.5% in the Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman, respectively, which are comparable to the 26.9% predicted for the USA and lower than that predicted in European countries, in which the 2050 estimates are 32.7%, 34.0% and 38.1% for France, the UK and Germany, respectively [1]. Globally and in the Gulf Region, pneumococcal disease is an increasingly important public health burden in the elderly. The burden of pneumococcal disease can be reduced by effective vaccination programs, but the recommendations on pneumococcal vaccination in adults vary widely. The major barriers to vaccine implementation among healthcare professionals are an incomplete awareness of pneumococcal disease and the vaccination options in adults. The Gulf Advocate Group calls for healthcare providers in the countries of the Arabian Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman) to support awareness and education programs about adult pneumococcal disease, particularly in high-risk groups such as those >65 years of age, those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematological malignancy, organ and bone marrow transplantation or chronic kidney or lung diseases and pilgrims undertaking the Hajj to improve pneumococcal disease surveillance and optimize and disseminate recommendations for adult vaccination. The Gulf Advocate Group recommends following the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for pneumococcal vaccination [3,4].

  2. Ability of Antibiotic-Resistant Nonvaccine-Type Pneumococcal Clones to Cause Otitis Media in an Infant Mouse Model of Pneumococcal-Influenza Virus Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Nelson; Hermans, Peter; van Selm, Saskia; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Tomasz, Alexander; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Portugal resulted in reduced carriage in children by vaccine-type strains and an increased carriage of three major antibiotic-resistant clones, ST2191, ST276, and ST63 expressing capsules 6A, 19A, and 15A, respectively. Pneumococcal otitis media (OM), a frequent infection among preschool age children, is often associated with viral coinfection. To evaluate the ability of these three antibiotic-resistant clones to cause disease, we used an infant mouse model of influenza virus pneumococcal coinfection. The 6A and 19A clonal types induced OM, while 15A induced pneumococcal pneumonia and bloodstream infection, suggesting potential for invasive disease.

  3. Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Double-Blind Trial of the Correlation of Functional and Binding Antibody Responses Elicited by 13-Valent and 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Association with Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Christine; Patterson, Scott; Trammel, James; Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Cooper, David; Gurtman, Alejandra; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    In a randomized double-blind trial in healthy Israeli infants in Israel who received the 13-valent or 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 or PCV7, respectively) at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months, PCV13 significantly reduced nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization of serotypes 1, 6A, 7F, 19A, cross-reacting 6C, and the common PCV7 serotype 19F, from ages 7 to 24 months. No differences were observed between the vaccine groups for serotype 3 or for the remaining common PCV7 serotypes. For serotype 5, too few events were observed to draw an inference. Generally consistent with these findings, PCV13 elicited significantly higher enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG-binding antibody responses than did PCV7 for the additional PCV13 serotypes 1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A, and for the common serotype 19F, with similar or lower responses for the remaining common serotypes. To further assess immunogenicity and colonization, we conducted a post hoc analysis of PCV13 functional antibody responses measured by opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assays in a randomly selected subset of subjects. The pattern of functional antibody OPA responses elicited by PCV13 relative to PCV7 was similar to that of the ELISA anticapsular IgG-binding antibody responses described above. In addition, the OPA responses generally correlated positively with IgG responses for all 13 serotypes among the PCV13 recipients and for all 7 common serotypes and the additional serotype 6A but not for 19A or the other serotypes unique to PCV13 among the PCV7 recipients. This post hoc analysis supports an association between serum OPA functional and IgG-binding antibody levels, allowing for a transfer of inferred associations between IgG responses and NP colonization to OPA responses. PMID:24990907

  4. Virulence Potential and Genome-Wide Characterization of Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones Selected In Vivo by the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frazão, Nelson; Hiller, N. Luisa; Powell, Evan; Earl, Josh; Ahmed, Azad; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Tomasz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We used mouse models of pneumococcal colonization and disease combined with full genome sequencing to characterize three major drug resistant clones of S. pneumoniae that were recovered from the nasopharynx of PCV7-immunized children in Portugal. The three clones – serotype 6A (ST2191), serotype 15A (ST63) and serotype 19A (ST276) carried some of the same drug resistance determinants already identified in nasopharyngeal isolates from the pre-PCV7 era. The three clones were able to colonize efficiently the mouse nasopharyngeal mucosa where populations of these pneumococci were retained for as long as 21 days. During this period, the three clones were able to asymptomatically invade the olfactory bulbs, brain, lungs and the middle ear mucosa and established populations in these tissues. The virulence potential of the three clones was poor even at high inoculum (105 CFU per mouse) concentrations in the mouse septicemia model and was undetectable in the pneumonia model. Capsular type 3 transformants of clones 6A and 19A prepared in the laboratory produced lethal infection at low cell concentration (103 CFU per mouse) but the same transformants became impaired in their potential to colonize, indicating the importance of the capsular polysaccharide in both disease and colonization. The three clones were compared to the genomes of 56 S. pneumoniae strains for which sequence information was available in the public databank. Clone 15A (ST63) only differed from the serotype 19F clone G54 in a very few genes including serotype so that this clone may be considered the product of a capsular switch. While no strain with comparable degree of similarity to clone 19A (ST276) was found among the sequenced isolates, by MLST this clone is a single locust variant (SLV) of Denmark14-ST230 international clone. Clone 6A (ST2191) was most similar to the penicillin resistant Hungarian serotype 19A clone. PMID:24069360

  5. Maternal Antibodies to Pneumolysin but Not to Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Delay Early Pneumococcal Carriage in High-Risk Papua New Guinean Infants▿

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jacinta P.; Richmond, Peter C.; Pomat, William S.; Michael, Audrey; Keno, Helen; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nelson, Jan B.; Whinnen, Melissa; Heinrich, Tatjana; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Prescott, Susan L.; Holt, Patrick G.; Siba, Peter M.; Lehmann, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (ρ = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (ρ = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (ρ = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants. PMID:19776196

  6. Maternal antibodies to pneumolysin but not to pneumococcal surface protein A delay early pneumococcal carriage in high-risk Papua New Guinean infants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jacinta P; Richmond, Peter C; Pomat, William S; Michael, Audrey; Keno, Helen; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Nelson, Jan B; Whinnen, Melissa; Heinrich, Tatjana; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Prescott, Susan L; Holt, Patrick G; Siba, Peter M; Lehmann, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2009-11-01

    Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (rho = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (rho = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (rho = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants. PMID:19776196

  7. Epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7f carried by children in Portugal from 1996-2010 before introduction of the 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sónia T; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae described, serotypes 1, 5, and 7F account for a significant proportion of invasive disease worldwide and are now covered by the most recent 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). The epidemiology of these serotypes in carriage remains poorly studied because they are rarely detected. We aimed to gain insights into the epidemiology and population structure of serotypes 1, 5 and 7F carried by children in Portugal before PCV10 and PCV13 became widely used. Isolates obtained in cross-sectional studies carried out over a 15-year period (1996-2010) were retrospectively pooled and characterized. Of 5,123 pneumococci obtained, 70 were associated with serotypes 1 (n = 21), 5 (n = 7), and 7F (n = 42). The highest prevalence detected was 3.3% for serotype 1 in 2006, 1% for serotype 5 in 2009, and 3.3% for serotype 7F in 2006; Serotype 1 was associated with PMEN international clones Sweden(1)-28(ST306) and Sweden(1)-40(ST304); serotype 5 was associated with Colombia(5)-19(ST289); and serotype 7F was associated with Netherlands(7F)-39(ST191). All these isolates were fully susceptible. Most carriers of serotypes 1 (86%), 5 (86%), and 7F (91%) were older than two years but a significant association with older age was only observed for serotype 7F (p = 0.006). Evidence for cross-transmission was obtained. In conclusion, we were able to detect and characterize the rarely carried serotypes 1, 5, and 7F among healthy children in Portugal. These data will constitute an important baseline for upcoming surveillance studies aimed to establish the impact of novel PCVs targeting these serotypes in carriage.

  8. A population-based analysis of pneumococcal disease mortality in California, 1989-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Redelings, Matthew D.; Sorvillo, Frank; Simon, Paul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of vaccine-preventable mortality. It is important to understand the burden and distribution of mortality so that prevention efforts can be targeted appropriately. This study evaluated pneumococcal disease mortality and its demographic correlates in California from 1989 to 1998. METHODS: Deaths due to pneumococcal disease were identified from statewide vital records data using multiple cause-coded information. Denominator data were obtained from estimates from the California Department of Finance. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each age, gender, and racial/ethnic group. RESULTS: The age-adjusted pneumococcal disease mortality rate was 2.05 deaths per 100,000 population. Mortality was highest in elderly individuals (reaching 38.29 deaths per 100,000 population in individuals older than age 85). Age-adjusted mortality rates were elevated in the African American race/ethnicity group (2.96 deaths per 100,000 population) and males (2.67 deaths per 100,000 population). The majority of individuals who died of pneumococcal disease (78.9%) fell into at-risk groups indicated for vaccination. The majority of all pneumococcal deaths were caused by pneumococcal pneumonia. Mortality was seasonal, reaching a peak in the winter months. A decreasing trend in mortality was observed over the 10-year period examined. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal disease remains a significant cause of vaccine-preventable mortality in the California population. Greater efforts must be made to vaccinate at-risk individuals, especially those in demographic groups at highest risk of death. PMID:15842117

  9. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  10. [Impact of vaccination on acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Gervaix, Alain

    2016-02-17

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important reason for medical visits and antibiotic use in children, with possible complications. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been developed from 2000, with first the apparition of the 7-valent PCV (PCV7), and from 2013, of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13). First developed to prevent invasive pneumococcal infections, they have been shown to reduce the number of AOM as well. PC13 has allowed to reduce the nasopharyngeal carriage of the majority of pneumococcal serotypes found in AOM, with a reduction of 77% of pneumococcal AOM, according to one study.

