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Sample records for 237u level density

  1. Estimation of {sup 237}U Level Density and Radiative Strength Functions from the (n-bar,{gamma}) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhovoj, Anatoly M.; Khitrov, Valery A.; Maslov, Vladimir M.

    2009-01-28

    Intensity distribution of the primary {gamma}-transitions following resonance neutron capture in {sup 236}U about the mean value was approximated in different energy intervals of these quanta and neutrons. Extrapolation of the obtained functions to zero registration threshold of {gamma}-transitions allowed independent estimation of the expected level number of both parities for spin values J = 1/2, 3/2 and sum of radiative widths for both electric and magnetic gamma-transitions to levels with excitation energy up to {approx_equal}2.3 MeV.

  2. Proposed 237U Evaluation for the next ENDL Release

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D; Summers, N; Thompson, I; Younes, W

    2007-11-07

    We detail the new LLNL evaluation of {sup 237}U for inclusion in both the next release of the ENDL and ENDF/B-VII databases. This evaluation is based on a combination of TALYS calculations, data fits and the earlier JEFF-3.1 evaluation. Our evaluation is in excellent agreement with published surrogate (n, f) data [11, 12, 13, 14, 18] and the unpublished LLNL surrogate (n,2n) data [16].

  3. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  4. Modelling Neutron-induced Reactions on 232–237U from 10 keV up to 30 MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; ...

    2017-01-17

    Comprehensive calculations of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 232–237U targets are performed in this paper in the 10 keV–30 MeV incident energy range with the code EMPIRE–3.2 Malta. The advanced modelling and consistent calculation scheme are aimed at improving our knowledge of the neutron scattering and emission cross sections, and to assess the consistency of available evaluated libraries for light uranium isotopes. The reaction model considers a dispersive optical potential (RIPL 2408) that couples from five (even targets) to nine (odd targets) levels of the ground-state rotational band, and a triple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells describedmore » within the optical model for fission. A modified Lorentzian model (MLO) of the radiative strength function and Enhanced Generalized Superfluid Model nuclear level densities are used in Hauser-Feschbach calculations of the compound-nuclear decay that include width fluctuation corrections. The starting values for the model parameters are retrieved from RIPL. Excellent agreement with available experimental data for neutron emission and fission is achieved, giving confidence that the quantities for which there is no experimental information are also accurately predicted. Finally, deficiencies in existing evaluated libraries are highlighted.« less

  5. Modelling Neutron-induced Reactions on 232-237U from 10 keV up to 30 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive calculations of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on 232-237U targets are performed in the 10 keV-30 MeV incident energy range with the code EMPIRE-3.2 Malta. The advanced modelling and consistent calculation scheme are aimed at improving our knowledge of the neutron scattering and emission cross sections, and to assess the consistency of available evaluated libraries for light uranium isotopes. The reaction model considers a dispersive optical potential (RIPL 2408) that couples from five (even targets) to nine (odd targets) levels of the ground-state rotational band, and a triple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells described within the optical model for fission. A modified Lorentzian model (MLO) of the radiative strength function and Enhanced Generalized Superfluid Model nuclear level densities are used in Hauser-Feschbach calculations of the compound-nuclear decay that include width fluctuation corrections. The starting values for the model parameters are retrieved from RIPL. Excellent agreement with available experimental data for neutron emission and fission is achieved, giving confidence that the quantities for which there is no experimental information are also accurately predicted. Deficiencies in existing evaluated libraries are highlighted.

  6. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  7. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  8. Binomial level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuker, A. P.

    2001-08-01

    It is shown that nuclear level densities in a finite space are described by a continuous binomial function, determined by the first three moments of the Hamiltonian, and the dimensionality of the underlying vector space. Experimental values for 55Mn, 56Fe, and 60Ni are very well reproduced by the binomial form, which turns out to be almost perfectly approximated by Bethe's formula with backshift. A proof is given for which binomial densities reproduce the low moments of Hamiltonians of any rank: A strong form of the famous central limit result of Mon and French. Conditions under which the proof may be extended to the full spectrum are examined.

  9. Initial Estimate of the 237U(n,f) Cross Section for 0.1 (less than) En (MeV) (less than or equal to) 20

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Becker, J A; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-06-27

    In response to a request for a {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section evaluation up to E{sub n} = 20 MeV, they have married a data set from the previous reliable estimate [1-3] of the cross section up to E{sub n} = 2.5 MeV, to an estimate of the remaining cross section up to E{sub n} = 20 MeV, deduced from simple physics arguments. This straw-man, work-in-progress estimate of the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section is intended to be used in sensitivity-test comparisons to other evaluations of the cross section (e.g., ENDF/B-VI [4] and ENDL [5]). The simple approach used in this work to generate a consistent cross section up to E{sub n} = 20 MeV is validated using the well-known {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section as a test case (see Fig. 1). The corresponding estimate of the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section is plotted in Fig. 2 and listed in Table I.

  10. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Byun, Y.; Ducasse, Q.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Jurado, B.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J.

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  11. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; ...

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least upmore » to the neutron threshold.« less

  12. Moment methods and nuclear level densities

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2008-04-17

    Working in a shell-model framework, I use moments of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian to illustrate the importance of the residual interaction to microscopic calculations of the nuclear level density.

  13. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.

  14. Continuum Level Density in Complex Scaling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, R.; Myo, T.; Kato, K.

    2005-11-21

    A new calculational method of continuum level density (CLD) at unbound energies is studied in the complex scaling method (CSM). It is shown that the CLD can be calculated by employing the discretization of continuum states in the CSM without any smoothing technique.

  15. Fission Dynamics with Microscopic Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.; Carlsson, B. G.; Dossing, Th.; Moller, P.; Randrup, J.; Aberg, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a consistent framework for treating the energy and angularmomentum dependence of the shape evolution in the nuclear fission. It combines microscopically calculated level densities with the Metropolis-walk method, has no new parameters, and can elucidate the energy-dependent influence of pairing and shell effects on the dynamics of warm nuclei.

  16. Radiative Strength Functions and Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Voinov, A; Guttormsen, M; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Rekstad, J; Siem, S; Mitchell, G E; Tavukcu, E

    2002-08-28

    Radiative strength functions and level densities have been extracted from primary {gamma}-ray spectra for {sup 27,28}Si, {sup 56,57}Fe, {sup 96,97}Mo, and several rare earth nuclei. An unexpectedly strong ({approx} 1 mb MeV) resonance at 3 MeV in the radiative strength function has been observed for well-deformed rare earth nuclei. The physical origin of this resonance and its connection to the scissors mode is discussed.

  17. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  18. Shell Model Approach to Nuclear Level Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear level densities (NLD) are traditionally estimated using variations of Fermi Gas Formula (FGF) or combinatoric techniques. Recent investigations using Monte Carlo Shell Model (MCSM) techniques indicate that a shell model description of NLD may be an accurate and stable approach. Full shell model calculations of NLD are very difficult. We calculated the NLD for all nuclei in the sd shell and show that the results can be described by a single particle combinatoric model, which depends on two parameters similar to FGF. We further investigated other models and find that a sum of gaussians with means and variances given by French and Ratcliff averages (Phys. Rev. C 3, 94(1971)) is able to accurately describe shell model NLD, even when shell effects are present. The contribution of the spurious center-of-mass motion to the shell model NLD is also discussed.

  19. Asymptotic level density in topological feature maps.

    PubMed

    Dersch, D R; Tavan, P

    1995-01-01

    The Kohonen algorithm entails a topology conserving mapping of an input pattern space X subsetR(n) characterized by an a priori probability distribution P(x), xinX, onto a discrete lattice of neurons r with virtual positions w(r)inX. Extending results obtained by Ritter (1991) the authors show in the one-dimensional case for an arbitrary monotonously decreasing neighborhood function h(|r-r'|) that the point density D(W(r)) of the virtual net is a polynomial function of the probability density P(x) with D(w(r))~P(alpha)(w(r)). Here the distortion exponent is given by alpha=(1+12R)/3(1+6R) and is determined by the normalized second moment R of the neighborhood function. A Gaussian neighborhood interaction is discussed and the analytical results are checked by means of computer simulations.

  20. Parity dependence of level densities in sup 49 V

    SciTech Connect

    York, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this research, we have studied {sup 48}Ti(p, p{sub 1}) and {sup 48}(p, p{sub 1}{gamma}) in an effort to determine the dependence of level densities on parity in the compound nucleus {sup 49}V. This nuclide was chosen because of the high level density of the {sup 49}V system (leading to good statistical accuracy) and because the target is zero spin (making the assignment of J easier). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Level density of a bose gas and extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Comtet, A; Leboeuf, P; Majumdar, Satya N

    2007-02-16

    We establish a connection between the level density of a gas of noninteracting bosons and the theory of extreme value statistics. Depending on the exponent that characterizes the growth of the underlying single-particle spectrum, we show that at a given excitation energy the limiting distribution function for the number of excited particles follows the three universal distribution laws of extreme value statistics, namely, the Gumbel, Weibull, and Fréchet distributions. Implications of this result, as well as general properties of the level density at different energies, are discussed.

  2. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  3. The relationship between education level and mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-11-01

    To further understand the factors that contribute to interindividual variation in mammographic density, we evaluated the relationship between education level and each component of the mammographic density measures. Study participants included 535 women between 40 and 65 years of age who received a mammogram for a population-based twin and family study. Mammographic density was measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. To avoid negative confounding by obesity level, we calculated BMI-adjusted mammographic measures. Thereafter, each of the mammographic density measures was t-transformed using its mean value and SD for each age strata. The level of education was chosen as a marker representing socioeconomic status at the individual level. A linear mixed model considering familial correlations was used for analyses. In the unadjusted analysis for all women, the BMI-adjusted nondense area gradually decreased with an increase in education level (P for trend=0.017). This association persisted after adjusting for menstrual and reproductive factors. When we repeated the analysis according to menopausal status, an inverse association between education level and nondense area was evident in premenopausal women, whereas the inverse association attenuated to a statistically insignificant level after adjusting for menstrual and reproductive factors in postmenopausal women. Absolute dense area and percentage dense area were not associated with education level. The significant association between nondense area and education level after eliminating the effect of age and BMI suggests that socioeconomic factors may have an influential role in determining the amount of fat tissue in the breast.

  4. Nuclear spectroscopy in the chaotic domain: level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J. B.; Rab, S.; Smith, J. F.; Haq, R. U.; Kota, V. K. B.

    2006-08-01

    In heavy nuclei, the structure generating the slow-neutron resonance spectrum extends downward in energy to similar to(1-2) MeV excitation and, of course, upward as well until particle emission becomes significant, thereby generating an Embedded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (EGOE) spectrum built on a secular mean-density function. In this extended chaotic domain, principles and methods for the calculation of one-point quantities (e.g., level densities, spin-cutoff factors, occupancies, etc.,) have been well developed during the last several years. The economy and the resultant generic forms follow from the dominance of unitary symmetries, central limit theorems, and quantum chaos. In this paper, techniques used for level densities are illustrated by a detailed study of several heavy nuclei, the input data being taken from the observed low-lying spectrum and the far-separated neutron-resonance spectrum, this in itself saying much about long-range spectral rigidity. Explicit forms for the interacting particle state densities, expectation values, and expectation-value densities of operators in Hamiltonian eigenstates are given. Extension of the formalism to two-point functions that deal with spectral fluctuations, transition strengths, and analysis of measures for broken symmetries and which involve the same formal structure is indicated; higher order correlation functions are of little immediate interest because they define quantities only rarely measurable.

  5. Generalized Freud's equation and level densities with polynomial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boobna, Akshat; Ghosh, Saugata

    2013-08-01

    We study orthogonal polynomials with weight $\\exp[-NV(x)]$, where $V(x)=\\sum_{k=1}^{d}a_{2k}x^{2k}/2k$ is a polynomial of order 2d. We derive the generalised Freud's equations for $d=3$, 4 and 5 and using this obtain $R_{\\mu}=h_{\\mu}/h_{\\mu -1}$, where $h_{\\mu}$ is the normalization constant for the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. Moments of the density functions, expressed in terms of $R_{\\mu}$, are obtained using Freud's equation and using this, explicit results of level densities as $N\\rightarrow\\infty$ are derived.

  6. Nuclear shape evolution based on microscopic level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. E.; Carlsson, B. G.; Døssing, T.; Möller, P.; Randrup, J.; Åberg, S.

    2017-02-01

    By combining microscopically calculated level densities with the Metropolis walk method, we develop a consistent framework for treating the energy and angular-momentum dependence of the nuclear shape evolution in the fission process. For each nucleus under consideration, the level density is calculated microscopically for each of more than five million shapes with a recently developed combinatorial method. The method employs the same single-particle levels as those used for the extraction of the pairing and shell contributions to the macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface. Containing no new parameters, the treatment is suitable for elucidating the energy dependence of the dynamics of warm nuclei on pairing and shell effects. It is illustrated for the fission fragment mass distribution for several uranium and plutonium isotopes of particular interest.

  7. Level densities and thermodynamical properties of Pt and Au isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacoppo, F.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Firestone, R. B.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hagen, T. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Koehler, P. E.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.

    2014-11-01

    The nuclear level densities of Pt-196194 and Au,198197 below the neutron separation energy have been measured using transfer and scattering reactions. All the level density distributions follow the constant-temperature description. Each group of isotopes is characterized by the same temperature above the energy threshold corresponding to the breaking of the first Cooper pair. A constant entropy excess Δ S =1.9 kB and 1.1 kB is observed in 195Pt and 198Au with respect to 196Pt and 197Au, respectively, giving information on the available single-particle level space for the last unpaired valence neutron. The breaking of nucleon Cooper pairs is revealed by sequential peaks in the microcanonical caloric curve.

  8. Laplacian-level density functionals for the kinetic energy density and exchange-correlation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdew, John P.; Constantin, Lucian A.

    2007-04-01

    We construct a Laplacian-level meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) for the noninteracting (Kohn-Sham orbital) positive kinetic energy density τ of an electronic ground state of density n . This meta-GGA is designed to recover the fourth-order gradient expansion τGE4 in the appropriate slowly varying limit and the von Weizsäcker expression τW=∣∇n∣2/(8n) in the rapidly varying limit. It is constrained to satisfy the rigorous lower bound τW(r)⩽τ(r) . Our meta-GGA is typically a strong improvement over the gradient expansion of τ for atoms, spherical jellium clusters, jellium surfaces, the Airy gas, Hooke’s atom, one-electron Gaussian density, quasi-two-dimensional electron gas, and nonuniformly scaled hydrogen atom. We also construct a Laplacian-level meta-GGA for exchange and correlation by employing our approximate τ in the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA density functional. The Laplacian-level TPSS gives almost the same exchange-correlation enhancement factors and energies as the full TPSS, suggesting that τ and ∇2n carry about the same information beyond that carried by n and ∇n . Our kinetic energy density integrates to an orbital-free kinetic energy functional that is about as accurate as the fourth-order gradient expansion for many real densities (with noticeable improvement in molecular atomization energies), but considerably more accurate for rapidly varying ones.

  9. Effect of collectivity on the nuclear level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Gohil, M.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Srivastava, V.; Meena, J. K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2013-09-01

    Neutron evaporation spectra at backward angles from 201Tl*, 185Re*, and 169Tm* compound nuclei, having different ground-state deformations, have been measured at two excitation energies (E* ˜ 37 and 26 MeV). The values of the inverse level density parameter (k), extracted at these excitations using statistical model calculations, are observed to decrease substantially at the lower excitation energy (˜26 MeV) for nuclei having large ground-state deformation (residues of 185Re* and 169Tm*), whereas for near-spherical nuclei (residues of 201Tl*), the k value remains unchanged at the two energies. The decrease in k at the lower excitation energy for the deformed systems amounts to a relative increase in nuclear level density, indicating a collective enhancement. The present observation clearly establishes the existence of a strong correlation between collectivity and ground-state deformation.

  10. Level density parameters from excitation cross sections of isomeric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, E. A.; Batij, V. G.

    1992-03-01

    Cross section ratios were measured for the production of the isomeric pairs99m,gRh,101m,gRh,102m,gRh,104m,gRh and108m,gIn in the (p,n)-reaction,107m,gIn and109m,gIn in the ( p, γ)-reaction over the energy range up to 9 MeV, and116m,gSb and118m,gSb in the (α, n)-reaction up to 24 MeV. The experimental results for these nuclei as well as for other isometric pairs excited in the ( p, n)-reaction were analysed in the frame of the statistical model for extracting the level density parameter values in the vicinity of closed nucleon shells. The level density parameter behaviour is discussed in the range of nuclear mass numbers under study.

  11. Nuclear Level Densities Off of the Stability Line

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Steven M.; Massey, T. N.; Oginni, B. M.; Shukla, S.; Voinov, A.

    2008-04-17

    Nuclear level densities have been extensively studied on or near the valley of stability. Because the data base is so sparse away from the valley of stability, the systematics found for stable nuclei are assumed to apply off the line of stability as well. A model which predicts different systematics off of the stability line is examined. A pair of recent measurements provide tentative support for the new hypothesis, though it is clear additional data are needed.

  12. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Fukahori, T.

    2005-12-15

    Nuclear ground and excited state properties are described by using parameter systematics on mass and level density formulas. The formulas are based on an analytical expression of the single-particle state density by introducing the shell-pairing correlation in a new way. Main features are the shell, pairing, and deformation effects on the droplet model near the ground state, which are washed out at higher excitation energies. The main aim of the paper is to provide in the analytical framework the improved energy dependent shell, pairing, and deformation corrections generalized to the collective enhancement factors, which offer a systematic prescription over a great number of nuclear reactions. The new formulas are shown to be in close agreement with not only the empirical nuclear mass data but also the measured slow neutron resonance spacings and experimental systematics observed in the excitation energy dependent properties.

  13. High density multi-level recording for archival data preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, F.; Paul, Ph.; Drechsler, U.; Despont, M.; Knoll, A. W.; Duerig, U.

    2011-07-01

    Archival data storage is predominantly based on magnetic tape technology. An alternative probe based multi-level recording scheme is proposed which specifically addresses the issue of long term data preservation. In a first step, the data are written as topographic relief in an organic resist. To achieve long term preservation, the relief structure is transferred in a Si based inorganic carrier by means of reactive ion etching. Thereby, the data are preserved as written in stone. Using 3-level logic, a storage density of 99 Gb/in2 is demonstrated and read-back of the data is accomplished with an error rate of 10-3 based on threshold detection. Exploiting etch anisotropy in layered substrates, logic levels can be physically separated from one another in different layers which enhances tamper resistance and also provides a means for heterogeneous storage concepts.

  14. Constraining the level density using fission of lead projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear level density is one of the main ingredients for the statistical description of the fission process. In this work, we propose to constrain the description of this parameter by using fission reactions induced by protons and light ions on 208Pb at high kinetic energies. The experiment was performed at GSI (Darmstadt), where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to measure the atomic number of the two fission fragments in coincidence. This measurement permitted us to obtain with high precision the partial fission cross sections and the width of the charge distribution as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data and others previously measured, covering a large range in fissility, are compared to state-of-the-art calculations. The results reveal that total and partial fission cross sections cannot unambiguously constrain the level density at ground-state and saddle-point deformations and additional observables, such as the width of the charge distribution of the final fission fragments, are required.

  15. Capacitance-level/density monitor for fluidized-bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple segment three-terminal type capacitance probe with segment selection, capacitance detection and compensation circuitry and read-out control for level/density measurements in a fluidized-bed vessel is provided. The probe is driven at a high excitation frequency of up to 50 kHz to sense quadrature (capacitive) current related to probe/vessel capacitance while being relatively insensitive to the resistance current component. Compensation circuitry is provided for generating a negative current of equal magnitude to cancel out only the resistive component current. Clock-operated control circuitry separately selects the probe segments in a predetermined order for detecting and storing this capacitance measurement. The selected segment acts as a guarded electrode and is connected to the read-out circuitry while all unselected segments are connected to the probe body, which together form the probe guard electrode. The selected probe segment capacitance component signal is directed to a corresponding segment channel sample and hold circuit dedicated to that segment to store the signal derived from that segment. This provides parallel outputs for display, computer input, etc., for the detected capacitance values. The rate of segment sampling may be varied to either monitor the dynamic density profile of the bed (high sampling rate) or monitor average bed characteristics (slower sampling rate).

  16. Possibility of determination of the asymptotic level-density parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyaev, G.A.; Ostapenko, Y.B.; Svirin, M.I.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1988-02-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the fissility of nuclei to the parameters of the density of excited levels and conclude that the nuclei in the region of Pb are most favorable for an experimental estimate of the asymptotic parameter a-italic-tilde = ..cap alpha..A. The mean value ..cap alpha.. = 0.086 +- 0.009 MeV/sup -1/ is found from analysis of the fission of seven nuclei from /sup 201/Tl to /sup 213/At. This value is in agreement with the phenomenological description of the energy dependence a(U) (..cap alpha.. = 0.093 MeV/sup -1/) and with the theoretical prediction ..cap alpha.. = 0.09 MeV/sup -1/ obtained for a Woods-Saxon potential.

  17. Mammographic density and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D, which influences cellular proliferation and breast tissue characteristics, has been inversely correlated with breast cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D intake has been associated with lower mammographic density (MD), a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Findings We examined the relationship between MD and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an integrated measure of vitamin D status from dietary sources and sunlight exposure, in a multi-ethnic cohort of women undergoing screening mammography. We recruited women age 40–60 years without a history of breast cancer at the time of their routine screening mammogram, and conducted in-person interviews and collected blood specimens. We enrolled 195 women from 2007–2008, 120 gave blood, and 114 were evaluable, including 25% white, 41% African American, 18% African Caribbean, and 16% Hispanic. We digitized mammograms and calculated percent density, dense area, and non-dense area on cranial-caudal images. We measured serum 25(OH)D in batched, archived specimens. Median serum 25(OH)D was 22 ng/ml (range, 8–66 ng/ml). In univariable analysis, higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with white race, higher educational level, ever breast feeding, and blood draw during the summer. After adjusting for body mass index and other confounders, we found no association between serum 25(OH)D and different measures of MD. However, when stratified by season, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with dense area during July-December (p = 0.034). Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that circulating vitamin D, a potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factor, is not associated with MD; the seasonal effects we observed need to be replicated in larger cohorts. PMID:24742098

  18. Determination of nuclear level densities from experimental information

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, B.J. ); Davidson, N.J. , P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD ); Miller, H.G. )

    1994-10-01

    A novel information theory based method for determining the density of states from prior information is presented. The energy dependence of the density of states is determined from the observed number of states per energy interval, and model calculations suggest that the method is sufficiently reliable to calculate the thermal properties of nuclei over a reasonable temperature range.

  19. Level density and level-spacing distributions of random, self-adjoint, non-Hermitian matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Karr, William A.

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the level density σ(x) and the level-spacing distribution p(s) of random matrices M=AF≠M†, where F is a (diagonal) inner product and A is a random, real, symmetric or complex, Hermitian matrix with independent entries drawn from a probability distribution q(x) with zero mean and finite higher moments. Although not Hermitian, the matrix M is self-adjoint with respect to F and thus has purely real eigenvalues. We find that the level density σF(x) is independent of the underlying distribution q(x) and solely characterized by F, and therefore generalizes the Wigner semicircle distribution σW(x). We find that the level-spacing distributions p(s) are independent of q(x), and are dependent upon both the inner product F and whether A is real or complex, and therefore generalize the Wigner surmise for level spacing. Our results suggest F-dependent generalizations of the well-known Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble and Gaussian Unitary Ensemble classes.

  20. The role of seniority-zero states in nuclear level densities

    SciTech Connect

    Åberg, S.; Carlsson, B. G.; Døssing, Th.; Möller, P.

    2015-06-01

    At low excitation energies seniority-zero states dominate the level density of K=0 bands in deformed even–even nuclei, while they play no role at higher excitation energies. We describe the level densities in a Fermi-gas model as well as in a combinatorial level-density model and compare to detailed experimental data for some rare-earth nuclei.

