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Sample records for 232-z contaminated waste

  1. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  2. 24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232z, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232-z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-21

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, L.N.

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  5. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z waste incinerator building

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, G.

    1995-12-31

    The 232-Z waste incinerator at the Hanford plutonium finishing facility was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive analysis performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loading in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glove box, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork resulted in a markedly higher assay valve for the incinerator glove box itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part due to the attenuation due to fire brick which could not be seen and which had been thought to be present. Resolution of the raised concerns entailed forming a task team to perform further assay based on gamma and neutron NDA methods. This paper is a discussion of the unreviewed safety question regarding the source term in this area.

  6. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team`s effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods.

  7. 26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  8. 25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  9. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  10. Method of treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, W.; Mallek, H.; Plum, W.

    1981-07-07

    A method of and apparatus for treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste are claimed. The solvent waste is supplied to material such as peat, vermiculite, diaton, etc. This material effects the distribution or dispersion of the solvent and absorbs the foreign substances found in the solvent waste. Air or an inert gas flows through the material in order to pick up the solvent portions which are volatile as a consequence of their vapor pressure. The thus formed gas mixture, which includes air or inert gas and solvent portions, is purified in a known manner by thermal, electrical, or catalytic combustion of the solvent portions.

  11. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  12. Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly.

  13. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  14. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  15. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  16. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  17. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction.

  18. Integrated system for treating soil contaminated with wood treating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, C.M.; Brenner, R.C.; Khodadoust, A.P.

    1995-10-01

    Approximately 20% of the hazardous waste sites undergoing bioremediation are contaminated with wood treating wastes, primarily compounds such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other hydrocarbons. A process that combines soil washing with sequential anaerobic and aerobic biotreatment is being integrated to remediate soil contaminated with these wood treating wastes. By extracting the target compound from the soil, soil washing facilitates degradation by mobilizing the target compound and expanding the range of feasible remediation technologies. Additional flexibility is possible since soil washing can be conducted in an in-situ or ex-situ format. In this process, the wash solution is initially bioremediated in an anaerobic environment. Mineralization of the target compound is completed aerobically. Based on preliminary results, the integrated process could meet the target cleanup level for PCP in approximately 45% of the bioremediation sites. Process development began by independently evaluating soil washing and target compound degradation. PCP contaminated soils were the initial focus, but this work is currently being extended to include soils contaminated with both PCP and PAHs. In addition, based on promising results from the soil washing and degradation evaluations, these individual unit operations are being integrated to form a complete process to remediate soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. This complete process incorporates soil washing, soil wash solution recycling, and biodegradation of the target compounds and is outlined.

  19. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, Daniel E.; Loomis, Guy G.; Mullen, Carlan K.; Scott, Donald W.; Feldman, Edgar M.; Meyer, Leroy C.

    1993-01-01

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  20. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  1. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  2. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    PubMed

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized.

  3. Nondestructive assay of curium-contaminated transuranic waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Lynn A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste drums containing non-actinide scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of 244Cm prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of 244Cm. To discrimination between the plutonium and curium materials in the matrix, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A californium shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration, which is relatively insensitive to the 244Cm contamination. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  4. Inhibited Release of Mobile Contaminants from Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-03

    Investigations of contaminant release from Hanford Site tank residual waste have indicated that in some cases certain contaminants of interest (Tc and Cr) exhibit inhibited release. The percentage of Tc that dissolved from residual waste from tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, and 241-C-203 ranged from approximately 6% to 10%. The percent leachable Cr from residual waste from tanks C-103, C 202, and C-203 ranged from approximately 1.1% to 44%. Solid phase characterization results indicate that the recalcitrant forms of these contaminants are associated with iron oxides. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of Tc and Cr in residual waste indicates that these contaminants occur in Fe oxide particles as their lower, less soluble oxidation states [Tc(IV) and Cr(III)]. The form of these contaminants is likely as oxides or hydroxides incorporated within the structure of the Fe oxide. Leaching behavior of U from tank residual waste was studied using deionized water, and CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 saturated solutions as leachants. The release behavior of U from tank residual waste is complex. Initial U concentrations in water and CaCO3 leachants are high due to residual amounts of the highly soluble U mineral cejkaite. As leaching and dilution occur NaUO2PO4 {center_dot} xH2O, Na2U2O7(am) and schoepite (or a similar phase) become the solubility controlling phases for U. In the case of the Ca(OH)2 leachant, U release from tank residual waste is dramatically reduced. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the solubility of CaUO4(c) controls release of U from residual waste in the Ca(OH)2 leachants. It is assumed the solubility controlling phase is actually a hydrated version of CaUO4 with a variable water content ranging from CaUO4 to CaUO4 {center_dot} (H2O). The critically reviewed value for CaUO4(c) (log KSP0 = 15.94) produced good agreement with our experimental data for the Ca(OH)2 leachates.

  5. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  6. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  7. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  8. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  9. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  10. Speciation and leaching of trace metal contaminants from e-waste contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Li; Luo, Chun-Ling; Tang, Chloe Wing-Yee; Chan, Ting-Shan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Primitive electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities have caused serious environmental problems. However, little is known about the speciation and leaching behaviors of metal contaminants at e-waste contaminated sites. This study investigated trace metal speciation/mobilization from e-waste polluted soil through column leaching experiments involving irrigation with rainwater for almost 2.5 years. Over the experimental period, Cu and Zn levels in the porewater were 0.14±0.08mg/L, and 0.16±0.08mg/L, respectively, increasing to 0.33±0.16mg/L, and 0.69±0.28mg/L with plant growth. The amounts of Cu, Zn, and Pb released in surface soil (0-2cm) contributed 43.8%, 22.5%, and 13.8%, respectively, to the original levels. The released Cu and Zn were primarily caused by the mobilization of the carbonate species of metals, including Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, and Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6, and amorphous Fe/Mn oxides associated fractions characterized by sequential extraction coupling with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. During the experiments, trace metals were not detected in the effluent, and the re-sequestration of trace metals was mainly attributed to the adsorption on the abundant Fe/Mn oxides in the sub-layer soil. This study quantitatively elucidated the molecular speciation of Cu and Zn in e-waste contaminated soil during the column leaching process.

  11. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  12. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

    2012-11-21

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead

  13. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, on-line'' quantitative measurements of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with {sup 239}Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the {sup 241}Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Electrokinetic remediation of soils contaminated with electroplating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Parupudi, U.S.; Devulapalli, S.

    1996-10-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of soils simulated with electroplating waste contamination was investigated in two soils, kaolin and glacial till. Soil samples were contaminated with nickel, cadmium and hexavalent chromium and subjected to an external electric field for four days. Results of these experiments revealed that the soil composition plays an important role in electrokinetic remediation. Due to induced electric potential, a distinct pH gradient was developed in kaolin; however, in glacial till alkaline conditions existed throughout the soil because of its high carbonate buffering capacity. The movement of cationic metallic contaminants, Ni(II) and Cd(II), from the anode to the cathode was significant in kaolin as compared to glacial till. Because of high pH conditions near the cathode, Ni(II) and Cd(II) were precipitated in kaolin. In glacial till, however, because of alkaline conditions throughout the soil, most of Ni(II) and Cd(II) precipitated without migration. Overall, this study demonstrates that anion exchange, cation exchange and precipitation were the significant fixation mechanisms of nickel, cadmium and chromium in soils.

  15. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jinhyun; Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Youngbae; Seol, Jeunggun; Ryu, Jaebong; Park, Kwangheon

    2011-07-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 °C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined.

  16. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2010-06-18

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  17. Organic waste compounds as contaminants in Milwaukee-area streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew; Bruce, Jennifer L.

    2015-09-22

    Organic waste compounds (OWCs) are ingredients and by-products of common agricultural, industrial, and household substances that can contaminate our streams through sources like urban runoff, sewage overflows, and leaking septic systems. To better understand how OWCs are affecting Milwaukee-area streams, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District, conducted a three-year study to investigate the presence and potential toxicity of 69 OWCs in base flow, stormflow, pore water, and sediment at 14 stream sites and 3 Milwaukee harbor locations. This fact sheet summarizes the major findings of this study, including detection frequencies and concentrations, potential toxicity, the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of urbanization.

  18. Demonstration of ATG Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference # 2407

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with <260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20 mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. It must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  19. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  20. Food chain analysis at a mining waste-contaminated wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, G.A.; Blanchet, R.J.; Linder, G.

    1994-12-31

    A food chain analysis was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment oat the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The site consists of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining-wastes transported from upstream sources. The food chain analysis focused on several species of terrestrial and aquatic animals indigenous to montane wetlands of the northern Rocky Mountains. Samples of small mammal tissues, grasses, forbs, invertebrates, soils, sediment, aquatic plants, and fish were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. A linear multimedia food-chain model was constructed to estimate daily intakes of the metals for each receptor, with assumed values for aquatic and terrestrial food items from the site, ingestion of local surface water, incidental ingestion of soils or sediments, and estimated bioavailability of soil metals. Evaluation of health risks was performed by the quotient method, where exposures expressed as daily intakes were compared to literature toxicity values. Results from the food chain analysis suggested that the health of primary consumers and higher trophic organisms (including mice, voles, muskrats, beaver, various waterfowl species, osprey, bald eagles, and deer) is not at risk due to the presence of elevated metals in sediments or upland soils at the site.

  1. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  2. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  3. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries.

  4. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardo...

  5. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  6. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  8. Detonation Ground Soils, & Explosive-Contaminated Metal Have No Reactivity Characteristics Under RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    DETONATION GROUND SOILS, & EXPLOSIVE-CONTAMINATED METAL HAVE NO REACTIVITY CHARACTERISTIC UNDER RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE REGULATIONS Jay L. Bishop, PhD...Metal Have No Reactivity Characteristics Under RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  9. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER FROM LAND APPLICATION OF SWINE WASTE: CASE STUDY AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for land application of CAFO waste may not be sufficient to prevent ground water contamination by nitrate. A case study is presented illustrating the problem for one field site disposing of swine waste. Data are discussed in context with documented land application ...

  10. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION: ANALYSIS OF UROBILIN AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough...

  11. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  12. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  13. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  14. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  15. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  16. Evaluation of the Contamination Control Unit during simulated transuranic waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.N.; Freeman, A.L.; Wixom, V.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of a field demonstration at the INEL of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a field deployable self-contained trailer mounted system to control contamination spread at the site of transuranic (TRU) handling operations. This is accomplished primarily by controlling dust spread. This demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Technology Development Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. The CCU, housed in a mobile trailer for easy transport, supports four different contamination control systems: water misting, dust suppression application, soil fixative application, and vacuuming operations. Assessment of the CCU involved laboratory operational performance testing, operational testing and contamination control at a decommissioned Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reactor, and field testing in conjunction with a simulated TRU buried waste retrieval effort at the Cold Test Pit.

  17. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  18. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described.

  19. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, David C.

    2012-07-01

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  20. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-10-18

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete, and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed.

  1. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-06-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  2. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  3. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill.

  4. Variability in physical contamination assessment of source segregated biodegradable municipal waste derived composts.

    PubMed

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Thygesen, Helene H; Aspray, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Physical contaminants (glass, metal, plastic and 'other') and stones were isolated and categorised from three finished commercial composts derived from source segregated biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). A subset of the identified physical contaminant fragments were subsequently reintroduced into the cleaned compost samples and sent to three commercial laboratories for testing in an inter-laboratory trial using the current PAS100:2011 method (AfOR MT PC&S). The trial showed that the 'other' category caused difficulty for all three laboratories with under reporting, particularly of the most common 'other' contaminants (paper and cardboard) and, over-reporting of non-man-made fragments. One laboratory underreported metal contaminant fragments (spiked as silver foil) in three samples. Glass, plastic and stones were variably underreported due to miss-classification or over reported due to contamination with compost (organic) fragments. The results are discussed in the context of global physical contaminant test methods and compost quality assurance schemes.

  5. Arsenic contaminated site at an abandoned copper smelter plant: waste characterization and solidification/stabilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chien-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2003-11-01

    A preliminary survey of an arsenic contaminated site from an abandoned copper smelting facility and feasibility study of using solidification/stabilization (S/S) process to treat the contaminant waste were undertaken. It was found that the waste, located in the three-flue gas discharge tunnels, contained 2-40% arsenic. The pH of the contaminated waste is extremely low (ranging from 1.8 to 3.6). The X-ray diffraction evidence indicates that the arsenic particles present in the flue gas mainly exist as As(III), or As(2)O(3). The total amount of arsenic contaminated waste is estimated to be 700 ton in the studied area. About 50% of the particle sizes are less than 2 mm. Arsenic is easily extracted from wastes with a variety of leaching solutions. In order to meet the arsenic leaching standard of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), an extremely high cement dosage is required in the S/S process (cement/waste weight ratio>6). The waste with lower particle size having higher specific surface area exhibits somewhat positive effect on the S/S performance. The use of fly ash from municipal waste incinerators, in conjunction with the reduced amount of cement, is able to meet the TCLP arsenic and lead standards. The use of lime alone could meet the TCLP arsenic standard, but lead leaching concentrations exceeded leaching Pb standard. The results of semi-dynamic leaching tests of some solidified samples indicate higher accumulated arsenic leaching concentrations after only a few leachant renewals.

  6. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China.

  7. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  8. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses.

  9. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle M.V.; Wang, Guohui; Buck, Edgar C.

    2015-07-01

    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  10. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  11. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  12. Solidification Technologies for Restoration of Sites Contaminated with Hazardous Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    OR1 -5- 10-0 1 to DOE, Office of Technology Development. Kalb, P., J. Heiser, and P. Colombo, 1991. “ Modified Sulfur Cement Encapsulation of Mixed...Incinerator Ash Waste Encapsulated in Modified Sulfur Cement,” Brookhaven National Laboratory for US DOE Contract No DE-AC02-76CD000 16. Lin, S...wastes, 2 modified sulfur cement, 22,72 47,49,5 I , 53,55,57,59,61,63,65 obsidian, 35,36,38,39,40,32,43 organic binders, 7,25 organic polymer binders

  13. ISOCELL trademark proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D. ); Krieg, R.K. )

    1992-01-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A proof-of-concept'' test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  14. ISOCELL{trademark} proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D.; Krieg, R.K.

    1992-08-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A ``proof-of-concept`` test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  15. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Here we present estimates of the amounts of organic waste input to these wate...

  16. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  17. HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

  18. Cementitious encapsulation of waste materials and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, to render them immobile

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, J.N.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to the cementitious encapsulation of waste materials and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, to render them immobile, and particularly to the immobilization of metals, in regulated amounts, in the wastes. A waste product comprising the metals is provided. A mixture is prepared comprising the wastes and/or contaminated soils containing heavy metals, water, and a cementitious composition. The cementitious composition comprises magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride in proportions effective to produce, with the water, a magnesium oxychloride cement. The cementitious composition is present in an amount which, on setting, is effective to immobilize the metals in the waste and/or contaminated soils. The mixture of waste and/or contaminated soils and cementitious composition is introduced to a disposition site, and allowed to set and harden at the site. The present invention is particularly useful for the remedial treatment of landfill sites. No Drawings

  19. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  20. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  1. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, Sivaraman; Wong, Chi F.; Buckley, Leo P.

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  2. Mercury contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Stabilize Elemental Mercury Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scaleable equipment is needed that can: produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-hour worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  3. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SOURCE WATERS: A SIMPLIFIED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give pub...

  4. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  5. 125. ARAI Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA729). Shows location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. ARA-I Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-729). Shows location of tank on the ARA-I site, section views, connecting pipeline, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-301-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0301-00-613-102711. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  7. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlo-rophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). The concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  8. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTES: CROSSCURRENT AND COUNTERCURRENT SOLVENT WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    solvent washing was evaluated as a method to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aged field soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. Several soil:solvent contact ratios were considered. Solvent washing processes were evaluated based on the removal of PCP from the soil throug...

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  10. Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials.

  11. [Application of white-rot fungi in composting lead-contaminated waste].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan-Lian; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Guo-He; Hu, Tian-Jue; Jiang, Xiao-Yun; Feng, Chong-Ling; Chen, Yao-Ning

    2006-01-01

    Simulative lead polluted wastes which containing unpolluted soil, household waste, straw, bran and lead nitrate were prepared. Inoculation of white-rot fungi and uninoculation in composting of lead-contaminated waste were studied. Change of chemical factor, biological parameter and biological toxicity analyses with time during the composting process were determined to study effect of heavy metal on composting process and probability of application of white-rot fungi in composting of metal-contaminated waste. The results show the composting of lead-contaminated waste inoculated white-rot fungi could be successfully processed, which lead to the reduction of the bioavailability of Pb in compost and alleviate the potential harm from heavy metal. Under this composting process, for the final compost, pH, water-soluble organic carbon/nitrogen, volatile solid, lignin and coarse fibre remained reached 7.9, 4.01, 36.1%, 22.4g, 30.1g, respectively. In addition, 63.38% of Pb in residual fraction and 0% of Pb in soluble-exchangeable fraction were found in final compost, and the germination index of final compost reached 121%.

  12. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  13. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  14. Wood preserving waste-contaminated soil: Treatment and toxicity response

    SciTech Connect

    Huling, S.G.; Pope, D.F.; Matthews, J.E.; Sims, J.L.; Sims, R.C.; Sorensen, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote were treated without bioaugmentation at field scale in tow 1-acre land treatment units (LTUs) at Libby, Montana. The concentration of indicator compounds of treatment performance, i.e., PCP, pyrene, total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TCPAHs) were monitored in the soil by taking both composited and discrete soil samples. A statistically significant decrease in PCP, pyrene, and TCPAH concentration occurred at field scale, and first-order degradation rate kinetics, from discrete and composited soil samples, satisfactorily represented the chemical loss for these compounds. Detoxification, as measured by the Microtox{trademark} assay, occurred in the soil; and toxicity reduction corresponded with PCP, pyrene, and TCPAH disappearance. No increase in toxicity in the lower treated soil layers (lifts) of the LTUs was observed with time, while the upper, more recently applied lifts were highly contaminated and toxic. This indicated that vertical migration of soluble contaminants had little effect on microbial activity in lower lifts of treated soil.

  15. Hanford tank residual wastecontaminant source terms and release models

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2011-08-23

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P±H phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less

  16. Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

    2003-02-01

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  17. CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

    2003-02-27

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  18. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume

  19. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  20. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

  1. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  2. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  3. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    SciTech Connect

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  4. Demonstration of NFS DeHg Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2229

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with < 260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3 (Conley, Morris, Osborne-Lee, and Hulet 1998). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards and to be feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  5. Contaminant Release Data Package for Residual Waste in Single-Shell Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-12-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report be submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The RCRA Facility Investigation report will provide a detailed description of the state of knowledge needed for tank farm performance assessments. This data package provides detailed technical information about contaminant release from closed single-shell tanks necessary to support the RCRA Facility Investigation report. It was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., which is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with tank closure. This data package is a compilation of contaminant release rate data for residual waste in the four Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have been tested (C-103, C-106, C-202, and C-203). The report describes the geochemical properties of the primary contaminants of interest from the perspective of long-term risk to groundwater (uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, chromium, transuranics, and nitrate), the occurrence of these contaminants in the residual waste, release mechanisms from the solid waste to water infiltrating the tanks in the future, and the laboratory tests conducted to measure release rates.

  6. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.

  7. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  8. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were {sup 85}Sr, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period.

  9. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide for contaminant removal from solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Smith, H.M.; Olson, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is being explored as a waste minimization technique for separating oils, greases and solvents from solid waste. The containments are dissolved into the supercritical fluid and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Definitions of the temperature, pressure, flowrate and potential co-solvents are required to establish the optimum conditions for hazardous contaminant removal. Excellent extractive capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been observed in both supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide. Solubility measurements are being used to better understand the extraction process, and to determine if the minimum solubility required by federal regulations is met.

  10. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology.

  11. Waste management and contaminated site remediation practices after oil spill: a case study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; da Rocha Calixto, Renata Oliveira; Felippe, Carlos Eduardo Cunha; de Franca, Francisca Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    A case study is presented on waste management practices implemented after a residual fuel oil spill from a steam-generating boiler in an industrial area, and on the technical feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a treatment option for a recently contaminated tropical soil. One day after contamination, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbons and phenanthrene concentrations varied from 3.1 to 7.9 g kg(-1) and 149 to 287 µg kg(-1), respectively. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decayed along the monitored time and after 90 days of processes the soil was considered rehabilitated for future industrial use.

  12. Stochastic risk assessment of sites contaminated by hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, B.; Araganth, V.; Valdes, J.

    1998-04-01

    Stochastic risk assessment models offer the potential for being more objective by explicitly considering variability. Such a model has been developed for a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by representing the parameters used in the risk assessment as probability distribution functions (pdf) rather than single values. The pdf for total risk calculated by the model is approximately lognormal, although the pdf of parameters in the model take on a variety of forms. A first-order approximation to the model provides good estimates for the high end of the distribution, which is of concern when conservative risk assessments are desirable. The first-order approximation provides good estimates even when the level of variation of the parameters is increased well above levels that are normally expected. A procedure was developed to apply the stochastic risk assessment model in a series of calculations to determine preliminary remediation goals for the site. In addition, a simplified technique was developed to calculate preliminary remediation goals using only results from simulating risk with initial site conditions.

  13. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  14. Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy; Serne, R. Jeff

    2003-06-01

    High pH waste solutions are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the subsurface environment and react with sediment minerals, promoting dissolution and precipitation processes that impact 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I speciation and migration behavior in the vadose zone. We have conducted long-term kinetic studies, with reaction times ranging from 1 to 369 d, to examine relationships between aluminosilicate weathering in the presence of synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL) and contaminant uptake and release. Our experiments employ a sequence of specimen clay minerals including illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are also important reactive solids in the Hanford sediments. These studies have shown direct coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization.

  15. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  16. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-06-03

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  17. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  18. Low-temperature bioremediation of a waste water contaminated with anionic surfactants and fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Margesin, R; Schinner, F

    1998-04-01

    We conducted a laboratory study at 10 degrees C on the biological decontamination of the waste water from a garage and car-wash that was contaminated with anionic surfactants (57 mg 1(-1)) and fuel oil (184 mg hydrocarbons 1(-1)). The indigenous microorganisms degraded both contaminants efficiently after biostimulation by an inorganic nutrient supply. After 7 days at 10 degrees C, the residual contaminations were 11 mg anionic surfactants 1(-1) and 26 mg hydrocarbons 1(-1). After 35 days, only the anionic surfactants had been further reduced to 3 mg 1(-1). Bioaugmentation of the unfertilized waste water with a cold-adapted inoculum, able to degrade both hydrocarbons (diesel oil) and anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate), resulted in a significant increase of the hydrocarbon biodegradation during the first 3 days of decontamination, whereas biodegradation of anionic surfactants was inhibited during the first 21 days following inoculation. Bioaugmentation of the nutrient-amended waste water was without any effect.

  19. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  20. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  1. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  2. Analysis of the contaminants released from municipal solid waste landfill site: A case study.

    PubMed

    Samadder, S R; Prabhakar, R; Khan, D; Kishan, D; Chauhan, M S

    2017-02-15

    Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan. Groundwater and soil samples were collected from the bore holes of 15m deep drilled along the periphery of the landfill and the surface water samples were collected from the existing surface water courses near the landfill. The landfill had neither any bottom liner nor any leachate collection and treatment system. Thus the leachate generated from the landfills finds paths into the groundwater and surrounding surface water courses. Concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters including some toxic metals (in collected groundwater, soil, and surface water samples) and microbiological parameters (in surface water samples) were determined. The analyzed data were integrated into ArcGIS environment and the spatial distribution of the metals and other physic- chemical parameter across the landfill was extrapolated to observe the distribution. The statistical analysis and spatial variations indicated the leaching of metals from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The study will help the readers and the municipal engineers to understand the release of contaminants from landfills for better management of municipal solid wastes.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  4. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m{sup 3} (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml.