  11. Clinical Implications of Pneumococcal Serotypes: Invasive Disease Potential, Clinical Presentations, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Moon H.; Moseley, M. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx and cause a diverse range of illnesses. This clinical spectrum from colonization to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) appears to depend on the pneumococcal capsular serotype rather than the genetic background. According to a literature review, serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 18C, and 19A are more likely to cause IPD. Although serotypes 1 and 19A are the predominant causes of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, serotype 14 remains one of the most common etiologic agents of non-bacteremic pneumonia in adults, even after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction. Serotypes 1, 3, and 19A pneumococci are likely to cause empyema and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis is prevalent in the African meningitis belt, with a high fatality rate. In contrast to the capsule type, genotype is more closely associated with antibiotic resistance. CC320/271 strains expressing serotype 19A are multidrug-resistant (MDR) and prevalent worldwide in the era of PCV7. Several clones of MDR serotype 6C pneumococci emerged, and a MDR 6D clone (ST282) has been identified in Korea. Since the pneumococcal epidemiology of capsule types varies geographically and temporally, a nationwide serosurveillance system is vital to establishing appropriate vaccination strategies for each country. PMID:23341706

  12. Immunization with Pneumococcal Surface Protein K of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Lance E.; Luo, Xiao; Thornton, Justin A.; Moon, Bo Youn; Robinson, D. Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Current vaccinations are effective against encapsulated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, but they do not protect against nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp), which is increasing in colonization and incidence of pneumococcal disease. Vaccination with pneumococcal proteins has been assessed for its ability to protect against pneumococcal disease, but several of these proteins are not expressed by NESp. Pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK), an NESp virulence factor, has not been assessed for immunogenic potential or host modulatory effects. Mammalian cytokine expression was determined in an in vivo mouse model and in an in vitro cell culture system. Systemic and mucosal mouse immunization studies were performed to determine the immunogenic potential of PspK. Murine serum and saliva were collected to quantitate specific antibody isotype responses and the ability of antibody and various proteins to inhibit epithelial cell adhesion. Host cytokine response was not reduced by PspK. NESp was able to colonize the mouse nasopharynx as effectively as encapsulated pneumococci. Systemic and mucosal immunization provided protection from colonization by PspK-positive (PspK+) NESp. Anti-PspK antibodies were recovered from immunized mice and significantly reduced the ability of NESp to adhere to human epithelial cells. A protein-based pneumococcal vaccine is needed to provide broad protection against encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance and vaccine escape mutants. We demonstrate that PspK may serve as an NESp target for next-generation pneumococcal vaccines. Immunization with PspK protected against pneumococcal colonization, which is requisite for pneumococcal disease. PMID:26311246

  13. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  14. Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Katz, Scott; Bronsdon, Melinda A; Elliott, John; Dallas, Jean; Perilla, Mindy J; Reid, Raymond; Murrow, Laurel; Facklam, Richard; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2004-11-01

    Several studies have shown that nasopharyngeal sampling is more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling for the detection of pneumococcal carriage in children. The data for adults are limited and conflicting. This study was part of a larger study of pneumococcal carriage on the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Reservation following a clinical trial of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Persons aged 18 years and older living in households with children enrolled in the vaccine trial were eligible. We collected both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens by passing a flexible calcium alginate wire swab either nasally to the posterior nasopharynx or orally to the posterior oropharynx. Swabs were placed in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin medium and frozen at -70 degrees C. Pneumococcal isolation was performed by standard techniques. Analyses were based on specimens collected from 1,994 adults living in 1,054 households. Nasopharyngeal specimens (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 and 12.6%) were significantly more likely to grow pneumococci than were oropharyngeal specimens (5.8%; 95% CI, 4.8 to 6.9%) (P < 0.0001). Few persons had pneumococcal growth from both specimens (1.7%). Therefore, both tests together were more likely to identify pneumococcal carriage (15.2%; 95% CI, 13.7 to 16.9%) than either test alone. Although we found that nasopharyngeal sampling was more sensitive than oropharyngeal sampling, nasopharyngeal sampling alone would have underestimated the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in this adult population. Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults. PMID:15528682

  15. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  16. Minimum incidence of adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Blantyre, Malawi an urban african setting: a hospital based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Mtunthama, Neema; Gordon, Stephen B; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old) population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.7, 62.7) per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7) mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5) per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9). We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population level indirect

  17. Minimum Incidence of Adult Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Blantyre, Malawi an Urban African Setting: A Hospital Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Mtunthama, Neema; Gordon, Stephen B; Mwafulirwa, Gershom; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Africa. Evaluating population level indirect impact on adult disease of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programmes in infants requires baseline population incidence rates but these are often lacking in areas with limited disease surveillance. We used hospital based blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid surveillance to calculate minimal incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the adult (≥15 years old) population of Blantyre, a rapidly growing urban centre in southern Malawi, in the period preceding vaccine introduction. Invasive pneumococcal disease incidence in Blantyre district was high, mean 58.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.7, 62.7) per 100,000 person years and peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 108.8 (95%CI: 89.0, 131.7) mirroring the population age prevalence of HIV infection. For pneumococcal bacteraemia in urban Blantyre, mean incidence was 60.6 (95% CI: 55.2, 66.5) per 100,000 person years, peaking among 35 to 40 year olds at 114.8 (95%CI: 90.3, 143.9). We suspected that our surveillance may under-ascertain the true burden of disease, so we used location data from bacteraemic subjects and projected population estimates to calculate local sub-district incidence, then examined the impact of community level socio-demographic covariates as possible predictors of local sub-district incidence of pneumococcal and non-pneumococcal pathogenic bacteraemia. Geographic heterogeneity in incidence was marked with localised hotspots but ward level covariates apart from prison were not associated with pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence. Modelling suggests that the current sentinel surveillance system under-ascertains the true burden of disease. We outline a number of challenges to surveillance for pneumococcal disease in our low-resource setting. Subsequent surveillance in the vaccine era will have to account for geographic heterogeneity when evaluating population level indirect

  18. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Klugman, K P

    1990-01-01

    The geographic distribution of pneumococci resistant to one or more of the antibiotics penicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline appears to be expanding, and there exist foci of resistance to chloramphenicol and rifampin. Multiply resistant pneumococci are being encountered more commonly and are more often community acquired. Factors associated with infection caused by resistant pneumococci include young age, duration of hospitalization, infection with a pneumococcus of serogroup 6, 19, or 23 or serotype 14, and exposure to antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. At present, the most useful drugs for the management of resistant pneumococcal infections are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and rifampin. If the strains are susceptible, chloramphenicol may be useful as an alternative, less expensive agent. Appropriate interventions for the control of resistant pneumococcal outbreaks include investigation of the prevalence of resistant strains, isolation of patients, possible treatment of carriers, and reduction of usage of antibiotics to which the strain is resistant. The molecular mechanisms of penicillin resistance are related to the structure and function of penicillin-binding proteins, and the mechanisms of resistance to other agents involved in multiple resistance are being elucidated. Recognition is increasing of the standard screening procedure for penicillin resistance, using a 1-microgram oxacillin disk. PMID:2187594

  19. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N.; Ziane, H.; Bekhoucha, S.; Guechi, Z.; Azzam, A.; Touati, D.; Naim, M.; Azrou, S.; Hamidi, M.; Mertani, A.; Laraba, A.; Annane, T.; Kermani, S.; Tazir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  20. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N; Ziane, H; Bekhoucha, S; Guechi, Z; Azzam, A; Touati, D; Naim, M; Azrou, S; Hamidi, M; Mertani, A; Laraba, A; Annane, T; Kermani, S; Tazir, M

    2015-07-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria.

  1. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  2. Persisting high prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heinsbroek, Ellen; Tafatatha, Terence; Phiri, Amos; Ngwira, Bagrey; Crampin, Amelia C.; Read, Jonathan M.; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV-infected adults have high rates of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults prior to infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) rollout. Design: Observational cohort study. Methods: We recruited HIV-infected adults newly attending a rural HIV clinic in northern Malawi between 2008 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal samples were taken at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We compared pneumococcal carriage by ART status using generalized estimated equation models adjusted for CD4+ cell count, sex, seasonality, and other potential confounders. Results: In total, 336 individuals were included, of which 223 individuals started ART during follow-up. Individuals receiving ART had higher pneumococcal carriage than individuals not receiving ART (25.9 vs. 19.8%, P = 0.03) particularly for serotypes not included in PCV13 (16.1 vs. 9.6% P = 0.003). Following adjustment, increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes was still observed for individuals on ART, but results for all serotypes were nonsignificant [all serotypes: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22 (0.95–1.56); non-PCV13 serotypes: aRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13–2.62]. Conclusion: Pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults in Malawi remained high despite use of ART, consistent with failure of mucosal immune reconstitution in the upper respiratory tract. There was evidence of increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes. HIV-infected adults on ART could remain an important reservoir for pneumococcal diversity post infant pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Control of pneumococcal disease in African HIV remains a priority. PMID:26218599

  3. Evolving pneumococcal serotypes and sequence types in relation to high antibiotic stress and conditional pneumococcal immunization.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Hui; Kuo, An-Jing; Chia, Ju-Hsin; Li, Hsin-Chieh; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Feng, Ye; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2015-11-02

    In Taiwan, beginning in 2013, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was provided free of charge to children 2-5 years of age. In 2014, this was extended to children 1-5 years old. During 2012-2014, 953 cases of culture-confirmed pneumococcal disease (CCPD), including 104 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), were prospectively identified and analyzed at a 3,700-bed hospital in Taiwan. From 2012 to 2014, the incidence per 10,000 admissions decreased from 26.7 to 20.4 for CCPD (P < 0.001) and from 3.2 to 1.9 for IPD (P < 0.05). Significant reduction of PCV13 serotypes was firstly noted in children in 2013 and extended to both paediatric and adult populations in 2014. Simultaneously, the incidence per 10,000 admissions of non-PCV13 serotypes increased from 6.1 in 2012 to 9.3 in 2014 (P < 0.005). The most prevalent non-PCV13 serotypes were 15A, 15B, and 23A, each containing a predominant clone, ST63(15A), ST83(15B), and ST338(23A). From 2012 to 2014, isolates with penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations >2 mg/L decreased from 27.8% to 8.1% (P < 0.001) among all isolates. PCV13 immunization in young children demonstrated an early protective effect in all ages. However, in the elderly, the effect was compromised by an emergence of non-PCV13 serotypes.