  1. The role of seniority-zero states in nuclear level densities

    DOE PAGES

    Åberg, S.; Carlsson, B. G.; Døssing, Th.; ...

    2015-06-01

    At low excitation energies seniority-zero states dominate the level density of K=0 bands in deformed even–even nuclei, while they play no role at higher excitation energies. We describe the level densities in a Fermi-gas model as well as in a combinatorial level-density model and compare to detailed experimental data for some rare-earth nuclei.

  2. [Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by apheresis].

    PubMed

    Reiber, I; Gógl, A

    1994-03-13

    The predominate number of homozygote familial hypercholesterolemic and approximately 20% of heterozygotes are resistant to low cholesterol diet and lipid lowering pharmacological treatment even in combination of 2 or more drugs. In such cases, the selective lipoprotein apheresis has become a promising alternative and indicated absolute (homozygotes) or relative (heterozygotes). The combination of low density lipoprotein apheresis, together with diet and drugs, should allow a maximal lowering of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-60-70%). Besides low density lipoprotein, various apheresis procedures may also eliminate other potentially atherogenic factors, such as lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen and acutely improve the haemo-rheological status of the patient. The authors review several lipoprotein apheresis procedures with varying degrees of selectivity, those have and furthermore analysis the advantages and disadvantages and cost of each procedure.

  3. Analytic energy-level densities of separable harmonic oscillators including approximate hindered rotor corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döntgen, M.

    2016-09-01

    Energy-level densities are key for obtaining various chemical properties. In chemical kinetics, energy-level densities are used to predict thermochemistry and microscopic reaction rates. Here, an analytic energy-level density formulation is derived using inverse Laplace transformation of harmonic oscillator partition functions. Anharmonic contributions to the energy-level density are considered approximately using a literature model for the transition from harmonic to free motions. The present analytic energy-level density formulation for rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator systems is validated against the well-studied CO+O˙ H system. The approximate hindered rotor energy-level density corrections are validated against the well-studied H2O2 system. The presented analytic energy-level density formulation gives a basis for developing novel numerical simulation schemes for chemical processes.

  4. Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a series of activities they have used with middle-level students. The first set of lessons explores density through the layering of liquids. In the second set, they use some of the same liquids to explore the density of solids. The third set investigates how temperature affects the density of…

  5. Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a series of activities they have used with middle-level students. The first set of lessons explores density through the layering of liquids. In the second set, they use some of the same liquids to explore the density of solids. The third set investigates how temperature affects the density of…

  6. IAEA advisory group meeting on basic and applied problems of nuclear level densities

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.

    1983-06-01

    Separate entries were made in the data base for 17 of the 19 papers included. Two papers were previously included in the data base. Workshop reports are included on (1) nuclear level density theories and nuclear model reaction cross-section calculations and (2) extraction of nuclear level density information from experimental data. (WHK)

  7. Density and energy level of a deep-level Mg acceptor in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hideharu; Morine, Tatsuya; Nagamachi, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Reliably determining the densities and energy levels of deep-level dominant acceptors in heavily doped wide-band-gap semiconductors has been a topic of recent discussion. In these discussions, the focus is on both Hall scattering factors for holes and distribution functions for acceptors. Mg acceptor levels in 4H-SiC seem to be deep, and so here the electrical properties of Mg-implanted 4H-SiC layers are studied by measuring Hall effects. The obtained Hall scattering factors are not reliable because they drop to less than 0.5 at high measurement temperatures. Moreover, the Fermi-Dirac distribution function is unsuitable for examining Mg acceptors because the obtained acceptor density is much higher than the concentration of implanted Mg atoms. However, by using a distribution function that includes the influence of the excited states of a deep-level acceptor, the density and energy level of Mg acceptors can be reliably determined.

  8. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.

  9. Effects of population density on corticosterone levels of prairie voles in the field.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Dimitri V; Wallace, Gerard N; Calderone, Stefanie; Gorinshteyn, Marija; St Mary, Colette M; Phelps, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    High population density is often associated with increased levels of stress-related hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species known for their large population density fluctuations in the wild. Although CORT influences the social behavior of prairie voles in the lab, the effect of population density on CORT has not previously been quantified in this species in the field. We validated a non-invasive hormone assay for measuring CORT metabolites in prairie vole feces. We then used semi-natural enclosures to experimentally manipulate population density, and measured density effects on male space use and fecal CORT levels. Our enclosures generated patterns of space use and social interaction that were consistent with previous prairie vole field studies. Contrary to the positive relationship between CORT and density typical of other taxa, we found that lower population densities (80 animals/ha) produced higher fecal CORT than higher densities (240/ha). Combined with prior work in the lab and field, the data suggest that high prairie vole population densities indicate favorable environments, perhaps through reduced predation risk. Lastly, we found that field animals had lower fecal CORT levels than laboratory-living animals. The data emphasize the usefulness of prairie voles as models for integrating ecological, evolutionary, and mechanistic questions in social behavior.

  10. Effects of population density on corticosterone levels of prairie voles in the field

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Dimitri V.; Wallace, Gerard N.; Calderone, Stefanie; Gorinshteyn, Marija; St. Mary, Colette M.; Phelps, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    High population density is often associated with increased levels of stress-related hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous species known for their large population density fluctuations in the wild. Although CORT influences the social behavior of prairie voles in the lab, the effect of population density on CORT has not previously been quantified in this species in the field. We validated a non-invasive hormone assay for measuring CORT metabolites in prairie vole feces. We then used semi-natural enclosures to experimentally manipulate population density, and measured density effects on male space use and fecal CORT levels. Our enclosures generated patterns of space use and social interaction that were consistent with previous prairie vole field studies. Contrary to the positive relationship between CORT and density typical of other taxa, we found that lower population densities (80 animals/ha) produced higher fecal CORT than high densities (240/ha). Combined with prior work in the lab and field, the data suggest that high prairie vole population densities indicate favorable environments, perhaps through reduced predation risk. Lastly, we found that field animals had lower fecal CORT levels than laboratory-living animals. The data emphasize the usefulness of prairie voles as models for integrating ecological, evolutionary and mechanistic questions in social behavior. PMID:26342968

  11. Increases in Serum Estrone Sulfate Level Are Associated with Increased Mammographic Density during Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn J.; Guan, Min; Laughlin, Gail A.; Ursin, Giske A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Ingles, Sue A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Menopausal hormone therapy increases mammographic density. We determined whether increases in serum estrone sulfate (E1S) levels during menopausal hormone therapy predict increased mammographic density. Methods We measured percent mammographic density and serum E1S levels in 428 participants of the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions study who were randomly assigned to daily conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg alone, CEE + daily medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 2.5 mg, CEE + cyclical MPA (10 mg days 1-12 per 28-day cycle), or CEE + cyclical micronized progesterone (10 mg days 1-12). Serum E1S levels were determined by RIA. Information about covariates was determined by annual questionnaire. Using linear regression, we determined the association between change in E1S level from baseline to 12 months and change in percent mammographic density (by semiquantitative interactive threshold method). Results After controlling for baseline mammographic density, age, body mass index, alcohol intake, parity, smoking, ethnicity, physical activity, and age at first pregnancy, mammographic density increased by 1.3% for every 1 ng/mL increase in E1S level (P < 0.0001). The association between change in E1S level and change in mammographic density differed by treatment group (greater effect in CEE + cyclical MPA group versus CEE group; P = 0.05). After controlling for treatment group, change in the ratio of E1S to E1 was also positively associated with change in mammographic density. Conclusions Increases in serum E1S levels during menopausal hormone therapy are associated with increases in mammographic density. The relative contribution of E1S and E1 to stimulation of breast tissue awaits further elucidation. PMID:18628419

  12. Effects of level density parameter on the superheavy production in cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Alavi, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    By using semiclassical method and considering Woods-Saxon and Coulomb potentials, the level density parameter a was calculated for three superheavy nuclei 270110, 278112 and 290116. Obtained results showed that the value of level density parameter of these nuclei is near to the simple relation a ≈ A/10. In framework of the dinuclear system model, the effects of level density parameter on the probability of the formation of a compound nucleus, the ratio of neutron emission width and fission width, and evaporation residue cross-section of three cold fusion reactions 62Ni+208Pb, 70Zn+208Pb and 82Se+208Pb, leading to superheavy elements were investigated. The findings indicate that the level density parameter play a significant role in calculations of heavy-ion fusion-fission reactions. The obtained results in the case of a = A/12 have larger values in comparison with calculated level density parameter with Woods-Saxon potential (aWS) and a = A/10. The theoretical results of the evaporation residue cross-section are very sensitive to the choice of level density parameter. The calculated values with aWS are in good agreement with experimental values.

  13. Competing Quantum Hall Phases in the Second Landau Level in Low Density Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Serafin, A.; Xia, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Sullivan, N. S.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Tsui, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Up to date, studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states in the second Landau level have mainly been carried out in the high electron density regime, where the electron mobility is the highest. Only recently, with the advance of high quality low density MBE growth, experiments have been pushed to the low density regime [1], where the electron-electron interactions are strong and the Landau level mixing parameter, defined by κ = e2/εIB/ℏωe, is large. Here, lB = (ℏe/B)1/2 is the magnetic length and ωc = eB/m the cyclotron frequency. All other parameters have their normal meanings. It has been shown that a large Landau level mixing effect strongly affects the electron physics in the second Landau level [2].

  14. Experimental nuclear level densities and {gamma}-ray strength functions in Sc and V isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Loennroth, T.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2008-04-17

    The nuclear physics group at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory has developed a method to extract nuclear level density and {gamma}-ray strength function from first-generation {gamma}-ray spectra. This method is applied on the nuclei {sup 44,45}Sc and {sup 50,51}V in this work. The experimental level densities of {sup 44,45}Sc are compared to calculated level densities using a microscopic model based on BCS quasiparticles within the Nilsson level scheme. The {gamma}-ray strength functions are also compared to theoretical expectations, showing an unexpected enhancement of the {gamma}-ray strength for low {gamma} energies (E{sub {gamma}}{<=}3 MeV) in all the isotopes studied here. The physical origin of this enhancement is not yet understood.

  15. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-07-01

    Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of parathyroid hormone in bone metabolism and health.

  16. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  17. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

  18. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B.; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism’s entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  19. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  20. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  1. Nuclear level densities of 64,66Zn from neutron evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Anthony Paul; Voinov, Alexander; Grimes, Steven; Brune, Carl; Massey, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The neutron spectra from the reactions 63Cu(d,n)64Zn and 65Cu(d,n)66Zn have been measured at deuteron beam energies of 6 and 7.5 MeV. Level densities of the residual nuclei 64Zn and 66Zn were extracted and compared with different level density models: (1) Gilbert-Cameron model, (2) Backshifted Fermi gas model using the Egidy systematics, and (3) microscopic combinatorial level densities. We found that the Gilbert-Cameron model closely agrees with the experimental results. We have also studied the non-compound component of the reactions from the neutron angular distributions. The non-compound component has been shown to be dominant in forward angles and is more pronounced at high neutron emission energies. We have also observed a slight enhancement of the non-compound contribution as the incident deuteron energy is increased.

  2. Experimental Level Densities and {gamma}-Strength Functions in rare earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Siem, S.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Ingebretsen, F.; Messelt, S.; Rekstad, J.; Syed, N. U. H.; Chankova, R.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.; Oedegaard, S. W.

    2008-04-17

    The level density and radiative strength function for {sup 146,147}Sm and {sup 163,164}Dy have been extracted from primary {gamma} spectra using the Oslo method. As one approaches the closed N = 82 neutron shell, the structures in the level density become more pronounced due to shell effects. The experimental level densities can be used to explore thermodynamic properties of the nucleus within the microcanonical ensemble. Pygmy resonances, which are based on the scissors mode and seen in deformed rare-earth nuclei, are not observed in near-spherical {sup 146,147}Sm, as expected. Pygmy resonances in {sup 163,164}Dy were studied after {sup 3}He-induced reactions and their width was found to be twice as wide as compared to results reported after neutron-capture reactions.

  3. Mammographic Density and Vitamin D Levels - A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Straub, Loreen; Riedel, Johanna; Luppa, Peter B; Wissing, Johanna; Artmann, Almut; Kiechle, Marion; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina

    2017-03-01

    Background Some studies have already proposed an inverse association between vitamin D levels and breast density. As breast density is already considered an established risk factor for breast cancer, such a connection could offer a new starting point for the prevention of breast cancer. Material and Methods To investigate this suggested connection, a total of 412 pre- and 572 post-menopausal women for whom mammography was indicated were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a questionnaire-based interview on the patient's general and gynecological medical history, her eating habits and lifestyle, serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, phosphate and creatinine were determined. Breast density was determined by mammography and categorized as 1 to 4 according to the ACR classification. In addition to performing descriptive analysis to get a better overview of the data, a number of multivariate regression models were developed to determine the impact of confounders and the connection between vitamin D and mammographic density. Results More than half of all participants had low levels of 25(OH)D (< 20 ng/ml) and only a small minority of women (5.7 %) had what are currently considered to be optimal serum levels of 25(OH)D of at least 30 ng/ml. The significant majority of the cohort had a medium mammographic density (n = 463 had ACR 2; n = 343 had ACR 3). Logistic regression analysis showed that lower 25(OH)D serum levels were associated significantly more often with high rather than medium breast density. This association remained, even after adjusting for other factors which influence breast density such as age, BMI and menopausal status (p = 0.032 for ACR 4 vs. ACR 2; p = 0.028 for ACR 4 vs. ACR 3). When the same analysis was done separately for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women, BMI in both groups was found to be inversely correlated with breast density and this inverse correlation was highly

  4. Competing quantum Hall phases in the second Landau level in low density limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Serafin, A.; Xia, J. S.; Yin, L.; Sullivan, N. S.; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; Tsui, D. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present here the results from two high quality, low density GaAs quantum wells. In sample A of electron density n = 5.0 x 1010 cm-2, anisotropic electronic transport behavior was observed at ν = 7/2 in the second Landau level. We believe that the anisotropy is due to the large Landau level mixing effect in this sample. In sample B of density 4.1 x 1010 cm-2, strong 8/3, 5/2, and 7/3 fractional quantum Hall states were observed. Furthermore, our energy gap data obtained in various samples of different densities suggest that the 5/2 state may be spin unpolarized in the low density limit. The results from both samples show that the strong electron-electron interactions and a large Landau level mixing effect play an import role in the competing ground states in the second landau level. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  5. Nuclear Level Density and gamma-ray Strength Function of 243Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplace, Thibault Andre

    The level density and gamma-ray strength function of 243Pu have been determined using the Oslo method. A 12 MeV deuteron beam from the University of Oslo cyclotron was used to populate excited states in the quasi-continuum of 243Pu using the 242Pu(d,p) reaction. The distribution of primary gamma-rays as function of the excitation energy has been extracted from particle-gamma coincidence data. Based on the Brink-Axel asumption that the primary gamma-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the gamma-ray transmission coefficient (which only depends on the transition energy) times the level density at the excitation energy of the final state. The gamma-ray strength function is calculated from the gamma-ray transmission coefficient assuming pure dipole radiation. Both, the level density and gamma-ray strength function, are normalized using available experimental data from libraries. The level density of 243Pu follows closely the constant-temperature level density formula. An enhancement of the gamma-ray strength function is seen at low energies that is similar to that previously measured in other actinides. This structure is interpreted as the M1 scissors resonance. Its centroid o=2.42(5) MeV and its total strength B =10.1(15) mu N2 are in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The measured level density and gamma-ray strength function were then used to calculate the 242Pu(n,gamma) cross section within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism.

  6. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions of 145,149,151Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, K. O.; Ozgur, M.; Algin, E.; Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Midtbo, J. E.; Modamio, V.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2016-10-01

    The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions are the key elements for Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations to predict reaction cross sections which have many applications including astrophysics. The nuclear level densities and y-ray strength functions have been determined for 145,149,151Nd isotopes below the neutron separation energies using the Oslo method with the 144,148,150Nd(d,p) reactions. The results from the first measurements as well as planned experiments at OCL will be presented.

  7. Experimental Study of Level Density and {gamma}-strength Functions from Compound Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2008-04-17

    The current status of experimental study of level density and {gamma}-strength functions is reviewed. Three experimental techniques are used. These are measurements of particle evaporation spectra from compound nuclear reactions, the measurements of particle-{gamma} coincidences from inelastic scattering and pick-up reactions and the method of two-step {gamma}-cascades following neutron/proton radiative capture. Recent experimental data on level densities from neutron evaporation spectra are shown. The first results on the cascade {gamma}-spectrum from the {sup 59}Co(p,2{gamma}){sup 60}Ni reaction are presented.

  8. Salt tolerance and stress level affect plant biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenxing; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Haishui; Tang, Jianjun; Weiner, Jacob; Chen, Xin

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown that plant biomass-density relationships are altered under extreme or stressed conditions. We do not know whether variation in biomass-density relationships is a direct result of stress tolerance or occurs via changes in plant-plant interactions. Here, we evaluated biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects in six plant species that differ in salt tolerance in a salt marsh, and conducted a literature review of biomass-density relationship under higher and lower stress levels. Our field study showed that both neighbor effects and the exponent of the biomass-density relationship (α) varied among plant species with different degrees of salt tolerance. There was a positive relationship between neighbor effects (measured as relative interaction index) and α-value among the tested species. The literature review showed that α and its variation increased under higher stress. Our results indicate that plant species with different salinity tolerance differ in the direction and strength of neighbor effects, resulting in variation in biomass-density relationships. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in biomass-density relationships among species are not due to differences in stress tolerance alone, they are mediated by changes in plant-plant interactions.

  9. Low total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with complex congenital heart disease after Fontan palliation.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Wendy; Tan, Meng; Yu, Sunkyung; Rocchini, Albert

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that patients with complex congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan palliation have low total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the random serum lipid profiles obtained at cardiology clinic visits between May 2010 and November 2011 in patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure. We compared these serum lipid levels against age- and sex-matched established normal data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure also had laboratory test data obtained during their visits. Median total cholesterol level in the Fontan group was 127 mg/dL (IQR, 116-144 mg/dL), median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 33-45 mg/dL), median non-HDL-C was 86 mg/dL (IQR, 76-109 mg/dL), and median LDL-C was 66 mg/dL (IQR, 57-83 mg/dL). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure compared with age- and sex-matched normal individuals (mean z-score, -1.4, -1.2, -1.0, and -1.0 respectively; all P<.0001). Cholesterol levels were below the 25th percentile for age and sex for total cholesterol in 82% of patients, for LDL-C in 76%, for non-HDL-C in 67%, and for HDL-C in 57%. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure have significantly lower serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels than age- and sex-matched normal individuals. Although the implications of this finding are unknown, it raises the possibility of abnormalities in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or catabolism in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. a Study of the SILICON-29 Level Density from 3 TO 22 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Fred Bruce

    A study of the level density of ^ {29}{rm Si} has been completed over the excitation energy range 3 to 22 MeV. Three techniques were used to obtain level density values from experimental data. In the region of resolved levels, level densities were derived from level counting while neutron resonance data was used in the region of slightly overlapping levels near the binding energy. At high excitation energy, characterized by strongly overlapping levels, Ericson theory was employed to deduce level densities by examining energy modulations in cross sections. To conduct an Ericson analysis, two reactions yielding the same ^{29}{ rm Si} compound nucleus were investigated. One such study involved (n,p) and (n,alpha) reactions on ^{28}{rm Si}. Silicon surface barrier detectors served as both neutron targets and detectors. Neutrons continuous in energy, travelled over a 90 meter flight path before interacting with the detectors. Standard neutron time -of-flight techniques were used to determine the energy. An experimental resolution of less than 8 keV was achieved for the lowest neutron energies. A second experiment was conducted to investigate the ^{27} {rm Al(d,n)}^{28}{ rm Si} reaction. NE213 liquid scintillators viewed by photomultiplier tubes were used to detect neutrons over a 30 meter flight path. Neutron time-of-flight techniques were again used, including pulse shape discrimination to eliminate gamma-ray background. These data were used to determine excitation functions for several exit channels over a wide range of projectile energies. Partial cross sections, averaged over 500 keV intervals, were compared with the predictions of Hauser -Feshbach theory. Reasonable agreement was found in the case of the (n,p) and (n,alpha) data. Less consistent results were obtained for the (d,n) data, possibly caused by an uncertainty in input parameters. The Ericson theory of fluctuations was applied to the measured cross sections. Level density results from all three techniques

  11. Non-invasive liquid level and density gauge for nuclear power reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Jester, W.A.; Kenney, E.S.; Mc Master, I.B.; Schultz, M.A.

    1987-01-27

    A method is described of non-invasively determining the liquid coolant level and density in a nuclear power reactor pressure vessel comprising the steps: positioning at least three neutron detector fission chambers externally of the reactor pressure vessel at multiple spaced positions along the side of the fuel core. One of the neutron detectors is positioned at the side near the bottom of the fuel core. The multiple spaced positions along the side remove any ambiguity as to whether the liquid level is decreasing or increasing: shielding the neutron detector fission chamber from thermal neutrons to avoid the noise associated therewith, and eliminating the effects of gamma radiation from the detected signals; monitoring the detected neutron level signals to determine to coolant liquid level and density in the nuclear power reactor pressure vessel.

  12. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  13. Level densities and barriers of deformed 59Cu nuclei with 28ħ<=Jav<=34ħ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornal, B.; Prete, G.; Nebbia, G.; Trotti, F.; Viesti, G.; Fabris, D.; Hagel, K.; Natowitz, J. B.

    1988-06-01

    The spectra of α particles emitted from narrow windows of angular momentum with 28ħ<=Jav<=34ħ show systematic deviations from spectra calculated using the statistical model as the spin of the emitter increases to values for which strong deformations are predicted. The barrier reduction and the enhancement of the level density needed to reproduce the experimental spectra have been determined.

  14. Level densities and γ-ray strength functions in Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toft, H. K.; Larsen, A. C.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Bürger, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Nyhus, H. T.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Voinov, A.

    2010-06-01

    The nuclear level densities of Sn118,119 and the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116,118,119 below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (He3,αγ) and (He3,He3'γ) reactions. The level-density function of Sn119 displays steplike structures. The microcanonical entropies are deduced from the level densities, and the single neutron entropy of Sn119 is determined to be 1.7 ± 0.2 kB. Results from a combinatorial model support the interpretation that some of the low-energy steps in the level density function are caused by neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in all the γ-ray strength functions of Sn116-119, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed for the γ-ray energy region of ≃4-11 MeV. These small resonances all have a centroid energy of 8.0(1) MeV and an integrated strength corresponding to 1.7(9)% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The Sn resonances may be due to electric dipole neutron skin oscillations or to an enhancement of the giant magnetic dipole resonance.