  5. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  6. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and

  7. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines several categories of mercury wastes, each of which has a defined technology or concentration-based treatment standard, or universal treatment standard (UTS). RCRA defines mercury hazardous wastes as any waste that has a TCLP value for mercury of 0.2 mg/L or greater. Three of these categories, all nonwastewaters, fall within the scope of this report on new technologies to treat mercury-contaminated wastes: wastes as elemental mercury; hazardous wastes with less than 260 mg/kg [parts per million (ppm)] mercury; and hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury. While this report deals specifically with the last category--hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury--the other two categories will be discussed briefly so that the full range of mercury treatment challenges can be understood. The treatment methods for these three categories are as follows: Waste as elemental mercury--RCRA identifies amalgamation (AMLGM) as the treatment standard for radioactive elemental mercury. However, radioactive mercury condensates from retorting (RMERC) processes also require amalgamation. In addition, incineration (IMERC) and RMERC processes that produce residues with >260 ppm of radioactive mercury contamination and that fail the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limit for mercury (0.20 mg/L) require RMERC, followed by AMLGM of the condensate. Waste with <260 ppm mercury--No specific treatment method is specified for hazardous wastes containing <260 ppm. However, RCRA regulations require that such wastes (other than RMERC residues) that exceed a TCLP mercury concentration of 0.20 mg/L be treated by a suitable method to meet the TCLP limit for mercury of 0.025 mg/L. RMERC residues must meet the TCLP value of {ge}0.20 mg/L, or be stabilized and meet the {ge}0.025 mg/L limit. Waste with {ge}260 ppm mercury--For hazardous wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm and RCRA

  8. Biodegradation of keratinous waste by Chryseobacterium sp. RBT isolated from soil contaminated with poultry waste.

    PubMed

    Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, a feather degrading bacterial strain was isolated from poultry waste disposal site, Kolhapur, India. The bacterium was identified as Chryseobacterium sp. RBT using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Chryseobacterium sp. RBT showed rapid hydrolysis of native feathers within 30 h and produced the highest level of keratinase activity (98.3 U/ml). Keratin containing wastes viz. silk, human hair, wool and chicken feathers were tested for keratin degrading ability of the bacterium. Amongst the tested substrates, the Chryseobacterium sp. RBT showed more specificity towards chicken feathers (98.6% degradation) with maximum keratinase activity (98.3 U/ml) and solubilized protein concentration (3.84 mg/ml). Effect of various physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources) on keratinase production was monitored. The maximum keratinase activity was observed at pH (8.6) and temperature (50 °C). Molasses (1.0% w/v) acted as an inducer and enhanced the keratinolytic activity by two fold, while starch worked as an inhibitor. The goat skin when treated with crude keratinase enzyme (2% v/v), showed complete dehairing within 12 h. Hence, Chryseobacterium sp. RBT shows potential as a candidate for treating the keratinous waste in an ecofriendly manner.

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    PubMed

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    PubMed Central

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  11. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content.

  12. The effect of metal contaminants on the formation and properties of waste-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaarsveld, J.G.S.; Deventer, J.S.J. van

    1999-08-01

    The stabilization and solidification of waste materials by the technology of geopolymerization is receiving increasing attention from researchers; immobilization of metal contaminants in these structures seems to be a viable alternative to present stabilization techniques. This paper presents some experimental evidence concerning the effect of the inclusion of mainly Cu and Pb on the physical and chemical characteristics of geopolymers manufactured by fly ash. A variety of experimental and analytical techniques were used in this investigation, including compressive strength testing, specific surface area analyses, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that contaminants are being immobilized through a combination of chemical bonding and physical encapsulation. The nature of he contaminant seems to have a fairly large effect on both the physical and chemical characteristics of the final product, with subsequent long-term implications as far as durability is concerned. It is therefore concluded that a definite interaction exists between matrix-forming components and the immobilization of the contaminant, where the amount of contaminant is a critical factor in the analysis.

  13. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Labieniec, Paula Ann

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  14. Evaluation of biological treatability of soil contaminated with manufactured gas plant waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.S.; Sims, R.C.; Murarka, I.P.

    1995-12-31

    The biological treatability of subsurface soil contaminated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste was evaluated. Mineralization assays incorporating {sup 14}C-phenanthrene were used to evaluate the biotransformation potential of indigenous microorganisms at the site. Multi-phase laboratory microcosms were used to evaluate the interphase transfer potential and chemical mass distribution of phenanthrene mineralization was influenced by nutrient addition and by the amount of contamination. The chemical mass distribution of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene indicated that volatilization may be an important transport mechanism for chemicals residing in, or migrating to the vadose zone of soil. Following removal of the coal-tar waste source at the site, the toxicity of water soluble extracts of the site soil decreased to a non-toxic response based upon Microtox{trademark} assay results. Parent compound compound concentrations at the site also decreased with time subsequent to source removal. Results of this study indicate that natural in situ bioremediation may be an important treatment process at a former manufactured gas plant waste site in New York. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. New Land disposal restrictions for contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex have been collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organic wastes. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Some highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented.

  16. Investigating Groundwater Contamination Following the Disposal of Hospital Wastes in a Government Reserved Area, Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eze, C T; Nwagwe, O R; Ogbuene, E B; Eze, H I

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the probable contamination of groundwater following hospital wastes disposal in a Government Reserved Area, Enugu, Nigeria. The ground water samples were collected from three distinct locations denoted as GW1, GW2 and GW3 at distances of about 100, 200 and 350 m respectively from the hospital location. The samples were collected during the dry season (December 2015, January and February 2016) and wet season (June, July and August 2016) and analyzed with standard procedures. The level of contamination of groundwater in the area was generally higher in the wet season than in dry season. The degree of contamination varies with distance and hence in the following order GW1 > GW2 > GW3 in both seasons. The study revealed the presence of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and values of the determined physicochemical ranged from (0.02 ± 0.01-272 ± 2.22 mg/L) in both seasons. The hospital management should develop effective ways to manage their wastes to protect the environment and public health.

  17. Stabilization of Cu-contaminated army firing range soils using waste oyster shells.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Grubb, Dennis G; Ko, Ilwon

    2011-01-01

    stabilization/solidification (S/S) process was used to immobilize Cu in contaminated soils obtained from two army firing ranges sites (A and B) with total Cu concentrations of 520 and 380 mg/kg, respectively. Both waste oyster shells (WOS) and pretreated oyster shells (POS) were used to immobilize Cu in the contaminated soils. Waste oyster shells passing the #10 mesh and #20 mesh were used for the Sites A and B, respectively. WOS- and POS-treated soil samples cured for 28 days were evaluated for Cu leaching by the Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT) method. Slurry suspensions were prepared to investigate the Cu immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The treatment results showed that the POS treatment was more effective than the WOS treatment of 28 days. For Site A, 10 wt% WOS and 3 wt% POS dosages were required to pass the Korean warning standard of 50 mg/kg, while 10 wt% WOS and 5 wt% POS dosages were required for the Site B treatment. The XRPD and SEM-EDX results showed that Cu immobilization was strongly linked to both CSH/CAH and ettringite. Overall, the POS treatment was effective at immobilizing the Cu in the contaminated soils, very likely due to its CaO content.

  18. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg_sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  19. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  20. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance <500m to the

  1. Chemical and biological systems for treating waste streams contaminated with high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Daniels, J.L.; Stenstrom, M.K.; Heilmann, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The removal of high explosives (HIE) from ordnance is being accomplished via washout steamout procedures. Because large volumes of waste water are generated by these processes, safe and efficient methods must be developed for their treatment. Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove HE from aqueous waste streams, but carbon that is laden with HE constitutes a hazardous solid waste. Although conventional treatment methods (i.e., incineration, open burning) are available, they may not be in compliance with existing or future environmental regulations. New and cost-effective methods are therefore required for the elimination of this solid waste. We are developing and demonstrating coupled chemical and biological systems for the safe and economical treatment of HE-laden activated carbon. We have developed a completely engineered treatment system to accomplish this objective and have been operating a pilot treatment system at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. In this system, HE- contaminated waste water is treated first by activated-carbon adsorption columns. The HE sorbed to carbon is subsequently recovered via heated solvent elution or by base hydrolysis. The HE- or hydrolysate-laden fluid is then treated using a denitrifying culture of microorganisms, which converts the HE or hydrolysate byproducts to less hazardous endproducts. With these methods, the treated carbon can either be re-used or disposed as a nonhazardous waste. This strategy, which has been shown to be effective for the regeneration of carbon and the degradation of RDX and HMX, will be applicable to other energetic chemicals sorbed to activated carbon.

  2. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  3. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-09-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  4. Natural attenuation of arsenic in soils near a highly contaminated historical mine waste dump.

    PubMed

    Drahota, Petr; Filippi, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch; Rohovec, Jan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sebek, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated soils near historical As-rich mine waste in Jáchymov (Czech Rep.), resulting from the smelting and seepage of the mine waste pore water, were studied to examine As partitioning between solid phases and pore waters. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses showed that As is exclusively associated with unidentified amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides, poorly crystalline goethite and hematite as adsorbed and coprecipitated species (with up to 3.2 wt.% As). Adsorption of As by Fe oxyhydroxides is likely to be a major control on the migration of As in the soil pore water containing only up to 15 μg L(-1) As(V). The slight variations in the dissolved As(V) concentrations do not follow the total contents of As in the soil or adsorbed As, but appeared to be a function of pH-dependent sorption onto Fe oxyhydroxides. The geochemical modelling using PHREEQC-2 supported the efficiency of As(V) adsorption by Fe oxyhydroxides in the soil affected by As-rich waste solution seepage. It also suggested that active Fe oxyhydroxides has a strong attenuation capacity in soil that could effectively trap the aqueous As(V) from the unremitting waste seepage for the next approx. 11600 years.

  5. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Spiegel, Ella F.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  6. Prediction of contaminant migration around radioactive waste repositories in salt formations in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wollrath, J.

    1995-12-31

    With rock salt as host formation of a radioactive waste repository density effects on the groundwater movement have to be considered. Therefore, the assumptions, results and difficulties of modelling groundwater movement and taking into account density effects are presented and discussed with reference to the calculations performed for the Gorleben repository. The results are compared to results obtained in the safety analyses for the Konrad repository. It is shown that the consideration of variable groundwater density increases groundwater travel times and hence slows down the transport of contaminants from the repository location to the ground surface.

  7. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  8. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  9. Development and Implementation of an Assay System for Rapid Screening of Transuranic Waste in Highly Contaminated Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Akers; Hopi Salomon; Lyle Robal

    2010-08-01

    An overview of the Fissile Material Monitor Waste Screener (FMM-WS) System is presented. This system is a multifunctional radioactive waste assay system suitable for the rapid assay of highly contaminated transuranic wastes immediately after retrieval, prior to packaging. The FMM-WS was developed for use at the Accelerated Cleanup Project (ARP) and began initial testing and operation in April 2008. The FMM-WS is currently in use and is providing needed data on transuranic (TRU) wastes with a range of material types, volumes, and densities from the Accelerated Retrieval Project (ARP).

  10. Oral bioaccessibility of inorganic contaminants in waste dusts generated by laterite Ni ore smelting.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Polák, Ladislav; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ratié, Gildas; Garnier, Jérémie; Quantin, Cécile

    2016-09-14

    The laterite Ni ore smelting operations in Niquelândia and Barro Alto (Goiás State, Brazil) have produced large amounts of fine-grained smelting wastes, which have been stockpiled on dumps and in settling ponds. We investigated granulated slag dusts (n = 5) and fly ash samples (n = 4) with a special focus on their leaching behaviour in deionised water and on the in vitro bioaccessibility in a simulated gastric fluid, to assess the potential exposure risk for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that both wastes contained significant amounts of contaminants: up to 2.6 wt% Ni, 7580 mg/kg Cr, and 508 mg/kg Co. In only one fly ash sample, after 24 h of leaching in deionised water, the concentrations of leached Ni exceeded the limit for hazardous waste according to EU legislation, whereas the other dusts were classified as inert wastes. Bioaccessible fractions (BAF) of the major contaminants (Ni, Co, and Cr) were quite low for the slag dusts and accounted for less than 2 % of total concentrations. In contrast, BAF values were significantly higher for fly ash materials, which reached 13 % for Ni and 19 % for Co. Daily intakes via oral exposure, calculated for an adult (70 kg, dust ingestion rate of 50 mg/day), exceeded neither the tolerable daily intake (TDI) nor the background exposure limits for all of the studied contaminants. Only if a higher ingestion rate is assumed (e.g. 100 mg dust per day for workers in the smelter), the TDI limit for Ni recently defined by European Food Safety Authority (196 µg/day) was exceeded (324 µg/day) for one fly ash sample. Our data indicate that there is only a limited risk to human health related to the ingestion of dust materials generated by laterite Ni ore smelting operations if appropriate safety measures are adopted at the waste disposal sites and within the smelter facility.

  11. Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata

    2015-03-01

    Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.

  12. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste-ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, Harold C.; Franks, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water contamination by pesticides used in the wood-preserving industry is widespread in the United States. Pine poles were treated with wood preservatives from 1902 to 1981 at a creosote works near Pensacola, Florida. Diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol were discharged to two unlined impoundments that had a direct hydraulic connection to the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Evidence of wood-preserving waste contamination appears to be confined to the upper 30 meters of the aquifer. The waste plume extends downgradient approximately 300 meters south toward Pensacola Bay. In 1983, the creosote works site was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as a national research demonstration area to apply the latest techniques for characterizing hazardous waste problems. The multidisciplinary research effort is aimed at studying processes that affect the occurrence, transport, transformations, and fate of the toxic contaminants associated with wood preservatives in the environment. Clusters of two to five wells were constructed at different depths at nine sites to define the depth of contamination. Research studies are investigating sorption, dispersion, dilution, chemical reactions, bacterially mediated transformations, quality assurance, plume hydrodynamics, and the ultimate fate of these complex organic wastes.

  13. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  14. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  15. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination - 12543

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt; Chamberlain, Grover; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination

  16. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Krook, J. . E-mail: joakr@ikp.liu.se; Martensson, A.; Eklund, M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  17. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion.

    PubMed

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  19. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    PubMed

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986-1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5-15 km from the nuclear power plant site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100 y service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel-containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel-containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  20. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  1. Modelling groundwater contamination above a nuclear waste repository at Gorleben, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2012-05-01

    The candidate repository for high-level nuclear waste in the Gorleben salt dome, Germany, is expected to host 8,550 tonnes of uranium in burnt fuel. It has been proposed that 5,440 waste containers be deposited at a depth of about 800 m. There is 260-280 m of siliciclastic cover sediments above the proposed repository. The potential groundwater contamination in the siliciclastic aquifer is simulated with the TOUGHREACT and TOUGH2-MP codes for a three-dimensional model with 290,435 elements. Two deterministic cases are simulated. The single-phase case considers the transport of radionuclides in the liquid phase only. The two-phase case accounts for hydrogen gas generated by the corrosion of waste containers and release of gaseous C-14. The gas release via a backfilled shaft is assumed to be steady (non-explosive). The simulation period is 2,000,000 years for the single-phase case and 7,000 years for the two-phase case. Only the radioactive dose in the two-phase case is higher than the regulatory limit (0.1 mSv/a).

  2. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation.

  3. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    PubMed

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  4. Rapid assessment of chemical contamination and toxicity equivalents at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Mashburn, W.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.; Dickerson, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Utilizing a new monitoring technique, contaminant burdens are assessed at a hazardous waste site containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This approach utilizes a sampling technique which allows for chemical characterization without the costly and time consuming collection and transportation of large samples from the field to the laboratory. In addition, this approach will allow for determination of toxicity equivalents without the use of living organisms. Soil extracts are obtained from a passive sampling device (PSD) constructed of a polymeric membrane containing C{sub 18} sorbent which measures the bioavailable chemical contaminants. The PSDs are deployed in the soil, retrieved from the field and then eluted in the laboratory. The extracts are used for quantitation and determination of chemical identity, concentration, and biological significance. An enzyme induction assay is used to assess toxicity equivalents of the environmental samples. The H411E rat hepatoma cell line was dosed with differing concentrations of PCB Aroclor 1254 to establish a dose-response relationship based on the induction of CytochromeP-450 by measuring the EROD/PROD activity. The cells were then dosed with serial dilutions of PSD extracts to determine toxicity equivalents. A correlation between contaminant concentration and enzyme induction was found with the extracts.

  5. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    PubMed

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  6. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  7. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-06-01

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental

  8. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  9. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  10. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonem, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  11. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties.

  12. Multiple-tracer tests for contaminant transport process identification in saturated municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, N.D. Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Multiple tracers were applied to saturated MSW to test dual-porosity properties. • Lithium demonstrated to be non-conservative as a tracer. • 260 mm diameter column too small to test transport properties of MSW. • The classical advection-dispersion mode was rejected due to high dispersivity. • Characteristic diffusion times did not vary with the tracer. - Abstract: Two column tests were performed in conditions emulating vertical flow beneath the leachate table in a biologically active landfill to determine dominant transport mechanisms occurring in landfills. An improved understanding of contaminant transport process in wastes is required for developing better predictions about potential length of the long term aftercare of landfills, currently measured in timescales of centuries. Three tracers (lithium, bromide and deuterium) were used. Lithium did not behave conservatively. Given that lithium has been used extensively for tracing in landfill wastes, the tracer itself and the findings of previous tests which assume that it has behaved conservatively may need revisiting. The smaller column test could not be fitted with continuum models, probably because the volume of waste was below a representative elemental volume. Modelling compared advection-dispersion (AD), dual porosity (DP) and hybrid AD–DP models. Of these models, the DP model was found to be the most suitable. Although there is good evidence to suggest that diffusion is an important transport mechanism, the breakthrough curves of the different tracers did not differ from each other as would be predicted based on the free-water diffusion coefficients. This suggested that solute diffusion in wastes requires further study.

  13. Mineral transformation controls speciation and pore-fluid transmission of contaminants in waste-weathered Hanford sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Thompson, Aaron; O'Day, Peggy A.; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Portions of the Hanford Site (WA, USA) vadose zone were subjected to weathering by caustic solutions during documented releases of high level radioactive waste (containing Sr, Cs and I) from leaking underground storage tanks. Previous studies have shown that waste-sediment interactions can promote variable incorporation of contaminants into neo-formed mineral products (including feldspathoids and zeolites), but processes regulating the subsequent contaminant release from these phases into infiltrating background pore waters remain poorly known. In this paper, reactive transport experiments were conducted with Hanford sediments previously weathered for one year in simulated hyper-alkaline waste solutions containing high or low 88Sr, 127I, and 133Cs concentrations, with or without CO2(aq). These waste-weathered sediments were leached in flow-through column experiments with simulated background pore water (characteristic of meteoric recharge) to measure contaminant release from solids formed during waste-sediment interaction. Contaminant sorption-desorption kinetics and mineral transformation reactions were both monitored using continuous-flow and wet-dry cycling regimes for ca. 300 pore volumes. Less than 20% of contaminant 133Cs and 88Sr mass and less than 40% 127I mass were released over the course of the experiment. To elucidate molecular processes limiting contaminant release, reacted sediments were studied with micro- (TEM and XRD) and molecular- (Sr K-edge EXAFS) scale methods. Contaminant dynamics in column experiments were principally controlled by rapid dissolution of labile solids and competitive exchange reactions. In initially feldspathoidic systems, time-dependent changes in the local zeolitic bonding environment observed with X-ray diffraction and EXAFS are responsible for limiting contaminant release. Linear combination fits and shell-by-shell analysis of Sr K-edge EXAFS data revealed modification in Sr-Si/Al distances within the zeolite cage. Wet

  14. Low birth weight and residential proximity to PCB-contaminated waste sites.

    PubMed Central

    Baibergenova, Akerke; Kudyakov, Rustam; Zdeb, Michael; Carpenter, David O

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that women exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are at increased risk of giving birth to an infant with low birth weight (< 2,500 g), and that this relationship is stronger for male than for female infants. We have tested the hypothesis that residents in a zip code that contains a PCB hazardous waste site or abuts a body of water contaminated with PCBs are at increased risk of giving birth to a low-birth-weight baby. We used the birth registry of the New York State Vital Statistics to identify all births between 1994 and 2000 in New York State except for New York City. This registry provides information on the infant, mother, and father together with the zip code of the mother's residence. The 865 state Superfund sites, the 86 National Priority List sites, and the six Areas of Concern in New York were characterized regarding whether or not they contain PCBs as a major contaminant. We identified 187 zip codes containing or abutting PCB-contaminated sites, and these zip codes were the residences of 24.5% of the 945,077 births. The birth weight in the PCB zip codes was on average 21.6 g less than in other zip codes (p < 0.001). Because there are many other risk factors for low birth weight, we have adjusted for these using a logistic regression model for these confounders. After adjusting for sex of the infant, mother's age, race, weight, height, education, income, marital status, and smoking, there was still a statistically significant 6% increased risk of giving birth to a male infant of low birth weight. These observations support the hypothesis that living in a zip code near a PCB-contaminated site poses a risk of exposure and giving birth to an infant of low birth weight. PMID:12896858

  15. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  16. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas I. Contaminants and abiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-15

    Acid resins are residues characterised by elevated concentrations of hydrocarbons and trace elements, which were produced by mineral oil industries in Central Europe during the first half of the last century. Due to the lack of environmental legislation at that time, these wastes were dumped into excavated ponds in public areas without further protection. In this work, the long-term effects of such resin deposits on soil quality of two forest areas (Bayern, Germany) were assessed. We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of contaminants in the surroundings of the deposits, where the waste was disposed of about 60 years ago. General soil chemical properties such as pH, C, N and P content were also investigated. Chemical analysis of resin waste from the deposits revealed large amounts of potential contaminants such as hydrocarbons (93 g kg(-1)), As (63 mg kg(-1)), Cd (24 mg kg(-1)), Cu (1835 mg kg(-1)), Pb (8100 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (873 mg kg(-1)). Due to the location of the deposits on a hillside and the lack of adequate isolation, contaminants have been released downhill despite the solid nature of the waste. Five zones were investigated in each site: the deposit, three affected zones along the plume of contamination and a control zone. In affected zones, contaminants were 2 to 350 times higher than background levels depending on the site. In many cases, contaminants exceeded the German environmental guidelines for the soil-groundwater path and action levels based on extractable concentrations. Resin contamination yielded larger total C/total N ratios in affected zones, but no clear effect was observed on absolute C, N and P concentrations. In general, no major acidification effect was reported in affected zones.

  17. Volume reduction of contaminated metal waste. [Sorting, size reduction, drip melting, induction melting

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G L; Heestand, R L

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual waste treatment plan comprises sorting the metal scrap into alloy types, size reduction of the scrap to fit in the melting equipment, further alloy segregation by sequentially raising the temperature of mixed scrap lots and allowing the low-melting alloys to drip-melt out, induction melting of the high-melting alloys, and casting all alloy type into ingots. Laboratory melts of various metals were made to compare the observed partitioning of uranium to the slag with thermodynamic calculations. An engineering-scale demonstration was also conducted in which typical metal scrap contaminated with UO/sub 2/ was processed by mechanical size reduction, drip melting, and induction melting. Results show decontamination was successful. 5 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  18. Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars.

  19. Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, B P

    1978-01-01

    Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. Images FIGURE 4. PMID:209986

  20. REPORT ON THE HOMELAND SECURITY WORKSHOP ON TRANSPORT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes discussions from the "Homeland Security Workshop on Transport and Disposal of Wastes From Facilities Contaminated With Chemical or Biological Agents." The workshop was held on May 28-30, 2003, in Cincinnati, Ohio, and its objectives were to:

    .Documen...

  1. Changes in microbial properties after manure, lime, and bentonite application to a heavy metal-contaminated mine waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One proposed method for stabilizing lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated mine wastes is to apply large quantities of organic matter in order to improve soil physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, which should stimulate nutrient cycling, reduce metal availability, and facilitate vegetati...