  4. Pneumococcal Sepsis Complicated by Splenic Abscesses and Purpura Fulminans in a 15-Month-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Pangonis, Scott; Patamasucon, Pisespong; Fitzpatrick, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an invasive organism that causes a wide range of common diseases, including sinusitis, acute otitis media, and pneumonia. Splenic abscesses and purpura fulminans (PF) are rare complications of pneumococcal disease. Splenic abscesses caused by S pneumoniae have only been reported in the adult literature. PF has been described in the pediatric population as a rare complication in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) with and without underlying immunological disorders such as asplenia. Here, we report a patient with IPD complicated by splenic abscesses and PF. Our patient initially presented with bacteremia, septic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. She subsequently developed PF and splenic abscesses. She survived her illness after receiving a total of 8 weeks of antibiotic therapy. This case highlights 2 rare complications of IPD and demonstrates the need to keep pneumococcal disease in the differential diagnosis even in children whose vaccination status is up to date. PMID:27006958

  5. Physiological Roles of Pneumococcal Peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mary K.

    1974-01-01

    A methionyl-specific dipeptidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has been described. This enzyme and the pneumococcal tripeptidase have been shown to be intracellular, soluble, and constitutive. In addition to their function in cleavage of peptide nutrients, these peptidases may play a role in protein synthesis and turnover. PMID:4212242

  6. Pneumococcal Disease: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteremia and sepsis are blood infections. Symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumococcus bacteria causes up to half of middle ear infections (otitis media). Symptoms include: Ear pain A red, swollen ear drum Fever Sleepiness  Top of Page Complications Some pneumococcal ...

  7. Clonal distribution of pneumococcal serotype 19F isolates from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sparding, Nadja; Dayie, Nicholas T K D; Mills, Richael O; Newman, Mercy J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal strains are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide and more than 90 different serotypes are currently known. In this project, three distinct groups of pneumococcal carriage isolates from Ghana were investigated; isolates from healthy children in Tamale and isolates from both healthy and children attending the outpatient department at a hospital in Accra. The isolates were previously identified and characterized by Gram staining, serotyping and susceptibility to penicillin. In this study, isolates of the common serotype 19F were further investigated by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Overall, 14 different Sequence Types (STs) were identified by MLST, of which nine were novel based on the international MLST database. Two clones within serotype 19F seem to circulate in Ghana, a known ST (ST 4194) and a novel ST (ST 9090). ST 9090 was only found in healthy children in Accra, whereas ST 4194 was found equally in all children studied. In the MLST database, other isolates of ST 4194 were also associated with serotype 19F, and these isolates came from other West African countries. The majority of isolates were penicillin intermediate resistant. In conclusion, two clones within serotype 19F were found to be dominating in pneumococcal carriage in Accra and Tamale in Ghana. Furthermore, it seems as though the clonal distribution of serotype 19F may be different from what is currently known in Ghana in that many new clones were identified. This supports the importance of continued monitoring of pneumococcal carriage in Ghana and elsewhere when vaccines, e.g., PCV-13, have been introduced to monitor the possible future spread of antimicrobial resistant clones.

  8. Comparison of a Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Sequetyping Assay for Pneumococcal Serotyping

    PubMed Central

    Robberts, Lourens; Wolter, Nicole; Nicol, Paul; Mafofo, Joseph; Africa, Samantha; Zar, Heather J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal serotype identification is essential to monitor pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness and serotype replacement. Serotyping by conventional serological methods are costly, labour-intensive, and require significant technical expertise. We compared two different molecular methods to serotype pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx of South African infants participating in a birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study, in an area with high 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coverage. Methods A real-time multiplex PCR (rmPCR) assay detecting 21 different serotypes/-groups and a sequetyping assay, based on the sequence of the wzh gene within the pneumococcal capsular locus, were compared. Forty pneumococcal control isolates, with serotypes determined by the Quellung reaction, were tested. In addition, 135 pneumococcal isolates obtained from the nasopharynx of healthy children were tested by both serotyping assays and confirmed by Quellung testing. Discordant results were further investigated by whole genome sequencing of four isolates. Results Of the 40 control isolates tested, 25 had a serotype covered by the rmPCR assay. These were all correctly serotyped/-grouped. Sequetyping PCR failed in 7/40 (18%) isolates. For the remaining isolates, sequetyping assigned the correct serotype/-group to 29/33 (88%) control isolates. Of the 132/135 (98%) nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates that could be typed, 69/132 (52%) and 112/132 (85%) were assigned the correct serotype/-group by rmPCR and sequetyping respectively. The serotypes of 63/132 (48%) isolates were not included in the rmPCR panel. All except three isolates (serotype 25A and 38) were theoretically amplified and differentiated into the correct serotype/-group with some strains giving ambigous results (serotype 13/20, 17F/33C, and 11A/D/1818F). Of the pneumococcal serotypes detected in this study, 69/91 (76%) were not included in the current PCV13. The most frequently

  9. Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children <5  years of age visiting the pediatric emergency room in relation to PCV7 and PCV13 introduction in southern Israel

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Greenberg, David; Dagan, Ron

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 7-valent and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) were introduced to the Israeli National Immunization plan in July 2009 and November 2010, respectively. Our aim was to assess pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) uptake and dynamics in serotype-specific pneumococcal nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage in children <5  years old in southern Israel, during the immediate 5 y following PCV introduction. This was an ongoing, prospective, population-based, active surveillance, from July 2009 through December 2014. PCVs uptake and NP cultures were obtained daily from children seen at the Pediatric Emergency Room for any reason. Overall, 10,702 vaccine status and 7,610 NP swabs were obtained. Both PCV7 and PCV13 uptake were high, reaching ˜90% by July 2012 and December 2013, respectively. All-pneumococcal carriage rates significantly declined by 10%, from 54.3% in the early-PCV7 period, to 49.1% in the PCV13 impact period. The respective declines for PCV7, 6A and additional PCV13 serotypes carriage rates were 76%, 90% and 66%. In contrast, non-PCV13 serotypes carriage rates increased significantly throughout the study by 71%. All-pneumococcal carriage rates in children <12  months old decreased significantly by 15%, with similar trends observed in other age groups. Initially, all-pneumococcal carriage rates were 45.7%, and 61.9% in Jewish and Bedouin children, respectively (P < 0.001), with a significant 17% reduction throughout the study observed only in Bedouins. While early carriage rates were higher in unvaccinated children compared to vaccinated children, PCV impact on carriage were similar in both groups. In conclusion, a relatively moderate decline in pneumococcal carriage rates, facilitated by a substantial decrease of vaccine-serotypes and increase of non-vaccine serotypes was observed in the immediate period following PCVs introduction in southern Israel. PMID:26430921

  10. Assessing pneumococcal meningitis association with viral respiratory infections and antibiotics: insights from statistical and mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Opatowski, Lulla; Varon, Emmanuelle; Dupont, Claire; Temime, Laura; van der Werf, Sylvie; Gutmann, Laurent; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Watier, Laurence; Guillemot, Didier

    2013-08-01

    Pneumococcus is an important human pathogen, highly antibiotic resistant and a major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide. Better prevention requires understanding the drivers of pneumococcal infection incidence and antibiotic susceptibility. Although respiratory viruses (including influenza) have been suggested to influence pneumococcal infections, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, and viruses are rarely considered when studying pneumococcus epidemiology. Here, we propose a novel mathematical model to examine hypothetical relationships between Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis incidence (SPMI), acute viral respiratory infections (AVRIs) and antibiotic exposure. French time series of SPMI, AVRI and penicillin consumption over 2001-2004 are analysed and used to assess four distinct virus-bacteria interaction submodels, ascribing the interaction on pneumococcus transmissibility and/or pathogenicity. The statistical analysis reveals strong associations between time series: SPMI increases shortly after AVRI incidence and decreases overall as the antibiotic-prescription rate rises. Model simulations require a combined impact of AVRI on both pneumococcal transmissibility (up to 1.3-fold increase at the population level) and pathogenicity (up to threefold increase) to reproduce the data accurately, along with diminished epidemic fitness of resistant pneumococcal strains causing meningitis (0.97 (0.96-0.97)). Overall, our findings suggest that AVRI and antibiotics strongly influence SPMI trends. Consequently, vaccination protecting against respiratory virus could have unexpected benefits to limit invasive pneumococcal infections.

  11. Outbreak of invasive pneumococcal disease at a Belfast shipyard in men exposed to welding fumes, Northern Ireland, April-May 2015: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Patterson, L; Irvine, N; Wilson, A; Doherty, L; Loughrey, A; Jessop, L

    2015-05-28

    We report an outbreak of four confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in individuals occupationally exposed to welding fumes, at a Belfast shipyard (Northern Ireland). All cases were hospitalised. A high-risk sub-group of 679 workers has been targeted for antibiotic prophylaxis and pneumococcal vaccination. Physicians and public health institutions outside Northern Ireland should be alert to individuals presenting with pneumonia or IPD and recent links to the shipyard, to facilitate early assessment and treatment.

  12. Single-Plex Quantitative Assays for the Detection and Quantification of Most Pneumococcal Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chochua, Sopio; Satzke, Catherine; Dunne, Eileen M.; Mulholland, Kim; Klugman, Keith P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae globally kills more children than any other infectious disease every year. A prerequisite for pneumococcal disease and transmission is colonization of the nasopharynx. While the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, understanding the impact of vaccination on nasopharyngeal colonization has been hampered by the lack of sensitive quantitative methods for the detection of >90 known S. pneumoniae serotypes. In this work, we developed 27 new quantitative (q)PCR reactions and optimized 26 for a total of 53 qPCR reactions targeting pneumococcal serotypes or serogroups, including all vaccine types. Reactions proved to be target-specific with a limit of detection of 2 genome equivalents per reaction. Given the number of probes required for these assays and their unknown shelf-life, the stability of cryopreserved reagents was evaluated. Our studies demonstrate that two-year cryopreserved probes had similar limit of detection as freshly-diluted probes. Moreover, efficiency and limit of detection of 1-month cryopreserved, ready-to-use, qPCR reaction mixtures were similar to those of freshly prepared mixtures. Using these reactions, our proof-of-concept studies utilizing nasopharyngeal samples (N=30) collected from young children detected samples containing ≥2 serotypes/serogroups. Samples colonized by multiple serotypes/serogroups always had a serotype that contributes at least 50% of the pneumococcal load. In addition, a molecular approach called S6-q(PCR)2 was developed and proven to individually detect and quantify epidemiologically-important serogroup 6 strains including 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D. This technology will be useful for epidemiological studies, diagnostic platforms and to study the pneumobiome. PMID:25798884

  13. Single-plex quantitative assays for the detection and quantification of most pneumococcal serotypes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Fuminori; Chochua, Sopio; Satzke, Catherine; Dunne, Eileen M; Mulholland, Kim; Klugman, Keith P; Vidal, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae globally kills more children than any other infectious disease every year. A prerequisite for pneumococcal disease and transmission is colonization of the nasopharynx. While the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, understanding the impact of vaccination on nasopharyngeal colonization has been hampered by the lack of sensitive quantitative methods for the detection of >90 known S. pneumoniae serotypes. In this work, we developed 27 new quantitative (q)PCR reactions and optimized 26 for a total of 53 qPCR reactions targeting pneumococcal serotypes or serogroups, including all vaccine types. Reactions proved to be target-specific with a limit of detection of 2 genome equivalents per reaction. Given the number of probes required for these assays and their unknown shelf-life, the stability of cryopreserved reagents was evaluated. Our studies demonstrate that two-year cryopreserved probes had similar limit of detection as freshly-diluted probes. Moreover, efficiency and limit of detection of 1-month cryopreserved, ready-to-use, qPCR reaction mixtures were similar to those of freshly prepared mixtures. Using these reactions, our proof-of-concept studies utilizing nasopharyngeal samples (N=30) collected from young children detected samples containing ≥2 serotypes/serogroups. Samples colonized by multiple serotypes/serogroups always had a serotype that contributes at least 50% of the pneumococcal load. In addition, a molecular approach called S6-q(PCR)2 was developed and proven to individually detect and quantify epidemiologically-important serogroup 6 strains including 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D. This technology will be useful for epidemiological studies, diagnostic platforms and to study the pneumobiome.