  15. Considerations for CBI Screen Design with Respect to Text Density Levels in Content Learning from an Integrated Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Ismail

    This paper examines variations of text density levels for learning in a computer-based instruction (CBI) tutorial from an integrated perspective, and addresses the following questions: (1) What is the text density? (2) What are the relationships among text density approaches? and (3) What are the contributions of text density for learning and how…

  16. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  17. Similar to Adiponectin, Serum Levels of Osteocalcin are Associated with Mammographic Breast Density in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sara; Basurto, Lourdes; Saucedo, Renata; Barrera, Susana; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Garcia-Latorre, Ethel A; Zarate, Arturo

    2017-09-15

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Canadian women and worldwide. Mammographic density is a well-established breast cancer risk. Recent evidence suggested inverse correlations among adiponectin, osteocalcin, and the risk developing breast cancer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between breast density and adiponectin and osteocalcin concentrations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 239 women, age range 40 to 60. Mammographic density, serum adiponectin, and osteocalcin levels were measured. According to the Wolfe method, participants were divided into those with low-risk and high-risk pattern mammograms. The study population included 107 premenopausal and 132 postmenopausal women. Parameters were no different between women with low-risk and high-risk patterns. In obese postmenopausal women, the high-risk pattern mammogram group had significantly higher values of adiponectin and osteocalcin compared with the low-risk pattern group. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that adiponectin and osteocalcin levels were associated with high-risk pattern mammograms. Adiponectin and osteocalcin levels were directly associated with high-risk pattern mammograms in obese postmenopausal women. These results do not support the use of adipokines as biomarkers; nevertheless, the most important factor is to assess the risk through breast density. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The novel measurement method of liquid level and density in airtight container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhe; Zhao, Yulong; Tian, Bian; Guo, Fangfang

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a novel method of liquid level and density measurement with application in airtight container such as oil storage tank. In order to prove the method, a multifunctional pressure-type liquidometer (MPTL) was designed. The MPTL comprises two pressure sensors for capturing the underwater pressure accurately, by which the MPTL could calculate the density of the liquid and back-calculate the level of the liquid. A digital temperature sensor was implanted in the MPTL to collect the temperature of the liquid. Series of experiments show a favorable linearity of 0.2% and a high accuracy of 0.27%. Besides, the simple fabrication, low cost and unconstrained conditions guarantee its popularity in the petrochemical industry fields. Overall, the findings of this study confirm the feasibility of the novel liquid level measure method and offer an economical scheme for mass producing.

  19. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20-70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P < 0.05. Pearsons correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method.

  20. Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot-superconductors Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhyani, A.; Rawat, P. S.; Tewari, B. S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.

  1. Population-level consequences of heterospecific density-dependent movements in predator-prey systems.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Ke; Söderquist, Mårten; Englund, Göran

    2014-02-07

    In this paper we elucidate how small-scale movements, such as those associated with searching for food and avoiding predators, affect the stability of predator-prey dynamics. We investigate an individual-based Lotka-Volterra model with density-dependent movement, in which the predator and prey populations live in a very large number of coupled patches. The rates at which individuals leave patches depend on the local densities of heterospecifics, giving rise to one reaction norm for each of the two species. Movement rates are assumed to be much faster than demographics rates. A spatial structure of predators and prey emerges which affects the global population dynamics. We derive a criterion which reveals how demographic stability depends on the relationships between the per capita covariance and densities of predators and prey. Specifically, we establish that a positive relationship with prey density and a negative relationship with predator density tend to be stabilizing. On a more mechanistic level we show how these relationships are linked to the movement reaction norms of predators and prey. Numerical results show that these findings hold both for local and global movements, i.e., both when migration is biased towards neighbouring patches and when all patches are reached with equal probability. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Level scheme of /sup 148/Pm and the s-process neutron density

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K.T.; Norman, E.B.; Larimer, R.; Bacelar, J.C.; Beck, E.M.

    1989-02-01

    A level scheme of /sup 148/Pm up to 800 keV is deduced from gamma-ray coincidence data and published particle transfer data. Approximately 106 gamma-ray transitions have been placed between 36 levels. We have identified three levels below 500 keV in excitation which decay to both the ground state and to the isomeric level at 137 keV. The presence of these levels guarantees that /sup 148/Pm/sup g//sup ,//sup m/ are in thermal equilibrium during the s process. The s-process neutron density inferred from the branch point at /sup 148/Pm is deduced to be 3 x 10/sup 8//cm/sup 3/.

  3. Nuclear level densities of 64,66 Zn from neutron evaporation

    DOE PAGES

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; ...

    2013-12-26

    Double differential cross sections of neutrons from d+63,65Cu reactions have been measured at deuteron energies of 6 and 7.5 MeV. The cross sections measured at backward angles have been compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model. Three different level density models were tested: the Fermi-gas model, the Gilbert-Cameron model, and the microscopic approach through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method (HFBM). The calculations using the Gilbert-Cameron model are in best agreement with our experimental data. Level densities of the residual nuclei 64Zn and 66Zn have been obtained from statistical neutron evaporation spectra. In conclusion, the angle-integrated cross sectionsmore » have been analyzed with the exciton model of nuclear reaction.« less

  4. Shell energy and the level-density parameter of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nerlo-Pomorska, Bozena; Pomorski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Johann

    2006-09-15

    Macroscopic-microscopic calculations have been performed with the Yukawa folded mean field for 134 spherical even-even nuclei and 6 deformed ones at temperatures 0{<=}T{<=}5 MeV and elongations ranging from oblate shapes to the scission configuration of fissioning nuclei. The Strutinsky type free-energy shell corrections for this sample of nuclei and their temperature and deformation dependence are found by a folding procedure in particle-number space. The average dependence of the single-particle level-density parameter on mass number A and isospin I is determined and compared with previous estimates obtained using the relativistic mean-field theory, the Hartree-Fock approximation with the Skyrme effective interaction, and the phenomenological Thomas-Fermi approach adjusted to experimental data. The estimates for the level-density parameter obtained for different deformations are fitted by a liquid-drop type expression.

  5. Excitation energy dependence of the level density parameter close to the doubly magic 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Pandey, R.; Sen, A.; Manna, S.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Roy, T.; Dhal, A.; Dey, A.; Meena, J. K.; Saha, A. K.; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron evaporation spectra have been measured from 4He+208Pb and 4He+209Bi reactions by using 4He-ion beams of several bombarding energies. Excitation-energy dependence of the level density parameter has been studied for the two systems in the excitation energy range of ˜18 -50 MeV. For both the reactions an overall reduction of the asymptotic level density parameter with increasing excitation energy (temperature) is observed. The trend of the data was compared with the Thomas-Fermi model predictions and found to be in reasonable agreement. The value of the shell damping parameter has been extracted from the lowest-energy data in the case of Po,211210 and At,212211 nuclei close to the Z =82 and N =126 shell closure, and it was found to be consistent with the recent measurement in the vicinity of doubly magic 208Pb nucleus.

  6. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  7. Angular momentum dependence of the nuclear level density in the A ≈170 -200 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, M.; Roy, Pratap; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Ghosh, T. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Srivastava, V.; Meena, J. K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron evaporation spectra along with γ multiplicity has been measured from 201Tl*,185Re*, and 169Tm* compound nuclei at the excitation energies of ˜27 and 37 MeV. Statistical model analysis of the experimental data has been carried out to extract the value of the inverse level density parameter k at different angular-momentum (J ) regions corresponding to different γ multiplicities. It is observed that, for the present systems the value of k remains almost constant for different J . The present results for the angular-momentum dependence of the nuclear level density (NLD) parameter a ˜(=A /k ) , for nuclei with A ˜180 are quite different from those obtained in earlier measurements in the case of light- and medium-mass systems. The present study provides useful information to understand the angular-momentum dependence of the NLD at different nuclear mass regions.

  8. Comparison of algorithms for the calculation of molecular vibrational level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K.

    2008-05-01

    Level densities of vibrational degrees of freedom are calculated numerically with formulas based on the inversion of the canonical vibrational partition function. The calculated level densities are compared with other approximate equations from literature and with the exact Beyer-Swinehart values, for which a simplified but equivalent version is given. All approximate equations agree at high excitation energies, but our results are vastly superior at low energies for large molecules. The results presented here are therefore of particular relevance for thermal processes of very large molecules, e.g., of biological nature, for which the exact state counting can be prohibitively slow. Furthermore, it is valid for situations where anharmonic motion significantly influences the thermal properties.

  9. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from 300 MeV Proton Scatttering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk

    The gamma strength function (GSF) as well as total level densities (LDs) in 208Pb and 96Mo were extracted from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at RCNP, Osaka, Japan, and compared to experimental results obtained with the Oslo method in order to test the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The case of 208Pb is inconclusive because of strong fluctuations of the GSF due to the small level density in a doubly closed-shell nucleus. In 96Mo the data are consistent with the BA hypothesis. The good agreement of LDs provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LDs in Oslo-type experiments.

  10. Nuclear level densities of 64,66Zn from neutron evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Schiller, A.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Salas-Bacci, A.

    2013-12-01

    Double differential cross sections of neutrons from d+63,65Cu reactions have been measured at deuteron energies of 6 and 7.5 MeV. The cross sections measured at backward angles have been compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model. Three different level density models were tested: the Fermi-gas model, the Gilbert-Cameron model, and the microscopic approach through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method (HFBM). The calculations using the Gilbert-Cameron model are in best agreement with our experimental data. Level densities of the residual nuclei 64Zn and 66Zn have been obtained from statistical neutron evaporation spectra. The angle-integrated cross sections have been analyzed with the exciton model of nuclear reaction.

  11. Conditions for observation of fade out of collective enhancement of the nuclear level density

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S. M.

    2008-11-15

    The results of two recent papers searching for the disappearance of collective enhancements with energy in nuclear level densities are examined. It is found that the effects of such enhancements are less than has been assumed. The reduction in the size of the effect only partially resolves the disagreement between theory and experiment. This effect also plays a role in explaining the results of an earlier experiment.

  12. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. Materials and Methods: We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20–70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P < 0.05. Pearsons correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. Conclusion: This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method. PMID:28251110

  13. Ocean Turbulence V: Mesoscale Modeling in Level Coordinates. The Effect of Random Nature of Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the derivation of a new expression for the tracer subgrid term in level coordinates S(l) to be employed in O-GCM. The novel feature is the proper account of the random nature of the density field which strongly affects the transformation from isopycnal to level coordinates of the variables of interest, velocity and tracer fields, their correlation functions and ultimately the subgrid terms. In deriving our result we made use of measured properties of vertical ocean turbulence. The major new results are: 1) the new subgrid expression is different from that of the heuristic GM model, 2) u++(tracer)=1/2u+(thickness), where u++ and u+ are the tracer and thickness bolus velocities. In previous models, u++ = u+, 2) the subgrid for a tracer tau is not the same as that for the density rho even when one accounts for the obvious absence of a diffusion term in the latter. The difference stems from a new treatment of the stochastic nature of the density, 3) the mesoscale diffusivity enters both locally and non-locally, as the integral over all z's from the bottom of the ocean to the level z.

  14. Spin- and Parity-Dependent Level Densities in Exotic Calcium Isotopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, I. T.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Jingo, M.; Kureba, C. O.; Donaldson, L.; Latif, M.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Swartz, C.; Nemulodi, F.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Richter, A.; Fearick, R. W.; Fujita, H.; Fulita, Y.; Tamii, A.

    2015-11-01

    Level densities of 2+ and 1- states in 40Ca have been extracted from high energy-resolution (p,p') experiments performed using the K600 magnetic spectrometer at iThemba LABS, South Africa. The success of the method depends on the accurate determination of various background components underneath the giant resonance. It was found that using the nearly model-independent method of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) background determination using bi-orthogonal wavelets of high order of vanishing moments proved sufficient for the extraction of level density in the excitation energy region of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance (ISGQR) and Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR). Comparison of the experimentally extracted 2+ and 1- level densities with Back-Shifted Fermi Gas Model (BSFG), Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov (HFB) and Hartree-Fock-Bardeen-Cooper Schriffer (HF-BCS) theoretical model predictions were made. Future interests in the use of radioactive-ion beams of different intensities will provide opportunities in elucidating this important property experimentally for more exotic calcium isotopes.

  15. Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Burger, A.; Gorgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2014-09-03

    Here, the proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.

  16. Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter

    DOE PAGES

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; ...

    2014-09-03

    Here, the proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.

  17. Progestogen levels, Progesterone Receptor Gene polymorphisms, and mammographic density changes: results from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Mammographic Density Study (PEPI-MDS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Ingles, Sue A.; Van Den Berg, David; Wang, Wei; LaVallee, Chris; Huang, Mei-Hua; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greendale, Gail A.; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) in postmenopausal women increases breast cancer risk and mammographic density to a higher extent than does estrogen therapy (ET) alone. Data from the randomized placebo-controlled Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial showed that EPT-induced increases in serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels were positively correlated with increases in mammographic density. Here, after adjusting for serum estrone and estrone sulfate levels, we investigated the roles of post-treatment serum progestogen increase and of progesterone receptor gene (PGR) genetic variations on changes in mammographic density. Methods We measured percent mammographic density and serum progestogen levels in 280 PEPI participants randomized to EPT treatment. Analyses of genetic variations in PGR were limited to 260 white women for whom we successfully obtained PGR genotypes. We used linear regression analyses to determine how increase in progestogen levels and PGR genetic variations influenced mammographic density change following EPT. Results The increase in post-treatment serum progestogen level was positively associated with greater increases in mammographic density after adjustment for covariates (P-trend=0.044). Compared to women in the lowest quartile of serum progestogen, women in the highest quartile experienced a 3.5% greater increase in mammographic density (P=0.046). We did not find a strong indication that genetic variations in PGR were associated with mammographic density increase, or modified the association with serum progestogen, however confidence in these null findings is constrained by our small sample size. Conclusions Our results suggest that higher serum progestogen levels resulting from EPT treatment lead to greater increases in mammographic density. PMID:22105149

  18. Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R; Rutherford, O M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body scan also gave values for percentage body fat and regional bone densities. Calcium intake and physical activity levels were measured by questionnaire. The rowers had significantly higher BMD in the spine and total body than the triathletes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and sedentary controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). There were no differences between the triathletes and controls. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in the triathletes than in the controls (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the rowers and controls. All groups fell within the normal range for testosterone. In a step-wise multiple regression, including age, body mass, height, calcium intake and activity, no single factor had a significant effect on spine BMD. Body mass had a significant effect on total body BMD and could account for the differences between the groups. A significant positive correlation was found between calcium intake and total body BMD. The heavy weight training typical of rowing training seemed to result in significant bone accretion. The low testosterone levels in the triathletes may have negated any positive effect of the increased exercise on BMD.

  19. The shell model Monte Carlo approach to level densities: from medium-mass to heavy deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alhassid, Y.

    2008-04-17

    The shell model Monte Carlo (SMMC) approach is a powerful state-of-the-art method for the microscopic calculation of level densities in the presence of correlations. With this method it is possible to perform realistic calculations in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than spaces that can be treated with conventional diagonalization methods. SMMC level densities of medium-mass nuclei were found to be in remarkably good agreement with experimental level densities without any adjustable parameters. We discuss recent developments, including a spin projection method for calculating the spin distribution of level densities and the extension of SMMC to heavy deformed nuclei.

  20. The dependence of plasma density in the topside ionosphere on the solar activity level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wan, W.; Yue, X.; Zhao, B.; Ning, B.; Zhang, M.-L.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the ten-year (1996-2005) total ion density Ni measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft in the morning and evening (09:30 and 21:30 LT) sectors have been analyzed to explore the dependence of plasma densities in the topside ionosphere at middle and low latitudes on the solar activity level. Results indicate that there is a strong solar activity dependence of DMSP Ni at 848 km altitude, which has latitudinal and seasonal features. The plasma density in the topside ionosphere has an approximately linear dependence on daily F107 and a strongly nonlinear dependence on SEM/SOHO EUV, such that the change rate of Ni becomes greater with increasing solar EUV. This is quite different from the dependence of Ni near the F-Region peak (NmF2), at which the rate of change of NmF2 decreases with increasing solar EUV. The rate of change of Ni at the DMSP altitude is greatest in the latitude range where Ni is greatest during high solar activity. We suggest that this greater rate of change (or amplification effect) of Ni at the DMSP altitude is mainly a consequence of the solar activity variations of the topside scale height. The changes in the height of the F-Region peak (hmF2) and the density NmF2 play a secondary role.

  1. Measurements of population densities of metastable and resonant levels of argon using laser induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolić, M.; Newton, J.; Sukenik, C. I.; Vušković, L.; Popović, S.

    2015-01-14

    We present a new approach to measure population densities of Ar I metastable and resonant excited states in low temperature Ar plasmas at pressures higher than 1 Torr. This approach combines the time resolved laser induced fluorescence technique with the kinetic model of Ar. The kinetic model of Ar is based on calculating the population rates of metastable and resonant levels by including contributions from the processes that affect population densities of Ar I excited states. In particular, we included collisional quenching processes between atoms in the ground state and excited states, since we are investigating plasma at higher pressures. We also determined time resolved population densities of Ar I 2 p excited states by employing optical emission spectroscopy technique. Time resolved Ar I excited state populations are presented for the case of the post-discharge of the supersonic flowing microwave discharge at pressures of 1.7 and 2.3 Torr. The experimental set-up consists of a pulsed tunable dye laser operating in the near infrared region and a cylindrical resonance cavity operating in TE{sub 111} mode at 2.45 GHz. Results show that time resolved population densities of Ar I metastable and resonant states oscillate with twice the frequency of the discharge.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Achieving Targets of Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number Versus Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Michael; Winegar, Deborah A; Punekar, Rajeshwari S; Quimbo, Ralph A; Cziraky, Mark J; Cromwell, William C

    2017-02-01

    A recent analysis of a commercially insured US population found fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in high-risk patients attaining low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), as measured by LDL particle number (LDL-P) versus low LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Here, we investigated the cost effectiveness of LDL-lowering therapy guided by LDL-P. Patients were selected from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database and followed for 12 to 36 months. Patients who achieved LDL-P <1,000 nmol/l were placed into the LDL-P cohort, whereas those without LDL-P tests, but who achieved LDL-C <100 mg/dl, were placed into the LDL-C cohort. CVD-related costs included all health plan paid amounts related to CVD events or lipid management. Cost effectiveness was assessed through incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, defined as difference in total costs across the cohorts divided by difference in CVD events, measured over follow-up. Each cohort included 2,094, 1,242, and 705 patients over 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up. Patients in the LDL-P cohort received more aggressive lipid-lowering therapy and had fewer CVD events during follow-up compared to patients in the LDL-C cohort. This led to greater pharmacy costs and lower medical costs over time. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates ranged from $23,131 per CVD event avoided at 12 months to $3,439 and -$4,555 at 24- and 36-month follow-up, suggesting a high likelihood that achieving LDL-P <1,000 nmol/l is cost effective. In conclusion, LDL-lowering therapy guided by LDL-P was demonstrated to be cost effective, with greater clinical and economic benefit seen over longer time horizons and with the increased use of generic statins. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  4. Direct evidence of fadeout of collective enhancement in nuclear level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, K.; Roy, Pratap; Pandit, Deepak; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T. K.; Kundu, S.; Sen, A.; Rana, T. K.; Manna, S.; Pandey, R.; Roy, T.; Dhal, A.; Asgar, Md. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-09-01

    The phenomenon of collective enhancement in nuclear level density and its fadeout has been probed using neutron evaporation study of two strongly deformed (173Lu, 185Re), and one spherical (201Tl) compound nuclei over the excitation energy (E*) range of ∼ 22- 56 MeV. Clear signature of the fadeout of collective enhancement in nuclear level density was observed for the first time in both the deformed evaporation residues 172Lu and 184Re at an excitation energy range ∼ 14- 21 MeV. Calculations based on finite temperature density functional theory, as well as macroscopic-microscopic shape transition model, have strongly established a close correlation between the observed fadeout of collective enhancement and a deformed to spherical nuclear shape transition in these nuclei occurring in the same excitation energy zone. Interestingly, a weak signature of fadeout has also been observed for the spherical residue 200Tl. This is due to a similar shape transition of the deformed excited state configuration of 200Tl.

  5. Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2000-01-01

    Noninvasive method for determining the liquid level and density inside of a container having arbitrary dimension and shape. By generating a flexural acoustic wave in the container shell and measuring the phase difference of the detected flexural wave from that of the originally generated wave a small distance from the generated wave, while moving the generation and detection means through the liquid/vapor interface, this interface can be detected. Both the wave generation and wave detection may be achieved by transducers on the surface of the container. A change in the phase difference over the outer surface of the vessel signifies that a liquid/vapor interface has been crossed, while the magnitude of the phase difference can be related to fluid density immediately opposite the measurement position on the surface of the vessel.

  6. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  7. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stránský, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-06-15

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the system’s size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: •ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. •ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phase–space properties. •ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. •ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. •ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies.

  8. Improvement of the noise level of the Split Langmuir Probe - a spatial current density meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marusenkov, Andriy; Dudkin, Fedor; Shuvalov, Valentyn

    2013-04-01

    One of the main tasks at the experimental investigations of the wave processes in space plasma is the determination of the dispersion relations between their wave vector and frequency. The frequency analysis of the magnetic field fluctuations and the electric current density in plasma is very efficient in this case. It had been shown that the simultaneous measurements of the magnetic field orthogonal components and the spatial current density fluctuations can give the wave vector k values for the plane wave spectra, by which a wave field in a plasma reference frame can be represented. The measurements of the magnetic field fluctuations usually are made by a variety of magnetometers using well developed methods. Unfortunately, up to the moment the methods and instruments for the reliable measurements of the space current density are not so good developed as the magnetic ones. There are three independent techniques to study the spatial current density in plasma: the contactless Rogovsky coil, the Faraday cap and the Split Langmuir Probe (SLP). The attempt to compare the different approaches and instruments was carried out during the experiment "Variant" onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite SICH-1M launched 2004. The clear advantages of the SLP over other instruments were revealed and proved. Using whistler as a test signal the very good consistency between the magnetic and electric fields and the spatial electric current density was obtained. However, the signal-to-noise ratio of the current density meters has to be further improved. In this report we analyze the sources of the SLP noises and propose the ways to decrease it. The computer simulation of the improved current density meter reveals that the introduced changes have almost no influence on the sensor matching with the space plasma and, as a result, the minor changes of the transformation factor in operation frequency band are expected. The modernized version of the SLP was successfully tested in the

  9. Should we take high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at face value?

    PubMed

    Leite, Jose Oyama; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-01-01

    The inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and cardiovascular disease has driven several investigators to target the increase in this lipoprotein to prevent atherosclerosis and its complications. However, many reports have demonstrated that the use of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a means to prevent and treat atherosclerosis has mainly resulted in negative outcomes. These findings may help to increase our knowledge of HDL metabolism and its protective effect. There is evidence that the mechanism by which HDL-C levels are raised has a great impact on cardiovascular outcomes. When the increase in HDL-C levels is secondary to greater synthesis, a strong beneficial effect in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases is observed. Even small increases in HDL-C levels induce a marked reduction in cardiovascular events; this has been observed during treatment with fibrates. In contrast, when the increase in HDL-C levels is secondary to a reduction in HDL catabolism, unexpectedly, the opposite effects are usually noted. Even dramatic increases in HDL-C levels are not associated with better cardiovascular outcomes. In fact, these increases have been related to a greater number of cardiovascular-related deaths. This became clear from the results of trials that tested inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We suggest that increases in reverse cholesterol transport are more important than HDL-C levels. Strong evidence is provided by individuals that express apolipoprotein (apo)A-I Milano. These individuals have extremely low HDL-C levels due to greater catabolism of the lipoprotein. However, reverse cholesterol transport is increased in these individuals and, as a consequence, they have a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. We reinforce that, in clinical practice, the currently recommended levels of HDL-C should still be a major target to be aimed for. However, in the research field, we emphasize the need to look for other

  10. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  11. [Composition and Density of Soil Fauna in the Region with Enhanced Radioactivity Level (Komi Republic, Vodnyi)].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, A A; Kudrin, A A; Konakova, T N; Taskaeva, A A

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the influence of high levels of radiation on soil fauna were carried out in 2012 in the territory formed as a result of the activity of the enterprise for extraction and production of radium from reservoir water and waste of uranium ore from 1931 to 1956. At present the local radioactive pollution in this area is caused by the presence of heavy natural radionuclides 226Ra, 238U and products of their disintegration in soils. The oppression of soil invertebrate.fauna in pine forests and meadows with high levels of radionuclides and heavy metals is revealed. Also shown is the decrease in the number and density of different taxonomic groups of invertebrates, reduction of the diversity and spectrum of trophic groups and vital forms in the area with a high content of radionuclides in soil. Our results are in agreement with the results obtained by the similar studies showing negative influence of high-level ionizing radiation on soil fauna.