  2. Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. Methods A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. Findings The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. Conclusion The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. PMID:27274594

  3. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin.

  4. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  5. A preliminary report of indigenous fungal isolates from contaminated municipal solid waste site in India.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin

    2017-02-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) containing harmful substances is a major concern in waste management and can cause adverse effects on diversity of fungi in soil. The main objective was to evaluate the fungal diversity inhabiting in the soil nearby MSW disposal site. The fungal strains were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), media at temperatures 28 ± 1 °C by using standard serial dilution pour plate method, and appeared fungal colonies identified based on morphological characteristics. The overall most fungal diversity was found in soil sample collected from S5, followed by S4, S3, S1, and least in S2 site. A total of 24 fungal isolates recovered from the different MSW sites and Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Curvularia sp. genus has isolated from all the samples. In addition, the metal tolerance index performed because it needs to classify the fungus for their best use as potential agent for environmental protection. The metal tolerance outcomes revealed that both metals (cadmium and chromium) has appeared as the highest growth inhibitor for most strains and even fungal colonies did not propagate very well on the surface of media. Therefore, these findings suggest that the pre-adapted indigenous fungal isolates have proven remarkable tolerance ability to both metals. Furthermore, these highly metal-tolerant fungal strains are recommended for detail research or can use in pilot-scale bioremediation application to treat contaminated site.

  6. Phytoremediation trials on metal- and arsenic-contaminated pyrite wastes (Torviscosa, Italy).

    PubMed

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Coletto, Lucia; Zanetti, Federica; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Mosca, Giuliano

    2009-03-01

    At a site in Udine, Italy, a 0.7m layer of As, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn contaminated wastes derived from mineral roasting for sulphur extraction had been covered with an unpolluted 0.15m layer of gravelly soil. This study investigates whether woody biomass phytoremediation is a realistic management option. Comparing ploughing and subsoiling (0.35m depth), the growth of Populus and Salix and trace element uptake were investigated in both pot and field trials. Species differences were marginal and species selection was not critical. Impaired above-ground productivity and low translocation of trace elements showed that bioavailable contaminant stripping was not feasible. The most significant finding was of coarse and fine roots proliferation in surface layers that provided a significant sink for trace elements. We conclude that phytostabilisation and effective immobilisation of metals and As could be achieved at the site by soil amelioration combined with woody species establishment. Confidence to achieve a long-term and sustainable remediation requires a more complete quantification of root dynamics and a better understanding of rhizosphere processes.

  7. Olive mill waste biochar: a promising soil amendment for metal immobilization in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hmid, Amine; Al Chami, Ziad; Sillen, Wouter; De Vocht, Alain; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil-biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil-biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends.

  8. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-12-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a significant number were detected and quantified. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, followed closely by cephalexin, ofloxacin, and diclofenac, which were detected in >91% of samples and found to have median (maximum) concentrations of 0.2 (5.8), 0.39 (24.0), 0.02 (100.4), 0.41 (14.5), 0.15 (31.4), 0.14 (13.6) and 0.083 (29.8) microg/L, respectively. Lincomycin and acetaminophen had high measured concentrations (>100 microg/L), and 35 other pharmaceuticals occurred at the microg/L level. These incidence and concentration results correlate well with published data for other worldwide locations, as well as with Taiwanese medication usage data, suggesting a human contamination source. Many pharmaceuticals also occurred at levels exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), warranting further investigation of their occurrence and fate in receiving waters, as well as the overall risks they pose for local ecosystems and human residents. The information provided here will also be useful for development of strategies for regulation and remediation.

  9. Stabilization of Pb and Cd contaminated soils and soil quality improvements using waste oyster shells.

    PubMed

    Ok, Yong Sik; Lim, Jung Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Large amounts of oyster shells are produced as a by-product of shellfish farming in coastal regions without beneficial use options. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential for the use of waste oyster shells (WOS) containing a high amount of CaCO₃ to improve soil quality and to stabilize heavy metals in soil. To accomplish this, an incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the addition of 1-5 wt% WOS to stabilize the Pb (total 1,246 mg/kg) and Cd (total 17 mg/kg) in a contaminated soil. The effectiveness of the WOS treatments was evaluated using various single extraction techniques. Soil amended with WOS was cured for 30 days complied with the Korean Standard Test method (0.1 M·HCl extraction). The Pb and Cd concentrations were less than the Korean warning and countermeasure standards following treatment with 5 wt% WOS. Moreover, the concentrations of Cd were greatly reduced in response to WOS treatment following extraction using 0.01 M·CaCl₂, which is strongly associated with phytoavailability. Furthermore, the soil pH and exchangeable Ca increased significantly in response to WOS treatment. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that WOS amendments improved soil quality and stabilized Pb and Cd in contaminated soil. However, extraction with 0.43 M·CH₃ COOH revealed that remobilization of heavy metals can occur when the soil reaches an acidic condition.

  10. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk.

  11. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  12. Earthworms as colonisers: primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits.

    PubMed

    Eijsackers, H

    2010-03-15

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms live in close interaction with their soil environment and are able to change it considerably by their burrowing and litter comminuting behaviour. While earthworms have been studied extensively, several questions still remain unanswered such as: What are the characteristics of successful early colonisers? Do they function well in dispersal, individual establishment or population growth? Do the negative environmental conditions in these kinds of anthropogenic soils hamper colonization or are these colonizers relatively resistant to it? To what extent does colonization change the characteristics of the colonized substrate? In short, do earthworms impact the soil? In this paper, the characteristics that make earthworms successful colonisers are briefly described as well as which species are the most successful and under what circumstances, and what do earthworms contribute to the total process of succession. We propose that it is not so much eco-type or r-K strategy that govern success and succession of earthworm colonisation but rather environmental flexibility not only towards pH, desiccation, and temperature but also towards contaminants such as heavy metals. Moreover, the formation of an organic litter layer, in close connection with re-vegetation of the area, is essential for establishing earthworm populations, which, at first, are mainly superficially and shallow active species. The burrowing and organic matter digesting activity of these earthworms changes the upper soil to a well mixed humus layer suitable for deep burrowing earthworm species.

  13. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  14. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Gola river water contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in Uttaranchal, India.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Raj, Abhay

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal physico-chemical and microbial quality of Gola river water has been analyzed after confluence of pulp paper mill waste. The study revealed that it has enhanced 20-30 times pollution load of BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, sulphate, chloride, sodium, nitrate, potassium, lignin and phenol after mixing of pulp paper mill waste with river water in all season. Further, it induced the bacterial growth by increasing most probable number value of E. coli was 1.57 x 10(4), 1.6 x 10(4), 1.37 x 10(4) and SPC count was 1.68 x 10(4), 1.64 x 10(4), 1.67 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter respectively. While the most probable number value in river water before mixing of pulp paper mill waste was 1.4 x 10(2), 1.82 x 10(2), 1.5 x 10(2) and SPC count was 2.8 x 10(3), 2.89 x 10(3), 2.78 x 10(3)/100 ml during summer, monsoon and winter respectively. This indicated from 88-114 fold increase in most probable number value of E. coli and 56.55-60.0 times increase in SPC count of river water after mixing of effluent in summer, monsoon and winter. Moreover, the most probable number value in effluent itself before mixing was 3.4 x 10(2), 3.3 x 10(2), 2.8 x 10(2) and SPC count was 6 x 10(4), 6.5 x 10(4), 6 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the seasonal variation also regulated the bacterial population dynamics as per the physico-chemical quality, in which E. coli was found highest at the rate of (5.9 x 10(4)), E. aerogenes (5.3 x 10(4)), P. aeruginosa (1.3 x 10(4)), S. aureus (3.2 x 10(3)), K. pneumoniae (2.6 x 10(4)), Enteritidis (1.1 x 10(4)) on monsoon season and V. cholerae (7.4 x 10(2)), V. vulnificus (9.2 x 10(2))/100 ml in river water when contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in monsoon season. Thus, the monsoon season showed presence of FC and TC indicated the thermo-tolerant and disease causing group of bacterial population in effluent and its sequence was observed as monsoon>summer>winter. This indicated the

  15. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  16. Final Report: Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, J.; Mueller, K.T.; Serne, R.J.

    2006-12-11

    The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide (137-Cs, 90-Sr, and 129-I) immobilization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone: high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to (i) measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs+, Sr2+ and I-; (ii) determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL); (iii) establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminants upon exposure of the solids to more “natural” soil solutions (i.e., after removal of the caustic waste source); and (iv) integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time. During this funding period, we completed a large set of bench-scale collaborative experiments and product characterization aimed at elucidating the coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization. Our experiments included three representative Hanford sediments: course and fine sediments collected from the Hanford Formation and Ringold Silt, in addition to investigations with specimen clay minerals illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite. These experiments combined macroscopic measurements of element release, contaminant uptake and subsequent neoformed mineral dissolution behavior, with detailed studies of solid phase products using SEM and TEM microscopy, NMR, XAS and FTIR spectroscopy. Our studies have shown direct coupling between mineral

  17. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

  18. Nuclear wastes in the arctic: An analysis of arctic and other regional impacts from Soviet nuclear contamination

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    One of the lasting legacies of the Cold War, and the buildup in nuclear weaponry and military over the past 50 years, is nuclear waste and its threat to human health and the environment. Notable examples of waste dumped into the open environment have caused people and nations to demand information about what was done and what health risks may result. In 1993, disclosures about Russian dumping of submarine reactors, nuclear fuel, and other wastes into the Arctic and North Pacific Oceans brought this region and its problems into the world spotlight. This report examines the environmental and human health impacts from wastes dumped into the Arctic and North Pacific regions, from nuclear contaminants discharged into these environments, and from radioactive releases from both past and future nuclear activities in the region. The report presents what is known and unknown about this waste and contamination and how it may affect public health. It also stresses the need for a stable and enduring institutional framework and international cooperation for long-term observation and monitoring.

  19. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH MANUFACTURED GAS PLANT WASTES, DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.; L. John Fahy

    1997-04-01

    The contained recovery of oily waste (CROW{trademark}) process developed by Western Research Institute (WRI) removes organic contaminants from the subsurface by means of adaptation of technology used for secondary and heavy oil recovery. The CROW technology was successfully tested in the laboratory as part of a project for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SITE Program's Emerging Technology Program (Johnson and Guffey 1990). The experimental program consisted of several one- and three-dimensional hot-water flushing tests to simulate the process. The tests were conducted with organically saturated, sand packed tubes and blocks. These experiments showed that hot-water flushing could reduce the organic contaminant content by approximately 60%. Further testing with totally biodegradable chemicals showed that the removal rate could be increased to approximately 90%. Additional testing showed that the CROW process did not hinder but helped in the biodegradation of the residual organics (Johnson and Leuschner 1992). Based on the laboratory performance of the process, the EPA advanced the process to the SITE Demonstration Program. Further development of the process has included the completion of a pilot test at an active wood treatment facility. The pilot test provided additional information for the design of a field-scale remediation effort in addition to verifying several of the prepilot design specifications and predictions. Verified by the pilot test were the abilities to: (1) establish and maintain desired injection and extraction rates, (2) heat the test area to the desired temperature, (3) achieve non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal rates equivalent to laboratory rates, and (4) show that the produced fluid can be treated for reinfection or disposal (Fahy et al. 1992).

  20. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water.

  1. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions. Volume 1, Batch leach and adsorption tests and sediment characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units.

  2. Ecotoxicological risks associated with land treatment of petrochemical wastes. I. Residual soil contamination and bioaccumulation by cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus).

    PubMed

    Schroder, Jackie; Basta, Nicholas; Payton, Mark; Wilson, James; Carlson, Ruth; Janz, David; Lochmiller, Robert

    2003-02-28

    Petrochemical waste contains both organic and inorganic contaminants that can pollute soil and may pose significant ecological risks to wildlife. Petrochemical waste typically is disposed of in land treatment units, which are widespread throughout Oklahoma and the United States. Few studies have been conducted evaluating possible toxicity risks to terrestrial organisms residing on these units. In this study, the extent of soil contamination with fluoride (F), metals, and organic hydrocarbons, the bioaccumulation of F and metals in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), the relationship between contaminants in soil and in tissues of cotton rats, and the level of potentially toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil were determined on land treatment units. Over a 2-yr period, cotton rats and soils were collected and analyzed from 5 land treatment and matched reference units. The number of land treatment units with soil metal contamination (in parentheses) included: Cr, Cu, Pb (5). Al, As, Ni, Sr, Zn (4). Ba (3). and Cd, V (2). The number of land treatment units with soil PAH contamination (in parentheses) were naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene (3). acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (2). and acenaphthylene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene (1). Total PAH and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were elevated at all five land treatment units. Mean sums of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalents (BaPequiv ) were not affected on

  3. Changes in toxicity during in situ bioremediation of weathered drill wastes contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Steliga, Teresa; Jakubowicz, Piotr; Kapusta, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation of weathered drill wastes severely contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (90,000-170,000 mg kg(-1)) and BTEX (51.2-95.5 mg kg(-1)) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period in three phases: initial remediation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation. Fourteen non-pathogenic indigenous bacteria species belonging mainly to the Actinomycetales were identified and shown to be able to degrade 63-75% of nC(9)-nC(20), 36-51% of nC(21)-nC(36), 36% of BTEX and 20% of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Addition of five non-pathogenic fungi species to the bacterial consortium allowed degradation of 69-89% of nC(9)-nC(20), 47-80% of nC(21)-nC(36), 76% of BTEX, and 68% of PAHs. Microtox, Ostacodtoxkit, Phytotoxkit and Ames tests indicated that changes in toxicity were not connected with the decrease in TPH contents, possibly due to the formation of toxic indirect metabolites during bioremediation. No toxicity was found in the soil after bioremediation.

  4. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  5. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC.

  6. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  7. Ground-water contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Garbarino, John R.; Hult, Marc F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed.

  8. Aided phytostabilization of a trace element-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Bouchardon, Jean Luc; Faure, Olivier; Moutte, Jacques; Mench, Michel

    2016-12-15

    Aided phytostabilization of a barren, alkaline metal(loid)-contaminated technosol developed on steel mill wastes, with high soluble Cr and Mo concentrations, was assessed in a pot experiment using (1) Ni/Cd-tolerant populations of Festuca pratensis Huds., Holcus lanatus L., and Plantago lanceolata L. sowed in mixed stand and (2) six soil treatments: untreated soil (UNT), ramial chipped wood (RCW, 500m(3)ha(-1)), composted sewage sludge (CSS, 120t DW ha(-1)), UNT soil amended with compost (5% w/w) and either vermiculite (5%, VOM) or iron grit (1%, OMZ), and an uncontaminated soil (CTRL). In the CSS soil, pH and soluble Cr decreased whereas soluble Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni and P increased. The RCW treatment enhanced soluble Fe, Mn, and Mg concentrations. After 15 weeks, shoot DW yield and shoot Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, and Mg removals peaked for F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, with lowest shoot Cr, Ni and Mo concentrations. Holcus lanatus only grew on the CTRL, UNT, and CSS soils and P. lanceolata on the CTRL soil. Best treatment, F. pratensis grown on the CSS soil, led to a dense grass cover but its shoot Mo concentration exceeded the maximum permitted concentration in forage.

  9. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND CONTAMINATION ON MPCMS ELECTRODES IN 241-AY-101 AND 241-AN-107 TANK WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    CATO DM; DAHL MM; PHILO GL; EDGEMON GL; BELL DR.JLS; MOORE CG

    2010-03-26

    This report documents the results of tests designed to characterize the relationship between temperature and the measured potential of electrodes installed on multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems in waste tanks. This report also documents the results of tests designed to demonstrate the impact of liquid in-leakage into electrode bodies as well as the contamination of primary reference electrodes by diffusion through the electrode tip.

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  11. Record of Technical Change No.2 for ``Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada''

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-11-19

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ``Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.''

  12. Viability of organic wastes and biochars as amendments for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2015-01-01

    Composts derived from municipal (MOW and MSW) and domestic wastes (DOM), wastes from the olive oil industry (OWH and OP), green waste (GW), and biochars (BF and BS) were investigated to test their viability for remediating metal-contaminated soils. In addition to common analyses, the characterisation included structural analyses (FTIR and (13)C NMR), determination of the acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and the construction of sorption isotherms for target metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu). MOW and GW had the highest ANC values (4280 and 7100 meq kg(-1), respectively), and MOW, GW, DOM, BF and BS exhibited the highest solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd) with maximum values in the 10(4) L kg(-1) range. Sorption isotherms were fitted using linear and Freundlich models for better comparison of the sorption capacities of the materials. Based on their basic pH, high ANC and high sorption capacity, MOW, GW and biochars are the most promising materials.

  13. Alpha-contaminated solid waste sorting and conditioning at Belgoprocess (Belgium): lessons learned from the first three years operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, J.M.; Lahaye, J.P.; Luycx, P.; Van Nueten, E.; Goeyse, A. de

    2007-07-01

    The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R and D + Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the support of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T and C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material must be sorted and characterized. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated alpha waste will be compacted and the pellets will be embedded in a cement matrix in a 400-1 drum. The commissioning of the sorting unit which includes glove boxes was completed at BP, at the beginning of year 2005; the sorting campaign of 30-1 cans has been achieved in March 2007. The paper describes the project environment and gives a short description of the used facilities; the lessons learned from the sorting campaign and from the first T/C period, will be presented, as well. (authors)

  14. Fate of selected microorganisms when introduced as cross-contamination inocula into simulated food trash compartment waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Richards, Jeffrey; Birmele, Michele; Roberts, Michael

    counts and general cultivation-based methods. Detection and enumeration of challenge microbes was accomplished by cultivation-based microbiological methods with specific selective media and by molecular methods using quantitative stocktickerPCR (qPCR) with stocktickerDNA primers specific for each challenge organism. stocktickerDNA was extracted and purified from residual wastes with a stocktickerDNA isolation kit (Mo Bio), and quantified (NanoDrop) from standard curves prepared from pure culture isolates of each challenge organism. QPCR was conducted on a Roche LightCycler 480 using the Roche stocktickerSYBR Green Master Mix Kit. The identity of all challenge microbes in recovered isolates was verified by stocktickerDNA sequencing (stocktickerABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer - Applied Biosystems). To date, concentrations of challenge microbial populations at concentrations ranging from ˜107 - 108 have been added to simulated food waste and extracted either immediately after mixing or after 1 week of storage. Cultivation-based counts indicated that 5 of 6 challenge microbes could be recovered from simulated food wastes after inoculation for both concentrations. Only S. enterica serovar typhimurium could not be detected at week 0 for the 107 inoculum. Between week 0 and 1, challenge microbes increased in density: S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa increasing up to 4 orders of magnitude from the 107 inoculum. Molecular results for the week 0 and week 1 stored samples indicated that the relative concentrations of target stocktickerDNA for the challenge microbes had increased between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude. These preliminary studies demonstrate that potential problems regarding pathogens as cross-contaminants from other waste streams could develop during storage of space mission solid wastes. Ongoing studies are examining longer storage times up to 6 weeks. The results can be used to determine requirements and criteria for waste treatment prior to storage and provides a

  15. Variation in trace-element accumulation in predatory fishes from a stream contaminated by coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2014-04-01

    Extensive and critical evaluation can be required to assess contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes. Species differences in habitat use, resource use, and trophic level, often influenced by body form, can result in diverging contaminant bioaccumulation patterns. Moreover, the broad size ranges inherent with large-bodied fish provide opportunity for trophic and habitat shifts within species that can further influence contaminant exposure. We compared contaminant bioaccumulation in four fish species, as well as two herbivorous invertebrates, from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Muscle, liver, and gonad tissue were analyzed from fish stratified across the broadest size ranges available. Effects of trophic position (δ (15)N), carbon sources (δ (13)C), and body size varied among and within species. Mercury and cesium concentrations were lowest in the invertebrates and increased with trophic level both among and within fish species. Other elements, such as vanadium, cadmium, barium, nickel, and lead, had greater levels in herbivorous invertebrates than in fish muscle. Sequestration by the fish livers averted accumulation in muscle. Consequently, fish liver tissue appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of bioavailability, but exceptions existed. Despite liver sequestration, within fishes, muscle concentrations of many elements still tended to increase by trophic level. Notable variation within some species was observed. These results illustrate the utility of stable isotope data in exploring differences of bioaccumulation within taxa. Our analyses suggest a need for further evaluation of the underlying sources of this variability to better understand contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes.

  16. Maternal transfer of contaminants and reduced reproductive success of southern toads ( Bufo [Anaxyrus] terrestris ) exposed to coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Metts, Brian S; Buhlmann, Kurt A; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E; Hopkins, William A

    2013-03-19

    Bioaccumulation of contaminants and subsequent maternal transfer to offspring are important factors that affect the reproductive success of wildlife. However, maternal transfer of contaminants has rarely been investigated in amphibians. We examined maternal transfer of trace elements in southern toads ( Bufo[Anaxyrus] terrestris) residing in two locations: (1) an active coal combustion waste (CCW) disposal basin and adjacent 40-ha floodplain contaminated with CCW over 35 years ago and (2) an uncontaminated reference site. Our study is among the few to document tissue concentration-dependent maternal transfer of contaminants and associated adverse effects in amphibians. We found that females collected from the CCW-contaminated area had elevated concentrations of Ni, Se, and Sr; these females also transferred elevated levels of Cu, Pb, Se, and Sr to their eggs compared to females from the reference site. Overall reproductive success, estimated as a function of clutch size and offspring viability, was reduced by 27% in clutches collected from parents from the contaminated site compared to the reference site. Offspring viability negatively correlated with female and/or egg concentrations of Se and Ni. Reproductive success negatively correlated with Se and Cu concentrations in females, and Se concentrations in eggs. Our study highlights how exposure to CCW can negatively affect amphibian reproduction.

  17. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H. C.; Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)

  18. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: results from a pilot-scale on-site trial.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Purdie, Philip

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m(3) (ca. 4t onnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kWh/m(3), and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  19. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    PubMed

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels.

  20. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  2. Soil contamination with olive mill wastes negatively affects microbial communities, invertebrates and plants.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Olfa; Oliveira, Vanessa; Sena, Clara; Bouji, Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud; Wali, Ahmed; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of olive mill waste (OMW) on soil habitat function. To this end, soil samples from OMW evaporating ponds (S1-S5) located at Agareb (Sfax, Tunisia) and a reference soil (R) were collected. The effects of OMW on the springtails Folsomia candida (F.c.), the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (E.f.), Enchytraeus crypticus (E.c.) reproduction and on the soil living microbial communities were investigated. E.f. reproduction and tomato growth assays were performed in the reference soil amended with 0.43 to 7.60 % (wOMW/wref-soil) mass ratios of dried OMW. Changes in microbial function diversity were explored using sole-carbon-source utilization profiles (BiologEcoPlates(®)). E.f. absolutely avoided (100 %) the most polluted soil (S4) while the F.c. moderately avoided (37.5 ± 7.5 %) the same soil. E.c. reproduction in S4 was significantly lower than in S1, S2, S3 and S5, and was the highest in R soil. Estimated effect concentration EC50 for juveniles' production by E.f., and for tomato fresh weight and chlorophyll content were 0.138, 0.6 and 1.13 %, respectively. Community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were remarkably different in R and S4 and a higher similarity was observed between soils S1, S2, S3 and S5. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that differences between soil microbial functional diversity were mainly due to high polyphenol concentrations, while the salinity negatively affected E.c. reproduction in OMW contaminated soils. These results clearly reflect the high toxicity of dried OMW when added to agricultural soils, causing severe threats to terrestrial ecosystem functions and services provided by invertebrates and microbial communities.

  3. State of the Science Review: Potential for Beneficial Use of Waste By-Products for In-situ Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major eco...

  4. Adsorption/Membrane Filtration as a Contaminant Concentration and Separation Process for Mixed Wastes and Tank Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.M.