  14. Clinical and Microbiological Factors Associated with High Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density in Patients with Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Alpkvist, Helena; Athlin, Simon; Nauclér, Pontus; Herrmann, Björn; Abdeldaim, Guma; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Hedlund, Jonas; Strålin, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to study if certain clinical and/or microbiological factors are associated with a high nasopharyngeal (NP) density of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal pneumonia. In addition, we aimed to study if a high NP pneumococcal density could be useful to detect severe pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Adult patients hospitalized for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were included in a prospective study. NP aspirates were collected at admission and were subjected to quantitative PCR for pneumococcal DNA (Spn9802 DNA). Patients were considered to have pneumococcal etiology if S. pneumoniae was detected in blood culture and/or culture of respiratory secretions and/or urinary antigen test. Results Of 166 included patients, 68 patients had pneumococcal DNA detected in NP aspirate. Pneumococcal etiology was noted in 57 patients (84%) with positive and 8 patients (8.2%) with negative test for pneumococcal DNA (p<0.0001). The median NP pneumococcal density of DNA positive patients with pneumococcal etiology was 6.83 log10 DNA copies/mL (range 1.79–9.50). In a multivariate analysis of patients with pneumococcal etiology, a high pneumococcal density was independently associated with severe pneumonia (Pneumonia Severity Index risk class IV-V), symptom duration ≥2 days prior to admission, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient’s own pneumococcal serotype. NP pneumococcal density was not associated with sex, age, smoking, co-morbidity, viral co-infection, pneumococcal serotype, or bacteremia. Severe pneumococcal pneumonia was noted in 28 study patients. When we studied the performance of PCR with different DNA cut-off levels for detection of severe pneumococcal pneumonia, we found sensitivities of 54–82% and positive predictive values of 37–56%, indicating suboptimal performance. Conclusions Pneumonia severity, symptom duration ≥2 days, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient

  15. Association of Streptococcus pneumoniae common protein antigen (CPA) antibodies and pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected African children.

    PubMed

    Ditse, Z; Adrian, P V; Kuwanda, L; Madhi, S A

    2013-09-13

    Due to the high cost and limited serotype coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), pneumococcal common protein antigens (CPAs) are being investigated as potential vaccine candidates. CPAs are likely to be immunogenic in infants and could confer serotype-independent protection. There are limited data on natural antibody kinetics against CPAs in African populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of naturally acquired antibody titres to 15 CPAs and explore their association to concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in children aged 4-7 years with and without underlying HIV-infection and/or previous PCV-vaccination. A 15-plex Luminex assay was established to measure serum IgG titres against "cell-wall associated or surface-exposed" proteins (PspA, PspC, LytB, IgA1-proteinase, SP0082, PdB and PcsB), "membrane-associated" proteins (PsaA, SP0609, SP0749, PpmA, SlrA, StkP and SP2194) as well as the hypothetical protein, SP2027. Archived serum samples from HIV-uninfected (n=212) and HIV-infected (n=74) children were analyzed. Concurrent pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization was determined with standard microbiological methods. HIV-uninfected children had significantly higher antibody titres against PspA, PspC, PdB, SP0082, LytB, IgA1 proteinase and PcsB compared to HIV-infected children. In contrast, antibody titres against membrane associated proteins (PsaA, SP2027, PpmA and SlrA) were significantly lower in HIV-uninfected compared to HIV-infected children. Higher antibody titres against PdB, and PcsB were associated with the absence of pneumococcal colonization. There was no association between anti-CPA titres and PCV vaccination. In conclusion PdB and PcsB antigens are potential vaccine-candidates which may protect against pneumococcal colonization and consequently pneumococcal disease. PMID:23845819

  16. A Retrospective Study of the Clinical Burden of Hospitalized All-Cause and Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Shelly A.; Qizilbash, Nawab; Ye, Jian; Gray, Sharon; Zanotti, Giovanni; Munson, Samantha; Dartois, Nathalie; Laferriere, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background. Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in Canada for infants, the elderly, and individuals with chronic comorbidity. National incidence and burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia in Canada (excluding Quebec) were assessed. Methods. Incidence, length of stay, and case-fatality rates of hospitalized all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia were determined for 2004–2010 using ICD-10 discharge data from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Population-at-risk data were obtained from the Statistics Canada census. Temporal changes in pneumococcal and all-cause pneumonia rates in adults ≥65 years were analyzed by logistic regression. Results. Hospitalization for all-cause pneumonia was highest in children <5 years and in adults >70 years and declined significantly from 1766/100,000 to 1537/100,000 per year in individuals aged ≥65 years (P < 0.001). Overall hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia also declined from 6.40/100,000 to 5.08/100,000 per year. Case-fatality rates were stable (11.6% to 12.3%). Elderly individuals had longer length of stay and higher case-fatality rates than younger groups. Conclusions. All-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates declined between 2004 and 2010 in Canada (excluding Quebec). Direct and indirect effects from pediatric pneumococcal immunization may partly explain some of this decline. Nevertheless, the burden of disease from pneumonia remains high. PMID:27445530

  17. If pneumonia is the "old man's friend", should it be prevented by vaccination? An ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Richard Kent

    2005-05-31

    Because pneumococcal disease is a major problem among the elderly, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is widely promoted. However, Sir William Osler called pneumonia the friend of the aged, leading to an ethical discussion. Mortality from pneumonia is higher with increasing degrees of underlying illness, outweighing the age effect. Although some symptoms are less common in the elderly, other symptoms are not and the duration may be longer. Problematic criteria for limiting pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination include age, social value, and quality of life. Recommended criteria for limiting vaccination include autonomous patient refusal, imminent death, and lack of medical benefit, as would be seen in hospice cases.

  18. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  19. Influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia immunization. Protecting our high risk population.

    PubMed

    Siegel, B R; Mahan, C S; Witte, J J; Janowski, H T

    1990-06-01

    Pneumonia and influenza (P & I) constitute Florida's sixth leading cause of death. The P & I death rate in 1987, 10.5 per 100,000, was the highest since 1978. Major target groups for one or both vaccines used in prevention, as recommended by the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), include persons with chronic diseases of the heart or lungs, residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities, and persons aged 65 and older. Despite well-defined recommendations, vaccine coverage rates in Florida are as low as 30% in persons greater than or equal to 65 years of age. Knowledge and attitude surveys demonstrate that low coverage among various population groups may be due largely to insufficient awareness and/or negative attitudes regarding pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Conversely, recommendations by physicians and other health care providers are strongly associated with receiving either vaccine. If the incidence of P & I is to decrease substantively in Florida, much wider use of the vaccines must occur. Because so many high-risk patients depend on private physicians for health care, their role is critical to the success of Florida public health strategies to reverse P & I trends.

  20. Glycoconjugate vaccines and immune interactions, and implications for vaccination schedules.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Dagan, Ron; Zepp, Fred; Hallander, Hans; Poolman, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Conjugate vaccines using diphtheria toxoid variant (CRM(197)), diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid (TT) as carrier protein may induce immune interactions (interference or impairment as measured by lower antibody levels, or enhancement [higher antibody levels]) when coadministered with other vaccines. Immune enhancement occurs when two TT conjugates are coadministered. CRM(197) conjugate vaccines induce immune bystander interference when given with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines, which reduces responses to coadministered Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine conjugated to TT. These bystander effects are greater as the amount of CRM(197) administered increases. When large amounts of either TT or CRM(197) are coadministered, dose-related carrier-induced epitopic suppression may occur, affecting immune responses to meningococcal or pneumococcal polysaccharides. These observations have implications for vaccine scheduling. The range of available alternative vaccines means that specific vaccine coadministrations can avoid or reduce CRM(197)-induced interference. Potential interactions arising from new CRM(197) or TT conjugates will need to be thoroughly examined.

  1. Mucosal Immunization with an Unadjuvanted Vaccine That Targets Streptococcus pneumoniae PspA to Human Fcγ Receptor Type I Protects against Pneumococcal Infection through Complement- and Lactoferrin-Mediated Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bitsaktsis, Constantine; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Li, Ying; Colino, Jesus; Snapper, Clifford M.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Pham, Giang; Gosselin, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting an antigen to Fc receptors (FcR) can enhance the immune response to the antigen in the absence of adjuvant. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that intranasal immunization with an FcγR-targeted antigen enhances protection against a category A intracellular mucosal pathogen, Francisella tularensis. To determine if a similar strategy could be applied to the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, we used an improved mucosal FcR-targeting strategy that specifically targets human FcγR type I (hFcγRI). A humanized single-chain antibody component in which the variable domain binds to hFcγRI [anti-hFcγRI (H22)] was linked in a fusion protein with the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). PspA is known to elicit protection against pneumococcal sepsis, carriage, and pneumonia in mouse models when administered with adjuvants. Anti-hFcγRI-PspA or recombinant PspA (rPspA) alone was used to intranasally immunize wild-type (WT) and hFcγRI transgenic (Tg) mice in the absence of adjuvant. The hFcγRI Tg mice receiving anti-hFcγRI-PspA exhibited elevated S. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG2c, and IgG1 antibodies in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Neither immunogen was effective in protecting WT mice in the absence of adjuvant, but when PspA was targeted to hFcγRI as the anti-hFcγRI-PspA fusion, enhanced protection against lethal S. pneumoniae challenge was observed in the hFcγRI Tg mice compared to mice given nontargeted rPspA alone. Immune sera from the anti-hFcγRI-PspA-immunized Tg mice showed enhanced complement C3 deposition on bacterial surfaces, and protection was dependent upon an active complement system. Immune serum also showed an enhanced bactericidal activity directed against S. pneumoniae that appears to be lactoferrin mediated. PMID:22158740

  2. Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Serotypes Before and After Mass Azithromycin Distributions for Trachoma.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jeremy D; Sahlu, Ida; McGee, Lesley; Cevallos, Vicky; Vidal, Jorge E; Chochua, Sopio; Hawkins, Paulina; Gebre, Teshome; Tadesse, Zerihun; Emerson, Paul M; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M; Klugman, Keith P

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four Ethiopian communities were randomized to receive either (1) quarterly mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma for 1 year or (2) delayed treatment. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from separate cross-sectional population-based samples of children were processed for Streptococcus pneumoniae Mass azithromycin did not significantly alter the pneumococcal serotype distribution, and hence it would not be expected to alter vaccine coverage. PMID:27199475

  3. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2004].