  12. Voluntary exercise and caloric restriction enhance hippocampal dendritic spine density and BDNF levels in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Lee, Kim; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart; Golden, Erin; Cutler, Roy G; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-10-01

    Diabetes may adversely affect cognitive function, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in db/db mice, a model of insulin resistant diabetes. Running wheel activity, caloric restriction, or the combination of the two treatments increased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus of db/db mice. Enhancement of hippocampal BDNF was accompanied by increases in dendritic spine density on the secondary and tertiary dendrites of dentate granule neurons. These studies suggest that diabetes exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal structure, and that this state can be attenuated by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing energy intake.

  13. A high-performance Fortran code to calculate spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities. The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g- model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf. Program summaryProgram title: MM Catalogue identifier: AENM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 193181 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1298585 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, MPI. Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler and MPI. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our examples, up to 75Mb Classification: 17.15. External routines: MPICH2 (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpich2/) Nature of problem: Calculating of the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density. Solution method: The algorithm implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The code is parallelized using the Message

  14. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Id Betan, R. M.; Repetto, C. E.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin-Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  15. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. PMID:25045281

  16. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy.

  17. Density matrix reconstruction of three-level atoms via Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavryusev, V.; Signoles, A.; Ferreira-Cao, M.; Zürn, G.; Hofmann, C. S.; Günter, G.; Schempp, H.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present combined measurements of the spatially resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, while the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and light degrees of freedom and will facilitate new studies of many-body effects in optically driven Rydberg gases.

  18. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  19. Development of Liquid Level and Density Bubbler for DWPF Canyon Vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Barnes, A.B.

    1994-10-01

    Under Activity No. SRT-ETF-TT-94003-0 (approved March 31, 1994), which is the result of Technical Assistance Request 93-DWPT-PMC-A0002 (issued February 2, 1994), an experiment was performed to test several alternate liquid-level and density measuring bubbler tubes to replace the standard straight tube bubbler sensor used in DWPF canyon vessels and Holledge-type sensors, which are currently in use. This report describes an experiment that elicited positive results from two alternate bubbler tubes that incorporate all of the advantages of the fundamentally simple straight tube bubbler while trying to minimize plugging.

  20. Error analysis of coefficient-based regularized algorithm for density-level detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Pan, Zhibin; Li, Luoqing; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we consider a density-level detection (DLD) problem by a coefficient-based classification framework with [Formula: see text]-regularizer and data-dependent hypothesis spaces. Although the data-dependent characteristic of the algorithm provides flexibility and adaptivity for DLD, it leads to difficulty in generalization error analysis. To overcome this difficulty, an error decomposition is introduced from an established classification framework. On the basis of this decomposition, the estimate of the learning rate is obtained by using Rademacher average and stepping-stone techniques. In particular, the estimate is independent of the capacity assumption used in the previous literature.

  1. Simultaneous Microscopic Description of Nuclear Level Density and Radiative Strength Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, N. Quang; Dang, N. Dinh; Huong, L. T. Quynh

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear level density (NLD) and radiative strength function (RSF) are simultaneously described within a microscopic approach, which takes into account the thermal effects of the exact pairing as well as the giant resonances within the phonon-damping model. The good agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data extracted by the Oslo group for 170,171,172Yb isotopes shows the importance of exact thermal pairing in the description of NLD at low and intermediate excitation energies. It also invalidates the assumption based on the Brink-Axel hypothesis in the description of the RSF.

  2. F-cell levels are altered with erythrocyte density in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumanta; Dash, Bisnu Prasad; Patel, Dilip Kumar; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakravarty, Amit; Banerjee, Debashis; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2011-08-15

    Lighter cells from density fractionated erythrocytes of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients carry higher amount of externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) and cell surface glycophorins compared to the denser counterparts. Further analysis also revealed that the denser cells contained higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) compared to the lighter cells, supported by the presence of larger number of F-cells in these populations. In this report, we have found direct evidence on the higher survival of the HbF rich erythrocytes in SCD.

  3. The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, Luciano G.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2015-10-15

    An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T{sub H} was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T{sub H} that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1{sup st} order phase transition at a fixed temperature T{sub H}. A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1{sup st} order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles.

  4. U.S. block-level population density rasters for 1990, 2000, and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of three raster datasets representing population density for the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. All three rasters are based on block-level census geography data. The 1990 and 2000 data are derived from data normalized to 2000 block boundaries, while the 2010 data are based on 2010 block boundaries. The 1990 and 2000 data are rasters at 100-meter (m) resolution, while the 2010 data are at 60-m resolution. See details about each dataset in the specific metadata for each raster.

  5. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-04-23

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model.

  6. First Pregnancy Characteristics, Postmenopausal Breast Density, and Salivary Sex Hormone Levels in a Population at High Risk for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mockus, Mary; Prebil, LeeAnn; Ereman, Rochelle; Dollbaum, Charles; Powell, Mark; Yau, Christina; Benz, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    It remains unknown if later life breast cancer risk as determined by reproductive history is mediated by postmenopausal breast density and/or sex steroid levels. Increased breast density is a strong surrogate for future breast cancer risk. A cross-sectional study with a longitudinal follow up for breast health outcomes evaluated women without breast cancer (n = 1,023; 682 = parous), drawn from a high risk postmenopausal population, with questionnaire reported reproductive histories. The questionnaire was linked to prospective screening mammogram breast density measurements, and saliva biospecimens that were used to assess sex steroid hormone levels. Expected age and postmenopause related declines in salivary estradiol (E), progesterone (P), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T) levels were observed. This was most pronounced for DHEA and T, which were also the only postmenopausal hormone levels significantly associated with any reproductive characteristics: parity and breast feeding for DHEA, age-at-first birth for T. Postmenopausal breast density was borderline significantly lower with parity and higher body mass index (BMI). After multivariate analysis, T was the only hormone level to retain any association (negative, p<0.05) with breast density. While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and statin use among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Laura G; Hammill, Bradley G; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Jones, W Schuyler

    2016-05-01

    At the time of this study, guidelines recommended a primary goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL for all patients, an optional goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL for patients with overt cardiovascular disease and statins for patients with diabetes and overt cardiovascular disease and patients 40 years and older with diabetes and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study examined statin use and achievement of lipid goals among 111,730 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years and older in 2011. Three-quarters of patients met the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dL. Patients with cardiovascular disease were more likely to meet the goal than those without, not controlling for other differences. Patients on a statin were more likely to meet the goal. There is considerable opportunity for improvement in cholesterol management in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Measurement of Ar resonance and metastable level number densities in argon containing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Hillebrand, Bastian; Spiekermeier, Stefan; Bibinov, Nikita; Böke, Marc; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The resonance 1s_4~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_1), ~1s_2~({\\hspace{0pt}}^1P_1) and metastable 1s_5~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_2), ~1s_3~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_0) level number densities of argon are determined by means of the branching fraction method in an inductively coupled plasma at 5 Pa and 10 Pa in argon with admixture of hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. The 1s_5~({\\hspace{0pt}}^3P_2) densities are compared to laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to evaluate the reliability of the branching fraction method and its limitations. The results are in good agreement and the use of a compact, low cost, low resolution spectrometer (Δλ = 1.3 nm) is sufficient to reliably determine the first four excited states of argon in argon-hydrogen and argon-oxygen mixtures. The addition of nitrogen results in unreliable densities, as the observed argon lines overlap with emission of the N_2(B^3\\Pi_g-A^3Σ_u^+) transition.

  9. Density heterogeneity and fluid-blood levels in patients aged over 55 with lobar hematoma.

    PubMed

    Renard, D; Waconge, A; Bouly, S; Castelli, C; Thouvenot, E

    2016-01-01

    Density heterogeneity and fluid-blood levels (FBLs) are frequently seen on acute CT scans of deep brain hemorrhage. Our aim was to analyze the density heterogeneity and FBLs seen on acute/subacute CT in patients aged>55 with lobar haemorrhage (LH), and to study the relationship of these brain abnormalities with other parameters, including cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related abnormalities. This was an observational study and retrospective analysis of early CT scans (<7 days) in patients aged>55 years with acute lobar hemorrhage who, between 2012 and 2015, were entered into our stroke database. A total of 37 LH episodes (without trauma, abnormal coagulation/platelet counts, vascular malformation, tumor or vasculitis) in 35 patients were analyzed. Other studied parameters were gender, age, history of hypertension, blood pressure on admission, prior antiplatelet treatment, aPTT, PTT, platelet count, hematocrit, timing of first CT, LH volume, involved lobe, cortical superficial siderosis, microbleeds, chronic LH and CAA (classic and modified Boston) criteria. CAA-related abnormalities seen on MRI were also scored. Overall, in 26 LH episodes (70%), CT was performed within 24h. Density heterogeneity and FBLs were seen in 19 (51%) and 9 (24%) LH episodes, respectively. Also, according to classic and modified Boston criteria, 18 (51%) and 24 (69%) patients, respectively, fulfilled criteria for probable/definite CAA. As for the presence of FBLs, a statistically significant association was found with both the presence of probable/definite CAA according to modified Boston criteria (P=0.033) and the presence of superficial siderosis (P=0.019). Density heterogeneity and, to a lesser degree, FBLs are frequently seen in patients aged>55 with LH. FBLs may also be associated with CAA-related hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Does alcohol outlet density differ by area-level disadvantage in metropolitan Perth?

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Trapp, Georgina; Wood, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that there are area-level disparities in alcohol outlets, with greater density in disadvantaged areas. In part, this might be explained by the inequitable distribution of retail, attracted by lower rents to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This ecological study examines the distribution of liquor licences in Perth, Australia, and whether discrepancies in the distribution of retail land-uses could account for a socio-economic gradient. Area disadvantage was determined for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, and licence locations were mapped in GIS. Negative binomial loglinear models examined whether licence densities within SA1s differed by area disadvantage, controlling for demographics and spatial correlation. Models included an offset term, so the estimated effects of area-level disadvantage were on licences per km(2) , or licences per retail destination. In the area-based analyses, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile (i.e. a reduction in relative disadvantage), general licences reduced by 15% (P = 0.000) and liquor stores reduced by 7% (P = 0.004). These gradients were not apparent when licences were examined as a function of retail; however, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile, the density of on-premise licences per retail destination increased by 14% (P = 0.000). The direction of the socio-economic gradient for general licences and liquor stores in Perth is concerning, as all licences selling packaged alcohol were more abundant in disadvantaged areas. However, the over-representation of packaged liquor in disadvantaged areas may relate to the increased provision of retail. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Measurement of resonance level densities in rare gas plasmas and modeling of their resulting VUV emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffard, J. B.; Culver, C. L.; Wang, S.; Lin, C. C.; Wendt, A. E.; Radovanov, S. B.; Persing, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    In the rare gases, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions are dominated by the decays from the 1s2 and 1s4 (Paschen's notation) principal resonance levels. In isolation, atoms excited to these resonance levels have a short radiative lifetime (< 10 ns), but resonance blockade of the VUV transitions to the ground state significantly extend the effective lifetimes of these levels under typical plasma conditions with pressures greater than a mTorr. Despite this re-absorption, rare gas plasmas do produce copious VUV emissions that may play an important role in critical surface reactions under certain process conditions. We have measured the resonance level densities as a function of pressure in rare-gas discharges (Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) in an inductively coupled plasma using both white-light absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy by monitoring changes in the 2px --> 1sy branching fractions. The measured resonance level concentrations are subsequently used as inputs to a simple VUV transport model to determine the VUV flux to surfaces. These model VUV flux calculations are compared to measurements made with an absolutely calibrated VUV photodiode. This work was supported in part by NSF grant PHY-1068670.

  12. Parity-projected shell model Monte Carlo level densities for medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Oezen, C.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Dean, D. J.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate the effects of single-particle structure and pairing on the equilibration of positive and negative-parity level densities for the even-even nuclei {sup 58,62,66}Fe and {sup 58}Ni and the odd-A nuclei {sup 59}Ni and {sup 65}Fe. Calculations are performed using the shell model Monte Carlo method in the complete fp-gds shell-model space using a pairing+quadrupole type residual interaction. We find for the even-even nuclei that the positive-parity states dominate at low excitation energies due to strong pairing correlations. At excitation energies at which pairs are broken, single-particle structure of these nuclei is seen to play the decisive role for the energy dependence of the ratio of negative-to-positive parity level densities. We also find that equilibration energies are noticeably lower for the odd-A nuclei {sup 59}Ni and {sup 65}Fe than for the neighboring even-even nuclei {sup 58}Ni and {sup 66}Fe.

  13. Examination of level density prescriptions for the interpretation of high-energy γ -ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Srijit; Pandit, Deepak; Dey, Balaram; Mondal, Debasish; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; De, A.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-11-01

    High-energy γ -ray spectra measured by our group involving the compound nuclei (CN) 63Cu at excitation energy E*˜36 MeV with average angular momentum J =12 -17 ℏ , 97Tc at E*˜29 -50 MeV with J =12 -14 ℏ , 113Sb at E*=109 and 121 MeV with J =49 -59 ℏ , and 201Tl at E*=39.5 and 47.5 MeV with J =18 -24 ℏ have been analyzed utilizing the level density prescriptions of (i) Ignatyuk, Smirenkin, and Tishin (IST), (ii) Budtz-Jorgensen and Knitter (BJK), and (iii) Kataria, Ramamurthy, and Kapoor (KRK). These three prescriptions have been tested for the correct statistical model description of high-energy γ rays in the light of extracting the giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters at low excitation energy and spin where shell effects might play an important role, as well as at high excitation energy where shell effects have melted. Interestingly, only the IST level density prescription could explain the high-energy γ -ray spectra with reasonable GDR parameters for all four nuclei.

  14. Effect of housing density on reproductive parameters and corticosterone levels in nursing mice.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, James; Dambrosia, James M; Davis, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) recommends minimum floor space per mouse based on weight, with no other factors considered. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the effect of housing density on reproductive indices and corticosterone levels in lactating mice. Female mice matched for age, strain, and date-of-pregnancy were housed individually. At parturition the dams were randomly allocated to have litters culled or remain intact. The experimental group had litters culled to meet the Guide's space density requirement. Litters of the second group were maintained as the numbers born to each dam. Fecal corticosterone levels (first-generation mice only), growth, and weaning weights were measured for mice in all cages; in addition, the reproductive behavior of progeny generated under both housing conditions was assessed to determine whether a space x litter size interaction affected subsequent reproduction. The growth rates for pups from culled litters were significantly greater than those from intact litters. The first-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in fecal corticosterone or reproductive parameters. The second-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in growth rates. The results of the study suggest that a strict interpretation of space requirements as listed in Table 2.1 of the Guide is not warranted for lactating dams with litters.

  15. Effect of Housing Density on Reproductive Parameters and Corticosterone Levels in Nursing Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, James; Dambrosia, James M; Davis, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) recommends minimum floor space per mouse based on weight, with no other factors considered. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the effect of housing density on reproductive indices and corticosterone levels in lactating mice. Female mice matched for age, strain, and date-of-pregnancy were housed individually. At parturition the dams were randomly allocated to have litters culled or remain intact. The experimental group had litters culled to meet the Guide’s space density requirement. Litters of the second group were maintained as the numbers born to each dam. Fecal corticosterone levels (first-generation mice only), growth, and weaning weights were measured for mice in all cages; in addition, the reproductive behavior of progeny generated under both housing conditions was assessed to determine whether a space × litter size interaction affected subsequent reproduction. The growth rates for pups from culled litters were significantly greater than those from intact litters. The first-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in fecal corticosterone or reproductive parameters. The second-generation pups showed no statistically significant differences in growth rates. The results of the study suggest that a strict interpretation of space requirements as listed in Table 2.1 of the Guide is not warranted for lactating dams with litters. PMID:18351716

  16. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  17. Targeted mutation of plasma phospholipid transfer protein gene markedly reduces high-density lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xian-cheng; Bruce, Can; Mar, Jefferson; Lin, Min; Ji, Yong; Francone, Omar L.; Tall, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitates the transfer of phospholipids and cholesterol from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To evaluate the in vivo role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and produced mice with no PLTP gene expression. Analysis of plasma of F2 homozygous PLTP–/– mice showed complete loss of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and partial loss of free cholesterol transfer activities. Moreover, the in vivo transfer of [3H]phosphatidylcholine ether from very-low-density proteins (VLDL) to HDL was abolished in PLTP–/– mice. On a chow diet, PLTP–/– mice showed marked decreases in HDL phospholipid (60%), cholesterol (65%), and apo AI (85%), but no significant change in non-HDL lipid or apo B levels, compared with wild-type littermates. On a high-fat diet, HDL levels were similarly decreased, but there was also an increase in VLDL and LDL phospholipids (210%), free cholesterol (60%), and cholesteryl ester (40%) without change in apo B levels, suggesting accumulation of surface components of TRL. Vesicular lipoproteins were shown by negative-stain electron microscopy of the free cholesterol– and phospholipid-enriched IDL/LDL fraction. Thus, PLTP is the major factor facilitating transfer of VLDL phospholipid into HDL. Reduced plasma PLTP activity causes markedly decreased HDL lipid and apoprotein, demonstrating the importance of transfer of surface components of TRL in the maintenance of HDL levels. Vesicular lipoproteins accumulating in PLTP–/– mice on a high-fat diet could influence the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:10079112

  18. Humpback whale-generated ambient noise levels provide insight into singers' spatial densities.

    PubMed

    Seger, Kerri D; Thode, Aaron M; Urbán-R, Jorge; Martínez-Loustalot, Pamela; Jiménez-López, M Esther; López-Arzate, Diana

    2016-09-01

    Baleen whale vocal activity can be the dominant underwater ambient noise source for certain locations and seasons. Previous wind-driven ambient-noise formulations have been adjusted to model ambient noise levels generated by random distributions of singing humpback whales in ocean waveguides and have been combined to a single model. This theoretical model predicts that changes in ambient noise levels with respect to fractional changes in singer population (defined as the noise "sensitivity") are relatively unaffected by the source level distributions and song spectra of individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). However, the noise "sensitivity" does depend on frequency and on how the singers' spatial density changes with population size. The theoretical model was tested by comparing visual line transect surveys with bottom-mounted passive acoustic data collected during the 2013 and 2014 humpback whale breeding seasons off Los Cabos, Mexico. A generalized linear model (GLM) estimated the noise "sensitivity" across multiple frequency bands. Comparing the GLM estimates with the theoretical predictions suggests that humpback whales tend to maintain relatively constant spacing between one another while singing, but that individual singers either slightly increase their source levels or song duration, or cluster more tightly as the singing population increases.

  19. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, K. K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept for enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbits is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  20. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  1. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Masafumi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL) complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin(®), a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD. This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I-II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin(®) or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated. There were no differences between the Theracurmin(®) and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020) lower in the Theracurmin(®) group compared with the placebo group. Theracurmin(®) reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects.

  2. Short-term cooling increases serum triglycerides and small high-density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation of mammographic density and serum calcium levels in patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hack, Carolin C; Stoll, Martin J; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Adler, Werner; Haeberle, Lothar; Ganslandt, Thomas; Heindl, Felix; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Bayer, Christian M

    2017-06-01

    Percentage mammographic breast density (PMD) is one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). Calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and denosumab have been considered and partly confirmed as factors potentially influencing the risk of BC. This retrospective observational study investigated the association between serum calcium level and PMD. A total of 982 BC patients identified in the research database at the University Breast Center for Franconia with unilateral BC, calcium and albumin values, and mammogram at the time of first diagnosis were included. PMD was assessed, using a semiautomated method by two readers. Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the impact on PMD of the parameters of serum calcium level adjusted for albumin level, and well-known clinical predictors such as age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status and confounder for serum calcium like season in which the BC was diagnosed. Increased calcium levels were associated with reduced PMD (P = 0.024). Furthermore, PMD was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and age (P < 0.001). There was also an association between PMD and menopausal status (P < 0.001). The goodness-of-fit of the regression model was moderate. This is the first study assessing the association between serum calcium level and PMD. An inverse association with adjusted serum calcium levels was observed. These findings add to previously published data relating to vitamin D, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and the RANK/RANKL signaling pathway in breast cancer risk and prevention. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51–1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P < 0.05). Thirty-four per cent of studies reported lower mean HDL-C levels in females than in males. Conclusions Very low mean HDL-C levels are common in Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes

  5. Positive correlation between PEDF expression levels and macrophage density in the human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nelius, Thomas; Samathanam, Christina; Martinez-Marin, Dalia; Gaines, Natalie; Stevens, Jessica; Hickson, Johnny; de Riese, Werner; Filleur, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this study, we investigated the capacity of PEDF to modulate the recruitment and the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages both in vitro and in human prostate. METHODS Using Boyden chambers, we assessed PEDF effect on the migration of monocytes and chemically-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Normal, prostatitis and prostate cancer specimens were retrospectively selected and examined by immunohistochemistry for PEDF expression and infiltration of immune CD68+macrophagic cells. PEDF expression and macrophage density were then correlated with each other and clinicopathological parameters. M1 and M2 differentiation markers were quantified by qRT-PCR, western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS In chemotaxis, PEDF induced the migration of monocytes/macrophages. In immunohistochemistry, macrophages were markedly increased in prostatitis and malignant compared to normal tissues. PEDF was expressed at variable levels in the stroma and epithelium. PEDF mRNA was down-regulated in both prostate cancer and prostatitis compared to normal tissues. In correlation studies, macrophage density and PEDF expression were respectively positively and negatively associated with prostate size. Most importantly, PEDF expression positively correlated with macrophage density. Finally, PEDF stimulated the expression of iNOS, IL12 and TNFα; and inhibited IL10 and arginase 1 in mouse and human macrophages confirming a M1-type differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that PEDF acts directly on monocytes/macrophages by inducing their migration and differentiation into M1-type cells. These findings suggest a possible role of macrophages in PEDF anti-tumor properties and may support further development of PEDF-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23038613

  6. Understanding thermodynamic properties at the molecular level: multiple temperature charge density study of ribitol and xylitol.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anders Østergaard; Mattson, Rikke; Larsen, Sine

    2011-07-07

    X-ray diffraction data of high quality measured to high resolution on crystals of the two pentitol epimers ribitol (centric) and xylitol (acentric) at 101, 141, and 181 K and data on the two compounds previously recorded at 122 K have formed the basis for multipole refinements with the VALRAY system. Our analysis showed that it is possible to obtain a reliable crystal electron density for an acentric compound (xylitol) from X-ray diffraction data and that the thermal motion can be deconvoluted from the static density in this temperature range. The Bader-type topological analysis of the static electron densities revealed virtually identical intramolecular interactions as well as very similar hydrogen bond interactions of ribitol and xylitol; the only minor differences are found in the weaker intermolecular interactions. The high-level periodic DFT calculations are in accordance with the thermodynamic measurements that show that the two pentitols have identical sublimation energies. A rigid body normal coordinate analysis was performed on the atomic displacement parameters obtained at the four different temperatures. The translational and librational mean square deviations derived through this analysis were used in a quantum statistical approach to derive frequencies of the corresponding harmonic oscillators. The analysis showed a consistent vibrational model for all temperatures. The frequencies were subsequently used to calculate crystal entropies assuming an Einstein-type behavior. These calculations show that the crystal entropy of ribitol is 8 J K(-1) mol(-1) higher than the crystal entropy of xylitol, confirming that it is a difference in the entropy of the two compounds that causes the difference in their free energy. Our results presented in this Article show the potential to use X-ray diffraction data to obtain physicochemical properties of crystals.