    1999-10-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate novel approaches for removing radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) from the tank wastes. The bulk of the Sr removal research conducted as part of this project investigated adsorption of Sr onto a novel adsorbent known as iron-oxide-coated sand. The second major focus of the work was on the removal of cesium. Since the chemistries of strontium and cesium have little commonality, different materials (namely, cesium scavengers known as hexacyanoferrates, HCFs) were employed in these tests. This study bridged several scientific areas and yielded valuable knowledge for implementing new technological processes. The applicability of the results extends beyond the highly specialized application niches investigated experimentally to other issues of potential interest for EMSP programs (e.g., separation of chromium from a variety of wastes using IOCS, separation of Cs from neutral and acidic wastes with EC-controlled HCFs).

  5. Heavy metals and organic compounds contamination in soil from an e-waste region in South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Huang, Bo; Bi, Xinhui; Ren, Zhaofang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 34 surface soil samples collected from farmland and 7 soil or dust samples collected from the workshops in South China, where e-waste was dismantled using primitive techniques. The results show that Cd, Cu and Hg were the most abundant metals, in particular Cd pollution was serious in farmland soils, and the median concentrations in farmland soils were beyond the environmental quality standard for soils (China Grade II). A correlation between Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and PCBs or PBDEs was significant indicating similar sources. Among the PCB congeners, high relative similarity was observed between the e-waste dump site soil (EW1) and Aroclor 1254, implying that the technical product Aroclor 1254 was one of the major sources of PCB contamination. High concentrations of PCBs in workshop dusts (D2 and D3) (1958 and 1675 μg kg(-1)) demonstrated that the workshops dismantling electrical wires and cables, electrical motors, compressors and aluminum apparatus containing PCBs in lubricants represent strong PCB emission sources to this area. Principal component analysis (PCA) and PBDE homologue patterns verify that farmland soils surrounding the e-waste recycling sites were enriched with lower brominated congeners, and the major source of PBDEs in dust samples might potentially be associated with the extensive use of deca-mix technical products as a flame retardant. The difference between e-waste soils, dusts and farmland soils can be observed in the PCA score plot of PCBs and PBDEs, and E-waste soils and dusts exhibited more diversity than farmland soils. Furthermore, a prediction of the particular kinds of pollution from different recycling activities through the analysis of each contamination and the connections between them was investigated.

  6. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stefan; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M.; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  7. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  8. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    SciTech Connect

    DeMonia, Brian; Dunning, Don; Hampshire John

    2013-07-01

    recent DOE assessment found that implementation of the site-specific authorized limits for volumetrically contaminated waste was potentially limited due in part to confusion regarding the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and/or surface activity limits to specific wastes. This paper describes recent efforts to update the authorized limits for Industrial Landfill V and Construction/Demolition Landfill VII and to improve the procedures for implementation of these criteria. The approved authorized limits have been evaluated and confirmed to meet the current requirements of DOE Order 458.1, which superseded DOE Order 5400.5 in February 2011. In addition, volumetric concentration limits have been developed for additional radionuclides, and site-specific authorized limits for wastes with surface contamination have been developed. Implementing procedures have been revised to clarify the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and surface activity limits, and to allow the use of non-destructive waste characterization methods. These changes have been designed to promote improved utilization of available disposal capacity of the onsite disposal facilities within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. In addition, these changes serve to bring the waste acceptance requirements at these DOE onsite landfills into greater consistency with the requirements for commercial/ public landfills under the TDEC Bulk Survey for Release (BSFR) program, including two public RCRA Subtitle D landfills in close proximity to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. (authors)

  9. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  10. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge.

  12. Investigation of Contaminated Groundwater at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. Engineered remediation aspects at the site consist of a zero-valent-iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed in December 2002 intercepting the contamination plume and a phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees planted in the source area in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey planted an additional phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees on the upgradient side of the southern end of the PRB in February 2008. At least once during the summer, however, the trees were inadvertently mowed during lawn cutting activity. The PRB along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells upgradient from the PRB showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest downgradient from the PRB showed a sharp increase in 2005, followed by a decrease in 2006. Farther downgradient in the forest, the VOC concentrations began to increase in 2007 and continued to increase into 2008. The VOC-concentration changes in groundwater beneath the forest appear to indicate movement of a groundwater-contaminant pulse through the forest. It also is possible that the data may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in groundwater-flow direction.

  13. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  14. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  15. Single-Pass Flow-Through Test Elucidation of Weathering Behavior and Evaluation of Contaminant Release Models for Hanford Tank Residual Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita; Geiszler, Keith N.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminant release models are required to evaluate and predict long-term environmental impacts of even residual amounts of high-level radioactive waste after cleanup and closure of radioactively contaminated sites such as the DOE’s Hanford Site. More realistic and representative models have been developed for release of uranium, technetium, and chromium from Hanford Site tanks C-202, C-203, and C-103 residual wastes using data collected with a single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) method. These revised models indicate that contaminant release concentrations from these residual wastes will be considerably lower than previous estimates based on batch experiments. For uranium, a thermodynamic solubility model provides an effective description of uranium release, which can account for differences in pore fluid chemistry contacting the waste that could occur through time and as a result of different closure scenarios. Under certain circumstances in the SPFT experiments various calcium rich precipitates (calcium phosphates and calcite) form on the surfaces of the waste particles, inhibiting dissolution of the underlying uranium phases in the waste. This behavior was not observed in previous batch experiments. For both technetium and chromium, empirical release models were developed. In the case of technetium, release from all three wastes was modeled using an equilibrium Kd model. For chromium release, a constant concentration model was applied for all three wastes.

  16. Detection of Septic System Waste in the Groundwaters of Southern California Using Emerging Contaminants and Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Conkle, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D.; Pang, F.; Gan, J.

    2011-12-01

    In California, groundwater supplies 30-40% of the State's water and in rapidly growing regions like the Inland Empire, groundwater makes up 80-90% of the municipal water supply. However, anthropogenic contamination could adversely affect groundwater quality and thereby reduce available supplies. Appropriate tracers are needed to identify groundwater contamination and protect human health. Stable isotopes δ15N and δ 18O offer unique information about the importance of nitrate sources and processes affecting nitrate in aquifers. We investigated the influence of septic systems on groundwater quality in and around the city of Beaumont, CA during 2010-11. Groundwater samples were collected from 38 active wells and 10 surface water sites in the region (urban and natural streams, agricultural drainage and groundwater recharge basins supplied by the California State Water Project). Stable isotopes and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed for all the water samples. The variations of δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate were 2 - 21 per mil and -4 - 9 per mil respectively. δ15N-NO3 values greater than 10 per mil have been associated with nitrate inputs from sewage and animal waste, but in the Beaumont wells, PPCP concentrations were at or below the detection limit in most wells with high isotope ratios. We also observed a strong linear relationship between δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate (slope of~ 0.5) in the vast majority of our samples including those with high isotope ratios. Our results suggest that denitrification was widespread in the Beaumont aquifer and strongly affected the isotope composition of nitrate. In some wells, PPCPs (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, meprobamate and diuron) and isotope measurements indicated inputs from human waste, but these sites were affected primarily by local waste-water treatment plant effluent. A mixing model was developed using multiple tracers to determine sources and contributions of groundwater

  17. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  18. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  19. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  20. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  1. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy).

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-03-04

    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  3. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  4. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  5. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to signif...

  6. NEARBY LAKE SEDIMENT QUALITY AND SEEDLING TREE SURVIVAL ON ERODED OILY WASTE/BRINE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecosystem restoration study is being conducted at an old oil production area in Northeast Oklahoma. Surface soil samples from areas impacted by discarded crude oil and brine wastes have been chemically characterized. Surface erosion has occurred in areas impacted by waste disc...

  7. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  8. Ground Water Issue. BASIC CONCEPTS OF CONTAMINANT SORPTION AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major issues of concern to the Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is the transport and fate of contaminants in soil and ground water as related to subsurface remediation. Processes which influence the behavior of contaminants in the subsurface must be considered bot...

  9. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities.

  10. Comparison of leaching tests to determine and quantify the release of inorganic contaminants in demolition waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delay, Markus; Lager, Tanja; Schulz, Horst D.; Frimmel, Fritz H. . E-mail: fritz.frimmel@ebi-wasser.uka.de

    2007-07-01

    The changes in waste management policy caused by the massive generation of waste materials (e.g. construction and demolition waste material, municipal waste incineration products) has led to an increase in the reuse and recycling of waste materials. For environmental risk assessment, test procedures are necessary to examine waste materials before they can be reused. In this article, results of column and lysimeter leaching tests having been applied to inorganic compounds in a reference demolition waste material are presented. The results show a good agreement between the leaching behaviour determined with the lysimeter unit and the column units used in the laboratory. In view of less time and system requirements compared to lysimeter systems, laboratory column units can be considered as a practicable instrument to assess the time-dependent release of inorganic compounds under conditions similar to those encountered in a natural environment. The high concentrations of elements in the seepage water at the initial stage of elution are reflected by the laboratory column leaching tests. In particular, authorities or laboratories might benefit and have an easy-to-use, but nevertheless reliable, method to serve as a basis for decision-making.

  11. Bacterial communities in PAH contaminated soils at an electronic-waste processing center in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Rui; Yu, Xie-Zhi; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wong, M H

    2010-01-01

    Surface soils from Guiyu, China (an intense e-waste processing center) were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and variations in composition of the resident bacterial communities. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste pollution altered the bacterial community structure by promoting changes in species composition and species richness. Bacterial diversity was not decreased at e-waste open-burning sites, compared with a non e-waste site (reservoir site), due to flourishing of possible POPs-consuming bacterial cohorts. PAH-incubated experiments confirmed that different levels of PAHs might affect the bacterial community by suppressing or favoring certain groups of bacteria, for instance, uncultured Clostridium sp. and Massilia sp., respectively. Taxonomic analysis indicated beta-proteobacteria and Firmicutes were abundant bacterial lineages in PAH-polluted soils. This study is the first reporting bacterial community structures at e-waste processing sites, and indicated that crude processing of e-waste has become a biohazard to the terrestrial environment warranting more extensive studies of microbial communities at e-waste polluted environments.

  12. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a cleanup or containment technique for remediation of hazardous waste sites. Introductory material on plant processes is ...

  13. Genetically Engineering Bacillus subtilis with a Heat-Resistant Arsenite Methyltransferase for Bioremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Organic Waste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Chen, Chuan; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-10-01

    Organic manures may contain high levels of arsenic (As) due to the use of As-containing growth-promoting substances in animal feed. To develop a bioremediation strategy to remove As from organic waste, Bacillus subtilis 168, a bacterial strain which can grow at high temperature but is unable to methylate and volatilize As, was genetically engineered to express the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (CmarsM) from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The genetically engineered B. subtilis 168 converted most of the inorganic As in the medium into dimethylarsenate and trimethylarsine oxide within 48 h and volatized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine. The rate of As methylation and volatilization increased with temperature from 37 to 50°C. When inoculated into an As-contaminated organic manure composted at 50°C, the modified strain significantly enhanced As volatilization. This study provides a proof of concept of using genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation of As-contaminated organic waste during composting.

  14. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  15. Genetically Engineering Bacillus subtilis with a Heat-Resistant Arsenite Methyltransferase for Bioremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Organic Waste

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke; Chen, Chuan; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic manures may contain high levels of arsenic (As) due to the use of As-containing growth-promoting substances in animal feed. To develop a bioremediation strategy to remove As from organic waste, Bacillus subtilis 168, a bacterial strain which can grow at high temperature but is unable to methylate and volatilize As, was genetically engineered to express the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (CmarsM) from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The genetically engineered B. subtilis 168 converted most of the inorganic As in the medium into dimethylarsenate and trimethylarsine oxide within 48 h and volatized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine. The rate of As methylation and volatilization increased with temperature from 37 to 50°C. When inoculated into an As-contaminated organic manure composted at 50°C, the modified strain significantly enhanced As volatilization. This study provides a proof of concept of using genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation of As-contaminated organic waste during composting. PMID:26187966

  16. E-waste environmental contamination and harm to public health in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Boezen, H Marike; Huo, Xia

    2015-06-01

    The adverse effects of electronic waste (e-waste) on the human body have stirred up concern in recent years. China is one of the countries that confront serious pollution and human exposure of e-waste, and the majority of the population is exposed to potentially hazardous substances that are derived from informal e-waste recycling processes. This study reviews recent reports on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g., inhalation and ingestion) and several toxicities of human (e.g., endocrine system, respiratory system, reproductive system, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and genetic toxicity). Pieces of evidence that associate e-waste exposure with human health effects in China are assessed. The role of toxic heavy metals (e.g., lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and nickel) and organic pollutants (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), bisphenol A (BPA)) on human health is also briefly discussed.

  17. Handling and Treatment of Uranium Contaminated Combustible Radioactive Low Level Waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzen, J,; Lindberg, M.; Luvstrand, J.

    2002-02-26

    Studsvik RadWaste in Sweden has many years of experience in handling of low-level radioactive waste, such as burnable waste for incineration and scrap metal for melting. In Erwin, TN, in the USA, Studsvik Inc also operates a THOR (pyrolysis) facility for treatment of various kinds of ion-exchange resins. The advantage of incineration of combustible waste as well as of ion-exchange resins by pyrolysis, is the vast volume reduction which minimizes the cost for final storage and results in an inert end-product which is feasible for safe final disposal. The amount of uranium in the incinerable waste has impact on the quality of the resulting ash. The quality improves with lower U-content. One way of reducing the Ucontent is leaching using a chemical process before and if necessary also after the incineration. Ranstad Mineral AB has been established in the 1960s to support the Swedish national program for uranium mining in southern Sweden. Ranstad Mineral works among others wit h chemical processes to reduce uranium content by leaching. During 1998-2000 about 150 tons/year have been processed. The goal was to reach uranium residues of less than 0.02% for disposal on the municipal waste disposal.

  18. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-02-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  19. Geomicrobiology of High-Level Nuclear Waste-Contaminated Vadose Sediments at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Balkwill, David L.; Kennedy, David; Li, Shu-mei W.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Daly, Michael J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume were collected as part of investigations to evaluate the potential fate and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The plume originated from a leak that occurred in 1962 from a waste tank consisting of high concentrations of alkali, nitrate, aluminate, Cr(VI), 137Cs, and 99Tc. Investigations were initiated to determine the distribution of viable microorganisms in the vadose sediment samples, probe the phylogeny of cultivated and uncultivated members, and evaluate the ability of the cultivated organisms to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation. The populations of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were generally low, from below detection to ∼104 CFU g−1, but viable microorganisms were recovered from 11 of 16 samples, including several of the most radioactive ones (e.g., >10 μCi of 137Cs/g). The isolates from the contaminated sediments and clone libraries from sediment DNA extracts were dominated by members related to known gram-positive bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria most closely related to Arthrobacter species were the most common isolates among all samples, but other phyla high in G+C content were also represented, including Rhodococcus and Nocardia. Two isolates from the second-most radioactive sample (>20 μCi of 137Cs g−1) were closely related to Deinococcus radiodurans and were able to survive acute doses of ionizing radiation approaching 20 kGy. Many of the gram-positive isolates were resistant to lower levels of gamma radiation. These results demonstrate that gram-positive bacteria, predominantly from phyla high in G+C content, are indigenous to Hanford vadose sediments and that some are effective at surviving the extreme physical and chemical stress associated with radioactive waste. PMID:15240306

  20. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  1. Combined column and cell flotation process for the treatment of PAH contaminated hazardous wastes produced by an aluminium production plant.

    PubMed

    Dhenain, Aurélie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2009-06-15

    The aluminium electrolytic plants generate PAH and fluoride contaminated wastes which are usually classified as hazardous material. These residues are generally disposed in secure landfill sites. A flotation cell process was previously developed to remove PAH from these aluminium industry wastes. The tests were done on composite samples made of particle size fractions under 50mm. The efficiency of the flotation cell process was demonstrated but the high quantity of concentrate produced (14.0%) during the air injection period, because of the solid entrainment, raised the treatment cost. The aim of this study was to reduce the entrainment of fine particles in order to obtain an efficient and economic technology. The process initially developed was modified: the smallest particle size fraction (<0.5mm) of the composite sample was treated in a flotation column, whereas the other particle size fractions (0.5-50mm) were treated in a flotation cell. The separated treatment allowed to reduce the entrainment during the air injection period of the flotation cell step from 14.0% to 10.1%. The optimum total solids of the pulp and cocamidopropylhydroxysultaine (CAS) concentration were 3.33% and 0.50% (ww(-1)) for the flotation column, and 15% and 0.25% (ww(-1)) for the flotation cell. This combined flotation process minimized the total entrainment which allowed a 23.6% abatement of the concentrate quantity initially produced, and reduced the PAH concentrations of the wastes under the authorized limit of 1000 mg kg(-1).

  2. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  3. An application of geoelectrical methods for contamination plume recognition in Urbanowice waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mycka, Mateusz; Mendecki, Maciej Jan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect groundwater pollution and to identify the conditions of soil and groundwater near the Urbanowice landfill site using geoelectrical measurements. Presented measurements are preliminary results from tested site and are beginning of continuous monitoring. Contamination outflows detected by resistivity and IP technique show a good correlation with available hydrological data. Contamination plume were found in Eastern part of survey profil.

  4. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    PubMed

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  5. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  6. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  7. High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, A; Åström, M; Bergbäck, B; Elert, M; Höglund, L O; Kleja, D B

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  8. [Heavy Metal Contamination in Farmland Soils at an E-waste Disassembling Site in Qingyuan, Guangdong, South China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-lian; Ding, Jiang-feng; Lu, Gui-ning; Dang, Zhi; Yi, Xiao-yun

    2015-07-01

    Crude e-waste dismantling activities have caused a series of environmental pollution problems, and the pollutants released from the dismantling activities would finally pose high risks to human health by means of the accumulation through food chains. To explore the contamination status of heavy metals to the surrounding farmland soils in Longtang and Shijiao Town, Qingyuan, Guangdong, China, 22 farmland soil samples were collected and analyzed for the contents, spatial distributions and chemical forms of 6 heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr and Ni). The results showed that the 6 heavy metals exhibited obvious accumulations when compared to the corresponding background values in Guangdong Province. According to farmland environmental quality evaluation standard for edible agricultural products HJ 332-2006, the pollution severity of heavy metals was evaluated by monomial pollution index and Nemerow synthetic pollution index methods, the results indicated that 72. 7% of the soil samples contained one or more kinds of heavy metals with higher concentrations than the corresponding standard values, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were the main metals in the polluted soils, and for the proportion of contaminated soil samples in all the 22 samples, Cd was the highest, followed by Cu, and finally Pb and Zn. Nemerow synthetic pollution index further revealed that 68. 2% of soil samples were contaminated, and among them 53. 3% of samples were heavily contaminated. Most of the heavy metals were well correlated with each other at the 0. 05 or 0. 01 level, which indicated that primitive e-waste recycling activities were an important source of the heavy metal contamination in Longtang and Shijiao Town. The contents of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in surface soils were higher than those of other soil layers, and the contents of these 4 metals in deep soils (20- 100 cm) did not show significant decreases with the increasing depths. The contents of Cr and Ni maintained constant, and exhibited no statistical

  9. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  10. Temporal variations in parameters reflecting terminal-electron-accepting processes in an aquifer contaminated with waste fuel and chlorinated solvents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Klug, Michael J.; Velbel, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue in aquifer biogeochemistry is the means by which solute transport, geochemical processes, and microbiological activity combine to produce spatial and temporal variations in redox zonation. In this paper, we describe the temporal variability of TEAP conditions in shallow groundwater contaminated with both waste fuel and chlorinated solvents. TEAP parameters (including methane, dissolved iron, and dissolved hydrogen) were measured to characterize the contaminant plume over a 3-year period. We observed that concentrations of TEAP parameters changed on different time scales and appear to be related, in part, to recharge events. Changes in all TEAP parameters were observed on short time scales (months), and over a longer 3-year period. The results indicate that (1) interpretations of TEAP conditions in aquifers contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals, such as those with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, must consider additional hydrogen-consuming reactions (e.g., dehalogenation); (2) interpretations must consider the roles of both in situ (at the sampling point) biogeochemical and solute transport processes; and (3) determinations of microbial communities are often necessary to confirm the interpretations made from geochemical and hydrogeological measurements on these processes.

  11. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-06-08

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of {sup 238}Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little {sup 238}Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels.

  12. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pivnenko, K; Olsson, M E; Götze, R; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-05-01

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

  13. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs.

    PubMed

    Amahmid, O; Asmama, S; Bouhoum, K

    1999-08-01

    In Marrakech, raw sewage has been used for farming purposes for several decades for many types of crops. This study aimed to determine the contamination level of Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs for crops designated for human consumption. Collected crops in irrigated fields were turnip, marrow, squash, potatoes, pepper and eggplant. Field trials were also carried out on four crops, coriander, carrots, mint and radish, using three water types for irrigation, i.e. raw waste water, treated waste water (sedimentation and 16 days retention) and fresh water. Giardia cysts were detected at a level of 5.1 cysts/kg in potatoes, while Ascaris eggs were observed in numbers varying between 0.18 eggs/kg in potatoes and 0.27 eggs/kg in turnip. Field trials confirmed that irrigation of crops by raw waste water leads to contamination. Giardia and Ascaris were isolated in coriander at concentrations of 254 cysts/kg and 2.7 eggs/kg, respectively; mint was also highly contaminated with numbers reaching 96 cysts/kg and 4.63 eggs/kg. Carrots and radish were contaminated and respective numbers observed for Giardia were 155 and 59.1 cysts/kg; Ascaris was discovered in numbers of 0.7 and 1.64 eggs/kg, respectively. However, cultures irrigated with treated waste water and fresh water were free from contamination. Cysts and eggs on coriander persisted for a maximum of 8 days.

  14. Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

  15. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  16. Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Labunska, Iryna; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Tao, Fang; Wang, Mengjiao; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study reports concentrations and human dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as selected "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organochlorine pesticides, in ten staple food categories. Samples were sourced from areas in Taizhou City, eastern China, where rudimentary recycling and disposal of e-waste is commonplace, as well as from nearby non-e-waste impacted control areas. In most instances, concentrations in foods from e-waste recycling areas exceeded those from control locations. Concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TBP) in samples from e-waste sites were 3.09-62.2ng/g and 0.81-16.3ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively; exceeding consistently those in foods acquired from control sites by an order of magnitude in many cases. In contrast, while concentrations of HBCD in some foods from e-waste impacted areas exceed those from control locations; concentrations in pork, shrimp, and duck liver are higher in control samples. This highlights the potential significance of non-e-waste sources of HBCD (e.g. building insulation foam) in our study areas. While concentrations of DDT in all foods examined except pork were higher in e-waste impacted samples than controls; our exposure estimates were well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 0.01mg/kgbw/day derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Concentrations of ΣPCBs resulted in exposures (650 and 2340ng/kgbw/day for adults and children respectively) that exceed substantially the Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for ΣPCBs of 20ng/kgbw/day derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Moreover, when expressed in terms of dioxin-like toxicity equivalency based on the four dioxin-like PCBs monitored in this study (DL-PCBs) (PCB-105, 118, 156, and 167); concentrations in e-waste impacted foods exceed limits set by the European Union in

  17. Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Hierarchical porous structured zeolite composite for removal of ionic contaminants from waste streams and effective encapsulation of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Al-Jubouri, Sama M; Curry, Nicholas A; Holmes, Stuart M

    2016-12-15

    A hierarchical structured composite made from clinoptilolite supported on date stones carbon is synthesized using two techniques. The composites are manufactured by fixing a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) to the porous surface of date stones carbon or by direct hydrothermal synthesis on to the surface to provide a supported high surface area ion-exchange material for metal ion removal from aqueous streams. The fixing of the clinoptilolite is achieved using sucrose and citric acid as a binder. The composites and pure clinoptilolite were compared to test the efficacy for the removal of Sr(2+) ions from an aqueous phase. The encapsulation of the Sr(2+) using either vitrification or a geo-polymer addition was tested to ensure that the hazardous waste can be made safe for disposal. The hierarchical structured composites were shown to achieve a higher ion exchange capacity per gram of zeolite than the pure clinoptilolite (65mg/g for the pure natural clinoptilolite and 72mg/g for the pure synthesized clinoptilolite) with the synthesized composite (160mg/g) having higher capacity than the natural clinoptilolite composite (95mg/g). The rate at which the equilibria were established followed the same trend showing the composite structure facilitates diffusion to the ion-exchange sites in the zeolite.