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    The Vaccine Assessment Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics discusses vaccine developments in 2003 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule. The recommendation of substituting the oral polio vaccine for the inactivated polio vaccine, suppressing the fifth dose, is maintained. The introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and the varicella vaccine is stressed. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, the improvement introduced by being able to immunize with just two doses is discussed. In agreement with the information received from the European Medicines Agency, there appear to be no well-founded reasons to abandon hexavalent preparations.

  4. Pneumococcal Acquisition Among Infants Exposed to HIV in Rural Malawi: A Longitudinal Household Study

    PubMed Central

    Heinsbroek, Ellen; Tafatatha, Terence; Chisambo, Christina; Phiri, Amos; Mwiba, Oddie; Ngwira, Bagrey; Crampin, Amelia C.; Read, Jonathan M.; French, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) carriage is higher in adults who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in adults who are not. We hypothesized that infants exposed to HIV become carriers of nasopharyngeal pneumococcus earlier and more frequently than infants who are not exposed to HIV. We compared infant pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status and household exposure in Karonga District, Malawi, in 2009–2011, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected every 4–6 weeks in the first year of life from infants with known HIV-exposure status, their mothers, and other household members. We studied infant pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status, serotype-specific household exposure, and other risk factors, including seasonality. We recruited 54 infants who were exposed to HIV and 131 infants who were not. There was no significant difference in pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 1.15). Carriage by the mother was associated with greater acquisition of the same serotype (aRR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.50), but the adjusted population attributable fraction was negligible (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.0, 4.3). Serotype-specific exposure to children under 5 years of age was associated with higher acquisition (aRR = 4.30, 95% CI: 2.80, 6.60; adjusted population attributable fraction = 8.8%, 95% CI: 4.0, 13.4). We found no evidence to suggest that maternal HIV infection would affect the impact of pneumococcal vaccination on colonization in this population. PMID:26628514

  5. Pneumococcal Acquisition Among Infants Exposed to HIV in Rural Malawi: A Longitudinal Household Study.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, Ellen; Tafatatha, Terence; Chisambo, Christina; Phiri, Amos; Mwiba, Oddie; Ngwira, Bagrey; Crampin, Amelia C; Read, Jonathan M; French, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) carriage is higher in adults who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in adults who are not. We hypothesized that infants exposed to HIV become carriers of nasopharyngeal pneumococcus earlier and more frequently than infants who are not exposed to HIV. We compared infant pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status and household exposure in Karonga District, Malawi, in 2009-2011, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected every 4-6 weeks in the first year of life from infants with known HIV-exposure status, their mothers, and other household members. We studied infant pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status, serotype-specific household exposure, and other risk factors, including seasonality. We recruited 54 infants who were exposed to HIV and 131 infants who were not. There was no significant difference in pneumococcal acquisition by maternal HIV status (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 1.15). Carriage by the mother was associated with greater acquisition of the same serotype (aRR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.50), but the adjusted population attributable fraction was negligible (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.0, 4.3). Serotype-specific exposure to children under 5 years of age was associated with higher acquisition (aRR = 4.30, 95% CI: 2.80, 6.60; adjusted population attributable fraction = 8.8%, 95% CI: 4.0, 13.4). We found no evidence to suggest that maternal HIV infection would affect the impact of pneumococcal vaccination on colonization in this population. PMID:26628514

  6. Twenty year surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease in Nottingham: serogroups responsible and implications for immunisation

    PubMed Central

    Ispahani, P; Slack, R; Donald, F; Weston, V; Rutter, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestations, and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. To determine the major serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for invasive disease and the potential coverage by the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Methods: Analysis of prospectively recorded information of all children admitted to two teaching hospitals in Nottingham with IPD between January 1980 and December 1999. Results: A total of 266 episodes of IPD in children were identified; 103 (39%) were aged <1 year and 160 (60%) <2 years. Major clinical presentations were meningitis in 86 (32%), pneumonia in 82 (31%), and bacteraemia without an obvious focus in 80 (30%). The age specific mean annual incidence rates of IPD overall among children aged <1, <2, and <5 years were 47.1, 37.8, and 20 per 100 000 population, respectively. Mortality rates for children with meningitis and non-meningitic infection were 20% and 7%, respectively. Neurological sequelae following meningitis were documented in 16 (26%) of the 61 survivors assessed. The potential coverage rates in children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years are 84% by the 7-valent, 91% by the 9-valent, and 95% by the 11-valent conjugate vaccines. Conclusion: This study indicates that inclusion of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the primary immunisation programme in the UK would have a considerable effect on the mortality and morbidity associated with IPD. PMID:15269078

  7. [A pediatric case of pneumococcal meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 35F].

    PubMed

    Kara, Soner Sertan; Polat, Meltem; Tapisiz, Anıl; Nar Otgun, Selin; Tezer, Hasan

    2014-04-01

    Pneumococci are one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in children. It's also responsible for the other invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) including bacteremia and pneumonia worldwide. Unvaccinated children are more prone to IPD. Although IPD tend to have a higher prevalence under 2 years of age and in children with primary/secondary immunodeficiencies, and various predisposing factors, older age groups with no underlying diseases also experience IPD. In this report, a pediatric case diagnosed with meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 35F with no underlying condition and no history of pneumococcal vaccination was presented. An 11-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of high (39.4°C) fever, headache, vomiting and sleepiness. On the basis of findings from physical examination and laboratory results, the patient was prediagnosed as bacterial meningitis and empirical ceftriaxone and vancomycin therapy was initiated. The cerebrospinal fluid culture of the patient yielded penicillin-susceptible pneumococci and the isolate was identified as serotype 35F by quellung reaction. Vancomycin treatment discontinued depending on the culture result, and the patient fully recovered with 14-days of ceftriaxone therapy without any complications during his follow-ups. Although effective antibiotics are available for IPD, vaccination is indispensable considering the high mortality rates. Seven serotypes (1, 5, 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, 23F) which are currently included in the vaccine, were the most common serotypes related to IPD globally. After mass infant vaccination has been introduced, invasive pneumococcal diseases due to the vaccine serotypes have tended to decrease in both vaccinated young children and non-vaccinated age groups due to herd immunity. Nevertheless, non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) have emerged as the agents of IPD as a result of serotype replacement. 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was

  8. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates from children in China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Li-Hua; Liu, Meng-Juan; Xu, Wen-Chun; Cui, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Wu, Kai-Feng; Zhang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal isolates in Chongqing, China. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 51 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains were from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and 32 carriage strains from healthy children from January 2010 to December 2013 at the Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Multilocus sequence typing was used to identify the sequence types (STs). Capsular serotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Drug susceptibility and resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: In this study, 11 serotypes were identified among the 83 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates tested. Prevalent serotypes were 19A (20.4%), 6A/B (20.4%), 19F (15.7%), 14 (14.5%), and 23F (10.8%). Serotype 19F was the most frequent carriage strain, and serotype 19A was the most frequent invasive strain. The ST983 was the most prevalent ST for carriage strains, and ST320 was the most prevalent ST for invasive strains. For gene analysis, psaA (99.5%) and piaA (98.6%) were present and much conserved in all pneumococci tested. The cps2A and pcsB genes were more frequent in invasive isolates than carriage strains. Antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal isolates to erythromycin, penicillin, meropenem, cefotaxime, and clindamycin were higher than the carriage isolates from children. Conclusion: Our epidemiological evidence shows that 19A, 6A/B, 19F, 14, and 23F remain the most prevalent serotypes, which can be targeted by PCV13. Genotypes and drug resistance varied between carriage and invasive strains. The PsaA and PiaA may be good protein vaccine candidates. PMID:27052283

  9. The post-vaccine microevolution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Amelieke J. H.; Mobegi, Fredrick M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Meis, Jacques F.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Ferwerda, Gerben; Bentley, Stephen D.; Zomer, Aldert L.

    2015-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) has affected the genetic population of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatric carriage. Little is known however about pneumococcal population genomics in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) under vaccine pressure. We sequenced and serotyped 349 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from IPD patients in Nijmegen between 2001 and 2011. Introduction of PCV7 in the Dutch National Immunization Program in 2006 preluded substantial alterations in the IPD population structure caused by serotype replacement. No evidence could be found for vaccine induced capsular switches. We observed that after a temporary bottleneck in gene diversity after the introduction of PCV7, the accessory gene pool re-expanded mainly by genes already circulating pre-PCV7. In the post-vaccine genomic population a number of genes changed frequency, certain genes became overrepresented in vaccine serotypes, while others shifted towards non-vaccine serotypes. Whether these dynamics in the invasive pneumococcal population have truly contributed to invasiveness and manifestations of disease remains to be further elucidated. We suggest the use of whole genome sequencing for surveillance of pneumococcal population dynamics that could give a prospect on the course of disease, facilitating effective prevention and management of IPD. PMID:26492862

  10. Conserved Surface Accessible Nucleoside ABC Transporter Component SP0845 Is Essential for Pneumococcal Virulence and Confers Protection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sneha; Khan, Naeem; Dehinwal, Ruchika; Kumar, Ajay; Sehgal, Devinder