  7. Hysteresis in Carbon Nanotube Transistors: Measurement and Analysis of Trap Density, Energy Level, and Spatial Distribution.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebecca Sejung; Shulaker, Max Marcel; Hills, Gage; Suriyasena Liyanage, Luckshitha; Lee, Seunghyun; Tang, Alvin; Mitra, Subhasish; Wong, H-S Philip

    2016-04-26

    We present a measurement technique, which we call the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement, for characterizing hysteresis in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, and demonstrate its applicability for a broad range of 1D and 2D nanomaterials beyond carbon nanotubes. The Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement enables the quantification (density, energy level, and spatial distribution) of charged traps responsible for hysteresis. A physics-based model of the charge trapping process for a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor is presented and experimentally validated using the Pulsed Time-Domain Measurement. Leveraging this model, we discover a source of traps (surface traps) unique to devices with low-dimensional channels such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires (beyond interface traps which exist in today's silicon field-effect transistors). The different charge trapping mechanisms for interface traps and surface traps are studied based on their temperature dependencies. Through these advances, we are able to quantify the interface trap density for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (∼3 × 10(13) cm(-2) eV(-1) near midgap), and compare this against a range of previously studied dielectric/semiconductor interfaces.

  8. Effect of collective enhancement in level density in the fission of pre-actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, Mohit; Yadav, Abhishek; Kaur, Gurpreet; Dubey, R.; Shareef, M.; Laveen, P. V.; Shamlath, A.; Shaikh, Md. Moin; Biswas, S.; Gehlot, J.; Golda, K. S.; Sugathan, P.; Pal, Santanu

    2017-07-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions for three reactions, 19F+182W,19F+187Re , and 19F+193Ir , are measured in the laboratory energy range of 82-120 MeV. Extracted fission cross sections of the present systems as well as those of three others from literature (19F+192Os,19F+194Pt , and 19F+197Au ) are compared with the predictions of a statistical model which takes into account the effects of shell, orientation degree of freedom, and collective enhancement in level density (CELD). In all the cases, the standard statistical model predictions overestimate the measured fission cross section, indicating the presence of some amount of dynamical effects in the exit channel. A dissipation strength of 2 ×1021s-1 is found to be sufficient to reproduce the data of all the reactions. No scaling of fission barrier height to fit the data is required.

  9. Newer therapeutic strategies to alter high-density lipoprotein level and function.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Nicholas; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have been identified as a risk factor for premature coronary artery disease, however, to date, current pharmacologic approaches for raising HDL have provided little benefit, if at all, in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. It has been shown that HDL can modify many aspects of plaque pathogenesis. Its most established role is in reverse cholesterol transportation, but HDL can also affect oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, and vasodilatation. Considering these potential benefits of HDL, newer treatments have been developed to modify HDL activity, which include the use of oral cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, apolipoprotein (apo)A-I infusions, apoA-I mimetics, drugs to increase apoA-I synthesis, and agonists of the liver X receptor. These new therapies are reviewed in this article.

  10. Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867

  11. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on 54,58,56Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Byun, Y.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Akhtar, S.; Dhakal, S.; Parker, C. E.

    2015-07-01

    Deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α -particle emission spectra, from d + 54,58,56Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 57Co, 55Co, 57Fe, 55Fe, 52Mn, 54Mn have been deduced from the compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)], 10.1016/0375-9474(92)90278-R was found to have a good agreement with our results.

  12. Level density and mechanism of deuteron-induced reactions on Fe54,56,58

    DOE PAGES

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; ...

    2015-07-06

    Here, deuteron elastic cross sections, as well as neutron, proton, and α-particle emission spectra, from d+54,56,58Fe reactions have been measured with deuteron beam energies of 5, 7, and 9 MeV. Optical model parameters have been tested against our experimental data. The fraction of total reaction cross section responsible for the formation of compound nuclei has been deduced from the angular distributions. The degree of discrepancy between calculated and experimental compound cross sections was found to increase with increasing neutron number. The nuclear level densities of the residual nuclei 55Co, 57Co, 55Fe, 57Fe, 52Mn, and 54Mn have been deduced from themore » compound double differential cross sections. The Gilbert-Cameron model with Iljinov parameter systematics [A. S. Iljinov and M. V. Mebel, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)] was found to have a good agreement with our results.« less

  13. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Reliable Energy Level Alignment at Physisorbed Molecule–Metal Interfaces from Density Functional Theory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A key quantity for molecule–metal interfaces is the energy level alignment of molecular electronic states with the metallic Fermi level. We develop and apply an efficient theoretical method, based on density functional theory (DFT) that can yield quantitatively accurate energy level alignment information for physisorbed metal–molecule interfaces. The method builds on the “DFT+Σ” approach, grounded in many-body perturbation theory, which introduces an approximate electron self-energy that corrects the level alignment obtained from conventional DFT for missing exchange and correlation effects associated with the gas-phase molecule and substrate polarization. Here, we extend the DFT+Σ approach in two important ways: first, we employ optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functionals to compute the gas-phase term, rather than rely on GW or total energy differences as in prior work; second, we use a nonclassical DFT-determined image-charge plane of the metallic surface to compute the substrate polarization term, rather than the classical DFT-derived image plane used previously. We validate this new approach by a detailed comparison with experimental and theoretical reference data for several prototypical molecule–metal interfaces, where excellent agreement with experiment is achieved: benzene on graphite (0001), and 1,4-benzenediamine, Cu-phthalocyanine, and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride on Au(111). In particular, we show that the method correctly captures level alignment trends across chemical systems and that it retains its accuracy even for molecules for which conventional DFT suffers from severe self-interaction errors. PMID:25741626

  15. Reliable Energy Level Alignment at Physisorbed Molecule–Metal Interfaces from Density Functional Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Egger, David A.; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; ...

    2015-03-05

    We report a key quantity for molecule–metal interfaces is the energy level alignment of molecular electronic states with the metallic Fermi level. We develop and apply an efficient theoretical method, based on density functional theory (DFT) that can yield quantitatively accurate energy level alignment information for physisorbed metal–molecule interfaces. The method builds on the “DFT+Σ” approach, grounded in many-body perturbation theory, which introduces an approximate electron self-energy that corrects the level alignment obtained from conventional DFT for missing exchange and correlation effects associated with the gas-phase molecule and substrate polarization. Here, we extend the DFT+Σ approach in two important ways:more » first, we employ optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functionals to compute the gas-phase term, rather than rely on GW or total energy differences as in prior work; second, we use a nonclassical DFT-determined image-charge plane of the metallic surface to compute the substrate polarization term, rather than the classical DFT-derived image plane used previously. We validate this new approach by a detailed comparison with experimental and theoretical reference data for several prototypical molecule–metal interfaces, where excellent agreement with experiment is achieved: benzene on graphite (0001), and 1,4-benzenediamine, Cu-phthalocyanine, and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride on Au(111). In particular, we show that the method correctly captures level alignment trends across chemical systems and that it retains its accuracy even for molecules for which conventional DFT suffers from severe self-interaction errors.« less

  16. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  17. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kamineni, Vasundhara; Latha, Akkenapally Prasanna; Ramathulasi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women (PMW), to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OH)D levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OH)D levels were done. Their BMD was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur; T-scores were derived. Correlation analysis was done to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. Results: The proportion of osteoporosis at the hip was 31.9% in deficient group, 16.1% in insufficient, and 18.2% in sufficient group and at lumbar spine, it was 27.7%, 16.1%, and 22.7%, respectively. Forty-seven percent of PMW had deficient (<20 ng/ml) serum 25(OH)D levels and 31% had insufficiency. T-score at hip in deficient group was −2.05 ± 0.25, and in an insufficient group, it was −1.79 ± 0.13; T-score at lumbar spine was −1.92 ± 0.12 and −1.79 ± 0.12, respectively, but both were not statistically significant. Osteoporosis was seen in 24%, osteopenia in 55% at hip level and 23% and 59% respectively at lumbar spine. There was no association between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD neither at hip nor at lumbar spine (P = 0.51 and P = 0.79 respectively). Conclusion: In this study, among our cohort of patients there was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD. However, Vitamin D deficiency coexists with low BMD. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common risk factor for osteoporosis associated with increased bone remodeling and low bone mass. PMID:28096639

  18. Sex hormone levels as determinants of bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Vietnamese women and men.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong T T; von Schoultz, Bo; Nguyen, Tuan V; Thang, Trinh X; Chau, Tran T; Duc, Pham T M; Hirschberg, Angelica L

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis and the role of sex hormone levels in the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in a Vietnamese population of women and men. The cross-sectional study involved 269 women and 222 men aged 13-83 years, who were randomly selected from urban and rural areas in northern Vietnam. Serum concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were analyzed, and BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. We found that the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women was 18, 17, and 37 % for the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine, respectively. For men aged 50 years or older, the corresponding values were 8, 7, and 12 %. In men, the most important predictors of BMD for the femoral neck and total hip were age, body mass index, and serum levels of estradiol. For the BMD of the lumbar spine, testosterone also had a significant influence. Determinants of osteoporosis in men for the total hip and lumbar spine were age, weight, and serum concentrations of estradiol and testosterone. In postmenopausal women, age, weight, and residence (urban vs rural) were the most important predictors of BMD and osteoporosis. For all women (including those of reproductive age), serum levels of estradiol were also significant. These data suggest that the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Vietnamese population is high also in men, and that estradiol levels are essential for bone mass in both men and women. The results should have clinical implications and increase awareness of an important health issue within Vietnamese society.

  19. Serum low-density lipoprotein levels, statin use, and cognition in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Rej, Soham; Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Stefatos, Anthi; Rau, Allison; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2016-01-01

    Aim Statins have been associated with decreased cognition due to the effects of low concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on brain function. This has remained controversial and is particularly relevant to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), who have an increased risk of cognitive decline and are frequently prescribed statins. This study hypothesized that low concentration of LDL is associated with poor cognition in CAD patients using statins. It also explored the association between high-dose versus low-dose statins on cognition in this population. Patients and methods Baseline cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of 120 statin-using CAD patients were examined (mean statin duration 25±43 months). The main outcomes were measures of global cognition and cognitive domains, with poor cognition defined as cognitive performance ≤1 standard deviation below the population age and education adjusted means. A battery of cognitive tests was used to assess verbal memory, executive function, speed of processing, visuospatial memory, and global cognition. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other covariates, multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed associations between low LDL levels (<1.5 mmol/L), statin use, and poor cognition. Results LDL levels were not associated with global cognition or individual cognitive domains. High-dose statin use was associated with higher visuospatial memory (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI] =0.12 [0.02–0.66], P=0.01) and executive functioning (OR =0.25 [0.06–0.99], P=0.05). This effect was independent of covariates such as LDL levels. Conclusion Low LDL levels do not appear to be associated with poor cognition in CAD patients using statins. Whether high-dose statin use may have positive effects on cognition in CAD patients could be investigated in future studies. PMID:27877045

  20. Modelling energy level alignment at organic interfaces and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Flores, F; Ortega, J; Vázquez, H

    2009-10-21

    A review of our theoretical understanding of the band alignment at organic interfaces is presented with particular emphasis on the metal/organic (MO) case. The unified IDIS (induced density of interface states) and the ICT (integer charge transfer) models are reviewed and shown to describe qualitatively and semiquantitatively the barrier height formation at those interfaces. The IDIS model, governed by the organic CNL (charge neutrality level) and the interface screening includes: (a) charge transfer across the interface; (b) the "pillow" (or Pauli) effect associated with the compression of the metal wavefunction tails; and (c) the molecular dipoles. We argue that the ICT-model can be described as a limiting case of the unified IDIS-model for weak interface screening. For a fully quantitative understanding of the band alignment at organic interfaces, use of DFT (density functional theory) or quantum chemistry methods is highly desirable. In this Perspective review, we concentrate our discussion on DFT and show that conventional LDA or GGA calculations are limited by the "energy gap problem of the organic materials", because the LDA (or GGA) Kohn-Sham energy levels have to be corrected by the self-interaction energy of the corresponding wavefunction, to provide the appropriate molecule transport energy gap. Image potential and polarization effects at MO interfaces tend to cancel these self-interaction corrections; in particular, we show that for organic molecules lying flat on Cu and Ag, these cancellations are so strong that we can rely on conventional DFT to calculate their interface properties. For Au, however, the cancellations are weaker making it necessary to go beyond conventional DFT. We discuss several alternatives beyond conventional LDA or GGA. The most accurate approach is the well-known GW-technique, but its use is limited by its high demanding computer time. In a very simple approach one can combine conventional DFT with a "scissor" operator which

  1. Circulating levels of IGF-1 directly regulate bone growth and density

    PubMed Central

    Yakar, Shoshana; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley G.; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Wu, Yiping; Liu, Jun-Li; Ooi, Guck T.; Setser, Jennifer; Frystyk, Jan; Boisclair, Yves R.; LeRoith, Derek

    2002-01-01

    IGF-1 is a growth-promoting polypeptide that is essential for normal growth and development. In serum, the majority of the IGFs exist in a 150-kDa complex including the IGF molecule, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and the acid labile subunit (ALS). This complex prolongs the half-life of serum IGFs and facilitates their endocrine actions. Liver IGF-1–deficient (LID) mice and ALS knockout (ALSKO) mice exhibited relatively normal growth and development, despite having 75% and 65% reductions in serum IGF-1 levels, respectively. Double gene disrupted mice were generated by crossing LID+ALSKO mice. These mice exhibited further reductions in serum IGF-1 levels and a significant reduction in linear growth. The proximal growth plates of the tibiae of LID+ALSKO mice were smaller in total height as well as in the height of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones of chondrocytes. There was also a 10% decrease in bone mineral density and a greater than 35% decrease in periosteal circumference and cortical thickness in these mice. IGF-1 treatment for 4 weeks restored the total height of the proximal growth plate of the tibia. Thus, the double gene disruption LID+ALSKO mouse model demonstrates that a threshold concentration of circulating IGF-1 is necessary for normal bone growth and suggests that IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and ALS play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. PMID:12235108

  2. Estrogen levels influence medullary bone quantity and density in female house finches and pine siskins.

    PubMed

    Squire, Maria E; Veglia, Megan K; Drucker, Kevin A; Brazeal, Kathleen R; Hahn, Thomas P; Watts, Heather E

    2017-05-15

    Medullary bone, a non-structural osseous tissue, serves as a temporary storage site for calcium that is needed for eggshell production in a number of avian species. Previous research focusing primarily on domesticated species belonging to the Anseriformes, Galliformes, and Columbiformes has indicated that rising estrogen levels are a key signal stimulating medullary bone formation; Passeriformes (which constitute over half of extant bird species and are generally small) have received little attention. In the current study, we examined the influence of estrogen on medullary bone and cortical bone in two species of Passeriformes: the Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus) and the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus). Females of these species received either an estradiol implant or were untreated as a control. After 4.5-5months, reproductive condition was assessed and leg (femora) and wing (humeri) bones were collected for analysis using high-resolution (10μm) micro-computed tomography scanning. We found that in both species estradiol-treated females had significantly greater medullary bone quantity in comparison to untreated females, but we found no differences in cortical bone quantity or microarchitecture. We were also able to examine medullary bone density in the pine siskins and found that estradiol treatment significantly increased medullary bone density. Furthermore, beyond the effect of the estradiol treatment, we observed a relationship between medullary bone quantity and ovarian condition that suggests that the timing of medullary bone formation may be related to the onset of yolk deposition in these species. Further research is needed to better understand the precise timing and endocrine regulation of medullary bone formation in Passerines and to determine the extent to which female Passerines rely on medullary bone calcium during the formation of calcified eggshells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining enhanced biomass density with reduced lignin level for improved forage quality.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Shadle, Gail; Shen, Hui; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Fresquet Corrales, Sandra; Wang, Huanzhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    To generate a forage crop with increased biomass density that retains forage quality, we have genetically transformed lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing antisense constructs targeting two different lignin pathway biosynthetic genes with a construct for down-regulation of a WRKY family transcription factor that acts as a repressor of secondary cell wall formation in pith tissues. Plants with low-level expression of the WRKY dominant repressor construct produced lignified cell walls in pith tissues and exhibited enhanced biomass and biomass density, with an increase in total sugars in the cell wall fraction; however, lines with high expression of the WRKY dominant repressor construct exhibited a very different phenotype, with loss of interfascicular fibres associated with repression of the NST1 transcription factor. This latter phenotype was not observed in transgenic lines in which the WRKY transcription factor was down-regulated by RNA interference. Enhanced and/or ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls was also seen in corn and switchgrass expressing WRKY dominant repressor constructs, with enhanced biomass in corn but reduced biomass in switchgrass. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was not impacted by WRKY expression in corn. Cell walls from WRKY-DR-expressing alfalfa plants with enhanced secondary cell wall formation exhibited increased sugar release efficiency, and WRKY dominant repressor expression further increased sugar release in alfalfa down-regulated in the COMT, but not the HCT, genes of lignin biosynthesis. These results suggest that significant enhancements in forage biomass and quality can be achieved through engineering WRKY transcription factors in both monocots and dicots. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Density of steam-flaked sorghum grain, roughage level, and feeding regimen for feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Bartle, S J; Preston, R L

    1991-04-01

    Two hundred fifty-two steers (366 kg) were assigned to a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of three densities of steam-flaked sorghum grain (bulk [flake] density of 437, 360, and 283 g/liter, B34, B28, and B22, respectively), two roughage levels (9 [R9] and 18% [R18]) and two feeding strategies (ad libitum [AD] or multiple of maintenance [MM], 2.3, 2.5, and 2.7 MM for wk 1, 2, and 3, and 2.9 MM thereafter). Steers fed R18-AD gained faster than steers fed R18-MM (1.59 vs 1.52 kg/d, P = .10); for R9 diets, no difference (P greater than .25) was found between steers fed AD and MM (interaction, P = .07). Flake density did not affect ADG (1.53 kg, P greater than .2). Dry matter intake decreased (9.8, 9.3, and 9.0 kg/d, linear, P less than .001) and gain efficiency (G/DMI, kg of gain/100 kg of DMI) increased (15.7, 16.5, and 16.9, linear, P less than .001; quadratic, P = .19) as processing degree increased (B34 to B22). Percentage of choice carcasses for B34 (67.0%) was higher (linear, P = .05) than for B28 (51.9%) and B22 (52.3%). Fecal starch and pH were 10.8, 5.7, and 4.0%, and 6.11, 6.23, and 6.37 for B34, B28, and B22, respectively (linear, P less than .001). The correlation between fecal starch and pH was -.51 (P less than .001, n = 252). Enzymatic glucose release, in vitro 6-h gas production, microbial protein synthesis, and protein degradability were 375, 483, and 559 mg/g; 24.7, 28.2, and 31.1 ml/.2 g; 6.15, 6.88, and 7.84 g/100g; and 61.4, 56.6, and 42.2% for B34, B28, and B22, respectively (linear, P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effect of vitamin levels and different stocking densities on performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood characteristics of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Li, J; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin levels and stocking densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood characteristics in growing pigs. A 2×3 factorial (two vitamin levels, three regimens of stocking densities) arrangement was utilized with 96 pigs (23.10×0.95 kg initial body weight and 63 d of age) for 36 d. The pigs were allocated to pens with different stocking density (0.64, 0.48, and 0.38 m(2)/pig, respectively). The diets used in this study were a normal diet (based on NRC) and a high level of vitamin diet (2-fold higher than normal diet). The ADG and ADFI of pigs were decreased as the stocking density increased (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). The G/F of pigs was 5% lower in the high vitamin treatment (p = 0.03) as compared with the control treatment. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and N digestibility was negatively affected by the high level of vitamin in diets (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, a significant and negative effect on the ATTD of N was detected in the large groups (linear, p = 0.02). Blood cortisol concentration was increased with increasing stocking density (linear, p = 0.05), and was decreased by high level of vitamin (p = 0.04) at the end of this experiment. Stocking density also caused a linear reduction in WBC concentration (p = 0.05). Our data indicated that the principal effect of stocking density was not reliant on dietary vitamin levels. In conclusion, results indicated that doubling the vitamin supplementation did not improve the growth performance of pigs in high density. However, the blood cortisol concentration was decreased but the ATTD of N digestibility was impaired by high level of vitamin diet.

  6. High-density recording in holographic data storage system by dual 2-level run-length-limited modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hoshizawa, Taku

    2016-09-01

    An angular-multiplexing holographic memory system is one candidate for future optical data storage systems because of capability for abilities of “high-density recording” and “high-speed recording and reproduction”. We have developed a high-density recording method by reducing the hologram size in a disc to half by 2-level run-length-limited (RLL) modulation. In addition, to achieve further high-density recording, we introduce 4-level recording. However, 4-level RLL modulation requires high computational complexity in general. Therefore, we developed the dual 2-level RLL modulation method that can suppress increase in computational complexity and has good compatibility with the conventional holographic data storage system (HDSS). The high-density effect of the method was experimentally confirmed by the Fourier images and SNR of reproduced images. Consequently, the dual 2-level RLL modulation enables a doubling of the recording density, this gave an inspection for realizing a next-generation HDSS with the recording density of 4.8 Tbit/in.2.

  7. Association between Density of Coronary Artery Calcification and Serum Magnesium Levels among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Nakano, Chikako; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Matsui, Isao; Kusunoki, Yasuo; Mori, Daisuke; Oka, Tatsufumi; Hashimoto, Nobuhiro; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horio, Masaru; Sugimoto, Ken; Yamamoto, Koichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The Agatston score, commonly used to quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC), is determined by the plaque area and density. Despite an excellent predictability of the Agatston score for cardiovascular events, the density of CAC has never been studied in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to analyze the CAC density and its association with serum mineral levels in CKD. Methods We enrolled patients with pre-dialysis CKD who had diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular disease history, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, or smoking history. The average CAC density was calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of CAC. Results The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 109 enrolled patients was 35.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. The correlation of the Agatston score with density was much weaker than that with the total area (R2 = 0.19, P < 0.001; and R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that serum magnesium level was inversely associated with the density, but not with the total area, after adjustment for demographics and clinical factors related to malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome and mineral and bone disorders including fibroblast growth factor 23 (P = 0.006). This inverse association was pronounced among patients with higher serum phosphate levels (P for interaction = 0.02). Conclusion CAC density was inversely associated with serum magnesium levels, particularly in patients with higher serum phosphate levels. PMID:27662624

  8. Bone mineral density levels of college-aged women in northwest Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Kate; Ford, Mary Allison; Turner, Lori Waite; Denny, George

    2003-11-01

    Osteoporosis has affected more than 20 million American, women, completely altering their way of life. Osteoporosis is highly preventable if steps are taken to build healthy bone; however, many college students do not have lifestyle habits that have a positive effect on their bones. For this study, a questionnaire was used to investigate childhood dairy consumption, high school sport participation, dieting behaviors, eating behaviors and bone mineral density levels of college women at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Eighty percent of the participants were Caucasian or of Asian descent, while 20% were of other races; 34% of the participants consumed three or more servings of milk a day as children, while current calcium consumption was at an average of 16 servings a week. Many of the participants were active in high school, as 67% participated in high school sports. Fifty-two percent of the college women in the sample had dieted in the past year, and 44% perceived they were not at a desirable weight. Forty-five percent skip more than three meals a week. Of the participants, two had osteoporosis and 23 had osteopenia. Clearly, development of osteoporosis is not limited to older adults, and college women are in need of education related to bone health.

  9. Relationship of optical density and skinfold measurements: effects of age and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Quatrochi, J A; Hicks, V L; Heyward, V H; Colville, B C; Cook, K L; Jenkins, K A; Wilson, W L

    1992-12-01

    We examined relationships between skinfold (SKF) and optical density (delta OD) measurements across age and levels of body fatness (%BF) for 151 women, 20 to 72 years. There were significant (p < .05) relationships between delta ODs and SKFs at all sites, except the thigh. The interaction (SKF x Age) was significant (p < .05) for pectoral and biceps delta ODs. Slope comparisons indicated the relationships for younger (29 years) and older (59 years) women differed significantly from zero and each other (p < .05). Analysis of SKF x %BF interactions revealed that relationships between SKFs and delta ODs at the pectoral and biceps sites for leaner (22% BF) women differed significantly from zero (p < .05) and were larger than those for obese (39% BF) women (p < or = .05). Thus, the relationship between SKFs and delta ODs is stronger for younger and leaner women compared to older and fatter women. These findings may reflect differences in fat layering due to age or body fatness and provide insight as to why the manufacturer's near-infrared (NIR) equation significantly underestimates the %BF of obese women.