  19. Assessment of metal contamination using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) during remediation of a waste disposal site in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stark, Scott C; Snape, Ian; Graham, Nicholas J; Brennan, John C; Gore, Damian B

    2008-01-01

    The remediation of the Thala Valley landfill, Casey Station, East Antarctica, is part of efforts to clean-up contaminated sites associated with the Australian Antarctic Program. These sites, ranging from abandoned rubbish dumps to fuel spills, are contaminated principally with metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. Remediation success depends on accurate, cost-effective and timely--fit-for-purpose--chemical analysis of soil and water samples from the site, which is required to guide excavation, the in situ or off-site treatment and disposal of contaminated material, and to validate satisfactory remediation. Owing to the remote location of Antarctica, it is necessary to carry out chemical analyses on-site. Waste and soil contaminated with Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu were excavated from Thala Valley for removal to Australia, treatment and disposal. Analysis of total metal concentrations in soil was performed at Casey Station with a transportable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. Soil samples were prepared using a simple size-fractionation method to expedite sample throughput. A method for assessing contaminant mobility in solid waste (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, TCLP) was also used to characterise soil. Although this was more labour-intensive and time-consuming than the total metals analysis, it was of great utility because leachable metals were often significant determinants in the assessment of contaminated soil. The combined data helped managers during remediation, directing excavation and allowing waste to be classified for treatment and disposal before its return to Australia.

  20. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S. S.; Muller, Edson I.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO3 or HNO3 plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH4OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k-low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g- 1 for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g-1 for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO3 and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb. In addition, suitable agreement of Cr to

  1. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  2. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUND WATER AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide a concise discussion of the processes associated with the use of phytoremediation as a cleanup or containment technique for remediation of hazardous waste sites. Introductory material on plant processes is provided. The different fo...

  3. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content.

  4. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  5. Hydrocarbon wastes at petroleum- and creosote-contaminated sites. Rapid characterization of component classes by thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, S.J.; Hrudey, S.E. ); Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.; Tosto, F. )

    1992-12-01

    Adaptation of thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the semiquantitative characterization of residual hydrocarbon contamination at petroleum and wood-preserving hazardous waste sites is described. Soils collected from an abandoned oilfield battery site and a former creosote wood treatment facility in Alberta were solvent extracted and the residues characterized using two mobile-phase systems, one capable of separating polar waste components and the other of separating constituent aromatics according to ring number. The method provides a rapid component class fingerprint of the saturate, aromatic, and polar components of heavy hydrocarbon wastes, is analogous to column chromatography, and is useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by aged hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it can be useful for preliminary screening of the potential biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-243 Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Bioremediation Pad, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-033

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-11-07

    The 600-243 waste site consisted of a bioremediation pad for petroleum-contaminated soils resulting from the 1100 Area Underground Storage Tank (UST) upgrades in 1994. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase BTEX-contaminated waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gratson, D A; Nimlos, M R; Wolfrum, E J

    1995-03-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been exploring heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) as a remediation technology for air streams contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX). This research is a continuation of work performed on chlorinated organics. The photocatalytic oxidation of BTEX has been studied in the aqueous phase, however, a study by Turchi et al. showed a more economical system would involve stripping organic contaminants from the aqueous phase and treating the resulting gas stream. Another recent study by Turchi et al. indicated that PCO is cost competitive with such remediation technologies as activated carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration for some types of contaminated air streams. In this work we have examined the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene using ozone (0{sub 3}) as an additional oxidant. We varied the residence time in the PCO reactor, the initial concentration of the organic pollutant, and the initial ozone concentration in a single-pass reactor. Because aromatic hydrocarbons represent only a small fraction of the total hydrocarbons present in gasoline and other fuels, we also added octane to the reaction mixture to simulate the composition of air streams produced from soil-vapor-extraction or groundwater-stripping of sites contaminated with gasoline.

  8. Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Distribution at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Duane G.

    2008-01-17

    This will be part of a CH2M HILL document. It summarizes important finidings from historic and recent groundwater investigations of the uppermost aquifer beneath the 200 East and 200 West Areas. The document also summarizes ongoing work to further characterize the unconfined aquifer and contaminants in that aquifer.

  9. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffery; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2010-02-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated "background" sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ( 233U) tests revealed that ˜51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched "hot spots" using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO 2) 2(SiO 3OH) 2(H 2O) 5

  10. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  11. Magnetic Adsorption Method for the Treatment of Metal Contaminated Aqueous Waste

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Cotten; J. D. Navratil; H. B. Eldredge

    1999-03-01

    There have been many recent developments in separation methods used for treating radioactive and non-radioactive metal bearing liquid wastes. These methods have included adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction and other chemical and physical techniques. To date very few, if any, of these processes can provide a low cost and environmentally benign solution. Recent research into the use of magnetite for wastewater treatment indicates the potential for magnetite both cost and environment drivers. A brief review of recent work in using magnetite as a sorbent is presented as well as recent work performed in our laboratory using supported magnetite in the presence of an external magnetic field. The application to groundwater and other aqueous waste streams is discussed. Recent research has focused on supporting magnetite in an economical (as compared to the magnetic polymine-epichlorohydrine resin) and inert (non-reactive, chemically or otherwise) environment that promotes both adsorption and satisfactory flow characteristics.

  12. Handbook: Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive or Radioactive Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    ash, and incinerator fly ash in modified sulfur cement and Portland cement waste forms ................................. 70 6-10 Drawing of full-scale...6-17 Economic analysis of encapsulating sodium nitrate at Rocky Flats Plant ..................... 74 6-18 Portland cement and modified sulfur cement...environment. DP-1629. Savannah and modified sulfur cement encapsulation. Both methods River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. have advantages over

  13. Ageing of a phosphate ceramic used to immobilize chloride-contaminated actinide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-03-31

    At AWE, we have developed a process for the immobilization of ILW waste containing a significant quantity of chloride with Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Waste ions are incorporated into two phosphate-based phases, chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Non-active trials performed at AWE with Sm as the actinide surrogate demonstrated the durability of these phases in aqueous solution. Trials of the process, in which actinide-doped materials were used, wer performed at PNNL where the waste form was found to be resistant to aqueous leaching. Initial leach trials conducted on 239Pu /241Am loaded ceramic at 40°C/28 days gave normalized mass losses of 1.2 x 10-5 g.m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g.m-2 for Pu and Cl respectively. In order to assess the response of the phases to radiation-induced damage, accelerated ageing trials were performed on samples in which the 239Pu was replaced with 238Pu. No changes to the crystalline structure of the waste were detected in the XRD patterns after the samples had experienced an α radiation dose of 4 x 1018 g-1. Leach trials showed that there was an increase in the P and Ca release rates but no change in the Pu release rate.

  14. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure.

  15. Ageing of a phosphate ceramic used to immobilize chloride contaminated actinide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian L.; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-03-31

    AWE has developed a process for the immobilization of ILW waste containing a significant quantity of chloride using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Waste ions are incorporated into two phosphate based phases, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. Non-active trials performed at AWE using samarium as the actinide surrogate demonstrated the durability of these phases in aqueous solution. Trials of the process using actinide-doped material were performed at PNNL which confirmed the immobilized wasteform resistant to aqueous leaching. Initial leach trials conducted on 239Pu /241Am loaded ceramic at 40°C/28 days gave normalized mass losses of 1.2 x 10-5 g.m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g.m-2 for Pu and Cl respectively. In order to assess the response of the phases to radiation-induced damage, accelerated ageing trials were performed on samples in which the 239Pu was replaced by 238Pu. No changes to the crystalline structure of the waste were detected using XRD after the samples had experienced a radiation dose of 4 x 1018 α.g-1. Leach trials showed that there had been an increase in the P and Ca release rates but no change in the Pu release rate.

  16. Microbiological study on bioremediation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) contaminated soil by agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaoning; Ma, Shuang; Li, Yuanping; Yan, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Jie; Tan, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    This paper studied the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contaminated soil under composting and natural conditions, respectively. BDE-47 residue in agricultural waste-composting pile was determined during 45-day composting. The microbial communities were determined by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the relationships between the DGGE results and physico-chemical parameters were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA) and heatmap-clustering analysis. The results showed that the degradation rate of BDE-47 was significantly higher in agricultural waste-composting pile compared with control group, which was enhanced up to almost 15 % at the end of composting. There were different environmental factors which affected the distribution of composting bacterial and fungal communities. The bacterial community composition was more significantly affected by the addition of BDE-47 compared with other physico-chemical parameters, and BDE-47 had stronger influences on bacterial community than fungal community during the composting. Meanwhile, the most variation in distribution of fungal community was explained by pile temperature.

  17. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster.

  18. Use of EDTA in modified kinetic testing for contaminated drainage prediction from waste rocks: case of the Lac Tio mine.

    PubMed

    Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Bussière, Bruno; Kandji, El-Hadji-Babacar; Chopard, Aurélie; Bouzahzah, Hassan

    2015-05-01

    The tools developed for acid mine drainage (AMD) prediction were proven unsuccessful to predict the geochemical behavior of mine waste rocks having a significant chemical sorption capacity, which delays the onset of contaminated neutral drainage (CND). The present work was performed in order to test a new approach of water quality prediction, by using a chelating agent solution (0.03 M EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in kinetic testing used for the prediction of the geochemical behavior of geologic material. The hypothesis underlying the proposed approach is that the EDTA solution should chelate the metals as soon as they are released by sulfide oxidation, inhibiting their sorption or secondary precipitation, and therefore reproduce a worst-case scenario where very low metal attenuation mechanisms are present in the drainage waters. Fresh and weathered waste rocks from the Lac Tio mine (Rio tinto, Iron and Titanium), which are known to generate Ni-CND at the field scale, were submitted to small-scale humidity cells in control tests (using deionized water) and using an EDTA solution. Results show that EDTA effectively prevents the metals to be sorbed or to precipitate as secondary minerals, therefore enabling to bypass the delay associated with metal sorption in the prediction of water quality from these materials. This work shows that the use of a chelating agent solution is a promising novel approach of water quality prediction and provides general guidelines to be used in further studies, which will help both practitioners and regulators to plan more efficient management and disposal strategies of mine wastes.

  19. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ∼1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (∼1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.

  20. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident.

  1. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission. Protease resistant prion protein from brains of CWD affected deer and elk...vivo. We have now identified several protein biomarkers as indicators of prion infection in urine from deer and elk. As the grant ends we have...to develop an extremely sensitive assay for the infective prion protein. We have made substantial progress since the start of the grant period but

  2. Ground Water Issue: Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    2000 Soil Phytoextraction 100 Bq 137Cs/g soil 112 Bq 90Sr/g soil Bahia grass ( Paspalum notatum), johnson grass (Sorghum halpense), switchgrass (Panicum...15% in shoots after 155 days in the presence of grass (Qiu et al., 1994); in another study, minimal uptake of PCP by several plants was seen (Bellin...will be used interchangeably to indicate all plant life, whether trees, grasses , shrubs, or other forms). Phytoextraction Phytoextraction is contaminant

  3. Analysis for remedial alternatives of unregulated municipal solid waste landfills leachate-contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Da; Jiang, Yonghai; Xi, Beidou; Ma, Zhifei; Yang, Yu; Yang, Queping; Li, Mingxiao; Zhang, Jinbao; Bai, Shunguo; Jiang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    A groundwater flow and solute transport model was developed using Visual Modflow for forecasting contaminant transport and assessing effects of remedial alternatives based on a case study of an unregulated landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater in eastern China. The results showed that arsenic plume was to reach the pumping well in the downstream farmland after eight years, and the longest lateral and longitudinal distance of arsenic plume was to reach 200 m and 260 m, respectively. But the area of high concentration region of arsenic plume was not to obviously increase from eight years to ten years and the plume was to spread to the downstream river and the farmland region after 20 years; while the landfill's ground was hardened, the plume was not to reach the downstream farmland region after eight years; when the pumping well was installed in the plume downstream and discharge rate was 200m3/d, the plume was to be effectively restrained; for leakage-proof barriers, it might effectively protect the groundwater of sensitive objects within an extent time range. But for the continuous point source, the plume was still to circle the leakage-proof barrier; when discharge rate of drainage ditches was 170.26 m3/d, the plume was effectively controlled; the comprehensive method combining ground-harden with drainage ditches could get the best effect in controlling contaminant diffusion, and the discharge rate was to be reduced to 111.43 m3/d. Therefore, the comprehensive remedial alternative combining ground-harden with drainage ditch will be recommended for preventing groundwater contamination when leachate leakage has happened in unregulated landfills.

  4. Disintegration and size reduction of slags and metals after melt refining of contaminated metallic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Melting under an oxidizing slag is an attractive method of decontaminating and reducing the volume of radioactively contaminated metal scrap. The contaminants are concentrated in a relatively small volume of slag, which leaves the metal essentially clean. A potential method of permanently disposing of the resulting slags (and metals if necessary) is emplacing them into deep shale by grout hydrofracture. Suspension in grout mixtures requires that the slag and metal be granular. The feasibility of size-reducing slags and disintegrating metals and subsequently incorporating both into grout mixtures was demonstrated. Various types of slags were crushed with a small jaw crusher into particles smaller than 3 mm. Several metals were also melted and water-blasted into coarse metal powder or shot ranging in size from 0.05 to 3 mm. A simple low-pressure water atomizer having a multiple nozzle with a converging-line jet stream was developed and used for this purpose. No significant slag dust and steam were generated during slag crushing and liquid-metal water-blasting tests, indicating that contamination can be well contained within the system. The crushed slags and the coarse metal powders were suspendable in group fluids, which indicates probable disposability by shale hydrofracture. The granulation of slags and metals facilitates their containment, transport, and storage.

  5. Nondestructive characterization of the contaminated biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste using synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) was employed to elucidate the elemental characteristics of contaminated biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (BFMSW). Six sectioned BFMSW samples were selected for SR-μXRF mapping and 50 individual fine particles sorbed onto BFMSW were analyzed using SR-μXRF point scanning. The results showed that heavy metals tended to be concentrated on the surface of BFMSW and highly localized to some "hot-spots". Marked differences in heavy metal sequestering potentials among various kinds of BFMSW, and the significant role of heavy metal "hot-spots" in BFMSW contamination were identified. The lower heavy metal levels in the simulated samples compared to field samples (with longer and more intense mixing) indicated that inter-contamination during waste handling contributed significantly to heavy metal accumulation in BFMSW. Furthermore, additional information regarding elemental characteristics of individual particles could be acquired using SR-μXRF.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  7. Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices and contaminant burdens of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) at three hazardous waste sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were studied at three industrial waste sites near Houston, Texas, to determine whether various morphological, biochemical, and histopathological indices provided evidence of contaminant exposure and toxic insult. Only modest changes were detected in cotton rats residing at waste sites compared with reference sites. No single parameter was consistently altered, except hepatic cytochrome P-450 concentration which was lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at two waste sites, and tended to be lower ( [Formula: see text] ) at a third waste site. Elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in rats at one waste site, but contaminant burdens of rats from the other sites were unremarkable. Unlike rats captured in summer, those trapped in winter exhibited hepatocellular hypertrophy and up to a 65% increase in liver: body weight ratio, cytochrome P-450 concentration, and activities of aniline hydroxylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase. Although genotoxicity has been previously documented in cotton rats residing at two of the waste sites, biomarkers in the present study provided little evidence of exposure and damage

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.'' The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  9. Leaded electronic waste is a possible source material for lead-contaminated jewelry.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Clement, Michael L

    2007-10-01

    Highly leaded jewelry, often imported from China, remains widely available in the United States. Leaded electronic waste is exported from the United States to several Asian countries where solder is recovered and circuit boards are stripped of parts in small workshops. To assess whether electronic waste is being recycled into the jewelry, lead, tin and copper content of highly leaded jewelry samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sixteen jewelry items previously determined to contain 20-80% lead by weight were analyzed. Samples were digested in nitric acid for analysis of lead and copper, and in aqua regia for analysis of tin. Six samples contained significant amounts of tin, from 20.8% to 29.9% by weight. In addition, copper was a significant minor component of five of these samples (up to 4% by weight). Copper (present at 10-40% by weight in circuit boards) was shown to rapidly move into heated lead-tin solder. The combined lead-tin-copper content of these six items ranges from 93.5% to 100%, suggestive of a solder-based source material. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that recycled circuit board solders are being used to produce some of the heavily leaded imported jewelry sold in the United States. Should this hypothesis be substantiated, it suggests that environmental policies to protect children's health must address both proper recycling of source materials as well as restrictions of the lead content in consumer goods.

  10. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    PubMed

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils.

  11. Feasibility studies on electrochemical recovery of uranium from solid wastes contaminated with uranium using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazorium chloride as an electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yusuke; Harada, Masayuki; Asanuma, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2015-09-01

    In order to examine feasibility of the electrochemical deposition method for recovering uranium from the solid wastes contaminated with uranium using ionic liquid as electrolyte, we have studied the electrochemical behavior of each solution prepared by soaking the spent NaF adsorbents and the steel waste contaminated with uranium in BMICl (1-butyl-3-methyl- imidazolium chloride). The uranyl(VI) species in BMICl solutions were found to be reduced to U(V) irreversibly around -0.8 to -1.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The resulting U(V) species is followed by disproportionation to U(VI) and U(IV). Based on the electrochemical data, we have performed potential controlled electrolysis of each solution prepared by soaking the spent NaF adsorbents and steel wastes in BMICl at -1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Black deposit was obtained, and their composition analyses suggest that the deposit is the mixtures of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds containing O, F, Cl, and N elements. From the present study, it is expected that the solid wastes contaminated with uranium can be decontaminated by treating them in BMICl and the dissolved uranium species are recovered electrolytically.

  12. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-05-25

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, consider human exposures from water, air, and inadvertent intruder pathways. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations with results which are often difficult to verify and interpret. This paper presents a technique to identify and simplify the essential parts of the groundwater analysis. The transport process of radionuclides including infiltration of precipitation, leachate generation, and advection and dispersion in the groundwater is divided into several steps. For each step, a simple analytical model is constructed and refined to capture the dominant phenomena represented in the complex analysis included in a site-specific performance assessment. This step-wise approach provides a means for gaining insights into the transport process and obtaining reasonable estimates of relevant quantities for facility design and site evaluation.

  13. Demobilisation of critical contaminants in four typical waste-to-energy ashes by carbonation.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Jelena; Ecke, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Two bottom ashes, one air pollution control (APC) residue and one fly ash from three different Swedish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants were characterised regarding the leaching of environmentally relevant components. Characterisation was performed using a diffusion tank leaching test. The impact of carbonation on the release of eight critical components, i.e., Cl(-), Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, SO(4)(2-) and Zn, was assessed at a lab-scale and showed carbonation to have a more pronounced demobilising effect on critical components in bottom ashes than in APC residue and fly ash. From grate type incinerator bottom ash, the release of Cr decreased by 97%, by 63% for Cu and by 45% for Sb. In the investigated APC residue, the releases of Cr, Se and Pb were defined as critical, although they either remained unaffected or increased after carbonation. Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) remained mobile after carbonation in all investigated residues.

  14. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct values in Section 3.4.1.7, second paragraph, last sentence; 90Sr values in Tables 3.22 and 3.32; and 99Tc values Table 4.3 and in Chapter 5. In addition, the tables in Appendix F were updated to reflect corrections to the 90Sr values. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in May 2005. CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contam¬inants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  15. Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon D.

    2003-06-01

    We are studying Cs, Sr and I uptake and release during clay mineral weathering under conditions representative of caustic tank waste leachate. Cesium sorption after 1 year reaction was the greatest in the order of vermiculite, illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite. Vermiculite showed highest Sr sorption, followed by kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite. Secondary phase products were feldspathoid sodium aluminum nitrate silicate, sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate, Na-Al chabazite and zeolite X. Discrete Sr phases were found in kaolinite and illite systems after at 10{sup -3} M Cs/Sr. Transmission electron microscopy with EDS indicates a high single Sr phase in illite systems. Spheroidal secondary phases are common in all clay consisting of intergrown Na-containing sodalite and cancrinite. In the case of illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, Cs or Sr are found in association with these neoformed spheroidal secondary phases, but this is not the case in vermiculite systems. In vermiculite, most of Cs and Sr is associated with clay particle, presumably because of its high charge density, rather than secondary phases. For detailed investigations of Cs/Sr coprecipitation with neoformed alumosilicate during the clay weathering process, we are conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments in the absence of clay minerals. Silica is reacted with synthetic tank waste to elucidate sites of Cs, Sr and I uptake in products. We are varying the Si/Al and the initial Cs, Sr and I concentrations to examine effects on mineral formation and uptake rate. To date, we have observed that precipitation kinetics and the nature of reaction products varies with initial Cs, Sr and I concentration. Solid phase products are being investigated by XRD, FTIR, NMR and EXAFS, and are also being subjected to dissolution kinetics studies to assess long term stability.

  16. Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into

  17. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  18. Characterization of Uranium-Contaminated Sediments From Beneath A Nuclear Waste Storage Tank From Hanford, Washington: Implications for Contaminant Transport and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P; Brown, Christopher F; Serne, R Jeffrey; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J; FRANCIS, AROKIASAMY J

    2010-02-15

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington State, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated “background” sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange (233U) tests revealed that ~51 to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by micro-X-Ray Fluorescence and micro-X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched “hot spots” using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO2

  19. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments 3 from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, 4 Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    SciTech Connect

    Um, W.; Francis, A.; Icenhower, J. P.; Brown, C. F.; Serne, R. J.; Wang, Z.; Dodge, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate-P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated 'background' sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ({sup 233}U) tests revealed that {approx}51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy ({mu}-XRF and {mu}-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched 'hot spots' using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 2

  20. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  2. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. )

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  3. Hydrogels for immobilization of bacteria used in the treatment of metal-contaminated wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Pizarro, R. A.; Smolko, E. E.; Lora, S.; Carenza, M.

    2002-01-01

    Polymeric matrices prepared by gamma irradiation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate at -78°C in the presence of water and glycerol and poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes were examined as carriers for immobilization of bacterial cells in experiments of metal decontamination. Bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of heavy metals were selected from soil and water from the Rı´o de la Plata coasts in Argentina and cultured in the hydrophilic membranes with the aim of bioremediation of the standard contaminated solutions. The results obtained indicate that removal from free bacteria was more efficient for Pb(II) and Cd(II) than for Cr(III) and Cu(II). It was ascertained that all metals could be immobilized in the polymer matrices to some extent. The Cr(III) ion concentration in bacteria immobilized on the acrylic hydrogel was approximately double of that found in the poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane.

  4. Denitrifying bacteria from the terrestrial subsurface exposed to mixed waste contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stefan; Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas; Akob, Denise M.; Jasrotia, Puja; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Kostka, Joel

    2010-01-01

    In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available with which to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria) and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were confirmed as complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. Ribosomal RNA gene analyses reveal that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter comprise a diverse population of circumneutral to moderately acidophilic denitrifiers at the ORIFRC site, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone. Rhodanobacter species do not contain a periplasmic nitrite reductase and have not been previously detected in functional gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Sequences of nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation, genomic and metagenomic data are essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifying microorganisms. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface.

  5. Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of PAHs and the PAH-degrading genes in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng

    2017-04-01

    Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders.