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. Surface accessible proteins of S. pneumoniae are being explored for the development of a protein-based vaccine in order to overcome the limitations of existing polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines. To identify a potential vaccine candidate, we resolved surface-associated proteins of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with antisera generated against whole heat-killed TIGR4. Ten immunoreactive spots were identified by mass spectrometric analysis that included a putative lipoprotein SP0845. Analysis of the inferred amino acid sequence of sp0845 homologues from 36 pneumococcal strains indicated that SP0845 was highly conserved (>98% identity) and showed less than 11% identity with any human protein. Our bioinformatic and functional analyses demonstrated that SP0845 is the substrate-binding protein of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is involved in nucleoside uptake with cytidine, uridine, guanosine and inosine as the preferred substrates. Deletion of the gene encoding SP0845 renders pneumococci avirulent suggesting that it is essential for virulence. Immunoblot analysis suggested that SP0845 is expressed in in vitro grown pneumococci and during mice infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data indicated that SP0845 is surface exposed in encapsulated strains and accessible to antibodies. Subcutaneous immunization with recombinant SP0845 induced high titer antibodies in mice. Hyperimmune sera raised against SP0845 promoted killing of encapsulated pneumococcal strains in a blood bactericidal assay. Immunization with SP0845 protected mice from intraperitoneal challenge with heterologous pneumococcal serotypes. Based on its surface accessibility, role in virulence and ability to elicit protective immunity, we propose that SP0845 may be a potential candidate for a protein

  11. Serotype distribution in pneumococcal acute otitis media with ruptured tympanic membrane or sepsis in Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, M; Reinert, R R

    2010-07-01

    This retrospective analysis examined the pneumococcal serotype distribution of acute otitis media in Germany from 1995 to 2007. Data from the German National Reference Centre for Streptococci included 512 cases of pneumococcal otitis media in children and adults. Infections were mainly seen in children aged <5 years, who represented 67.0% of all reported cases. Most isolates (86.7%) were from spontaneous ruptures of the tympanum; 11.1% of the isolates were from otogenic sepsis or meningitis. Serotype 19F was the leading serotype (21.5%); serotype 3 (13.9%) was also often encountered. In children aged <5 years, the 7-valent, 10-valent, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines covered 54.3%, 60.2%, and 84.6% of the serotypes, respectively. Reduced penicillin susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration >or=0.1 mg/l) was seen in 11.0% of strains; 22.4% of strains were resistant to macrolides. Although based on a very limited selection of acute otitis media isolates, this analysis provides an estimate of the pneumococcal serotypes responsible for otitis media in Germany and underscores the need for future prospective studies.

  12. Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Anukul T.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen globally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is capable of causing a wide range of diseases including sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningitis. While its capsular polysaccharide is indispensible for invasive disease, and opsonising antibodies against the capsule are the basis for the current vaccines, a long history of biomedical research indicates that other components of this Gram-positive bacterium are also critical for virulence. Herein we review the contribution of pneumococcal virulence determinants to survival and persistence in the context of distinct anatomical sites. We discuss how these determinants allow the pneumococcus to evade mucociliary clearance during colonisation, establish lower respiratory tract infection, resist complement deposition and opsonophagocytosis in the bloodstream, and invade secondary tissues such as the central nervous system leading to meningitis. We do so in a manner that highlights both the critical role of the capsular polysaccharide and the accompanying and necessary protein determinants. Understanding the complex interplay between host and pathogen is necessary to find new ways to prevent pneumococcal infection. This review is an attempt to do so with consideration for the latest research findings. PMID:27635368

  13. Anatomical site-specific contributions of pneumococcal virulence determinants

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Anukul T.; Orihuela, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen globally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is capable of causing a wide range of diseases including sinusitis, conjunctivitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteraemia, sepsis, and meningitis. While its capsular polysaccharide is indispensible for invasive disease, and opsonising antibodies against the capsule are the basis for the current vaccines, a long history of biomedical research indicates that other components of this Gram-positive bacterium are also critical for virulence. Herein we review the contribution of pneumococcal virulence determinants to survival and persistence in the context of distinct anatomical sites. We discuss how these determinants allow the pneumococcus to evade mucociliary clearance during colonisation, establish lower respiratory tract infection, resist complement deposition and opsonophagocytosis in the bloodstream, and invade secondary tissues such as the central nervous system leading to meningitis. We do so in a manner that highlights both the critical role of the capsular polysaccharide and the accompanying and necessary protein determinants. Understanding the complex interplay between host and pathogen is necessary to find new ways to prevent pneumococcal infection. This review is an attempt to do so with consideration for the latest research findings.

  14. Novel Strategy To Protect against Influenza Virus-Induced Pneumococcal Disease without Interfering with Commensal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Greene, Christopher J; Marks, Laura R; Hu, John C; Reddinger, Ryan; Mandell, Lorrie; Roche-Hakansson, Hazeline; King-Lyons, Natalie D; Connell, Terry D; Hakansson, Anders P

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly inhabits the nasopharynx as a member of the commensal biofilm. Infection with respiratory viruses, such as influenza A virus, induces commensal S. pneumoniae to disseminate beyond the nasopharynx and to elicit severe infections of the middle ears, lungs, and blood that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current preventive strategies, including the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, aim to eliminate asymptomatic carriage with vaccine-type pneumococci. However, this has resulted in serotype replacement with, so far, less fit pneumococcal strains, which has changed the nasopharyngeal flora, opening the niche for entry of other virulent pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and potentially Haemophilus influenzae). The long-term effects of these changes are unknown. Here, we present an attractive, alternative preventive approach where we subvert virus-induced pneumococcal disease without interfering with commensal colonization, thus specifically targeting disease-causing organisms. In that regard, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a major surface protein of pneumococci, is a promising vaccine target. Intradermal (i.d.) immunization of mice with recombinant PspA in combination with LT-IIb(T13I), a novel i.d. adjuvant of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, elicited strong systemic PspA-specific IgG responses without inducing mucosal anti-PspA IgA responses. This response protected mice from otitis media, pneumonia, and septicemia and averted the cytokine storm associated with septic infection but had no effect on asymptomatic colonization. Our results firmly demonstrated that this immunization strategy against virally induced pneumococcal disease can be conferred without disturbing the desirable preexisting commensal colonization of the nasopharynx. PMID:27001538

  15. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  16. [Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bello González, T; Rivera-Olivero, I A; Pocaterra, L; Spadola, E; Araque, M; Hermans, P W M; De Waard, J H

    2010-01-01

    In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in mothers and children of the Panare people from Venezuela. In May 2008, in 8 distinct geographically isolated communities, 148 nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 64 healthy mothers and 84 healthy Panare children under 5 years of age. S. pneumoniae was isolated and identified by standard techniques. Strains were typified by multiplex PCR and resistance patterns were determined by the disk diffusion method. A total of 65 strains were isolated; 11% of the mothers and 69% of the children carried S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 6B (48%), 33F (21,5%), 6A (6%), 19A (3,1%) and 23F (1,5%) were the most predominant. Of the 6 colonized mother-child pairs, 3 pairs (2 with 6B), were colonized with the same serotype. All strains were sensitive to penicillin and 13,7% were resistant to macrolides. The high colonization rates in the Panare people suggest that the children are at increased risk of pneumococcal invasive disease and could benefit from vaccination. Four conjugate vaccine serotypes (6B, 6A, 19A and 23F) representing 58 % of all strains were present in the population at the moment of sampling. Resistance to antibiotics is (still) not a problem. PMID:20461291

  17. Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsigrelis, C; Ljungman, P

    2016-03-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk for a number of infections that are potentially preventable by vaccinations such as pneumococcal infections and influenza. Treatment, especially with anti-B-cell antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), negatively impacts the response to vaccination for several months. It is therefore recommended that patients be vaccinated before initiating immunosuppressive therapy if possible. The risk of side-effects with inactivated vaccines is low, but care has to be taken with live vaccines, such as varicella-zoster virus vaccine, since severe and fatal complications have been reported. HSCT patients require repeated doses of most vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. New therapeutic options for patients with hematological malignancies that are rapidly being introduced into clinical practice will require additional research regarding the efficacy of vaccinations. New vaccines are also in development that will require well-designed studies to ascertain efficacy and safety.

  18. Nanogel-based PspA intranasal vaccine prevents invasive disease and nasal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Nochi, Tomonori; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shinichi; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Okada, Kazunari; Sato, Shintaro; Briles, David E; Kunisawa, Jun; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    To establish a safer and more effective vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infections, current knowledge regarding the antigens common among pneumococcal strains and improvements to the system for delivering these antigens across the mucosal barrier must be integrated. We developed a pneumococcal vaccine that combines the advantages of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) with a nontoxic intranasal vaccine delivery system based on a nanometer-sized hydrogel (nanogel) consisting of a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). The efficacy of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine (cCHP-PspA) was tested in murine pneumococcal airway infection models. Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA provided protective immunity against lethal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10, reduced colonization and invasion by bacteria in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and induced systemic and nasal mucosal Th17 responses, high levels of PspA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), and nasal and bronchial IgA antibody responses. Moreover, there was no sign of PspA delivery by nanogel to either the olfactory bulbs or the central nervous system after intranasal administration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine system as a universal mucosal vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infection. PMID:23460513

  19. Nanogel-Based PspA Intranasal Vaccine Prevents Invasive Disease and Nasal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Nochi, Tomonori; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shinichi; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Okada, Kazunari; Sato, Shintaro; Briles, David E.; Kunisawa, Jun; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    To establish a safer and more effective vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infections, current knowledge regarding the antigens common among pneumococcal strains and improvements to the system for delivering these antigens across the mucosal barrier must be integrated. We developed a pneumococcal vaccine that combines the advantages of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) with a nontoxic intranasal vaccine delivery system based on a nanometer-sized hydrogel (nanogel) consisting of a cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). The efficacy of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine (cCHP-PspA) was tested in murine pneumococcal airway infection models. Intranasal vaccination with cCHP-PspA provided protective immunity against lethal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae Xen10, reduced colonization and invasion by bacteria in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and induced systemic and nasal mucosal Th17 responses, high levels of PspA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), and nasal and bronchial IgA antibody responses. Moreover, there was no sign of PspA delivery by nanogel to either the olfactory bulbs or the central nervous system after intranasal administration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of the nanogel-based PspA nasal vaccine system as a universal mucosal vaccine against pneumococcal respiratory infection. PMID:23460513

  20. Proteomics-driven design of a multiplex bead-based platform to assess natural IgG antibodies to pneumococcal protein antigens in children.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; van Wamel, Willem J B; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; García-Cabrera, Emilio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J; Obando, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    Pneumococcal surface proteins are potential candidates for the development of protein-based vaccines and serological assays. The objective of the study was to develop a multiple bead-based immunoassay using Luminex xMAP® technology for the quantitation of natural antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins and the characterization of the acute serum response following pneumococcal pneumonia in children. Sixty-four recombinantly produced pneumococcal proteins, which were selected based on their proteomic experimental identification by "shaving" live cells with trypsin followed by LC/MS/MS analysis, were coupled to fluorescent SeroMAP® beads and anti-pneumococcal specific IgG levels were determined in sera. Multiplex assay was validated through comparison of IgG levels to 14 randomly chosen pneumococcal antigens by using multiplex and singleplex assays. Acute serum IgG levels against RrgB were significantly lower in children ≤ 4 years old with pneumococcal pneumonia than those in controls. In addition, there was a small trend toward slightly lower antibody levels for PrsA, RrgC and RrgB in pneumonia patients of the all age group.