  10. Protection of low density lipoprotein oxidation at chemical and cellular level by the antioxidant drug dipyridamole.

    PubMed Central

    Iuliano, L.; Colavita, A. R.; Camastra, C.; Bello, V.; Quintarelli, C.; Alessandroni, M.; Piovella, F.; Violi, F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to be an important factor in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants have been shown to protect LDL from oxidation and to inhibit atherosclerosis development in animals. Synthetic antioxidants are currently being tested, by they are not necessarily safe for human use. 2. We have previously reported that dipyridamole, currently used in clinical practice, is a potent scavenger of free radicals. Thus, we tested whether dipyridamole could affect LDL oxidation at chemical and cellular level. 3. Chemically induced LDL oxidation was made by Cu(II), Cu(II) plus hydrogen peroxide or peroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidino propane). Dipyridamole, (1-10 microM), inhibited LDL oxidation as monitored by diene formation, evolution of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, apoprotein modification and by the fluorescence of cis-parinaric acid. 4. The physiological relevance of the antioxidant activity was validated by experiments at the cellular level where dipyridamole inhibited endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation, their degradation by monocytes, and cytotoxicity. 5. In comparison with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and probucol, dipyridamole was the more efficient antioxidant with the following order of activity: dipyridamole > probucol > ascorbic acid > alpha-tocopherol. The present study shows that dipyridamole inhibits oxidation of LDL at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The inhibition of LDL oxidation is unequivocally confirmed by use of three different methods of chemical oxidation, by several methods of oxidation monitoring, and the pharmacological relevance is demonstrated by the superiority of dipyridamole over the naturally occurring antioxidants, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol and the synthetic antioxidant probucol. Images Figure 6 PMID:8968553

  11. Bone mineral density is not associated with homocysteine level, folate and vitamin B12 status.

    PubMed

    Rumbak, Ivana; Zižić, Vesna; Sokolić, Lea; Cvijetić, Selma; Kajfež, Romana; Colić Barić, Irena

    2012-04-01

    The relationship of homocysteine (Hcy), folate and vitamin B(12) with bone mineral density (BMD) has been studied in various populations but still remains inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test whether the levels of plasma Hcy, serum and red blood cell folate, and vitamin B(12) are related to BMD in the group of adult Croatian women regardless of menopausal status. Some other lifestyle and dietary habits like smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption were also observed in relation to BMD. One-hundred and thirty-one women, aged 45-65 years participated in the study. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Measurements were made at the lumbar spine (L1-L4), left femoral neck, total femur and distal third of the radius. Plasma total Hcy, serum folate, red blood cell folate and serum vitamin B(12) were also determined. No significant correlations were found between Hcy, folate and/or vitamin B(12) and BMD of measured skeletal sites. Body mass index (BMI), age, as well as alcohol consumption were significantly correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Positive significant correlation was found between BMI and BMD at the femoral neck and total femur while BMI and age were significant predictors of BMD at the radius (multiple regression analysis). When only postmenopausal women were included, significant predictors of BMD at the lumbar spine were age, BMI, alcohol consumption and intake of hormone replacement therapy. Results of this study suggest that Hcy, folate or vitamin B(12) levels were not related to BMD in population of healthy Croatian women aged 45-65. In the group of postmenopausal Croatian women, beside BMI and age, alcohol consumption was significant positive predictor of BMD at the lumbar spine.

  12. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  13. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    DOE PAGES

    Voinov, Alexander V.; Grimes, Steven M.; Brune, Carl R.; ...

    2013-11-08

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys. 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Furthermore,more » excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.« less

  14. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys.0008-420410.1139/p65-139 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  15. Reliability and precision of pellet-group counts for estimating landscape-level deer density

    Treesearch

    David S. deCalesta

    2013-01-01

    This study provides hitherto unavailable methodology for reliably and precisely estimating deer density within forested landscapes, enabling quantitative rather than qualitative deer management. Reliability and precision of the deer pellet-group technique were evaluated in 1 small and 2 large forested landscapes. Density estimates, adjusted to reflect deer harvest and...

  16. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    SciTech Connect

    Tavukcu, Emel

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary γ rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary γ-ray spectrum represents the γ-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary γ-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary γ-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei 56Fe and 57Fe. The experimental level densities in 56Fe and 57Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for 56Fe and 57Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in 56Fe and 57Fe have surprisingly high values at low γ-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low γ-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  17. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area.

  18. Alcohol outlet density, levels of drinking and alcohol-related harm in New Zealand: a national study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly

    2011-10-01

    Previous research shows associations of geographical density of alcohol outlets with a range of alcohol-related harms. Socioeconomic conditions that are associated with both outlet density and alcohol-related outcomes may confound many studies. We examined the association of outlet density with both consumption and harm throughout New Zealand while controlling for indicators of area deprivation and individual socioeconomic status (SES). Individual alcohol consumption and drinking consequences were measured in a 2007 national survey of 18-70 year olds (n=1925). All alcohol outlets in New Zealand were geocoded. Outlet density was the number of outlets of each type (off-licences (stores that sell alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere), bars, clubs, restaurants) within 1 km of a person's home. We modelled the association of outlet density with total consumption, binge drinking, risky drinking (above New Zealand guidelines) and two measures of effects ('harms' and 'troubles' due to drinking) in the previous year. Logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson models were used, adjusting for sex, educational level, a deprivation index (NZDep06) and a rurality index. No statistically significant association was seen between outlet density and either average alcohol consumption or risky drinking. Density of off-licences was positively associated with binge drinking, and density of all types of outlet was associated with alcohol-related harm scores, before and after adjustment for SES. Associations of off-licences and clubs with trouble scores were no longer statistically significant in the adjusted analysis. The positive associations seen between alcohol outlet density and both individual level binge drinking and alcohol-related problems appear to be independent of individual and neighbourhood SES. Reducing density of alcohol outlets may reduce alcohol-related harm among those who live nearby.

  19. Block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method at the density functional theory (DFT) level.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yirong; Song, Lingchun; Lin, Yuchun

    2007-08-30

    The block-localized wavefunction (BLW) approach is an ab initio valence bond (VB) method incorporating the efficiency of molecular orbital (MO) theory. It can generate the wavefunction for a resonance structure or diabatic state self-consistently by partitioning the overall electrons and primitive orbitals into several subgroups and expanding each block-localized molecular orbital in only one subspace. Although block-localized molecular orbitals in the same subspace are constrained to be orthogonal (a feature of MO theory), orbitals between different subspaces are generally nonorthogonal (a feature of VB theory). The BLW method is particularly useful in the quantification of the electron delocalization (resonance) effect within a molecule and the charge-transfer effect between molecules. In this paper, we extend the BLW method to the density functional theory (DFT) level and implement the BLW-DFT method to the quantum mechanical software GAMESS. Test applications to the pi conjugation in the planar allyl radical and ions with the basis sets of 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d), 6-311+G(d,p), and cc-pVTZ show that the basis set dependency is insignificant. In addition, the BLW-DFT method can also be used to elucidate the nature of intermolecular interactions. Examples of pi-cation interactions and solute-solvent interactions will be presented and discussed. By expressing each diabatic state with one BLW, the BLW method can be further used to study chemical reactions and electron-transfer processes whose potential energy surfaces are typically described by two or more diabatic states.

  20. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Ueda, Kohei; Nomura, Yoko; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationship between combined serum lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z) concentration and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and to investigate the effect of L+Z+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the spatial distribution of MPOD. Methods Twenty healthy fellow eyes with unilateral wet age-related macular degeneration or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were included. All participants received a dietary supplement for 6 months that contained 20 mg L, 1 mg Z, and 200 mg DHA. The best-corrected visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (CS) were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Serum L+Z concentrations were measured at baseline and at 3 months. MPOD was calculated at each time point using fundus autofluorescent images. Results Serum L+Z concentration was correlated with MPOD at 1°–2° eccentricity at baseline (r=0.63, P=0.003) and 3 months (r=0.53, P=0.015). Serum L+Z concentration increased by a factor of 2.3±1.0 (P<0.0001). At 6 months, MPOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline level at 0°–0.25° (P=0.034) and 0.25°–0.5° (P=0.032) eccentricity. CS improved after 3 or 6 months of L+Z+DHA supplementation (P<0.05). Conclusion Juxtafoveal MPOD was associated with serum L+Z concentration. Foveal MPOD was increased by L+Z+DHA dietary supplementation. PMID:27826180

  1. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  2. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  3. Nuclear level densities below 40 MeV excitation energy in the mass region A ≃ 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Ivaşcu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1990-09-01

    Consistent pre-equilibrium emission and statistical model calculations of fast neutron induced reaction cross sections are used to validate nuclear level densities for excitation energies up to 40 MeV in the mass region A ≃50. A “composed” level density approach has been employed by using the back-shifted Fermi gas model for excitation energies lower than 12 MeV and a realistic analytical formula for higher excitations. In the transition region from the BSFG model range to that of full applicability of the realistic formula, an interpolation between the predictions of the two models is adopted. The interpolation rule, suggested by microscopic level density calculations, has been validated through the comparison of the calculated and experimental cross sections.

  4. Factor levels for density comparisons in the split-block spacing design

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; Brian J. Stanton; Robbert H. Walkup

    1989-01-01

    The split-block spacing design is a compact test of the effects of within-row and between-row spacings. But the sometimes awkward analysis of density (i.e., trees/ha) effects may deter use of the design. The analysis is simpler if the row spacings are chosen to obtain a balanced set of equally spaced density and rectangularity treatments. A spacing study in poplar (...

  5. Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    1992-01-01

    An 8 year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand was subjected to two cultural treatments for examination of seasonal and cumulative pine development. In the first treatment, pine density was either reduced by removal cutting to 2% trees per acre, at a 12- by 124 spacing, or left uncut with an original density of 1,210 trees per acre at a 6- by 6-...

  6. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Squillace, Nicola; Galli, Laura; Bandera, Alessandra; Castagna, Antonella; Madeddu, Giordano; Caramello, Pietro; Antinori, Andrea; Cattelan, Annamaria; Maggiolo, Franco; Cingolani, Antonella; Gori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIV-positive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997. Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39 mg/dL in males or <49 mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used. Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3–9.2) per 1000 PYFU. Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.56, P = 0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35–4.76, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18–2.95, P = 0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid. The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40–4.89, P = 0.003) and risk of NADM. Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects. PMID:27603338

  7. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in middle-school children: association with cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Shannon E; Gurm, Roopa; DuRussel-Weston, Jean; Aaronson, Susan; Gakenheimer, Lindsey; Smolarski, Joseph; Simhaee, Daniel; Corriveau, Nicole; Goldberg, Caren; Eagle, Taylor; Rao, Ravi M; Eagle, Kim A; Jackson, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    To examine factors associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among middle school children. HDL-C levels were the primary outcome of interest. A total of 1,104 middle-school children (mean age 11.6 years, 51.2% female) were included in this analysis, of whom 177 (16%) had an HDL-C level ≤40 mg/dL. More than half of those with low HDL-C were overweight or obese (62.2%) and had greater systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride (TRG) levels, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with children with an HDL-C level >40 mg/dL. Among those with an HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dL, 35% also had body mass index ≥85% and TRG levels ≥150 mg/dL. Exercise habits were significantly associated with HDL-C level, whereas sedentary behaviors, such as screen time, were not significantly associated with HDL-C level. Fruit and vegetable intake was also not significantly associated with HDL-C level. Children with low HDL-C levels are more likely to be overweight and to have other physiological indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Further research is needed to determine if school-based interventions can result in long-term improvements in HDL-C.

  8. Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.

    PubMed

    Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

    2012-03-28

    According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3 kg m(-3), compared to today's 1.2 kg m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3 kg m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates.

  9. Comparison of variability in breast density assessment by BI-RADS category according to the level of experience.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Cha, Joo Hee; Kang, Ji-Won; Choi, Woo Jung; Kim, Han Jun; Go, EunChae

    2017-01-01

    Background Only few studies have assessed variability in the results obtained by the readers with different experience levels in comparison with automated volumetric breast density measurements. Purpose To examine the variations in breast density assessment according to BI-RADS categories among readers with different experience levels and to compare it with the results of automated quantitative measurements. Material and Methods Density assignment was done for 1000 screening mammograms by six readers with three different experience levels (breast-imaging experts, general radiologists, and students). Agreement level between the results obtained by the readers and the Volpara automated volumetric breast density measurements was assessed. The agreement analysis using two categories-non-dense and dense breast tissue-was also performed. Results Intra-reader agreement for experts, general radiologists, and students were almost perfect or substantial (k = 0.74-0.95). The agreement between visual assessments of the breast-imaging experts and volumetric assessments by Volpara was substantial (k = 0.77). The agreement was moderate between the experts and general radiologists (k = 0.67) and slight between the students and Volpara (k = 0.01). The agreement for the two category groups (nondense and dense) was almost perfect between the experts and Volpara (k = 0.83). The agreement was substantial between the experts and general radiologists (k = 0.78). Conclusion We observed similar high agreement levels between visual assessments of breast density performed by radiologists and the volumetric assessments. However, agreement levels were substantially lower for the untrained readers.

  10. Serum levels of vitamin B12 are not related to low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Carvalho, Ariane Vieira; Maksud, Fabiana Alves Nunes; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis and vitamin B12 deficiency are conditions with an increasing prevalence over time. It has been described an association between low serum vitamin B12, osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures, but the studies are heterogeneous and the results are controversial. To investigate the association between plasma levels of vitamin B12 and bone mineral density in a group of asymptomatic women after menopause. Asymptomatic postmenopausal women were consecutively invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (lumbar spine and femur) was measured by DXA Lunar Prodigy Vision, and blood levels of vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAF), and parathyroid hormone were determined. For the diagnostic of osteoporosis the World Health Organization criteria were considered. Seventy women were included, mean age 62.5 ± 7 years. Eighteen (25.7%) women had normal bone mineral density, 33 (47.1%) had osteopenia and 19 (27.1%) had osteoporosis. Six (8.6%) patients had wrist fracture; two (2.8%) reported a diagnosis of vertebral fracture and only one (1.4%) patient had suffered a hip fracture. The levels of vitamin B12 (mean ± SD, pg/mL) of women with normal bone mineral density, osteopenia and osteoporosis were 590.2 ± 364.3, 536.6 ± 452.3, and 590.2 ± 497.9, respectively (P = 0.881). Multiple regression analysis showed that body mass index and BAF were the main predictors of lumbar spine bone mineral density. The results indicate that vitamin B12 serum levels are not related to bone mineral density in this group of Brazilian postmenopausal women.

  11. The Effects of Text Density Levels and the Cognitive Style of Field Dependence on Learning from a CBI Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of variations in text density levels and the cognitive style of field dependence on learning from a CBI tutorial, based on the dependent measures of achievement, reading comprehension, and reading rate, and of lesson completion time. Eighty college undergraduate students were randomly…

  12. Growth and yield of western larch in response to several density levels and two thinning methods: 15-year results.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1986-01-01

    The 15-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand, first thinned from above and below at age 55, was measured in northeastern Oregon. Basal area and volume growth increased with stand density for both thinning methods, whereas diameter growth decreased. Attacks of the...

  13. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    may be too labor intensive for practical use.All of the large diameter bubbler tubes tested could be readily cleaned in place by either blowing them down with justhigh pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). While the use of both air and water produced the cleanest bubbler, using justair removed most of the slurry build-up, and the use of water resulted in basically a slurry free surface. For the smalldiameter bubbler tubes it was necessary to use high pressure air and water (approx. 90 psig) to effectively clean them. The water was only sent through the porous jacket and not introduced down the air line. However, even under these conditions there was one case where a plug was not removed when both air and water were used.Primary recommendation: The large diameter probe is the best choice since none of the three tested plugged during the2-mouth test period to the point which compromised liquid-level measure. However, after a week`s operation at boilingtemperatures several inches of a soft sludge builds up within the tubes. This sludge can be easily removed in place witheither high pressure air or water (approx. 90 psig). A full-scale verifi-cation test should be carried out in S-area to confirm the conclusion.Secondary recommendation: The small-diameter porous tube bubbler is recommended when an access port cannot accommodate thelarger diameter probe. Bubbler {number_sign}1 operated accurately during most of the test period. This probe had the highest water flowrate (approx. 1.6 gallons/day) and had the least distance from the slurry upper surface (37 inches). This probe can be made to accurately operate at lower depths if the 8-inch-long porous tube is made longer and the water flow rate made higher.Substituting the current level and density probes (Holledge) with bubbler probes will result in a significant cost savings (inexpensive materials, less labor to manufacture, less labor to maintain, less down time due to less frequent instrument replacement).

  14. Comparison of TID Response and SEE Characterization of Single and Multi Level High Density NAND Flash Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Harboe-Sorensen, Reno; Virtanen, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Heavy ion single-event measurements and TID response for 8Gb commercial NAND flash memories are reported. Radiation results of multi-level flash technology are compared with results from single-level flash technology. In general, these commercial high density memories appear to be much less susceptible to SEE and have better TID response compared to older generations of flash memories. The charge pump survived up to 600 krads.

  15. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnections in the higher packaging levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, C. A.

    1989-03-01

    This paper concentrates on the materials requirements anticipated for future packaging strategies of electronic components beyond the 1st level package. This includes Wafer Scale Integration (Level 0), hybrid assembly of bare chips in multichip modules (Level 1.5), printed wiring board (PWB) assembly, including surface mount (Level 2), and higher levels (connectors, mother boards, and cables). Furthermore, high-performance digital VLSI logic packaging only is addressed, to the exclusion of memory, analog, and power circuitry (except power supplies).

  16. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  17. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  18. Performance of a local electron density trigger to select extensive air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, T.; Madani, J.; Ashton, F.

    1985-01-01

    Time coincident voltage pulses in the two closely space (1.6m) plastic scintillators were recorded. Most of the recorded events are expeted to be due to electrons in cosmic ray showers whose core fall at some distance from the detectors. This result is confirmed from a measurement of the frequency distribution of the recorded density ratios of the two scintillators.

  19. Determination of the effects of nuclear level density parameters on photofission cross sections of 235U up to 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpün, Ismail Hakki; Aydın, Abdullah; Pekdoğan, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The level density models and level density parameters are two of important quantities for describing the properties of nuclei. Especially, the level density parameter has an important role as input in calculation of reaction cross sections. In this study, the cross sections on 235U(g,f) reaction were calculated for different level density models using the TALYS 1.6 code up to 20 MeV gamma incident energies. First, it was determined the level density model that was the closest to the experimental data. Secondly, cross sections obtained for different level density parameters of this model were compared with experimental data from the EXFOR database. Thus it was determined the best level density parameter fit to experimental data.

  20. A method to measure the density of seawater accurately to the level of 10-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Wolf, Henning; Hassel, Egon

    2016-04-01

    A substitution method to measure seawater density relative to pure water density using vibrating tube densimeters was realized and validated. Standard uncertainties of 1 g m-3 at atmospheric pressure, 10 g m-3 up to 10 MPa, and 20 g m-3 to 65 MPa in the temperature range of 5 °C to 35 °C and for salt contents up to 35 g kg-1 were achieved. The realization was validated by comparison measurements with a hydrostatic weighing apparatus for atmospheric pressure. For high pressures, literature values of seawater compressibility were compared with substitution measurements of the realized apparatus.

  1. Regional Differences in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels and Dendritic Spine Density Confer Resilience to Inescapable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Zhang, Ji-chun; Ren, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, approximately 35% of rats are resilient to inescapable stress. Methods: The roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dendritic spine density in the brain regions of LH (susceptible) and non-LH rats (resilient) were examined. Western blot analysis and Golgi staining were performed. Results: BDNF levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) were significantly lower in the LH group than in the control and non-LH groups, whereas BDNF levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the LH group but not the non-LH group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, spine density in the prelimbic cortex, CA3, and DG was significantly lower in the LH group than in the control and non-LH groups, although spine density in the NAc was significantly higher in the LH group than in the control and non-LH groups. Conclusions: The results suggest that regional differences in BDNF levels and spine density in rat brain may contribute to resilience to inescapable stress. PMID:25568287

  2. Calculation of Nuclear Level Density Parameters of Some Light Deformed Medical Radionuclides Using Collective Excitation Modes of Observed Nuclear Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuducu, Ş.; Akti, N. N.; Saraç, H.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.

    In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40

  3. Comparative study of non-high density lipoproteins cholesterol level and lipid profile in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Firoz, C K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Khan, Mohammad S; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-04-01

    The present study compares the role and significance of non-high density lipoproteins (non-HDL) cholesterol level in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. This study also compares non-HDL cholesterol level between males and females and with different age groups as well. An observational study was conducted among 3830 randomly selected individuals to envisage the association of non-HDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters with age, gender, and diabetic status. On the basis of health status, the subjects were classified as diabetic, pre-diabetic and normal. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system. Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting triglycerides were also measured. From the above mentioned parameters, the level of non-HDL cholesterol level was also calculated. Significant association was observed with non-HDL cholesterol level and all other studied lipid parameters (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) compared with age and gender of the subjects studied. Moreover, the calculated non-HDL level, total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly co-related with diabetic status of the patients involved in the study. However, HDL and LDL values did not show any significant association with diabetic status of the patients. In this study, we found that age and gender of the studied subjects are associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Moreover, our data clearly indicates the positive association of non-HDL cholesterol level with pre-diabetic and diabetic status of the patients. Based on our study, we recommend estimation of non-HDL level in routine clinical practice to differentiate pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

  4. Phytofiltration of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata L.: effect of plant density and nitrogen and phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Saha, Uttam K; Ma, Lena Q

    2008-01-01

    This field-scale hydroponic experiment investigated the effects of plant density and nutrient levels on arsenic (As) removal by the As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern). All ferns were grown in plastic tanks containing 30 L of As-contaminated groundwater (130 microg x L(-1) As) collected from South Florida. The treatments consisted of four plant densities (zero, one, two, or four plants per 30 L), two nitrogen (N) concentrations (50% or 100% of 0.25-strength Hoagland solution [HS]), and two phosphorous (P) concentrations (15% and 30% of 0.25 strength HS). While low P was more effective than high P for plant As removal initially, N levels showed little effect. At 15% P, it took 3 wk for the ferns at a plant density of four to reduce As to less than 10 microg L(-1) (USEPA and WHO standard), whereas it took 4-6 wk at plant densities of one or two. For reused ferns, established plants with more extensive roots than "first-time" ferns, a low plant density of one plant/30 L was more effective, reducing As in water to less than 10 microg L(-1) in 8 h. This translates to an As removal rate of 400 microg h(-l) plant(-1), which is the highest rate reported to date. Arsenic-concentration in tanks with no plants as a control remained high throughout the experiment. Using more established ferns supplemented with dilute nutrients (0.25 HS with 25% N and 15% P) with optimized plant density (one plant per 30 L) reduced interplant competition and secondary contamination from nutrients, and can be recommended for phytofiltration of As-contaminated groundwater. This study demonstrated that P. vittata is effective in remediating As-contaminated groundwater to meet recommended standards.