  6. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  7. White spruce response to co-composted hydrocarbon-contaminated drilling waste: effects of compost age and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jung; Chang, Scott X; Hao, Xiying

    2005-01-01

    There are growing interests to use co-composted drilling wastes contaminated with hydrocarbons as growth media for planting in land reclamation. However, such use of the compost may have potential problems such as inherent toxicity of residual hydrocarbon and microbial N immobilization due to high compost C to N ratios. We investigated the growth, biomass production, N uptake, and foliar delta13C of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings in a pot experiment using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old composts (with different hydrocarbon concentrations and C to N ratios) and a local noncontaminated soil with (200 kg N ha(-1)) or without N fertilization. Growth and N content of seedlings (particularly N content in roots) were lower when grown in the compost media as compared with those grown in the soil. Within the compost treatments seedling growth was affected by compost age, but the magnitude of growth reduction was not linearly proportional to hydrocarbon concentrations. Plant N uptake increased with compost age, which corresponds with an increase in indigenous mineral N concentration. Effects of N fertilization on N uptake were curtailed by the presence of indigenous mineral N (e.g., in the 4-yr-old compost) and by fertilization-induced stimulation of microbial activities (e.g., in the 1-yr-old compost). The differences in foliar delta13C values between seedlings grown in compost and soil (P < 0.05) suggest that limitations on water uptake caused by the residual hydrocarbon might have been the predominant factor limiting seedling growth in the compost media. This study suggests that water stress caused by residual hydrocarbons may be a critical factor for the successful use of co-composted drilling wastes as a growth medium.

  8. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  9. Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya; Parkpian, Preeda

    2009-08-15

    The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with best metal removal efficiencies) were carried out for the removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from sewage sludge, with citric acid as a reference. Using the same sludge before and after leaching, sequential fractionation studies were done to observe the effect of treatment on the forms of metals in sludge and their mobility and bioavailability. Results of laboratory scale studies revealed that leaching with all extractants at selected optimum conditions resulted in a decrease in heavy metals and pathogen content of the treated sludge, presence of sufficient amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and dominance of residual fractions in most metals, with sludge treated with A. niger, having the best quality. The results, therefore, indicate the high potential of the treated sludge for land application, with no harm from heavy metals released and no toxicity to the soil and groundwater.

  10. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-11-27

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns.

  11. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns. PMID:26633433

  12. Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration & Separation - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburczy, James A. : Chorover, John; O'Day, Peggy

    2005-09-15

    Studies of the reactivity of radionuclides (Cs, Sr, I) in STWL with model clays and natural sediments were conducted by coupling macroscopic sorption-desorption experiments with spectroscopic and microscopic investigations over a wide range of reaction times. Three experimental systems were studied: (1) model clay minerals, (2) products of homogeneous precipitation from STWL, and (3) representative Hanford sediments, with (1) and (3) reacted with STWL from 1 h to 369 d. The clay minerals included illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite, which constitute a sequence of micaceous weathering products with variable reactivity toward Cs+, Sr2+ and I-. Coarse and fine sediments collected from the Hanford formation (HC and HF, respectively) and Ringold Silt (RS) were studied in batch experiments and Warden silt loam was used in batch and column experiments. Solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Solid products (referred to here as ''secondary phases'' relative to the initial reactant minerals) were analyzed for time-dependent changes in mineralogy and modes of contaminant bonding by a variety of methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  13. Potential use of organic waste substances as an ecological technique to reduce pesticide ground water contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

    2008-05-01

    SummaryThe heavy use of pesticides in agriculture has meant that the fate due to their movement after their application continue to be a real problem for the environment. In this work, a viable eco-remediation technique based on the use of natural organic substances (NOS) that characterize the Mediterranean region is proposed to demonstrate the efficiency of endosulfan sulphate removal from water. Experimental results showed that the pH of pesticide solutions and temperature negatively affect the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 5 h were considered as the equilibrium time for realizing adsorption isotherm. The Freundlich isotherm model describes better the adsorption process of endosulfan sulphate on NOS tested. The Freundlich constant Kf depended mainly on the nature of each adsorbent and ranged from 5.56 for straw to 13.54 for date stones. The adsorption tests gave very satisfying results and point to the possible application of these supports as an ecological remediation technique to reduce pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Particle-size dependence on metal(loid) distributions in mine wastes: Implications for water contamination and human exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Wilson, K.M.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The mining and processing of metal-bearing ores has resulted in contamination issues where waste materials from abandoned mines remain in piles of untreated and unconsolidated material, posing the potential for waterborne and airborne transport of toxic elements. This study presents a systematic method of particle size separation, mass distribution, and bulk chemical analysis for mine tailings and adjacent background soil samples from the Rand historic mining district, California, in order to assess particle size distribution and related trends in metal(loid) concentration as a function of particle size. Mine tailings produced through stamp milling and leaching processes were found to have both a narrower and finer particle size distribution than background samples, with significant fractions of particles available in a size range (???250 ??m) that could be incidentally ingested. In both tailings and background samples, the majority of trace metal(loid)s display an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size, resulting in higher proportions of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in finer-sized fractions which are more susceptible to both water- and wind-borne transport as well as ingestion and/or inhalation. Established regulatory screening levels for such elements may, therefore, significantly underestimate potential exposure risk if relying solely on bulk sample concentrations to guide remediation decisions. Correlations in elemental concentration trends (such as between As and Fe) indicate relationships between elements that may be relevant to their chemical speciation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Copper, lead and zinc removal from metal-contaminated wastewater by adsorption onto agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Janyasuthiwong, Suthee; Phiri, Sheila M; Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Rene, Eldon R; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (groundnut shell, orange and banana peel, rice husk, coconut husk and Wawa tree saw dust) as potential cost-effective adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater was evaluated. The effect of pH (2.0-6.0), adsorbent dosage (0.6-2.2 g), contact time (10-130 min) and initial concentration (Pb: 5-105 mg/L, Cu and Zn: 2.5-52.7 mg/L) on the metal removal efficiency and uptake capacity were investigated using response surface methodology to optimize the process conditions. Groundnut shell showed a high potential to remove Cu, Pb and Zn from synthetic wastewater. The highest removal efficiencies with groundnut as the adsorbent were 85% at pH 5.0 for Cu and 98% at pH 3.0 for Pb and Zn. The optimum conditions obtained were 2.5 g adsorbent with 40.7 mg/L Cu at pH 4.4 and 64 min contact time, 2.5 g adsorbent with 196.1 mg/L Pb at pH 5.6 and 60 min contact time and 3.1 g adsorbent with 70.2 mg/L Zn at pH 4.3 and 50 min contact time, for Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. The regeneration of the groundnut shell was possible for a maximum of three cycles using 0.2 M HCl as the desorbing solution without any significant change in the adsorbing efficiency.

  16. Activated soil filters for removal of biocides from contaminated run-off and waste-waters.

    PubMed

    Bester, Kai; Banzhaf, Stefan; Burkhardt, Michael; Janzen, Niklas; Niederstrasser, Bernd; Scheytt, Traugott

    2011-11-01

    Building facades can be equipped with biocides to prevent formation of algal, fungal and bacterial films. Thus run-off waters may contain these highly active compounds. In this study, the removal of several groups of biocides from contaminated waters by means of an activated soil filter was studied. A technical scale activated vertical soil filter (biofilter) with different layers (peat, sand and gravel), was planted with reed (Phragmites australis) and used to study the removal rates and fate of hydrophilic to moderate hydrophobic (log K(ow) 1.8-4.4) biocides and biocide metabolites such as: Terbutryn, Cybutryn (Irgarol® 1051), Descyclopropyl-Cybutryn (Cybutryn and Terbutryn metabolite), Isoproturon, Diuron, and its metabolite Diuron-desmonomethyl, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n-Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone and Iodocarbamate (Iodocarb). Three experiments were performed: the first one (36 d) under low flow conditions (61 L m(-2) d(-1)) reached removal rates between 82% and 100%. The second one was performed to study high flow conditions: During this experiment, water was added as a pulse to the filter system with a hydraulic load of 255 L m(-2) within 5 min (retention time <1 h). During this experiment the removal rates of the compounds decreased drastically. For five compounds (Cybutryn, Descyclopropyl-Cybutryn, Diuron, Isoproturon, and Iodocarb) the removal dropped temporarily below 60%, while it was always above 70% for the others (Terbutryn, Benzo-isothiazolinone, n-Octyl-isothiazolinone, Dichloro-n-octylisothiazolinone). However, this removal is a considerable improvement compared to direct discharge into surface waters or infiltration into soil without appropriate removal. In the last experiment the removal efficiencies of the different layers were studied. Though the peat layer was responsible for most of the removal, the sand and gravel layers also contributed significantly for some compounds. All compounds are rather removed by

  17. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  18. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

  19. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 1, DOE/NV 506

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-07-21

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical information provided in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV-506

  20. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  1. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option.

  2. Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHgSM Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  3. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  4. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  5. Remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash: a mini review since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dahu; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Cai, Tianming

    2016-02-01

    The radiation contamination after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident attracts considerable concern all over the world. Many countries, areas, and oceans are greatly affected by the emergency situation other than Japan. An effective remediation strategy is in a highly urgent demand. Though plenty of works have been carried out, progressive achievements have not yet been well summarized. Here, we review the recent advances on the remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash. The overview of the radiation contamination is firstly given. Afterwards, the current remediation strategies are critically reviewed in terms of the environmental medium. Special attentions are paid on the adsorption/ion exchange and electrically switched ion exchange methods. Finally, the present review outlines the possible works to do for the large-scale application of the novel remediation strategies.

  6. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  7. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  8. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  9. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the second volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  10. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 contaminated waste dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-28

    This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  12. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  13. Fundamental studies of the removal of contaminants from ground and waste waters via reduction by zero-valent metals. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, J.A.; Amrhein, C.

    1998-06-01

    'Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the US and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man''s actions. For instance, the burial of wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of selenium, chromium, uranium, arsenic, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. In addition, the careless disposal of cleaning solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. Oxyanions of selenium, nitrogen, arsenic, vanadium, uranium, chromium, and molybdenum are contaminants in agricultural areas of the Western US. The management of these waters requires treatment to remove the contaminants before reuse or surface water disposal. In one instance in the Central Valley of California, the discharge of selenate-contaminated shallow groundwater to a wildlife refuge caused catastrophic bird deaths and deformities of embryos. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis. Both in-situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. Only limited success has been achieved in the field, partly because the basic surface chemical reactions are not well understood. The authors are performing fundamental

  14. U.S. Geological survey program on toxic waste--ground-water contamination; proceedings of the Second technical meeting, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 21-25, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragone, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This study characterizes the clay minerals in sediments associated with a plume of creosote-contaminated groundwater. The plume of contaminated groundwater near Pensacola, FL, is in shallow, permeable, Miocene to Holocene quartz sand and flows southward toward Pensacola Bay. Clay-size fractions were separated from 41 cores, chiefly split-spoon samples at 13 drill sites. The most striking feature of the chemical analyses of the clay fractions from uncontaminated site 2 and contaminated sites 4,5,6, and 7 is the variability of iron oxide (species in some samples as Fe2O3); total iron oxide abundance is lowest (2.5%) in uncontaminated sample 2-40, but is > 4.5% (4.5 to 8.5%) in the remaining assemblages. One feature suggesting interaction between the indigenous clays and the waste plume is the presence of nontronite-rich smectite. Nontronite commonly has been identified as the product of hydrothermal alteration and deep-sea weathering of submarine basalts; it is not a common constituent of Cenozoic Gulf Coast sediments. At the Pensacola site, relatively abundant nontronitic smectite is confined to contaminated sands or associated muds; it is least abundant or absent in sands and muds peripheral to the waste plume. The geochemistry of the waste plume, its substantial dissolved, (chiefly ferrous iron), mildly acidic (pH 5-6), and low redox composition, provides an environment similar to that previously determined for the low-temperature synthesis of nontronite. Data from clay-size fractions confirm conclusions that neoformed pyrite in some grain coatings occurs in an assemblage with excess iron over that required in the pyrite. Continuing studies to evaluate these tentative conclusions include: (1) chemical analysis of clay fractions from remaining sites to further examine the apparent relation between iron content and abundance of nontronitic smectite; (2) clay separation and analysis, and pore fluid extraction (squeezing or ultracentrifugation) and analysis from a

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-111, P-11 Critical Mass Laboratory Crib, and UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-045

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-28

    The UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread waste site is an unplanned release that occurred on December 4, 1951, when plutonium contamination was spread by a fire that ignited inside the 120 Experimental Building. The 120 Experimental Building was a laboratory building that was constructed in 1949 and used for plutonium criticality studies as part of the P-11 Project. In November 1951, a criticality occurred in the 120 Experimental Building that resulted in extensive plutonium contamination inside the building. The confirmatory evaluation supports a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of the extensive radiological survey of the surface soil and the confirmatory and verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford. CERCLA treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J; Koegler, S S; Kuhn, W L; Lowery, P S; Winkelman, R G

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test`s successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  17. Nano-hydroxyapatite alleviates the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plant growth and soil microbes in e-waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Wang, Shutao; Zuo, Qingqing; Liang, Shuxuan; Shen, Shigang; Zhao, Chunxia

    2016-06-15

    The crude recycling activities of e-waste have led to the severe and complex contamination of e-waste workshop topsoil (0-10 cm) by heavy metals. After nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAp) application in June 2013, plant and soil samples were obtained in November 2013, December 2013, March 2014 and June 2014. The results showed that NHAp effectively reduced the concentration of CaCl2-extractable Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in the topsoil and significantly reduced the metal content in ryegrass and also increased the plant biomass compared with that of the control. Moreover, the concentrations of CaCl2-extractable metals in the soil decreased with increasing NHAp. NHAp application also increased the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase. Moreover, the soil bacterial diversity and community structure were also altered after NHAp application. Particularly, Stenotrophomonas sp. and Bacteroides percentages were increased. Our work proves that NHAp application can alleviate the detrimental effects of heavy metals on plants grown in e-waste-contaminated soil and soil enzyme activities, as well as soil microbial diversity.

  18. Volume and activity of buried transuranic-contaminated wastes at U.S. Department of Energy facilities.

    PubMed

    Peterson, John M; MacDonell, Margaret M; Longo, Thomas P; Harvill, Joe P; Drez, Paul E

    2002-01-01

    From the 1940's through the 1970's, radioactive wastes meeting the current definition of transuranic wastes were disposed of by shallow land burial and other techniques at a number of sites owned and operated by the federal government in support of the nuclear weapons program. After transuranic wastes were identified as a separate category of radioactive wastes (distinct from low-level wastes) in 1970 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, they were generally segregated and placed in retrievable storage pending the availability of a geologic repository. Updated information on buried transuranic wastes was recently developed to support future decisions on how to manage these materials. This paper summarizes the approach used to develop this information for U.S. Department of Energy facilities and presents the volumes and transuranic activities of these wastes. The total volume of buried transuranic wastes at DOE sites is approximately 126,000 m3 with a much smaller volume (about 11,000 m3) disposed of at intermediate depths. The reported transuranic activity in these previously disposed of wastes is about 28,000 TBq.

  19. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  20. Gas treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated sediment samples from the North 60`s pits of the chemical waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, E.C.; Amonette, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    Twenty sediment samples were collected at depths ranging from 5 to 100 ft (1.5 to 30 m) beneath a metal-contaminated plating-waste site and extensively characterized for Cr(VI) content and environmental availability. Three samples were selected for treatment with diluted gas mixtures with the objective of converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which is relatively nontoxic and immobile. These tests were designed to provide information needed to evaluate the potential application of gas injection as an in situ remediation technique. Gas treatment was performed in small columns (4.9-cm ID, 6.4- to 13.9-cm long) using 100 ppm ({mu}L L{sup -1}) H{sub 2}S or ethylene mixtures in N{sub 2}. Treatment progress during the tests involving H{sub 2}S was assessed by monitoring the breakthrough of H{sub 2}S. Evaluation of H{sub 2}S treatment efficacy included (1) water-leaching of treated and untreated columns for ten days, (2) repetitive extraction of treated and untreated subsamples by water, 0.01 M phosphate (pH 7) or 6 M HCl solutions, and (3) Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of treated and untreated subsamples. Results of the water-leaching studies showed that the H{sub 2}S treatment decreased Cr(VI) levels in the column effluent by 90% to nearly 100%. Repetitive extractions by water and phosphate solutions echoed these results, and the extraction by HCl released only 35-40% as much Cr in the treated as in the untreated samples. Analysis by XANES spectroscopy showed that a substantial portion of the Cr in the samples remained as Cr(VI) after treatment, even though it was not available to the water and phosphate extracting solutions. These results suggest that this residual Cr(VI) is present in low solubility phases such as PbCrO{sub 4} or sequestered in unreacted grain interiors under impermeable coatings formed during H{sub 2}S treatment. However, this fraction is essentially immobile and thus unavailable to the environment.

  1. An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

  2. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-11-03

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding.

  3. Research Implementation and Quality Assurance Project Plan: An Evaluation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a research collaboration between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC), for the purpose of evaluating the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technology for post-closure monitoring of residual contamination at delisted and closed hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act [CERCLA (also known as 'Superfund')] of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

  4. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 2002, Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  5. The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, A; Uddh Söderberg, T; Jarsjö, J; Åström, M; Olofsson, B; Balfors, B; Destouni, G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  6. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-111, P-11 Critical Mass Laboratory Crib, and UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-065

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-28

    The 600-111, P-11 Critical Mass Laboratory Crib waste site, also referred to as the P-11 Facility, included the 120 Experimental Building, the 123 Control Building, and the P-11 Crib. The facility was constructed in 1949 and was used as a laboratory for plutonium criticality studies. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of confirmatory and verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  9. Organic contaminants and heavy metals in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China: Spatial characteristics and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Mei-Huan; Tan, Xiao; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-06-01

    The concentrations of several organic contaminants (OCs) and heavy metals were measured in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China to illustrate the spatial characteristics of these pollutants and to further evaluate human exposure risks. The median concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs) were 38.6-3560, 2360-30,100, 665-2720, and 19.5-1860ng/g, while the median concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn were 2.46-40.4, 206-1380, 217- 1200, 25.3-134, and 176-212μg/g in indoor dust. The levels of all pollutants, except Zn, in dust from the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than those from the other areas. Cd, Pb, and most OCs exhibited similar pollution patterns in the three areas, indicating that e-waste recycling activities are the major pollution source. In contrast, Cu, Cr, Zn, and penta-BDE are likely derived from household products in the rural and urban areas. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE, and DPs were 0.15-163, 3.97-1470, 1.26-169, and 0.11-134ng/kg bw/day for toddlers and adults. The highest EDIs of BDE 209 and Pb in toddlers in the e-waste recycling area were 16% and 18 times higher than the reference doses, indicating the high exposure risk of these pollutants in the e-waste recycling area.

  10. The radiochemical contamination (²¹⁰Po and ²³⁸U) of zone around phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Olszewski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was the determination of the impact of phosphogypsum waste heap in Wiślinka (northern Poland) for radiological protection of zone around waste heap. These studies are very important for the estimation of natural alpha radionuclides contents in the vicinity of phosphogypsum waste heap and for environmental pollution assessment of this area. The process of bioaccumulation of radionuclides in interior plants parts prove to examine their origin sources, too. The activity of (210)Po, (234)U, and (238)U were measured using an alpha spectrometer. The values of uranium and polonium concentration in water with immediate area of waste heap are considerably higher than in the waters of the Martwa Wisła river. The values of activity ratio (234)U/(238)U are approximately about one in the phosphogypsum (0.97 ± 0.05) and in the water of retention reservoir and pumping station (0.92 ± 0.01 and 0.99 ± 0.08), while in the water from the Martwa Wisła river they are slightly higher than one (1.03 ± 0.07 and 1.17 ± 0.06). In the analyzed plants species the highest amounts of polonium and uranium were found in ruderal plants samples (between 51 ± 1 and 89 ± 1 for (210)Po; between 36 ± 3 and 68 ± 3 for (238)U) as well as hygrophilous plant samples (18 ± 1 and 84 ± 3; 42 ± 2 and 130 ± 4, respectively for (210)Po and (238)U). The more amounts of (210)Po and (238)U radionuclides were accumulated mainly in the roots of plant species in comparison to green parts. The general conclusion of realized study is higher influence of phosphogypsum on radioactive contamination of environmental zone around heap waste in Wiślinka (northern Poland).

  11. Potential for transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Senftenberg from contaminated food waste derived compost and anaerobic digestate liquid to lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzannah; Gaffney, Michael T; Fanning, Seamus; Burgess, Catherine M

    2016-10-01

    The diversion of food wastes from landfill to sustainable disposal methods, such as composting and anaerobic digestion, has led to an increase in the soil amendment products that are now commercially available and which are derived from both of these processes. The use of such products as soil amendments during the production of ready-to-eat (RTE) crops is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of three well-recognised bacterial pathogens of importance to public health, namely Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Senftenberg and Listeria monocytogenes, to become internalised in lettuce plants from peat growing media amended with contaminated food waste derived compost and anaerobic digestion liquid. The results demonstrated both S. Senftenberg and E. coli O157:H7 are capable of internalisation at lower inoculation levels, compared to previous studies. The internalisation was visualised through confocal microscopy. Internalisation of L. monocytogenes did not occur, however significant levels of L. monocytogenes contamination occurred on the non-sterilised plant surface. Assessing the internalisation potential for each of these pathogens, through the compost and anaerobic digestate matrices, allows for better risk assessment of the use of these products in a horticultural setting.

  12. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV

  13. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (< 4%) to high, as for Cd (4-76%) or Zn (1.5-60%). Surface waters collected after the water treatment plant are less acidic (pH: 5.6-6.5) than those collected upper stream (pH 4.9) and showed high electric conductivity (up to 1.5 mS/cm), high concentrations of sulfate (618-1030 mg/L), and hazardous

  14. Canyon Disposal Initiative - Numerical Modeling of Contaminant Transport from Grouted Residual Waste in the 221-U Facility (U Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; White, Mark D.; Freeman, Eugene J.

    2004-10-12

    This letter report documents initial numerical analyses conducted by PNNL to provide support for a feasibility study on decommissioning of the canyon buildings at Hanford. The 221-U facility is the first of the major canyon buildings to be decommissioned. The specific objective of this modeling effort was to provide estimates of potential rates of migration of residual contaminants out of the 221-U facility during the first 40 years after decommissioning. If minimal contaminant migration is predicted to occur from the facility during this time period, then the structure may be deemed to provide a level of groundwater protection that is essentially equivalent to the liner and leachate collection systems that are required at conventional landfills. The STOMP code was used to simulate transport of selected radionuclides out of a canyon building, representative of the 221-U facility after decommissioning, for a period of 40 years. Simulation results indicate that none of the selected radionuclides that were modeled migrated beyond the concrete structure of the facility during the 40-year period of interest. Jacques (2001) identified other potential contaminants in the 221-U facility that were not modeled, however, including kerosene, phenol, and various metals. Modeling of these contaminants was beyond the scope of this preliminary effort due to increased complexity. Simulation results indicate that contaminant release from the canyon buildings will be diffusion controlled at early times. Advection is expected to become much more important at later times, after contaminants have diffused out of the facility and into the surrounding soil environment. After contaminants have diffused out of the facility, surface infiltration covers will become very important for mitigating further transport of contaminants in the underlying vadose zone and groundwater.

  15. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  16. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190, Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended January 2007). Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the following four corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge • 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall • 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System • 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 190 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from March 21 through June 26, 2007. All CAI activities were conducted as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 190 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs.

  18. Using vadose zone data and spatial statistics to assess the impact of cultivated land and dairy waste lagoons on groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Ronen, Z.; Kurtzman, D.; Peeters, A.; Dahan, O.

    2013-12-01

    Land cultivation and dairy waste lagoons are considered to be nonpoint and point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl-) and nitrate (NO3-). The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such agricultural activities on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on mass balances and on spatial statistical analysis of Cl- and NO3-concentration distributions in the saturated and unsaturated zones. The method enables quantitative analysis of the relation between the locations of pollution point sources and the spatial variability in Cl- and NO3- concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming along with land cultivation has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that leachates from lagoons and the cultivated land have contributed 6.0 and 89.4 % of the total mass of Cl- added to the aquifer and 12.6 and 77.4 % of the total mass of NO3-. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl- and NO3- to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl- and NO3- concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl- and NO3-. Results demonstrate that analyzing vadose zone and groundwater data by spatial statistical analysis methods can significantly contribute to the understanding of the relations between groundwater contaminating sources, and to assessing appropriate remediation steps.