  1. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3–3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31–0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49–0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92–119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India’s pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  2. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our results

  3. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  4. Pneumococcal bacteremia in Monroe County, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N M; Buffington, J; LaForce, F M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Knowledge of the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is critical for public health planning, evaluation of preventive strategies, and development of immunization recommendations. METHODS. We studied the incidence and case-fatality rates of pneumococcal bacteremia as a proxy for pneumococcal disease in Monroe County, New York, from 1985 through 1989 by reviewing the laboratory and clinical care records of all cases occurring among residents. RESULTS. There were 671 cases identified, for an overall yearly rate of 18.8 per 100,000. The rates were highest in the very young, in the very old, and in non-White populations. Age-specific rates were consistently higher in Blacks than in Whites. Predisposing medical conditions were present in 61% of cases. Case-fatality rates were 15% overall, 27% in those with predisposing medical conditions, and approximately 30% in Blacks older than 55 years and Whites older than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS. This study documents the incidence of and mortality from pneumococcal bacteremia. It supports previous observations that Black populations have an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infection and suggests that immunization should be considered for Blacks older than 55 years. PMID:1443302

  5. Seasonal Patterns of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wright, Carolyn; Rose, Charles E.; Schuchat, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Pneumococcal infections increase each winter, a phenomenon that has not been well explained. We conducted population-based active surveillance for all cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in seven states; plotted annualized weekly rates by geographic location, age, and latitude; and assessed correlations by time-series analysis. In all geographic areas, invasive pneumococcal disease exhibited a distinct winter seasonality, including an increase among children in the fall preceding that for adults and a sharp spike in incidence among adults each year between December 24 and January 7. Pneumococcal disease correlated inversely with temperature (r –0.82 with a 1-week lag; p<0.0001), but paradoxically the coldest states had the lowest rates, and no threshold temperature could be identified. The pattern of disease correlated directly with the sinusoidal variations in photoperiod (r +0.85 with a 5-week lag; p<0.0001). Seemingly unrelated seasonal phenomena were also somewhat correlated. The reproducible seasonal patterns in varied geographic locations are consistent with the hypothesis that nationwide seasonal changes such as photoperiod-dependent variation in host susceptibility may underlie pneumococcal seasonality, but caution is indicated in assigning causality as a result of such correlations. PMID:12737741

  6. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis, as well as potential targets for (adjunctive) therapy. PMID:21734248

  7. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-01

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  8. Vaccine-preventable disease and immunization in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bart, K J; Lin, K F

    1990-06-01

    Vaccines have given health care providers control over a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Global efforts have immunized two-thirds of the world's children with DTP and polio vaccines; 72% have received BCG and 59% measles vaccine; but only 29% of pregnant women have received two doses of tetanus toxoid. In addition, vaccines against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis B, rubella, and mumps and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine are being used in specific regions of the world. New vaccine candidates will enhance the vaccine armamentarium over the next decade to include the causes of pneumonia, diarrhea, and meningitis: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal and meningococcal protein conjugate vaccines, typhoid and rotavirus vaccine. Genetically engineered vaccine vehicles, genetic reassortants, and genetic deletions are being investigated as new vaccine candidates. PMID:2190145

  9. Comparative estimation of coverage between national immunization program vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Yang, Jae Jeong; Park, Sue K; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the differences in vaccination coverage between National Immunization Program (NIP) vaccines and non-NIP vaccines in Korea and to identify factors affecting the difference. Nationwide face-to-face interview-based questionnaire survey among randomly selected 4,374 participants aged 7-83 months was conducted. Vaccination coverage analyzed according to the birth cohorts, geographic areas, and socio-demographic characteristics. We found that NIP vaccines recorded higher primary vaccination coverage compared to non-NIP vaccines (95.9%-100% vs 30.7%-85.4%). The highest rate was Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine (85.4%), which was introduced in 1996, and the lowest rate was rotavirus vaccine (30.7%), which was introduced recently. On multivariate analysis, having a sibling were significantly associated with lower uptake of Hib vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), and rotavirus vaccine; while, older mother's age and attendance to daycare center were significantly associated with lower uptake of PCV and rotavirus vaccine (P < 0.001). We found differences in the vaccine coverage rate between NIP vaccines and non-NIP vaccines; and the data suggests potential disparity in accessing non-NIP vaccines in Korea. Expansion of NIP to include non-NIP vaccines can provide better protection against the diseases through increased coverage. PMID:24015031

  10. Racial and Regional Differences in Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    de St Maurice, Annabelle; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Schaffner, William

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains an important cause of illness in US children. We assessed the impact of introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pediatric IPD rates, as well as changes in racial and regional differences in IPD, in Tennessee. METHODS: Data from active laboratory and population-based surveillance of IPD were used to compare IPD rates in the early-PCV7 (2001–2004), late-PCV7 (2005–2009), and post-PCV13 (2011–2012) eras. IPD rates were further stratified according to age, race, and region (east and middle-west TN). RESULTS: Among children aged <2 years, IPD rates declined by 70% from 67 to 19 per 100 000 person-years in the early-PCV7 era and post-PCV13 era, respectively. Similar decreasing trends in IPD rates were observed in older children aged 2 to 4 years and 5 to 17 years. In the late-PCV7 era, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were higher in black children compared with white children (70 vs 43 per 100 000 person-years); however, these racial differences in IPD rates were no longer significant after PCV13 introduction. Before PCV13, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were also higher in east Tennessee compared with middle-west Tennessee (91 vs 45 per 100 000 person-years), but these differences were no longer significant in the post-PCV13 era. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 introduction led to substantial declines in childhood IPD rates and was associated with reduced regional and racial differences in IPD rates in Tennessee. PMID:26459652

  11. Epitope specificity of rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) elicited by pneumococcal type 23F synthetic oligosaccharide- and native polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines: comparison with human anti-polysaccharide 23F IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso de Velasco, E; Verheul, A F; van Steijn, A M; Dekker, H A; Feldman, R G; Fernández, I M; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Verhoef, J; Snippe, H

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae type 23F capsular polysaccharide (PS23F) consitss of a repeating glycerol-phosphorylated branched tetrasaccharide. The immunogenicities of the following related antigens were investigated: (i) a synthetic trisaccharide comprising the backbone of one repeating unit, (ii) a synthetic tetrasaccharide comprising the complete repeating unit, and (iii) native PS23F (all three conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) and (iv) formalin-killed S. pneumoniae 23F. All antigens except the trisaccharide-KLH conjugate induced relatively high anti-PS23F antibody levels in rabbits. The epitope specificity of such antibodies was then studied by means of an inhibition immunoassay. The alpha(1-->2)-linked L-rhamnose branch was shown to be immunodominant for immunoglobulin G (IgG) induced by tetrasaccharide-KLH, PS23F-KLH, and killed S. pneumoniae 23F: in most sera L-rhamnose totally inhibited the binding of IgG to PS23F. Thus, there appears to be no major difference in epitope specificity between IgG induced by tetrasaccharide-KLH and that induced by antigens containing the polymeric form of PS23F. Human anti-PS23F IgG (either vaccine induced or naturally acquired) had a different epitope specificity: none of the inhibitors used, including L-rhamnose and tetrasaccharide-KLH, exhibited substantial inhibition. These observations suggest that the epitope recognized by human IgG on PS23F is larger than the epitope recognized by rabbit IgG. Both human and rabbit antisera efficiently opsonized type 23F pneumococci, as measured in a phagocytosis assay using human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7509318

  12. New Pneumococcal Carriage Acquired in Association with Acute Respiratory Infection Is Prone to Cause Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi

    2016-01-01

    For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2–24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994–97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media. PMID:27257789

  13. High pneumococcal serotype specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels in serum and the middle ear of children with recurrent acute otitis media receiving ventilation tubes.

    PubMed

    Corscadden, Karli J; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Thornton, Ruth B; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Richmond, Peter C; Wiertsema, Selma P

    2013-02-27

    Recurrent acute otitis media (AOM), frequently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a major paediatric health problem. A reduced antibody response against pneumococcal polysaccharides may contribute to an increased susceptibility to AOM. Using a multiplex bead-based assay we measured IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels against 11 pneumococcal polysaccharides in serum samples from 166 children below 3 years of age with a history of at least 3 episodes of acute otitis media receiving ventilation tubes, and 61 healthy controls. Pneumococcal serotype specific IgG was also determined in 144 middle ear effusion samples. Pneumococcal serotype specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels were similar in children with or without AOM, except for IgG and IgG1 levels against serotype 5, which were significantly higher in children with a history of frequent AOM (IgG: 137.5 μg/ml vs. 84.0 μg/ml; p=0.02; IgG1: 24.5 μg/ml vs. 18.2 μg/ml; p=0.05). The age-related development of pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels was similar in children with or without a history of AOM. Pneumococcal serotype specific IgG was present in middle ear effusion and these levels correlated significantly with serum titres. Children with a history of frequent AOM receiving ventilation tubes do not have a deficient IgG, IgG1 or IgG2 response against pneumococcal polysaccharides, either induced by vaccination or due to natural exposure. The strong correlation between IgG levels in serum and the middle ear suggests parenteral pneumococcal conjugate vaccination induces antibodies in the middle ear which may therefore contribute to reducing the burden of AOM.

  14. [Experience of Pneumo 23 vaccine in patients with combination of COLD with pneumoconiosis].

    PubMed

    Rodionova, O V; Ignatova, G L; Blinova, E V; Grebneva, I V; Antonov, V N

    2014-01-01

    The most well-studied, but not single factor of COLD development is smoking. Occupational hazards as organic and inorganic dust are underevaluated risk factor of COLD. Smoking increased unfavorable effects of occupational hazards. Interesting for the study are the patients with combination of pneumoconiosis and COLD, severe concomitant diseases and decompensated complications--chronic cardiac failure and chronic lung failure. These patients have lower life quality, more frequent infectious exacerbations of COLD and pneumonias--that remains a significant medical and social problem. At present, pneumonia occupies 4-5th place in lethal outcomes structure. Pneumo 23--polysaccharide 23-valent vaccine--covers main serotypes of pneumococcus causing diseases of severe clinical course. In the study, the patients were injected with Pneumo 23 along with basic COLD therapy, were observed over 5 years and demonstrated reliable decrease of acute respiratory infections, COLD exacerbations and pneumonias. Those exacerbations and pneumonias had less severe course. Number of the exacerbations requiring hospitalization also decreased.