  5. Kilohertz laser wakefield accelerator using near critical density plasmas and millijoule-level drive pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators operating in the so-called bubble or blowout regime are typically driven by Joule-class femtosecond laser systems driving plasma waves in highly underdense plasmas (1017 -1019cm-3). While these accelerators are very promising for accelerating GeV scale, low emittance electron beams, the large energy requirements of the laser systems have so far limited them to repetition rates below 10 Hz. However, there are a variety of applications, such as ultrafast electron diffraction or high repetition rate gamma ray sources for materials characterization or medical radiography, which would benefit from lower energy (1-10 MeV) but higher repetition rate ( 1 kHz) sources of relativistic electrons. This talk will describe relativistic wakefield acceleration of electron bunches in the range 1-10 MeV, driven by a 1 kHz, 30 fs, 1-12 mJ laser system. Our results are made possible by the use of very high density cryogenic H2 and He gas jet targets yielding electron densities >1021cm-3 in thin 100 μm gas flows. At these high densities the critical power for relativistic self-focusing and the plasma wave phase velocity are greatly reduced, leading to pulse collapse and self-injection even with 1 mJ drive laser pulses. Applications of this source to ultrafast electron diffraction and gamma ray radiography will be discussed. This research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  6. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels as therapeutic target in preserving bone mineral density (BMD) of older men.

    PubMed

    Naharci, Ilkin; Bozoglu, Ergun; Karadurmus, Nuri; Emer, Ozdes; Kocak, Necmettin; Kilic, Selim; Doruk, Huseyin; Serdar, Muhittin

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge about vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels in preserving bone mass in older men is limited. In this retrospective study, we aimed to find out whether levels of vitamin B(12) and folic acid are related to BMD in older men. Two hundred and sixty-nine older men were included in the study. Forty-two (15.6%) of them had osteoporotic, 150 (55.8%) had osteopenic, and 77 (28.6%) had normal BMD. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels were categorized as indicating normal, borderline, or low vitamin statuses. Femur neck densities showed statistically significant differences in subjects having low, borderline, and normal vitamin B(12), respectively. There were no significant differences between the three tertiles of vitamin B(12) in femur total, trochanteric, and intertrochanteric densities. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, and exercise with analysis of covariance, the difference was still statistically significant between two groups for femur neck density (p=0.011). No significant difference was observed between the groups of folic acid in any femur sites. We found that the normal level of vitamin B(12) in older men may be related to a decrease of femur neck bone loss.

  7. Experimental differential cross sections, level densities, and spin cutoffs as a testing ground for nuclear reaction codes

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, Alexander V.; Grimes, Steven M.; Brune, Carl R.; Burger, Alexander; Gorgen, Andreas; Guttormsen, Magne; Larsen, Ann -Cecilie; Massey, Thomas N.; Siem, Sunniva

    2013-11-08

    Proton double-differential cross sections from 59Co(α,p)62Ni, 57Fe(α,p)60Co, 56Fe(7Li,p)62Ni, and 55Mn(6Li,p)60Co reactions have been measured with 21-MeV α and 15-MeV lithium beams. Cross sections have been compared against calculations with the empire reaction code. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the Gilbert and Cameron [A. Gilbert and A. G. W. Cameron, Can. J. Phys. 43, 1446 (1965)] level density model is best to reproduce experimental data. Level densities and spin cutoff parameters for 62Ni and 60Co above the excitation energy range of discrete levels (in continuum) have been obtained with a Monte Carlo technique. Furthermore, excitation energy dependencies were found to be inconsistent with the Fermi-gas model.

  8. Relationship between Decrease in Serum Sodium Level and Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporotic Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, Dughyun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Suh, Kyo Il; Yoo, Myung Hi; Byun, Dong Won

    2015-02-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that decrease in serum sodium level is associated with osteoporosis. However, no study in Korea has reported the association of decrease in serum sodium level with osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the decrease in serum sodium level and severity of osteoporotic fracture in patients. We enrolled 290 subjects who were admitted and operated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital due to major fractures. For the control group, we enrolled 1,027 subjects who visited a health promotion center. We carried a 1:1 matching with age and sex from the case group. In a total of 164 age- and sex-matched subjects, serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than in the non-fracture group (P=0.001). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group (P=0.002). Old age and decrease in serum sodium level were independent risk factors of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]=1.088, P=0.008, confidence interval [CI]=[1.022-1.157]; OR= 0.840, P=0.037, CI=0.713-0.989). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than that in the non-fracture group and in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group. Based on our results, the decrease in serum sodium level could be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.

  9. Serum Bone Markers Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Teoman; Taspınar, Ozgur; Akbal, Yildiz; Peru, Celaleddin; Guler, Mustafa; Uysal, Omer; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group. PMID:25276036

  10. Incidental Intraosseous Pneumatocyst with gas-density-fluid level in an adolescent: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tarawneh, Emad; AL-Qudah, Mohammad; Hadidi, Fadi; Jubouri, Shams; Hadidy, Azmy

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous pneumatocyst is a gas containing lesion located within a bone. It is a relatively rare condition of unclear etiology and with an undetermined natural course. Gas-density-fluid level pneumatocyst is even rarer. Pneumatocyst is frequently seen in adults but rarely reported in pediatrics. The lesion is usually small and is seen in the vertebral bodies as well as around the sacroiliac joints. Rarely does it occur in other parts of the skeleton. We are reporting a case of large blood signal intensity containing intraosseous pneumatocyst in a 14 year old boy and reviewing other pediatric cases of pneumatocysts as well as those with gas-density-fluid level. The recognition of this incidental rare benign lesion is essential to avoid over investigation and an inappropriate aggressive intervention. PMID:24967024

  11. Incidental intraosseous pneumatocyst with gas-density-fluid level in an adolescent: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Tarawneh, Emad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad; Hadidi, Fadi; Jubouri, Shams; Hadidy, Azmy

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous pneumatocyst is a gas containing lesion located within a bone. It is a relatively rare condition of unclear etiology and with an undetermined natural course. Gas-density-fluid level pneumatocyst is even rarer. Pneumatocyst is frequently seen in adults but rarely reported in pediatrics. The lesion is usually small and is seen in the vertebral bodies as well as around the sacroiliac joints. Rarely does it occur in other parts of the skeleton. We are reporting a case of large blood signal intensity containing intraosseous pneumatocyst in a 14 year old boy and reviewing other pediatric cases of pneumatocysts as well as those with gas-density-fluid level. The recognition of this incidental rare benign lesion is essential to avoid over investigation and an inappropriate aggressive intervention.

  12. Bone density and amenorrhea in ballet dancers are related to a decreased resting metabolic rate and lower leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Becky A; Warren, Michelle P; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2002-06-01

    Osteopenia, which is correlated with amenorrhea and poor nutritional habits, has been well documented in elite ballet dancers. Estrogen replacement therapy and recovery from amenorrhea have not been associated with normalization of bone density. Thus, the osteopenia may be related to changes brought about by chronic dieting or other factors, such as a hypometabolic state induced by poor nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of chronic dieting and resting metabolic rate (RMR) to amenorrhea and bone density. RMR, bone density, eating disorder assessments, leptin levels, and complete menstrual and medical histories were determined in 21 elite ballet dancers and in 27 nondancers (age, 20-30 yr). No significant correlations were found between high EAT26 scores, a measure of disordered eating, and RMR, bone densities, body weight, body fat, or fat-free mass. However, when RMR was adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), a significant positive correlation was found between RMR/FFM and bone density in both the arms (P < 0.001) and spine (P < 0.05) in ballet dancers, but not in the normal controls. The dancers also demonstrated significantly higher EAT scores (22.9 +/- 10.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.4; P < 0.001) and lower RMR/FFM ratios (30.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 32.05 +/- 2.8; P < 0.01). The only variable to predict lower RMR/FFM in the entire sample was ever having had amenorrhea; this group had significantly higher EAT scores (18.0 +/- 13.5 vs. 10.3 +/- 10.2; P < 0.05), lower leptin levels (4.03 +/- 0.625 vs. 7.10 +/- 4.052; P < 0.05), and lower bone mineral density in the spine (0.984 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.13; P < 0.05) and arm (0.773 +/- 0.99 vs. 0.818 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05). We hypothesize that the correlation between low RMR and lower leptin levels and bone density may be more strongly related to nutritional habits in ballet dancers, causing significant depression of RMR, particularly for those with a history of amenorrhea.

  13. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  14. Level density of a Fermi gas and integer partitions: A Gumbel-like finite-size correction

    SciTech Connect

    Roccia, Jerome; Leboeuf, Patricio

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the many-body level density of a gas of noninteracting fermions. We determine its behavior as a function of the temperature and the number of particles. As the temperature increases, and beyond the usual Sommerfeld expansion that describes the degenerate gas behavior, corrections due to a finite number of particles lead to Gumbel-like contributions. We discuss connections with the partition problem in number theory, extreme value statistics, and differences with respect to the Bose gas.

  15. Increased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in a Smith-Lemli-Opitz infant with elevated bilirubin levels.

    PubMed

    Ness, G C; Lopez, D; Borrego, O; Gilbert-Barness, E

    1997-01-31

    We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these tissues, indicative of a deficiency in available cholesterol for tissue needs.

  16. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  17. A 100 J-level nanosecond DPSSL for high energy density experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Thomas; Mason, Paul; Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Ertel, Klaus; Phillips, P. Jonathan; Smith, Jodie; De Vido, Mariastefania; Chekhlov, Oleg; Divoky, Martin; Pilat, Jan; Priebe, Gerd; Toncian, Toma; Shaikh, Waseem; Hooker, Chris; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Mocek, Tomas; Edwards, Chris; Collier, John

    2017-05-01

    We present an overview of the cryo-amplifier concept and design utilized in the DiPOLE100 laser system built for use at the HiLASE Center, which has been successfully tested operating at an average power of 1kW. Following this we describe the alterations made to the design in the second generation system being constructed for high energy density (HED) experiments in the HED beamline at the European XFEL. These changes are predominantly geometric in nature, however also include improved mount design and improved control over the temporal shape of the output pulse. Finally, we comment on future plans for development of the DiPOLE laser amplifier architecture.

  18. High systemic levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: fuel to the flames in inflammatory osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    de Munter, Wouter; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plays a role in the pathology of OA. Specifically, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which has been shown to play an essential role during development of atherosclerosis, could be involved in processes such as synovial inflammation, cartilage destruction and bone deformations. OxLDL can activate synovial cells such as macrophages, endothelial cells and synovial fibroblasts, resulting in release of growth factors, MMP and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this review article, we discuss the role of LDL and oxLDL in OA joint pathology and share our viewpoint of possible mechanisms by which these proteins could influence the development and progression of OA. The proposed theory could provide insight into the aetiopathology of OA and give rise to new potential treatments.

  19. Kondo temperature when the Fermi level is near a step in the conduction density of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Aligia, A. A.; Roura-Bas, P.; Andrade, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The (111) surface of Cu, Ag, and Au is characterized by a band of surface Shockley states with a constant density of states beginning slightly below the Fermi energy. These states as well as bulk states hybridize with magnetic impurities which can be placed above the surface. We calculate the characteristic low-temperature energy scale, the Kondo temperature TK of the impurity Anderson model, as the bottom of the conduction band Ds crosses the Fermi energy ɛF. We find simple power laws TK≃|Ds-ɛF| η , where η depends on the sign of Ds-ɛF , the ratio between surface and bulk hybridizations with the impurity Δs/Δb , and the ratio between on-site and Coulomb energy Ed/U in the model.

  20. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Bernstein, L.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Thompson, I. J.; Guttormssen, M.; Larsen, A.-C.; Mansouri, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Wiedeking, M.; Wiborg, T.

    2012-02-01

    Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x) and 232Th(3He,x) reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  1. Alveolar bone level is not associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and bone density in mandible.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Francisco; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Souki, Nizar; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Olmo, Asunción; O'Valle, Francisco; Bravo, Manuel

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, using digital panoramic radiographs, whether the bone level at the alveolar crest is related to the mandibular bone density and/or to vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms. We analyzed 319 digital panoramic radiographs from the same number of patients. Alveolar bone level was expressed as percentage of root length. The mandibular cortical width index was calculated as a measure of mandibular bone density, and, in 72 randomly selected cases, the haplotype of the VDR gene (BsmL) was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Alveolar bone level was not related to the mandibular cortical width index (p = 0.568) or VDR gene expression (p = 0.575). Bone loss was greater in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.036), and the mandibular cortical width index was higher in males (p = 0.04), the older age group (p = 0.032), and in those with more teeth (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between these variables and alveolar bone loss. Alveolar bone loss showed no significant relationship with the mandibular bone density evaluated on digital panoramic radiographs or with VDR genotype (BsmL) in Caucasian females and males aged under 47 years.

  2. Role of serum high density lipoprotein levels and functions in calcific aortic valve stenosis progression.

    PubMed

    Olgun Küçük, Hilal; Küçük, Uğur; Demirtaş, Canan; Özdemir, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data well defines the role of atherosclerotic risk factors in pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. Especially dyslipidemia with elevated total and LDL cholesterol levels exerts certain histopathological changes on calcified valve tissue. Exact role of HDL in this process is not known. To evaluate the lipid profiles of patients with mild aortic valve stenosis with special focus on HDL; HDL subspecies, serum apoA1 levels, HDL related PON1 and PAF-AH enzyme activities and to correlate this with disease progression rates. 42 patients (26 female; 16 male), with calcific aortic valve stenosis were enrolled in the study. Serum fasting lipid parameters, HDL subspecies (HDL2, HDL3), serum apoA1 levels and HDL related PON1 and PAF-AH enzyme activities were determined. All participants underwent detailed follow-up transthoracic echocardiography examination. Among 42 study participants mean serum total cholesterol level was 195 ± 27.3 mg/dl, LDL-c level was 123 ± 19.1 mg/dl, HDL-c level was 44 ± 10.3 mg/dl and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio was 4.64 ± 1.13. Basal peak aortic jet velocity (Vmax2) was 2.67 ± 0.39 m/sec, mean pressure gradient (Pmean2) was 15.6 ± 5.5 mmhg. Annual progression rate in peak aortic jet velocity (Vmax) was 0.23 ± 0.17 m/sec, in mean pressure gradient (Pmean) was 3 ± 2.1 mmhg. Annual progression rate in Pmean was most strongly correlated with serum HDL-c level and total/HDL-c ratio (r=-0.528 and 0.505; <0.001 and 0.001 respectively). Progression in Vmax values was positively correlated with serum LDL-c level and total/HDL-c ratio while negatively correlated with serum HDL-c levels (r=0.328, 0.499 and -0.464; P=0.034, 0.001 and 0.002 respectively). Among HDL subspecies HDL2 was the predominant type. HDL2 levels were found to be positively correlated with progression rates. There was no significant correlation between apolipoprotein A1 level and annual progression rate. Serum PON1 activity level was determined to be

  3. Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D Level Compared to Lifestyle in Resident Physicians.

    PubMed

    McConda, David B; Boukhemis, Karim W; Matthews, Leslie J; Watkins, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the demands of resident education and long periods of time spent indoors, resident physicians may have poorer bone quality than would be expected. Forty-four resident physicians underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level testing at our institution. Results were correlated with a survey of self-reported duty hours, physical activity, and sun exposure. The average 25-hydroxyvitamin D level for all participants was 29 ng/dL, which fell into the insufficient range, and 31.5% of all participants were in the deficient range, with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 20 ng/ dL. For the 40 subjects who underwent DEXA, 17 were found to be osteopenic and three were found to be osteoporotic. Greater awareness of bone health, with routine use of vitamin D supplementation and increased time spent outdoors during peak sunlight hours, may be indicated in this cohort.

  4. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-11-01

    Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms.

  6. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    PubMed

    Švorc, Ĺubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-02

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays.

  7. Learning Density in Vanuatu High School with Computer Simulation: Influence of Different Levels of Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moli, Lemuel; Delserieys, Alice Pedregosa; Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Castera, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on discovery learning of scientific concepts with the support of computer simulation. In particular, the paper will focus on the effect of the levels of guidance on students with a low degree of experience in informatics and educational technology. The first stage of this study was to identify the common misconceptions…

  8. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mazière, Cécile; Salle, Valéry; Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  9. Accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin and changes of plasma lipid levels in psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Barut, Figen; Sipahi, Emine Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol) in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  10. Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Chen, Honglei; Miller, William C; Mailman, Richard B; Woodard, Jennifer L; Chen, Peter C; Xiang, Dong; Murrow, Richard W; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Poole, Charles

    2007-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon2 allele has been associated with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We tested the hypothesis that lower LDL-C may be associated with PD. This case-control study used fasting lipid profiles obtained from 124 PD cases and 112 controls. The PD cases were recruited from consecutive cases presenting at our tertiary Movement Disorder Clinic, and the controls were recruited from the spouse populations of the same clinic. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from unconditional logistic regressions, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and use of cholesterol-lowering agents. Lower LDL-C concentrations were associated with a higher occurrence of PD. Compared with participants with the highest LDL-C (> or =138 mg/dL), the OR was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.1) for participants with LDL-C of 115 to 137, 3.5 (95% CI = 1.6-8.1) for LDL-C of 93 to 114, and 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1-5.9) for LDL-C of < or = 92. Interestingly, use of either cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins alone, was related to lower PD occurrence. Thus, our data provide preliminary evidence that low LDL-C may be associated with higher occurrence of PD, and/or that statin use may lower PD occurrence, either of which finding warrants further investigation.

  11. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  12. Relationship between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and dementia in the elderly. The InChianti study.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, G; Cavalieri, M; Galvani, M; Volpato, S; Cherubini, A; Bandinelli, S; Corsi, A M; Lauretani, F; Guralnik, J M; Fellin, R; Ferrucci, L

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the association between plasma lipid fractions and the prevalence of dementia in a large sample of Italian older individuals. A total of 1051 older community-dwelling individuals (age >/=65 years), enrolled in the InChianti study, were included. Diagnosis of dementia was established at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (Fourth Edition) criteria. Plasma lipids were measured by standardized methods at baseline and after 3 years. At baseline, 61 individuals (5.8%) were affected by dementia. Demented individuals showed significantly lower total cholesterol (TC), nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared with controls; no differences were found in triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein (a) levels. Of the 819 subjects reevaluated at the 3-year follow-up, 81 (9.9%) received a new diagnosis of dementia. Again, demented subjects were characterized by significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels compared with controls, thus confirming the baseline findings. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, HDL-C levels (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.99), but not TG and non-HDL-C, were associated with dementia independent of important confounders including age, gender, apo E phenotype, stroke, weight loss, interleukin 6 levels, and ankle-brachial index. Among community-dwelling older people, individuals affected by dementia showed significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels; however, at multivariate analysis, only HDL-C was associated with dementia. Our results suggest the existence of an independent relationship between dementia and low HDL-C levels.

  13. Relationship Between Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Dementia in the Elderly. The InChianti Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, M.; Galvani, M.; Volpato, S.; Cherubini, A.; Bandinelli, S.; Corsi, A. M.; Lauretani, F.; Guralnik, J. M.; Fellin, R.; Ferrucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the association between plasma lipid fractions and the prevalence of dementia in a large sample of Italian older individuals. Methods. A total of 1051 older community-dwelling individuals (age ≥65 years), enrolled in the InChianti study, were included. Diagnosis of dementia was established at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (Fourth Edition) criteria. Plasma lipids were measured by standardized methods at baseline and after 3 years. Results. At baseline, 61 individuals (5.8%) were affected by dementia. Demented individuals showed significantly lower total cholesterol (TC), nonhigh–density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared with controls; no differences were found in triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein (a) levels. Of the 819 subjects reevaluated at the 3-year follow-up, 81 (9.9%) received a new diagnosis of dementia. Again, demented subjects were characterized by significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels compared with controls, thus confirming the baseline findings. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, HDL-C levels (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–0.99), but not TG and non-HDL-C, were associated with dementia independent of important confounders including age, gender, apo E phenotype, stroke, weight loss, interleukin 6 levels, and ankle–brachial index. Conclusions. Among community-dwelling older people, individuals affected by dementia showed significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels; however, at multivariate analysis, only HDL-C was associated with dementia. Our results suggest the existence of an independent relationship between dementia and low HDL-C levels. PMID:20299544

  14. Low level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increases hemorrhagic transformation in large artery atherothrombosis but not in cardioembolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Bong Su; Kim, Chi Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2009-05-01

    Low cholesterol level is known to be associated with increased cerebral hemorrhage. However, the associations of hemorrhagic transformation (HTf) after acute ischemic stroke and the low levels of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) are largely undiscovered. Of the 1034 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were consecutively admitted to our hospital, 377 patients with stroke attributable to large artery atherothrombosis (LAA; n=210) or cardioembolism (n=167) were selected for this study. Demographic and clinical information was collected and HTf was evaluated through follow-up T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI performed usually within 1 week after stroke. Measurement of lipid parameters included TC, LDLC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride. Of the 377 patients, HTf was noted in 74 patients (19.6%). When patients were divided into 4 groups according to their TC and LDLC levels, the incidence of HTf was significantly elevated in the lowest quartile of each TC (P<0.01) and LDLC (P<0.01) level in LAA subgroup, but not in cardioembolism. After adjusting covariates, a low level of LDLC (OR, 0.46 per 1 mmol/L-increase; 95% CI, 0.22-0.98) was independently associated with HTf in LAA, but not in cardioembolism. There was no significant association between low levels of TC (OR, 0.63 per 1 mmol/L-increase; 95% CI, 0.35-1.15) and HTf in LAA. Low levels of LDLC, and possibly TC, are associated with greater risk of hemorrhagic transformation after acute ischemic stroke attributable to LAA.

  15. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two areas. No relationships were found between dental fluorosis and bone width or between fluorosis and bone mineral density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  16. Variation of DNA Fragmentation Levels During Density Gradient Sperm Selection for Assisted Reproduction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Monica; Tarozzi, Nicoletta; Cambi, Marta; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Passaro, Claudia; Luppino, Benedetta; Nadalini, Marco; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta; Borini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one main goal of the present research on assisted reproduction. To understand whether density gradient centrifugation (DGC), used to select sperm, can affect sperm DNA integrity and impact pregnancy rate (PR), we prospectively evaluated sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) by TUNEL/PI, before and after DGC. sDF was studied in a cohort of 90 infertile couples the same day of IVF/ICSI treatment. After DGC, sDF increased in 41 samples (Group A, median sDF value: 29.25% [interquartile range, IQR: 16.01–41.63] in pre- and 60.40% [IQR: 32.92–93.53] in post-DGC) and decreased in 49 (Group B, median sDF value: 18.84% [IQR: 13.70–35.47] in pre- and 8.98% [IQR: 6.24–15.58] in post-DGC). PR was 17.1% and 34.4% in Group A and B, respectively (odds ratio [OR]: 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95–7.04, P = 0.056). After adjustment for female factor, female and male age and female BMI, the estimated OR increased to 3.12 (95% CI: 1.05–9.27, P = 0.041). According to the subgroup analysis for presence/absence of female factor, heterogeneity in the association between the Group A and B and PR emerged (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.16–15.30 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 0.23–10.40, respectively, for couples without, n = 59, and with, n = 31, female factor). This study provides the first evidence that the DGC procedure produces an increase in sDF in about half of the subjects undergoing IVF/ICSI, who then show a much lower probability of pregnancy, raising concerns about the safety of this selection procedure. Evaluation of sDF before and after DGC configures as a possible new prognostic parameter of pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI. Alternative sperm selection strategies are recommended for those subjects who undergo the damage after DGC. PMID:27196465

  17. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  18. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Márcia Dias Teixeira; Alonso, Diego Peres; Vendrame, Célia Maria Vieira; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triacylglycerol (TAG), and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples) (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation) revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003). The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05) and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05). An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene (n = 248) revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014). High TAG (P = 0.021) and VLDL-C (P = 0.023) levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006) levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL. PMID:25242866

  19. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in patients with acute myocardial infarction having percutaneous coronary intervention (the cholesterol paradox).