  19. Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site; US Geological Survey Toxic Waste--ground-water contamination study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The project site is near Bemidji in northern Minnesota where an accidental spill of 10,500 barrels of crude oil occurred when a pipeline broke on August 20, 1979. Regulatory and remedial actions have been completed. The site is in a remote area with neither man-made hydraulic stresses nor other anthropogenic sources of the compounds of interest. The spill is in the recharge area of a local flow system that discharges to a small closed lake approximately 1,000 feet down the hydraulic gradient. The aquifer is pitted outwash dissected by younger glacial channels and is underlain by poorly permeable till at a depth of about 80 feet. Ground water dissolves oil floating on the water table under the spill site and moves toward the lake. At the water table, ground water enters the lake through lacustrine sediments; at depth, flow may be underneath the lake through the outwash. Contaminant transport has been as rapid as 4 feet per day based on the rate of movement of contaminants monitored through wells installed within a few days of the spill, but average rates are undoubtedly much less.

  20. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 3: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences on the Release of Contaminants to the Subsurface Environment from Waste Source Terms at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Paul L. Wichlacz

    2003-09-01

    This source-term summary document is intended to describe the current understanding of contaminant source terms and the conceptual model for potential source-term release to the environment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), as presented in published INEEL reports. The document presents a generalized conceptual model of the sources of contamination and describes the general categories of source terms, primary waste forms, and factors that affect the release of contaminants from the waste form into the vadose zone and Snake River Plain Aquifer. Where the information has previously been published and is readily available, summaries of the inventory of contaminants are also included. Uncertainties that affect the estimation of the source term release are also discussed where they have been identified by the Source Term Technical Advisory Group. Areas in which additional information are needed (i.e., research needs) are also identified.

  1. Fundamental studies of the removal of contaminants from ground and waste waters via reduction by zero-valent metals. Annual progress report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, J.A.; Amrhein, C.

    1997-01-01

    'Contaminated groundwater is a problem throughout the US and the world. In many instances the tvpes of contamination can be directly attributed to man''s actions. For instance, the burial of wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of selenium. chromium. uranium. arsenic. and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. In addition. the careless disposal of cleaning solvents. such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. In agricultural areas of the western US, shallow groundwaters have become contaminated with high levels of selenate, chromate, and uranyl. The management of these waters requires treatment to remove the contaminants before reuse or surface water disposal. In one instance in the Central Valley of California. the discharge of selenate-contaminated shallow groundwater to a wildlife refuge caused catastrophic bird deaths and deformities of embryos. At sites where solid-propellant rocket motors were tested or disposed of, high concentrations of perchlorate and trichloroethylene are being found in the groundwater. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used, on an experimental basis, for the reductive dechlorination of solvents and the removal of toxic trace elements. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the

  2. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND AND WASTE WATERS VIA REDUCTION BY ZERO-VALENT METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    2000-06-01

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed and field tested at this time. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the fundamental physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  3. Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jory A. Yarmoff; Christopher Amrhein

    2002-04-23

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  4. Resistance of fallow deer (dama dama) to chronic wasting disease under natural exposure in a heavily contaminated environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease or CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disorder of cervid ruminants in several regions of the US and Canada. The prion disorders are characterized by misfolding of the host cellular prion protein into a relatively protease resistant and potentially neur...

  5. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  6. Feasibility of biochar manufactured from organic wastes on the stabilization of heavy metals in a metal smelter contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed A; Li, Jianhua; Abbas, Mohamed H H

    2014-12-01

    The main objectives of the current study were to evaluate the potential effects of biochar derived from sugar cane bagasse (SC-BC) and orange peel (OP-BC) on improving the physicochemical properties of a metal smelter contaminated soil, and determining its potentiality for stabilizing Pb and As in soil. To achieve these goals, biochar was produced in a small-scale biochar producing plant, and an incubation experiment was conducted using a silt loam metal-contaminated soil treated with different application rates of biochar (0-10% w/w). The obtained results showed that, the addition of SC-BC and OP-BC increased significantly the soil aggregate stability, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and N-status in soil. SC-BC considerably decreased the solubility of Pb to values lower than the toxic regulatory level of the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure extraction (5 mg L(-1)). The rise in soil pH caused by biochar application, and the increase of soil organic matter transformed the labile Pb into less available fractions i.e. "Fe-Mn oxides" and "organic" bound fractions. On the other hand, As was desorbed from Fe-Mn oxides, which resulted in greater mobility of As in the treated soil. We concluded that SC-BC and OP-BC could be used successfully for remediating soils highly contaminated with Pb. However, considerable attention should be paid when using it in soil contaminated with As.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey program on toxic waste--ground-water contamination; proceedings of the Third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Bernard J.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the widespread distribution of creosote in the environment, an abandoned wood-treatment plant in Pensacola, Fla., was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as one of three national research demonstration areas in order to increase our understanding of hydrologic processes affecting the distributions of contaminants in ground water. The site was selected because of its long, uninterrupted history (1902 81) of discharging wastewaters to unlined surface impoundments, availability of a preliminary data base (Troutman and others, 1984), and the high probability of useful technology transfer from an investigation of the fate of organic compounds associated with wood-preserving wastewaters in the subsurface environment.

  8. Comparison of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part II: contaminants, char and pyrolysis oil properties.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Ateş, Funda; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-09-01

    Pyrolysis of real wastes (MPW and MSW) has been investigated at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C using Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3 as catalysts. The viscosity of pyrolysis oils could be decreased by the using of catalysts, especially by β-zeolite and MoO3. Both carbon frame and double bound isomerization was found in case of thermo-catalytic pyrolysis. Char morphology and texture analysis showed more coke deposits on the catalyst surface using MSW raw material. Pyrolysis oils had K, S, P Cl, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cr, Br and Sb as contaminants; and the concentrations of K, S, P, Cl and Br could be decreased by the using of catalysts.

  9. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  10. Assessment of waste oyster shells and coal mine drainage sludge for the stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Hyun, Seunghun; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    A novel treatment mix was designed for the simultaneous immobilization of As, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils using natural (waste oyster shells (WOS)) and industrial (coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS)) waste materials. The treatments were conducted using the standard U.S. sieve size no. 20 (0.85 mm) calcined oyster shells (COS) and CMDS materials with a curing time of 1 and 28 days. The As immobilization treatments were evaluated using the 1-N HCl extraction fluid, whereas the Pb and Cu immobilization treatments were evaluated using the 0.1-N HCl extraction fluid based on the Korean leaching standards. The treatment results showed that the immobilization of As, Cu, and Pb was best achieved using a combination mix of 10 wt% COS and 10 wt% CMDS. This treatment mix was highly effective leading to superior leachability reductions for all three target contaminants (>93 % for As and >99 % for Cu and Pb) for a curing period of 28 days. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results showed that As was present in the form of As(V) in the control sample and that no changes in As speciation were observed following the COS-CMDS treatments. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) sample treated with 10 wt% COS and 10 wt% CMDS indicated that As immobilization may be associated with the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates while Pb and Cu immobilization was most probably linked to calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs).

  11. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  12. Influence of operational conditions, waste input and ageing on contaminant leaching from waste incinerator bottom ash: a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Leaching of metals and Cl from fresh, naturally aged, and lab-scale aged bottom ashes generated during full-scale incineration experiments with different operational conditions (OC) and waste input (WI) was assessed. Although significant differences in the bulk contents of the generated bottom ashes were observed between the individual experiments, addition of 5.5 wt.% PVC, 11.1 wt.% chromated-copper-arsenate impregnated wood, 14.2 wt.% automotive shredder residue, 1.6 wt.% shoes, and 0.5 wt.% batteries to the normal municipal solid waste received at the incinerator (in six individual experiments) had no significant effect on metal leaching from the bottom ash. Likewise, changes in OC (furnace oxygen level and air distribution) could not be correlated to changes in leaching. The effects on metal leaching from ageing were generally larger than the effects from changes in OC and WI. Ash ageing caused a significant decrease in leaching of Cu, Zn, and Pb while leaching of Sb and particularly Cr increased. For Cl, a clear correlation between the bulk contents and leaching was observed for bottom ash generated in experiments with changes in WI. Comparison of leaching data obtained in this study with leaching from "typical" aged Danish bottom ash revealed no significant differences when the typical variations in leaching data over time and between different Danish incinerators were accounted. Generally, this indicates that metal leaching from bottom ash is not sensitive to limited changes in WI and OC as suggested in this paper, only Cl(-) leaching appeared to be affected.

  13. Data Package for Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contamination beneath Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-16

    This appendix summarizes historic and recent groundwater data collected from the uppermost aquifer beneath the 200 East and 200 West Areas. Although the area of interest is the Hanford Site Central Plateau, most of the information discussed in this appendix is at the scale of individual single-shell tank waste management areas. This is because the geologic, and thus the hydraulic, properties and the geochemical properties (i.e., groundwater composition) are different in different parts of the Central Plateau.

  14. PCDD/F contamination on surface soil in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: is it possible a different trend?

    PubMed

    Korucu, Mahmut Kemal

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on surface soils in the vicinity of the first hazardous waste incinerator of Turkey. In the study, 24 soil samples were taken from a 1625-m-radius circle whose center is the stack of the incinerator. This process was repeated 1 year later. Since the acquired average PCDD/F concentrations of the two sampling campaigns (0.05 and 0.02 ng WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/kg) were meaningfully low compared to the related literatures, a new sampling campaign was carried out to control this inconsistency, but this time in a foreign laboratory (0.56 ng WHO-TEQ/kg). In the same period, eight gas samples were taken from the stack under different operational conditions of the facility. According to the evaluations of the findings, the geographical-meteorological data of the study area and the specific operational conditions of the facility corroborate the concentrations of the first and the second soil samplings rather than the third one. The major underlying reason for the inconsistency of the soil concentrations may be the fact that the data analysis procedures used by the laboratories are different. The author suggests a hypothesis which argues that the soils in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator may have significantly lower concentration levels than in related literatures.

  15. Subterranean drilling and in situ treatment of wastes using a contamination control system and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Jessmore, James J.; Loomis, Guy G.; Pettet, Mark C.; Flyckt, Melissa C.

    2004-09-28

    Systems and methods relating to subterranean drilling while maintaining containment of any contaminants released during the drilling. A thrust block installed over a zone of interest provides an overflow space for retaining any contaminants and excess sealant returns. Negative air pressure may be maintained in the overflow space by a ventilation system. Access ports in the thrust block seal the overflow space from the surrounding environment with a membrane seal. A flexible sack seal in the access port may be connected to a drill shroud prior to drilling, providing containment during drilling after the drill bit penetrates the membrane seal. The drill shroud may be adapted to any industry standard drilling rig and includes a connection conduit for connecting to the flexible sack seal and a flexible enclosure surrounding the drill shaft and of a length to accommodate full extension thereof. Upon withdrawal, the sack seal may be closed off and separated, maintaining containment of the overflow space and the drill shroud.

  16. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.

    PubMed

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball® (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft® Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Kraków, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design.

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, REV 1

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps. CAU 168 consists of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs) in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The CASs contain surface and subsurface debris, impacted soil, and contaminated materials. Site characterization activities were conducted in 2002, and the results are presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 168 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). Site characterization results indicated that soil at several sites exceeded the clean-up criteria for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved the proposed corrective actions specified in the CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The approved corrective actions include no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls.

  18. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  19. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-10-28

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241 C 204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct 90Sr values in Chapter 3. The changes were made on page 3.9, paragraph two and Table 3.10; page 3.16, last paragraph on the page; and Tables 3.21 and 3.31. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in October 2004. This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Investigation of groundwater flow zones and contaminant transport in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1992-09-01

    An understanding of subsurface transport processes is essential to produce realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge from Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Locating groundwater flow zones (permeable pathways) and determining the relative contributions of primary vs secondary contaminant sources are critical to the proper selection and evaluation of remedial actions. Because groundwater discharge from SWSA 5 contributes significant amounts of {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr to the White Oak Creek watershed, an area on the southeastern edge of SWSA 5 was chosen for an investigation aimed at understanding and characterizing the subsurface movement of contaminants. Preliminary data collected in 1991 indicated that the vertical distribution of {sup 3}H (0.02 to 279 {mu}Ci/L) observed over the sampled interval (O to 10 ft deep) may be a result of upward diffusion from a hydraulically dominant fracture (or fractured zone) below the sampled interval. The investigation continued this year (1992) with the primary objective of defining where the most permeable zones exist in the subsurface and how they relate to the vertical extent of {sup 3}H. An open borehole was drilled on the southeastern edge of SWSA 5 through the upper zones of soil and saprolite and then through interbedded shales and limestones to a depth of about 26 ft. Two methods were used to determine permeable zones within the borehole. In addition, samples were collected monthly from a nearby well and seep (where tritiated groundwater discharges) to determine seasonal variability in the transport of {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr from the study area.

  2. Investigation of groundwater flow zones and contaminant transport in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1992-09-01

    An understanding of subsurface transport processes is essential to produce realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge from Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Locating groundwater flow zones (permeable pathways) and determining the relative contributions of primary vs secondary contaminant sources are critical to the proper selection and evaluation of remedial actions. Because groundwater discharge from SWSA 5 contributes significant amounts of [sup 3]H and [sup 90]Sr to the White Oak Creek watershed, an area on the southeastern edge of SWSA 5 was chosen for an investigation aimed at understanding and characterizing the subsurface movement of contaminants. Preliminary data collected in 1991 indicated that the vertical distribution of [sup 3]H (0.02 to 279 [mu]Ci/L) observed over the sampled interval (O to 10 ft deep) may be a result of upward diffusion from a hydraulically dominant fracture (or fractured zone) below the sampled interval. The investigation continued this year (1992) with the primary objective of defining where the most permeable zones exist in the subsurface and how they relate to the vertical extent of [sup 3]H. An open borehole was drilled on the southeastern edge of SWSA 5 through the upper zones of soil and saprolite and then through interbedded shales and limestones to a depth of about 26 ft. Two methods were used to determine permeable zones within the borehole. In addition, samples were collected monthly from a nearby well and seep (where tritiated groundwater discharges) to determine seasonal variability in the transport of [sup 3]H and [sup 90]Sr from the study area.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, March 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 34 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 34 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located within the Area 3 Compound at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the vicinity of the Mud Plant Facility in Yucca Valley. Historically, CAS 03-09-07, Mud Pit, was used for disposal of excess mud from washing drilling equipment from 1968 to 1974, at which time it began to be used for excess mud disposal (currently inactive); CAS 03-44-01, Chromium Contamination Spill, was used to store additives used in the formulation of drilling mud from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s; CAS 03-47-02, Area 3 Mud Plant Pond, was used as a freshwater storage reservoir for the mud plant as well as supplied water for a number of activities including the mixing of mud, the rinsing and cleaning of tanks, and various washdowns from the 1960s through 1990s; and CAS 03-09-06, Mud Disposal Crater, was created in 1962 by an underground nuclear detonation (i.e., Chinchilla test) and was used to mix and store mud, dispose of receiving waste from the mud plant floor drains and excess drilling mud, and clean/flush mix tanks through the mid-1990s. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to identify potentially contaminated ground soil at each of the four CASs and determine the quantity, nature, and extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs). The investigation will include systematic and biased surface and subsurface soil and mud sampling using hand-auguring and direct-push techniques; visual, video, and/or electromagnetic surveys of pipes; field screening for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides; and laboratory

  4. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  5. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  6. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.

  7. Phenolic contamination in the sand-and-gravel aquifer from a surface impoundment of wood treatment wastes, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Creosote and pentachlorophenol wastewaters discharged to unlined surface impoundments have resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of an industrial site near Pensacola, Florida. Total phenol concentrations of 36,000 microgm/liter have been detected 40 ft below land surface in a test hole 100 ft south of an overflow impoundment but less than 10 microgm/liter 90 ft below land surface. Samples collected in test holes 1,350 ft downgradient from the surface impoundments and 100 ft north of Pensacola Bay, above and immediately below a clay lens, indicate that phenol contaminated groundwater may not be discharging directly into Pensacola Bay. Phenol concentrations exceeding 20 microgm/liter were detected in samples from a drainage ditch discharging directly into Bayou Chico. Microbiological data collected near the test site suggest that an anaerobic methanogenic ecosystem contributes to a reduction in phenol concentrations in groundwater. A laboratory study using bacteria isolated from the study site indicates that phenol, 2-methylphenol, and 3-methylphenol are significantly degraded and that methanogenesis reduces total phenol concentrations in laboratory digestors by 45%. Pentachlorophenol may inhibit methanogenesis at concentrations exceeding 0.45 milligm/liter. (USGS)

  8. Geochemical Characteristics of the Contaminant Waste Plume in the F-Area of the Savannah River Site: From Kilometer to Micrometer Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Wan, J.; Denham, M.; Seaman, J. C.; Rakshit, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) was a major DOE facility for plutonium production during the Cold War. Low-level radioactivity acidic waste solutions were discharged to a series of unlined seepage basins in the F-Area of the SRS from 1955-1989. Although the site has gone through many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic with pH values as low as 3.2, and the concentrations of U and other radionuclides are still up to ten times higher than their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In order to understand the current and predict the future contaminant behavior, a comprehensive investigation is being conducted, funded jointly by the DOE’s offices of Biological and Environmental Resources (BER) and Environmental Management (EM). Five boreholes were drilled outside and within the plume along the groundwater flow path. Samples were collected from varied depths of each borehole, sediment pore-waters were extracted by ultracentrifugation, and the solid phase and pore-water were characterized. We identified the sediment mineralogy as being composed predominantly fine quartz sand with 2 to 12% clay. Kaolinite and goethite are the major minerals of the clay-sized fraction, residing primarily as coatings of varied thicknesses on quartz sand grains, providing reactive surfaces for contaminant adsorption. The measured U “field” distribution coefficients (Kd) and U concentrations in the pore waters are strongly pH dependent. These results are consistent with laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies, where U adsorption onto SRS sediments increases sharply from pH 3 to 5, and reaches ≈100% at pH 6-7. The variability in U adsorption capacity in these sediments is mainly caused by differences in goethite/clay content and effective reactive specific surface area. Measured “field” Kd values are smaller than those obtained from laboratory equilibrium adsorption studies with the same contaminated sediments. The equilibrium pH-dependent U adsorption

  9. Microbial Communities in Sediments of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria: Elucidation of Community Structure and Potential Impacts of Contamination by Municipal and Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Chioma C.; Adebusoye, Sunday A.; Ugoji, Esther O.; Ilori, Mathew O.; Amund, Olukayode O.; Hickey, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine sediments are significant repositories of anthropogenic contaminants, and thus knowledge of the impacts of pollution upon microbial communities in these environments is important to understand potential effects on estuaries as a whole. The Lagos lagoon (Nigeria) is one of Africa’s largest estuarine ecosystems, and is impacted by hydrocarbon pollutants and other industrial and municipal wastes. The goal of this study was to elucidate microbial community structure in Lagos lagoon sediments to identify groups that may be adversely affected by pollution, and those that may serve as degraders of environmental contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sediment samples were collected from sites that ranged in types and levels of anthropogenic impacts. The sediments were characterized for a range of physicochemical properties, and microbial community structure was determined by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Microbial diversity (species richness and evenness) in the Apapa and Eledu sediments was reduced compared to that of the Ofin site, and communities of both of the former two were dominated by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assigned to the family Helicobacteraceae (Epsilonproteobacteria). In the Ofin community, Epsilonproteobacteria were minor constituents, while the major groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, which were all minor in the Apapa and Eledu sediments. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD), a broad indicator of contamination, was identified by multivariate analyses as strongly correlated with variation in alpha diversity. Environmental variables that explained beta diversity patterns included SOD, as well as levels of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, cobalt, cadmium, total organic matter, or nitrate. Of 582 OTU identified, abundance of 167 was significantly correlated (false discovery rate q≤ 0.05) to environmental variables. The largest group of OTU correlated with PAH levels were PAH

  10. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  11. Carbon isotopic evidence for biodegradation of organic contaminants in the shallow vadose zone of the radioactive waste management complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-09-04

    Waste material buried in drums in the shallow subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contained significant amounts of organic compounds including lubricating oils and chlorinated solvents. CO{sub 2} concentrations in pore gas samples from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the disposal pits are 3 to 5 times higher than the concentrations in nearby background wells. The stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C values) of CO{sub 2} from the disposal pits averaged 2.4. less than CO{sub 2} from the background wells, indicating that the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations around the pits were derived from source materials with {delta}{sup 13}C values in the range of -24{per_thousand} to -29{per_thousand}. These {delta}{sup 13}C values are typical of lubricating oils, but higher than most solvents. The radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) contents of CO{sub 2} across most of the site were significantly elevated above modern concentrations due to reactor blocks buried in a subsurface vault at the site. However, several samples collected from the high-CO{sub 2} zone on the far side of the RWMC from the reactor blocks had very low {sup 14}C contents (less than 0.13 times modern), confirming production from lubricating oils manufactured from fossil hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the CO{sub 2} anomaly observed at the site is consistent with intrinsic biodegradation rates on the order of 0.5 to 3.0 metric tons of carbon per year.

  12. High breast milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among four women living adjacent to a PCB-contaminated waste site.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Altshul, L

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since 1993, measures of intrauterine PCB exposure have been obtained for a sample of New Bedford area infants. Among 122 mother-infant pairs, we identified four milk samples with total PCB levels that were significantly higher than the rest, with estimated total PCBs ranging from 1,100 to 2,400 ng/g milk fat compared with an overall mean of 320 ng/g milk fat for the 122 women. The congener profile and history of one case was consistent with past occupational PCB exposures. Otherwise, the source of PCB exposures in these cases was difficult to specify. Environmental exposures including those from fish consumption were likely, whereas residence adjacent to a PCB-contaminated site was considered an unlikely exposure source. In all four cases, the infants were full-term, healthy newborns. Because the developing nervous system is believed to be particularly susceptible to PCBs (for example, prenatal PCB exposures have been associated with prematurity, decrements in birth weight and gestation time, and behavioral and developmental deficits in later infancy and childhood, including decrements in IQ), it is critical to ascertain if breast-feeding is a health risk for the women's infants. Despite the potential for large postnatal PCB exposures via breast milk, there is limited evidence of significant developmental toxicity associated with the transmission of moderate PCB concentrations through breast milk. Breast-feeding is associated with substantial health benefits including better cognitive skills among breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. We conclude, based on evidence from other studies, that the benefits of breast-feeding probably outweigh any risk from PCB exposures via breast

  13. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

  14. Parallel inversion of a massive ERT data set to characterize deep vadose zone contamination beneath former nuclear waste infiltration galleries at the Hanford Site B-Complex (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.; Rucker, D. F.; Wellman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington, USA, originated in the early 1940's as part of the Manhattan Project and produced plutonium used to build the United States nuclear weapons stockpile. In accordance with accepted industrial practice of that time, a substantial portion of relatively low-activity liquid radioactive waste was disposed of by direct discharge to either surface soil or into near-surface infiltration galleries such as cribs and trenches. This practice was supported by early investigations beginning in the 1940s, including studies by Geological Survey (USGS) experts, whose investigations found vadose zone soils at the site suitable for retaining radionuclides to the extent necessary to protect workers and members of the general public based on the standards of that time. That general disposal practice has long since been discontinued, and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) is now investigating residual contamination at former infiltration galleries as part of its overall environmental management and remediation program. Most of the liquid wastes released into the subsurface were highly ionic and electrically conductive, and therefore present an excellent target for imaging by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) within the low-conductivity sands and gravels comprising Hanford's vadose zone. In 2006, USDOE commissioned a large scale surface ERT survey to characterize vadose zone contamination beneath the Hanford Site B-Complex, which contained 8 infiltration trenches, 12 cribs, and one tile field. The ERT data were collected in a pole-pole configuration with 18 north-south trending lines, and 18 east-west trending lines ranging from 417m to 816m in length. The final data set consisted of 208,411 measurements collected on 4859 electrodes, covering an area of 600m x 600m. Given the computational demands of inverting this massive data set as a whole, the data were initially inverted in parts with a shared memory inversion code, which

  15. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log KOW, and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log KOW values (p < 0.0001). The present study results improved our understanding on the environmental behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem.