  15. Sex and Gender Impact Immune Responses to Vaccines Among the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ashley L; Klein, Sabra L

    2015-11-01

    In response to the recommended vaccines in older-aged individuals, sex differences occur in response to those that protect against influenza, tetanus, pertussis, shingles, and pneumococcal infections. The efficacy of vaccines recommended for older-aged adults is consistently greater for females than for males. Gender differences as well as biological sex differences can influence vaccine uptake, responses, and outcome in older-aged individuals, which should influence guidelines, formulations, and dosage recommendations for vaccines in the elderly.

  16. Serotype 5 Pneumococci Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Outbreaks in Barcelona, Spain (1997 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Rolo, Dora; Fenoll, Asunción; Fontanals, Dionísia; Larrosa, Nieves; Giménez, Montserrat; Grau, Immaculada; Pallarés, Román; Liñares, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the clinical and molecular epidemiology of invasive serotype 5 (Ser5) pneumococcal isolates in four teaching hospitals in the Barcelona, Spain, area (from 1997 to 2011). Among 5,093 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected, 134 (2.6%) Ser5 isolates were detected. Although the overall incidence of Ser5-related invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was low (0.25 cases/100,000 inhabitants), three incidence peaks were detected: 0.63/100,000 in 1999, 1.15/100,000 in 2005, and 0.37/100,000 in 2009. The rates of Ser5 IPD were higher among young adults (18 to 64 years old) and older adults (>64 years old) in the first two peaks, whereas they were higher among children in 2009. The majority (88.8%) of the patients presented with pneumonia. Comorbid conditions were present in young adults (47.6%) and older adults (78.7%), the most common comorbid conditions being chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.6% and 38.3%, respectively) and cardiovascular diseases (11.1% and 38.3%, respectively). The mortality rates were higher among older adults (8.5%). All Ser5 pneumococci tested were fully susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin. The resistance rates were 48.5% for co-trimoxazole, 6.7% for chloramphenicol, and 6% for tetracycline. Two major related sequence types (STs), ST1223 (n = 65) and ST289 (n = 61), were detected. The Colombia5-ST289 clone was responsible for all the cases in the Ser5 outbreak in 1999, whereas the ST1223 clone accounted for 73.8% and 61.5% of the isolates in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Ser5 pneumococci are a frequent cause of IPD outbreaks in the community and involve children and adults with or without comorbidities. The implementation of the new pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) might prevent such outbreaks. PMID:23966486

  17. Correlation between In Vitro Complement Deposition and Passive Mouse Protection of Anti-Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naeem; Qadri, Raies Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The shortcomings of the licensed polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccine are driving efforts toward development of a protein-based vaccine that is serotype independent and effective in all age groups. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPKA) is used to evaluate the antibody response against polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines. However, the OPKA is not reliable for noncapsular antigens. Thus, there is a need to develop an in vitro surrogate for protection for protein vaccine candidates like pneumococcal surface antigen A (PspA). PspA is a serologically variable cell surface virulence factor. Based on its sequence, PspA has been classified into families 1 (clade 1 and 2), 2 (clades 3, 4 and 5), and 3 (clade 6). Here, we report the characterization of 18 IgG anti-PspA monoclonal antibodies (anti-PspAhkR36A MAbs) generated from mice immunized with heat-killed strain R36A (clade 2). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based analysis of the reactivity of the MAbs with recombinant PspAs from the 6 clades indicated that they were family 1 specific. This was confirmed by flow cytometry using a hyperimmune serum generated against PspA from R36A. Eight MAbs that bind at least one clade 1- and clade 2-expressing strain were evaluated for complement deposition, bactericidal activity, and passive protection. The anti-PspAhkR36A MAb-dependent deposition of complement on pneumococci showed a positive correlation with passive protection against strain WU2 (r = 0.8783, P = 0.0041). All of our protective MAbs showed bactericidal activity; however, not all MAbs that exhibited bactericidal activity conferred protection in vivo. The protective MAbs described here can be used to identify conserved protection eliciting B cell epitopes for engineering a superior PspA-based vaccine. PMID:25410204

  18. Humoral Immune Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Setting of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lumin; Li, Zihai; Wan, Zhuang; Kilby, Andrew; Kilby, J Michael; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) remains one of the most commonly identified causes of bacterial infection in the general population, and the risk is 30-100 fold higher in HIV-infected individuals. Both innate and adaptive host immune responses to pneumococcal infection are important against pathogen invasion. Pneumococcal-specific IgA antibody (Ab) is key to control infection at the mucosal sites. Ab responses against pneumococcal infection by B cells can be generated through T cell-dependent or T cell-independent pathways. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is a hallmark of immunodeficiency in HIV infection and this defect also contributes to B cell dysfunction, which predisposes to infections such as the pneumococcus. Two pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated to have potential benefits for HIV-infected patients. One is a T cell dependent 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13); the other is a T cell independent 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). However, many questions remain unknown regarding these two vaccines in the clinical setting in HIV disease. Here we review the latest research regarding B cell immune responses against pneumococcal antigens, whether derived from potentially invading pathogens or vaccinations, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26141012

  19. Design questions for Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine trials with a colonisation endpoint.

    PubMed

    Auranen, Kari; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Goldblatt, David; Nohynek, Hanna; O'Brien, Katherine L; Satzke, Catherine; Simell, Birgit; Tanskanen, Antti; Käyhty, Helena

    2013-12-17

    Evaluation of vaccine efficacy for protection against colonisation (VEcol) with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens is often based on a cross-sectional study design, in which only one nasopharyngeal sample is obtained per study subject. Here we investigate the feasibility of this study design by investigating a number of practical design problems. Specific questions are related to the timing of colonisation measurement with respect to the time of vaccination, the adjustment for the within-host replacement of vaccine-type colonisation by the non-vaccine type pneumococci, and the impact of multiple serotype colonisation on VEcol estimation. We also discuss the issue of choosing the control vaccine, including comparison of two active pneumococcal vaccines, as well as the sample size and the statistical power of colonisation endpoint trials. In addition, the statistical design with the specific aim to include information about VEcol in the licensure process of new pneumococcal vaccine products is discussed.

  20. Pneumococcal Serotypes and Mortality following Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Harboe, Zitta B.; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Riis, Anders; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Lambertsen, Lotte; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Benfield, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between specific pneumococcal serotypes and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods and Findings In a nationwide population-based cohort study of IPD in Denmark during 1977–2007, 30-d mortality associated with pneumococcal serotypes was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 18,858 IPD patients were included. Overall 30-d mortality was 18%, and 3% in children younger than age 5 y. Age, male sex, meningitis, high comorbidity level, alcoholism, and early decade of diagnosis were significantly associated with mortality. Among individuals aged 5 y and older, serotypes 31, 11A, 35F, 17F, 3, 16F, 19F, 15B, and 10A were associated with highly increased mortality as compared with serotype 1 (all: adjusted odds ratio ≥3, p<0.001). In children younger than 5 y, associations between serotypes and mortality were different than in adults but statistical precision was limited because of low overall childhood-related mortality. Conclusions Specific pneumococcal serotypes strongly and independently affect IPD associated mortality. PMID:19468297

  1. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    PubMed

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  2. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed.

  3. Vaccine prevention of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D P; Hoberman, A

    2001-07-01

    The incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants and young children has increased dramatically in recent years in the United States. AOM often follows upper respiratory tract infections due to pathogens such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and parainfluenza virus (PIV). These viruses cause eustachian tube dysfunction that is critical to the pathogenesis of AOM. Vaccines against these viruses would likely reduce the incidence of AOM. In three previous studies, influenza virus vaccines reduced the incidence of AOM by 30% to 36%. Vaccines to prevent infections with RSV and PIV type 3 are undergoing clinical testing at this time. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis are the three most common AOM pathogens. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is effective in preventing invasive disease and AOM caused by serotypes contained in the vaccine. Vaccine candidates for NTHi and M. catarrhalis are under development.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  5. Rates of Acquisition of Pneumococcal Colonization and Transmission Probabilities, by Serotype, Among Newborn Infants in Kilifi District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Tigoi, Caroline C.; Gatakaa, Hellen; Karani, Angela; Mugo, Daisy; Kungu, Stella; Wanjiru, Eva; Jomo, Jane; Musyimi, Robert; Ojal, John; Glass, Nina E.; Abdullahi, Osman; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Herd protection and serotype replacement disease following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are attributable to the vaccine's impact on colonization. Prior to vaccine introduction in Kenya, we did an epidemiological study to estimate the rate of pneumococcal acquisition, by serotype, in an uncolonized population. Methods. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were taken from newborns aged ≤7 days and weekly thereafter for 13 weeks. Parents, and siblings aged <10 years, were swabbed at monthly intervals. Swabs were transported in skim milk-tryptone-glucose-glycerin and cultured on gentamicin blood agar. Pneumococci were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. We used survival analysis and Cox regression analysis to examine serotype-specific acquisition rates and risk factors and calculated transmission probabilities from the pattern of acquisitions within the family. Results. Of 1404 infants recruited, 887 were colonized by 3 months of age, with the earliest acquisition detected on the first day of life. The median time to acquisition was 38.5 days. The pneumococcal acquisition rate was 0.0189 acquisitions/day (95% confidence interval, .0177–.0202 acquisitions/day). Serotype-specific acquisition rates varied from 0.00002–0.0025 acquisitions/day among 49 different serotypes. Season, coryza, and exposure to cigarettes, cooking fumes, and other children in the home were each significant risk factors for acquisition. The transmission probability per 30-day duration of contact with a carrier was 0.23 (95% CI, .20–.26). Conclusions. Newborn infants in Kilifi have high rates of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci. Half of these acquisitions involve serotypes not included in any current vaccine. Several risk factors are modifiable through intervention. Newborns represent a consistent population of pneumococcus-naive individuals in which to estimate the impact of PCV on transmission. PMID:22523268

  6. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidural Injection: A Rare Event

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tamara M; Chitturi, Chandrika; Lange, Michael; Suh, Jin S; Slim, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae vertebral infections have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinal and epidural abscesses as well as concomitant bacteremia following epidural injection. This will be the second case in the literature reporting pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis related to epidural manipulation. PMID:27621563

  7. Pneumococcal Vertebral Osteomyelitis after Epidu