  16. Reduction of the short-term availability of copper, lead and zinc in a contaminated soil amended with municipal solid waste compost.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, R; Villada, A; Barral, M T

    2011-04-15

    The effect of two municipal solid waste composts on the availability of Cu, Pb and Zn in a soil contaminated in the laboratory was evaluated. An agricultural acid soil developed on granite was amended with the composts at two rates (3% and 6% dry weight), contaminated with 1000 mg kg(-1) of Cu, Pb and Zn, and incubated in the laboratory for three months. Determinations of soil pH, CaCl(2)-extractable and EDTA-extractable Cu, Pb, and Zn were run monthly during the incubation. At the end, a leaching test (TCLP) and selective extractions were performed for these elements. The analysis of the CaCl(2)-extractable elements demonstrated a strong capacity of both composts to decrease the solubility of the metals added to the soil, specially for Cu and Pb. The percentage of reduction of the soluble forms with respect to the initial addition was higher at the highest rate of compost, and reached 99% for Cu and Pb, and 80% for Zn in the compost-amended soil, whereas the soil without amendment was able to reduce Cu availability by a 94%, but not Zn or Pb availability. The TCLP test showed that compost also reduced the leachability of the three elements. Nevertheless, EDTA extracted a major amount (around 90%) of the elements added in all the treatments. Given that EDTA has a strong ability to extract elements bound to organic matter, it can be hypothesized that the main mechanism of the observed insolubilization was the formation of low-solubility organo-metallic complexes with both soil and compost organic matter. The selective extractions confirmed that compost reduced the exchangeable fraction of the elements, and that the organically bound fraction (pyrophosphate-extractable) was the main one for the three elements.

  17. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  18. Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Panwar, N R; Singh, M V

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.

  19. Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in crows from an indian open waste dumping site: evidence for direct transfer of dioxin-like congeners from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Michio X; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Yoneda, Kumiko; Hashimoto, Takuma

    2005-06-15

    To assess the significance of waste dumping sites as a source of chemical contamination to ecosystems, we analyzed the residue levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorines in the breast muscle of crows from a dumping site in the south of Chennai city, South India. Crows from the dumping site contained significantly higher total TEQs (60 +/- 27 pg/g lipid wt) than those from the reference sites (26 +/- 18 pg/g lipid wt). Especially, certain dioxin-like coplanar PCB congeners (Co-PCBs), such as CB-77 and CB-105, whose source is commercial PCBs,were significantly higher in crows from the dumping site than those from the reference sites. Profiles of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in crows from the dumping site were similar to those of soil at the same site, which was confirmed by principal component analysis. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were obtained between the congener-specific bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PCDDs/DFs estimated from concentrations in crows and soil from the dumping site and the theoretical BCFs calculated from water-particle and lipid-water partitioning coefficients. On the other hand, the estimated BCFs had significant negative correlations with the molecular weight of PCDDs/DFs, indicating that molecular size limits their bioaccumulation. These results suggest that dioxin-like congeners in the soil of the dumping site were transferred directly to the crows through the ingestion of on-site garbage contaminated with soil, rather than through trophic transfer in the ecosystem. The present study provides insight into the ecological impacts of dumping sites.

  20. Geochemical features of fossil fuel contaminants found in urban wastes (Siemianowice Śląskie, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtoń, Anna; Fabiańska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    In sludge samples collected in the "Centrum" wastewater treatment plant in Siemianowice Śląskie, Poland, the composition of aliphatic- and aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compound fractions were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples collected in accordance with Polish standards were extracted, the extracts were separated into fractions with preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC), which next were investigated by GC-MS. The following compound groups of the geochemical origin were identified: n-alkanes in the range of n-C14 to n-C.39, acyclic isoprenoids (mainly pristane and phytane), steranes, tri- and pentacyclic triterpanes. Based on the distribution of biomarkers and their parameters, it was established that the dominant component of extractable organic matter in sluge is petroleum material of an unspecified origin. Its geochemical features indicate that its most likely source was crude oil (or its products) of a relatively high degree of thermal maturity (catagenic stage of thermal evolution corresponding to vitrinite reflectance 0.7-0.8%). Aromatic hydrocarbons probably originated from petroleum also, though some of them can be attributed to the products of combustion or to sources such as bituminous coals, the ash from coal/biofuel combustion or coal wastes stored nearby.

  1. Health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in tomato and green pepper plants grown in soils amended with phosphogypsum waste materials.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Al-Khashman, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste produced by the phosphate fertilizer industry that has relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn). The present study was conducted to investigate heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables (tomatoes and green peppers) and to evaluate the possible health risks associated with the consumption of vegetables grown in PG-amended soils. The enrichment factor values indicated that Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V were depleted to minimally enriched, and Cd was moderately enriched. The pollution load index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were strongly polluted with Cd, moderately polluted with Cr and Ni, and slightly polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn and V. The geo-accumulation index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were uncontaminated with Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and moderately contaminated with Cd. The trace metal transfer for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations was below what are considered as acceptable limits (<1) for food production in soil and vegetables (tomatoes and green peppers) at each site area. Soil-to-plant transfer factor values decreased in order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cr. The biological absorption coefficients in plants are, in order of highest to lowest, Pb > Zn > Cd > Cr, which suggests that Pb is more bioavailable to plants than Cd, Cr, and Zn. Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming vegetables (e.g., tomatoes and green peppers) grown in PG-amended soils ingest significant amounts of the metals studied. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM) and the health risk index (HRI) values are <1, indicating a relative absence of health risks associated with the consumption of vegetables/fruits grown in PG-amended soils. However, while DIM and HRI values suggest that the consumption of plants grown in PG-amended soils is nearly free of risks, there are other sources of metal exposures such as dust inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion (for

  2. A remediation strategy based on active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation in a soil contaminated by pyrite waste.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Almela, Concepción; Bernal, M Pilar

    2006-10-01

    Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils can be promoted by the proper use of soil amendments and agricultural practices. A 4-year phytoremediation programme was applied to a site affected by the toxic spill of pyrite residue at Aznalcóllar (Spain) in 1998, contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) and arsenic. This consisted of active phytoremediation, using organic amendments (cow manure and compost) and lime and growing two successive crops of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., followed by natural attenuation without further intervention. Changes in soil pH, extractable metal and As concentrations, organic carbon content and microbial biomass was evaluated. The initial oxidation of metal sulphides from pyrite residues released soluble metals and reduced soil pH to extremely acidic values (mean 4.1, range 2.0-7.0). The addition of lime (up to 64 t ha(-1)) increased soil pH to adequate values for plant growth, resulting in a significant decrease in DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in all plots. The natural attenuation phase showed also a decrease in extractable metals. Organic treatments increased the soil total organic carbon, which led to higher values of microbial biomass (11.6, 15.2 and 14.9 g kg(-1) TOC and 123, 170 and 275 microg g(-1) biomass-C in control, compost and manure plots, respectively). Active phytoremediation followed by natural attenuation, was effective for remediation of this pyrite-polluted soil.

  3. Stabilization of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Wazne, Mahmoud; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Jeong-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-05-01

    Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb(2+) (99%) and Cu(2+) leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5 wt.% COS and 5 wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5 wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu(2+) leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time.

  4. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing reveals the combined effects of key e-waste contaminants, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and lead, in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Zhu, Biran; Guo, Yongyong; Xu, Tao; Lee, Jae-Seong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-07-01

    PBDEs and heavy metals are two major contaminants at e-waste disposal sites, but their combined effects remain largely unexplored. In the present study, the transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish larvae were examined after acute exposure of embryos to 200 μg/L BDE-209, 20 μg/L lead (Pb) or their mixture (Mix). Stimulation of steroidogenic pathway and vitellogenesis in the BDE-209 and Mix treatments indicated the estrogenic activities of BDE-209, while Pb antagonized those estrogenic effects in the Mix treatment. Increased heart rates were observed in zebrafish exposed to the Pb and Mix treatments. The cardiac dysfunction probably resulted from the promotion of angiogenesis, increased adrenergic drive and induction of the formation of blood clot. Furthermore, the Pb and Mix treatments activated neuroendocrine regulation of the pituitary in a positive feedback loop, via the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor, thus increasing thyroid hormone production self-adaptively. Overall, the interaction between BDE-209 and Pb led to synergistic and antagonistic effects on gene transcriptions, with concerted contribution from their individual toxicological properties.

  5. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-15

    A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg(-1) in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L(-1) DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25°C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH4(+)-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  6. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  7. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  8. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality.

  9. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    advective movement of contaminants from selected sites within the solid waste management units to discharge points was simulated using MODPATH. Most of the particles were discharged to the nearest surface-water feature after traveling less than 1,000 feet in the ground-water system. Most areas within 1,000 feet of a surface-water feature or storm sewer had traveltimes of less than 50 years, based on an effective porosity of 40 percent. Contributing areas, traveltimes, and pathlines were identified for 224 wells at Naval Station Mayport under steady-state and transient conditions by back-tracking a particle from the midpoint of the wetted screen of each well. Traveltimes to contributing areas that ranged between 15 and 50 years, estimated by the steady-state model, differed most from the transient traveltime estimates. Estimates of traveltimes and pathlines based on steady-state model results typically were 10 to 20 years more and about twice as long as corresponding estimates from the transient model. The models differed because the steady-state model simulated 1996 conditions when Naval Station Mayport had more impervious surfaces than at any earlier time. The expansion of the impervious surfaces increased the average distance between contributing areas and observation wells.

  10. Contamination movement around a permeable reactive barrier at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor the fate and behavior of the plume in the forest is severely limited because the present axis of maximum contamination in that area bypasses all but one of the existing monitoring wells (12MW-12S). Moreover, the 2009 data indicate that there are no optimally placed sentinel wells in the probable path of contaminant transport. Thus the monitoring network is no longer adequate to monitor the groundwater contamination downgradient from the PRB.

  11. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  12. Waste classification sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-05-27

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-08-19

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10(-7) to 1.2 × 10(-5) (year(-1)) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10(-7) to 7.2 × 10(-6) (year(-1)) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities

  14. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  15. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-09-01

    the CASs were sufficient to meet the DQOs and evaluate CAAs without additional investigation. As a result, further investigation of the CAU 547 CASs was not required. The following CAAs were identified for the gas sampling assemblies: (1) clean closure, (2) closure in place, (3) modified closure in place, (4) no further action (with administrative controls), and (5) no further action. Based on the CAAs evaluation, the recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 is closure in place. This corrective action will involve construction of a soil cover on top of the gas sampling assembly components and establishment of use restrictions at each site. The closure in place alternative was selected as the best and most appropriate corrective action for the CASs at CAU 547 based on the following factors: (1) Provides long-term protection of human health and the environment; (2) Minimizes short-term risk to site workers in implementing corrective action; (3) Is easily implemented using existing technology; (4) Complies with regulatory requirements; (5) Fulfills FFACO requirements for site closure; (6) Does not generate transuranic waste requiring offsite disposal; (7) Is consistent with anticipated future land use of the areas (i.e., testing and support activities); and (8) Is consistent with other NNSS site closures where contamination was left in place.

  17. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  18. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Alkaliphilic Alishewanella aestuarii Strain HH-ZS, Isolated from Historical Lime Kiln Waste-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Salah, Zohier B; Rout, Simon P; Humphreys, Paul N

    2016-12-29

    Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of an environmental Gram-negative Alishewanella aestuarii strain (HH-ZS), isolated from the hyperalkaline contaminated soil of a historical lime kiln in Buxton, United Kingdom.

  19. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Alkaliphilic Alishewanella aestuarii Strain HH-ZS, Isolated from Historical Lime Kiln Waste-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zohier B.; Rout, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of an environmental Gram-negative Alishewanella aestuarii strain (HH-ZS), isolated from the hyperalkaline contaminated soil of a historical lime kiln in Buxton, United Kingdom. PMID:28034857

  20. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  1. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  2. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants have been - or may be - released.

  3. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p < 0.05). However, most of the metalloid/metals and PAH levels in fish fed with four types of fish feeds were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  4. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  5. Stable carbon ((12/13)C) and nitrogen ((14/15)N) isotopes as a tool for identifying the sources of cyanide in wastes and contaminated soils--a method development.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Jenny; Mansfeldt, Tim; Schulte, Ulrike

    2007-01-23

    The occurrence of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is of concern, since they are potentially hazardous. In order to determine the source of iron-cyanide complexes in contaminated soils and wastes, we developed a method based on the stable isotope ratios (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N of the complexed cyanide-ion (CN(-)). The method was tested on three pure chemicals and two industrials wastes: blast-furnace sludge (BFS) and gas-purifier waste (GPW). The iron-cyanide complexes were converted into the solid cupric ferrocyanide, Cu(2)[Fe(CN)(6)].7H(2)O, followed by combustion and determination of the isotope-ratios by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Cupric ferrocyanide was obtained from the materials by (i) an alkaline extraction with 1M NaOH and (ii) a distillate digestion. The [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) of the alkaline extraction was precipitated after adding Cu(2+). The CN(-) of the distillate digestion was at first complexed with Fe(2+) under inert conditions and then precipitated after adding Cu(2+). The delta(13)C-values obtained by the two methods differed slightly up to 1-3 per thousand for standards and BFS. The difference was larger for alkaline-extracted GPW (4-7 per thousand), since non-cyanide C was co-extracted and co-precipitated. Therefore the distillate digestion technique is recommended when determining the C isotope ratios in samples rich in organic carbon. Since the delta(13)C-values of BFS are in the range of -30 to -24 per thousand and of -17 to -5 per thousand for GPW, carbon seems to be a suitable tracer for identifying the source of cyanide in both wastes. However, the delta(15)N-values overlapped for BFS and GPW, making nitrogen unsuitable as a tracer.

  6. Long-Term Stewardship of Mixed Wastes: Passive Reactive Barriers for Simultaneous In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent, Heavy Metal, and Radionuclide Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, Robin; Cunningham, Al; Peyton, Brent

    2005-06-01

    The collaborative project was designed to evaluate the possibility developing a subsurface remediation technology for mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites using a group of common soil bacteria of the genus Cellulomonas. We have been gaining a better understanding of microbial transformation of chromium, uranium, iron minerals, and trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Cellulomonas spp. in simulated subsurface environments.

  7. The behaviour of (137)Cs in the North Atlantic Ocean assessed from numerical modelling: Releases from nuclear fuel reprocessing factories, redissolution from contaminated sediments and leakage from dumped nuclear wastes.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Min, Byung-Il

    2016-12-15

    A Lagrangian model which simulates the dispersion of (137)Cs in the North Atlantic has been developed. The model includes water/sediment interactions. It has been tested comparing calculated and measured (137)Cs concentrations in water and sediments of the European Shelf resulting after the releases from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague. Some additional numerical experiments have been carried out. First, the redissolution of (137)Cs from contaminated sediments after the reduction in releases from the reprocessing plants has been studied. This allowed to calculate effective half-lives of (137)Cs in several sub-basins. Later, potential leakage of (137)Cs from dumped nuclear wastes in several locations of the Atlantic has been investigated. Even in worst-case scenarios, these leakages should not lead to any radiological implications.

  8. [Migration of industrial radionuclides in soils and benthal deposits at the coastal margins of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and its influence on the possible contamination of the sea offshore waters].

    PubMed

    Filonova, A A; Seregin, V A

    2014-01-01

    For obtaining the integral information about the current radiation situation in the sea offshore waters of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management "SevRAO" in the Andreeva Bay and in the settle Gremikha with a purpose of a comprehensive assessment of its condition there was performed radiation-ecological monitoring of the adjacent sea offshore waters of the TWSF. It was shown that in the territory of industrial sites of the TWSF as a result of industrial activity there are localized areas of pollution by man-made radionuclides. As a result of leaching of radionuclides by tidal stream, snowmelt and rainwater radioactive contamination extends beyond the territory of the sanitary protection zone and to the coastal sea offshore waters. To confirm the coastal pollution of the sea offshore waters the levels of mobility of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental chains and bond strength of them with the soil and benthal deposits were clarified by determining with the method of detection of the forms of the presence of radionuclides in these media. There was established a high mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and benthal deposits (desorption coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs and 90Sr (in soils - 0.56 and 0.98), in the sediments - 0.82). The migration of radionuclides in environmental chains can lead to the contamination of the environment, including the sea offshore waters.

  9. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were <30 MPN/ml respectively save for environment. This process can reduce 84.70% the amount of molds. The only molds still existed after fermentation was A.fumigatus. The number of protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to

  10. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  11. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  12. Evidence of the Generation of Isosaccharinic Acids and Their Subsequent Degradation by Local Microbial Consortia within Hyper-Alkaline Contaminated Soils, with Relevance to Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Garratt, Eva J.; Laws, Andrew P.; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

  13. Investigation of the usage of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW), contaminated with phenol and formaldehyde, in manufacturing of ceramic products.

    PubMed

    Kizinievič, Olga; Balkevičius, Valdas; Pranckevičienė, Jolanta; Kizinievič, Viktor

    2014-08-01

    Large amounts of centrifuging waste of mineral wool melt (CMWW) are created during the production of mineral wool. CMWW is technogenic aluminum silicate raw material, formed from the particles of undefibred melt (60-70%) and mineral wool fibers (30-40%). 0.3-0.6% of organic binder with phenol and formaldehyde in its composition exists in this material. Objective of the research is to investigate the possibility to use CMWW as an additive for the production of ceramic products, by neutralising phenol and formaldehyde existing in CMWW. Formation masses were prepared by incorporating 10%, 20% and 30% of CMWW additive and burned at various temperatures. It was identified that the amount of 10-30% of CMWW additive influences the following physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic body: lowers drying and firing shrinkage, density, increases compressive strength and water absorption. Investigations carried out show that CMWW waste can be used for the production of ceramic products of various purposes.

  14. Evaluation of packed-bed and fluidized-bed cell technology for the destruction and removal of contaminants in alkaline waste solutions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Bockris, J.O.M.; Kim, Jinseong

    1995-12-31

    Disposing of the large quantity of nuclear waste that has been produced within the DOE complex is an area of active research and development. Electrochemical processes have been reported for the treatment of alkaline wastes including the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of metals such as Tc and Ru. Electrolytic recovery of metals from dilute solution has been reported using conventional porous electrodes such as felt electrode and reticulated electrode, but use of such electrodes is limited. The pores of such electrodes become blocked as a consequence of metal deposition. If an attempt is made to regenerate these electrodes by dissolution of the deposited metals, oxygen evolution on the matrix competes with dissolution of metals deposited within the pores. On the other hand, the use of three dimensional packed-bed and fluidized-bed electrodes having large surface area per unit volume would offer an improvement on felt or reticulated system because of the greater ease of regeneration.

  15. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  16. Behavior of polychlorinated benzenes, PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs during incineration of solid waste contaminated with mg/kg levels of hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Noma, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), one of the well-known Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), is present in some pigments and these raw materials with maximum level of several thousand of mg/kg. Considering that these pigments have been used in long-life products, such as car parts, construction materials and electrical and electronic equipments, the articles containing HCB at a concentration of several hundred mg/kg still have to undergo waste management. In this study, we performed a combustion experiment involving solid waste containing 300 mg/kg of HCB as the input material using a pilot-scale incinerator to determine the destruction of HCB and its influence on the behavior of other polychlorinated benzenes (CBzs) and unintentionally produced POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). HCB at a concentration of 300 mg/kg in the input material was destroyed mainly in the primary combustion zone. Overall the destruction efficiency of HCB was > 99.9985%. The input concentration of HCB did not significantly affect the formation and destruction or the final emissions of other CBzs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. These results indicate that incineration, when operated and structured to minimize emissions of dioxin-related compounds, is considered to be one of the Best Available Technologies for the appropriate treatment of waste containing HCB with a concentration in the order of mg/kg.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  18. Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.

  19. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  20. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida - Preliminary results: U. S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impact of these land uses on groundwater quality are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticide; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. 29 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O100:H⁻: stx2e in drinking water contaminated by waste water in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Taru; Pitkänen, Tarja; Antikainen, Jenni; Mölsä, Elina; Miettinen, Ilkka; Haukka, Kaisa; Vaara, Martti; Siitonen, Anja

    2011-04-01

    In November 2007, 450 m(3) of treated wastewater leaked into the drinking water distribution system contaminating the drinking water of over 10,000 inhabitants of Nokia, Southern Finland. Nearly 1,000 people visited the health centre because of gastroenteritis during the following 5 weeks. A wide range of enteric pathogens was found in the patients. The authors used the 16-plex PCR to investigate whether the five major diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, STEC, EIEC or EAEC) were present in the contaminated drinking water and in the patients' stool samples. The contaminated drinking water was positive for genes characteristic of various E. coli pathotypes: pic, invE, hlyA, ent, escV, eae, aggR, stx(2) , estIa and astA. These genes, except stx(2), hlyA and invE, were also detected in the stool samples of the patients linked to this outbreak. A sorbitol positive, streptomycin resistant STEC strain was isolated from the drinking water, and belonged to the serotype O100:H(-), produced Stx2 toxin (titre 1:8 by reversed-passive latex agglutination method), and carried the genes stx(2e), estIa and irp2.

  2. Purifying contaminated water

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G.

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  3. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  5. The use of olive-mill waste compost to promote the plant vegetation cover in a trace-element-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of a mature compost as a soil amendment to promote the growth of native species for the phytorestoration of a mine-affected soil from a semi-arid area (SE Spain), contaminated with trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn), was evaluated in a 2-year field experiment. The effects of an inorganic fertiliser were also determined for comparison. Bituminaria bituminosa was the selected native plant since it is a leguminous species adapted to the particular local pedoclimatic conditions. Compost addition increased total organic-C concentrations in soil with respect to the control and fertiliser treatments, maintained elevated available P concentrations throughout the duration of the experiment and stimulated soil microbial biomass, while trace elements extractability in the soil was rather low due to the calcareous nature of the soil and almost unaltered in the different treatments. Tissue concentrations of P and K in B. bituminosa increased after the addition of compost, associated with growth stimulation. Leaf Cu concentration was also increased by the amendments, although overall the trace elements concentrations can be considered non-toxic. In addition, the spontaneous colonisation of the plots by a total of 29 species of 15 different families at the end of the experiment produced a greater vegetation cover, especially in plots amended with compost. Therefore, the use of compost as a soil amendment appears to be useful for the promotion of a vegetation cover and the phytostabilisation of moderately contaminated soils under semi-arid conditions.

  6. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids.

  7. Real-time monitoring of chlorinated organic compound contamination at hazardous waste sites operations using a hand-portable instrument system

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, W.J.; Williams, R.D.; Penrose, W.R.

    1997-12-31

    We have created a handheld instrument (the RCL MONITOR) based on a sensor that is entirely selective for chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has been tested in actual use on DOE sites in applications involving routine inspection of monitoring wells; well drilling and perforation; control of active soil extraction processes; and monitoring of passive soil vapor extraction. The most successful applications were those that took advantage of its portability, namely survey and health and safety related applications. The RCL MONITOR replaced quarterly laboratory analysis of headspace vapor samples from certain wells at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. At the Hanford Site, it was also used to monitor drill cuttings to determine whether they were to be classified as Hazardous Waste for disposal. In most cases, the cuttings were clean and substantial monetary savings were realized.

  8. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  9. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  10. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  11. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  12. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  13. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium... minimization principles. (b) Beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  14. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  15. Treatment of ORNL process waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Fowler, V.L.; Robinson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the shutdown of the hydrofracture process at ORNL, intensive efforts were made to reduce contaminated liquid