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Hoon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2010-10-15

    The relation between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been described. A total of 9,571 eligible patients (mean age 62.6 ± 12.5 years, 6,967 men) who underwent PCI with a final diagnosis of AMI from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were divided into 5 groups according to LDL cholesterol level: < 70, 70 to 99, 100 to 129, 130 to 159, and ≥ 160 mg/dl. Clinical outcomes in hospital and 1 and 12 months after PCI in patients with AMI were examined. Age and co-morbidities decreased as LDL cholesterol increased. Patients with higher LDL cholesterol levels had favorable hemodynamic status and laboratory findings. Lifesaving medications, including lipid-lowering drugs, were underused in patients with lower LDL cholesterol levels. Clinical outcomes in hospital and 1 and 12 months after PCI showed better results as LDL cholesterol increased, except for patients with LDL cholesterol levels ≥ 160 mg/dl. In a Cox proportional-hazards model, LDL cholesterol level was not an independent predictor of mortality at 12 months, after adjusting for clinical characteristics including demographics and biologic data. In conclusion, the cholesterol paradox in patients with AMI is related to confounding by baseline characteristics associated with survival. More intensive treatment including lipid-lowering therapy for AMI in patients with lower LDL cholesterol level may result in better clinical outcomes.

  20. Self-consistent density functional calculations of the crystal field levels in lanthanide and actinide dioxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fei; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds

    2012-02-01

    Using a recently developed method combining a nonspherical self-interaction corrected LDA + U scheme and an on-site multibody Hamiltonian [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.83.085106 83, 085106 (2011)], we calculate the crystal field parameters and crystal field (CF) excitation levels of f-element dioxides in the fluorite structure with fn electronic configurations, including n=1 (PaO2, PrO2), n=2 (UO2), n=3 (NpO2), and n=4 (PuO2). It is shown that good agreement with experimental data (within approximately 10-20 meV) can be obtained in all cases. The properties of the multielectron CF ground states are analyzed.

  1. Nuclear level densities in 47V, 48V, 49V, 53Mn, and 54Mn from neutron evaporation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, B. V.; Lychagin, A. A.; Titarenko, N. N.; Demenkov, V. G.; Trykova, V. I.

    2011-03-01

    The spectra of neutrons from the ( p, n) reactions on 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 53Cr, and 54Cr nuclei were measured in the proton-energy range 7-11 MeV. The measurements were performed with the aid of a fast-neutron spectrometer by the time-of-flight method over the base of the EGP-15 tandem accelerator of the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE, Obninsk). Owing to a high resolution and a high stability of the time-of-flight spectrometer used, low-lying discrete levels could be identified reliably along with a continuum section of neutron spectra. An analysis of measured data was performed within the statistical equilibrium and preequilibrium models of nuclear reactions. The relevant calculations were performed by using the exact formalism of Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory supplemented with the generalized model of a superfluid nucleus, the back-shifted Fermi gas model, and the Gilbert-Cameron composite formula for the nuclear level density. The nuclear level densities for 47V, 48V, 49V, 53Mn, and 54Mn were determined along with their energy dependences and model parameters. The results are discussed together with available experimental data and recommendations of model systematics.

  2. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed

    von Mühlen, Denise G; Greendale, Gail A; Garland, Cedric F; Wan, Lori; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2005-12-01

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D) increases the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. Low levels of serum calcium stimulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains serum calcium levels at the expense of increased bone turnover, bone loss and increased risk of fractures. We studied the association between 25(OH)D and PTH levels, and their associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and prevalence of hip fractures in 615 community-dwelling postmenopausal aged 50-97 years. Mean level of 25(OH)D and PTH were 102.0 nmol/l+/-35.0 nmol/l and 49.4 ng/l+/-23.2 nmol/l, respectively; 49% of women were current hormone therapy users. The overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D<50 nmol/l) was 2%, and prevalence of high PTH levels (>65 ng/l) was 17.4%. In multiple linear regression analyses hip BMD was negatively and independently associated with PTH levels (p=0.04), and positively and independently associated with 25(OH)D levels (p=0.03). There were only 23 women (3.7%) who experienced a hip fracture. In age-adjusted analyses there were no significant differences of 25(OH)D and PTH levels by hip fracture status. Across the entire range of values, the overall correlation between 25(OH)D and PTH was moderate (r=-0.20). However, after the threshold vitamin D level of 120 nmol/l, all PTH values were below 65 ng/l. Further studies are necessary to identify the optimal vitamin D levels necessary to prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  3. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (p<0.05 for both). In linear regression analyses, the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores were found to be significant contributors for urinary cortisol level (β=1.008, p=0.035; β=2.296, p=0.014, respectively). The femoral neck areal bone mineral density was found to be significantly higher in subjects who had binge eating disorder compared with those without binge eating disorder (p=0.049). Despite the lack of apparent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  4. Fine Structure of the Gamow-Teller Resonance in {sup 90}Nb and Level Density of 1{sup +} States

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Shevchenko, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Berg, G.P.A.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kamiya, J.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Fujita, H.; Smit, F.D.

    2006-01-13

    The fine structure of the Gamow-Teller resonance in a medium-heavy nucleus is observed for the first time in a high-resolution {sup 90}Zr({sup 3}He,t){sup 90}Nb experiment at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Using a novel wavelet analysis technique, it is possible to extract characteristic energy scales and to quantify their relative importance for the generation of the fine structure. This method combined with the selectivity of the reaction permits an extraction of the level density of 1{sup +} states in {sup 90}Nb.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide level and plant density on cowpea canopy productivity for a bioregenerative life support system.

    PubMed

    Ohler, T A; Mitchell, C A

    1995-01-01

    Plant density and atmospheric carbon dioxide level were manipulated to optimize productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] for future use in a space-deployed Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Cowpea breeding line IT87D-941-1 was grown at plant densities of 3.6, 7.2, 10.7, or 14.3 plants m-2 in a growth chamber maintained at 400 (control) or 1200 (elevated) micromoles CO2 mol-1. Both green leaves and dried seeds were harvested as edible yield. Crop productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR), harvest index (HI), yield efficiency rate (YER), energy efficiency, and net photosynthesis (Pn). Increasing plant density within a canopy tended to increase EYR, but decreased HI and YER. Elevated CO2 also increased EYR, but decreased HI and YER as well. However, when the energy penalty for crop production was taken into consideration, cowpea crops grown under elevated CO2 were more productive than those grown at control CO2. Pn averaged 15 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 for cowpeas grown at 400 micromoles CO2 mol-1. Low Pn at the beginning and end of the cropping cycle indicated waste of high irradiance lighting during those times.

  6. Increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels and decreased patellar bone mineral density in patients with chondromalacia patellae

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E; FitzGerald, O; Saxne, T; Bresnihan, B

    2002-01-01

    Background: Chondromalacia patellae is a potentially disabling disorder characterised by features of patellar cartilage degradation. Objective: To evaluate markers of cartilage and bone turnover in patients with chondromalacia patellae. Methods: 18 patients with chondromalacia patellae were studied. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (s-COMP) and bone sialoprotein (s-BSP) levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared with those of age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) of both knee joints was assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: s-COMP levels were significantly raised in all patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with healthy control subjects (p=0.0001). s-BSP levels did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.41). BMD of the patella was significantly reduced in patients with chondromalacia patellae compared with the control subjects (p=0.016). In patients with bilateral chondromalacia patellae, BMD of the patella was lower in the more symptomatic knee joint (p=0.005). Changes in periarticular BMD were localised to the patella and were not present in femoral regions. Neither s-COMP (p=0.18) nor s-BSP (p=0.40) levels correlated with patellar BMD. Conclusions: Increased s-COMP levels, reflecting cartilage degradation, and reduced BMD localised to the patella may represent clinically useful markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with chondromalacia patellae. Measures of cartilage degradation did not correlate with loss of patellar bone density, suggesting dissociated pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:12379520

  7. Electronic Coupling Calculations for Bridge-Mediated Charge Transfer Using Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT) and Effective Hamiltonian Approaches at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Fragment-Orbital Density Functional Tight Binding (FODFTB) Level

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, Natacha; Berstis, Laura; Wu, Xiaojing; Gajdos, Fruzsina; Heck, Alexander; de la Lande, Aurélien; Blumberger, Jochen; Elstner, Marcus

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, four methods to calculate charge transfer integrals in the context of bridge-mediated electron transfer are tested. These methods are based on density functional theory (DFT). We consider two perturbative Green's function effective Hamiltonian methods (first, at the DFT level of theory, using localized molecular orbitals; second, applying a tight-binding DFT approach, using fragment orbitals) and two constrained DFT implementations with either plane-wave or local basis sets. To assess the performance of the methods for through-bond (TB)-dominated or through-space (TS)-dominated transfer, different sets of molecules are considered. For through-bond electron transfer (ET), several molecules that were originally synthesized by Paddon-Row and co-workers for the deduction of electronic coupling values from photoemission and electron transmission spectroscopies, are analyzed. The tested methodologies prove to be successful in reproducing experimental data, the exponential distance decay constant and the superbridge effects arising from interference among ET pathways. For through-space ET, dedicated p-stacked systems with heterocyclopentadiene molecules were created and analyzed on the basis of electronic coupling dependence on donor-acceptor distance, structure of the bridge, and ET barrier height. The inexpensive fragment-orbital density functional tight binding (FODFTB) method gives similar results to constrained density functional theory (CDFT) and both reproduce the expected exponential decay of the coupling with donor-acceptor distances and the number of bridging units. Finally, these four approaches appear to give reliable results for both TB and TS ET and present a good alternative to expensive ab initio methodologies for large systems involving long-range charge transfers.

  8. Electronic Coupling Calculations for Bridge-Mediated Charge Transfer Using Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT) and Effective Hamiltonian Approaches at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Fragment-Orbital Density Functional Tight Binding (FODFTB) Level

    DOE PAGES

    Gillet, Natacha; Berstis, Laura; Wu, Xiaojing; ...

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, four methods to calculate charge transfer integrals in the context of bridge-mediated electron transfer are tested. These methods are based on density functional theory (DFT). We consider two perturbative Green's function effective Hamiltonian methods (first, at the DFT level of theory, using localized molecular orbitals; second, applying a tight-binding DFT approach, using fragment orbitals) and two constrained DFT implementations with either plane-wave or local basis sets. To assess the performance of the methods for through-bond (TB)-dominated or through-space (TS)-dominated transfer, different sets of molecules are considered. For through-bond electron transfer (ET), several molecules that were originally synthesizedmore » by Paddon-Row and co-workers for the deduction of electronic coupling values from photoemission and electron transmission spectroscopies, are analyzed. The tested methodologies prove to be successful in reproducing experimental data, the exponential distance decay constant and the superbridge effects arising from interference among ET pathways. For through-space ET, dedicated p-stacked systems with heterocyclopentadiene molecules were created and analyzed on the basis of electronic coupling dependence on donor-acceptor distance, structure of the bridge, and ET barrier height. The inexpensive fragment-orbital density functional tight binding (FODFTB) method gives similar results to constrained density functional theory (CDFT) and both reproduce the expected exponential decay of the coupling with donor-acceptor distances and the number of bridging units. Finally, these four approaches appear to give reliable results for both TB and TS ET and present a good alternative to expensive ab initio methodologies for large systems involving long-range charge transfers.« less

  9. Electronic Coupling Calculations for Bridge-Mediated Charge Transfer Using Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT) and Effective Hamiltonian Approaches at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Fragment-Orbital Density Functional Tight Binding (FODFTB) Level

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, Natacha; Berstis, Laura; Wu, Xiaojing; Gajdos, Fruzsina; Heck, Alexander; de la Lande, Aurélien; Blumberger, Jochen; Elstner, Marcus

    2016-09-09

    In this paper, four methods to calculate charge transfer integrals in the context of bridge-mediated electron transfer are tested. These methods are based on density functional theory (DFT). We consider two perturbative Green's function effective Hamiltonian methods (first, at the DFT level of theory, using localized molecular orbitals; second, applying a tight-binding DFT approach, using fragment orbitals) and two constrained DFT implementations with either plane-wave or local basis sets. To assess the performance of the methods for through-bond (TB)-dominated or through-space (TS)-dominated transfer, different sets of molecules are considered. For through-bond electron transfer (ET), several molecules that were originally synthesized by Paddon-Row and co-workers for the deduction of electronic coupling values from photoemission and electron transmission spectroscopies, are analyzed. The tested methodologies prove to be successful in reproducing experimental data, the exponential distance decay constant and the superbridge effects arising from interference among ET pathways. For through-space ET, dedicated p-stacked systems with heterocyclopentadiene molecules were created and analyzed on the basis of electronic coupling dependence on donor-acceptor distance, structure of the bridge, and ET barrier height. The inexpensive fragment-orbital density functional tight binding (FODFTB) method gives similar results to constrained density functional theory (CDFT) and both reproduce the expected exponential decay of the coupling with donor-acceptor distances and the number of bridging units. Finally, these four approaches appear to give reliable results for both TB and TS ET and present a good alternative to expensive ab initio methodologies for large systems involving long-range charge transfers.

  10. Electronic Coupling Calculations for Bridge-Mediated Charge Transfer Using Constrained Density Functional Theory (CDFT) and Effective Hamiltonian Approaches at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Fragment-Orbital Density Functional Tight Binding (FODFTB) Level.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Natacha; Berstis, Laura; Wu, Xiaojing; Gajdos, Fruzsina; Heck, Alexander; de la Lande, Aurélien; Blumberger, Jochen; Elstner, Marcus

    2016-10-11

    In this article, four methods to calculate charge transfer integrals in the context of bridge-mediated electron transfer are tested. These methods are based on density functional theory (DFT). We consider two perturbative Green's function effective Hamiltonian methods (first, at the DFT level of theory, using localized molecular orbitals; second, applying a tight-binding DFT approach, using fragment orbitals) and two constrained DFT implementations with either plane-wave or local basis sets. To assess the performance of the methods for through-bond (TB)-dominated or through-space (TS)-dominated transfer, different sets of molecules are considered. For through-bond electron transfer (ET), several molecules that were originally synthesized by Paddon-Row and co-workers for the deduction of electronic coupling values from photoemission and electron transmission spectroscopies, are analyzed. The tested methodologies prove to be successful in reproducing experimental data, the exponential distance decay constant and the superbridge effects arising from interference among ET pathways. For through-space ET, dedicated π-stacked systems with heterocyclopentadiene molecules were created and analyzed on the basis of electronic coupling dependence on donor-acceptor distance, structure of the bridge, and ET barrier height. The inexpensive fragment-orbital density functional tight binding (FODFTB) method gives similar results to constrained density functional theory (CDFT) and both reproduce the expected exponential decay of the coupling with donor-acceptor distances and the number of bridging units. These four approaches appear to give reliable results for both TB and TS ET and present a good alternative to expensive ab initio methodologies for large systems involving long-range charge transfers.

  11. The association between high plasma homocysteine levels and lower bone mineral density in Slovak women: the impact of vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Krivosíková, Zora; Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, Marica; Spustová, Viera; Stefíková, Kornélia; Valachovicová, Martina; Blazícek, Pavel; Nĕmcová, Tatiana

    2010-04-01

    A long-term vegetarian diet is generally poor in vitamin B group. The lack of vitamin B(12) together with vitamin B(6) and folate deficiency is closely related to homocysteine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia was found to be associated with increased bone turnover markers and increased fracture risk. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency may be regarded as novel risk factors for micronutrient deficiency-related osteoporosis. To assess the possible impact of a vegetarian diet on bone mineral density in cohort of Slovak vegetarian women. Fasting serum glucose, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and creatinine as well as bone markers, serum vitamin B(12), folate and plasma levels of total homocysteine were assessed in two nutritional groups (vegetarians vs. nonvegetarians) of apparently healthy women (age range 20-70 years). Bone mineral density of the femoral neck, trochanter, total femur and lumbar spine was measured in all subjects. Vegetarians had a significantly lower weight (p < 0.05), higher PTH (p < 0.01) and homocysteine (p < 0.001). Vitamin B(12) was significantly higher in nonvegetarians (p < 0.001). No differences were observed in folate levels. Univariate analysis showed significant association between homocysteine and B(12) (p < 0.01), folate (p < 0.001), creatinine (p < 0.001), total proteins (p < 0.049), age (p < 0.001) and vegetarian food intake (p < 0.001). Vegetarians had a significantly lower TrFBMD (p < 0.05) and ToFBMD (p < 0.05). Age and CTx were significant predictors in all sites of measured BMD and PTH. A strong correlation between homocysteine and FNBMD (r = -0.2009, p < 0.002), TrFBMD (r = -0.1810, p < 0.004) and ToFBMD (r = -0.2225, p < 0.001) was found in all subjects. Homocysteine is one of the predictors of bone mineral density, and hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with lower bone mineral density. In healthy adults, homocysteine levels are dependent on age as well as on nutritional habits. Thus, elderly women on a

  12. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  13. Weyl fermions with arbitrary monopoles in magnetic fields: Landau levels, longitudinal magnetotransport, and density-wave ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Roy, Bitan; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically address the effects of strong magnetic fields in three-dimensional Weyl semimetals (WSMs) built out of Weyl nodes with a monopole charge n . For n =1 , 2, and 3 we realize single, double, and triple WSM, respectively, and the monopole charge n determines the integer topological invariant of the WSM. Within the linearized continuum description, the quasiparticle spectrum is then composed of Landau levels (LLs), containing exactly n number of chiral zeroth Landau levels (ZLLs), irrespective of the orientation of the magnetic field. In the presence of strong backscattering, for example (due to quenched disorder associated with random impurities), these systems generically give rise to longitudinal magnetotransport. Restricting ourselves to the quantum limit (and assuming only the subspace of the ZLLs to be partially filled) and mainly accounting for Gaussian impurities, we show that the longitudinal magnetoconductivity (LMC) in all members of the Weyl family displays a positive linear-B scaling when the field is applied along the axis that separates the Weyl nodes. But, in double and triple WSM, LMC displays a smooth crossover to a nonlinear B dependence as the field is tilted away from such a high-symmetry direction. In addition, due to the enhanced density of states, the LL quantization can trigger instabilities toward the formation of translational symmetry-breaking density-wave orderings for sufficiently weak interaction (BCS instability), which gaps out the ZLLs. Concomitantly as the temperature (magnetic field) is gradually decreased (increased) the LMC becomes negative. Thus WSMs with arbitrary monopole charge (n ) can host an intriguing interplay of LL quantization, longitudinal magnetotransport (a possible manifestation of one-dimensional chiral or axial anomaly), and density-wave ordering, when placed in a strong magnetic field.

  14. The area level association between suicide, deprivation, social fragmentation and population density in the Republic of Ireland: a national study.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, I B; Corcoran, P; Perry, I J

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have examined the ecological relationship between suicide and area level determinants such as deprivation and social fragmentation. In Ireland, there is considerable geographic variation in the rates of suicide. However, there is a dearth of Irish studies investigating the geographic variability of suicide. The Irish Central Statistics Office (CSO) provided data relating to all deaths by suicide and deaths of undetermined intent that occurred from 2009 to 2011. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between area level suicide rates and measures of deprivation, social fragmentation and population density that were taken from the 2011 National Census. Overall deprivation had the strongest independent effect on small-area rates of suicide, with the most deprived areas showing the greatest risk of suicide (risk ratio = 2.1; 95 % CI 1.70-2.52). Low population density (rurality) was associated with an increased risk suicide in males across both age groups and among females in the older 40-64-year age group. Conversely, a weak association between high population density (urbanicity) and increased suicide risk was found among females in the 15-39-year age group. Associations with social fragmentation only became apparent in the sub group analysis. Social fragmentation was associated with an elevated risk of suicide in the older 40-64 age group, with this effect being most pronounced among females. The findings of this study demonstrate marked geographical inequalities in the distribution of suicide in Ireland and highlight the importance of targeting suicide prevention resources in the most deprived areas.

  15. Serum Preadipocyte Factor 1 Levels Are Not Associated with Bone Mineral Density among Healthy Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Sung; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes or osteoblasts through closely regulated lineage-control processes. However, adipocyte precursor cells release preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), which inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes and osteoblasts. Previous studies have also reported an inverse association between Pref-1 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods In this retrospective study, we examined the correlations between Pref-1 levels and BMD among 124 healthy postmenopausal women (>50 years old). The patients had provided information regarding their clinical characteristics, and underwent blood testing and serum Pref-1 testing. Results The subjects' mean age was 59.9±7.1 years and the median time since menopause onset was 9.1 years. A history of osteoporotic fracture was identified in 23 subjects (19%). Serum Pref-1 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD values at the lumbar spine (R2=0.038, P=0.109), femur neck (R2=0.017, P=0.869), and total hip (R2=0.041, P=0.09), and multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and body mass index also did not detect any significant correlations. Subgroup analyses according to a history of fracture also did not detect significant associations between Pref-1 levels and BMD values. Conclusion In our study population, it does not appear that serum Pref-1 levels are significantly associated with BMD values and osteoporosis. PMID:28256115

  16. Marked effects of extreme levels of lipoprotein(a) on estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Ramesh; Li, Min; Allard, Matt; Frohlich, Jiri

    2014-08-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is usually calculated using the Friedewald equation. However, this calculation method does not account for the cholesterol associated with lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Using the Dahlen equation, Li et al. have shown a strong positive correlation between serum Lp(a) levels and overestimation of LDL-C levels. To determine how the extreme levels of Lp(a) influence the LDL-C calculation. We performed a retrospective chart review of the lipid profile and Lp(a) of 223 patients (men and women). LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald equation. Lp(a) concentrations were measured by an ELISA. Other serum lipids were measured enzymatically by standard methodology. Corrected LDL-C was calculated using the Dahlen equation. We found that this overestimation is very significant in individuals with extreme levels of Lp(a) (mean overestimation of 40% at Lp(a) >1200mg/L). Calculated LDL-C is markedly overestimated in patients with extreme levels of Lp(a). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Sex Steroid Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Bone Density in Relation to the Final Menstrual Period

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chi-Hong; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Randolph, John F.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Zheng, Huiyong; Greendale, Gail A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The associations of serum sex steroid and FSH levels with change of bone mineral density (BMD) across the complete menopausal transition are incompletely understood. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations of annual serum levels of FSH, estradiol (E2), T, and SHBG with the rates of bone loss in 3 phases: pretransmenopausal [baseline to 1 year before the final menstrual period (FMP)], transmenopausal (1 year before to 2 years after the FMP), later postmenopausal (≥ 2 years after the FMP). Design: The design of the study was a repeated-measures, mixed-effects regression. Setting: This was a community-based observational study, with a 10-year follow-up. Participants: A total of 720 participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Bone Study participated in the study. Outcome Measures: Annualized lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD decline was measured. Results: The mean annual change in BMD was slowest in pretransmenopause (0.27%/year in FN) and fastest in transmenopause (2.16%/year in LS). In the pretransmenopausal phase, for every doubling of FSH level, LS BMD change was faster by −0.32%/year (P < .0001). In the transmenopausal phase, for every doubling of FSH level, LS BMD change was −0.35%/year faster (P < .0001); for every doubling of SHBG level, LS BMD change was −0.36%/year faster (P < .0001). In the later postmenopausal phase, for each doubling of the E2 level, the LS BMD change was slower by +0.26%/year (P = .049); for each SHBG doubling, the LS BMD change was 0.21%/year slower (P = .048). The FN associations were weaker and inconsistent. Conclusions: Higher E2 levels and lower FSH levels were associated with lower rates of LS bone loss in some but not all menopausal transition phases. PMID:23443812

  18. Serum sex steroid levels and longitudinal changes in bone density in relation to the final menstrual period.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Karlamangla, Arun S; Finkelstein, Joel S; Randolph, John F; Thurston, Rebecca C; Huang, Mei-Hua; Zheng, Huiyong; Greendale, Gail A

    2013-04-01

    The associations of serum sex steroid and FSH levels with change of bone mineral density (BMD) across the complete menopausal transition are incompletely understood. The objective of the study was to examine the associations of annual serum levels of FSH, estradiol (E2), T, and SHBG with the rates of bone loss in 3 phases: pretransmenopausal [baseline to 1 year before the final menstrual period (FMP)], transmenopausal (1 year before to 2 years after the FMP), later postmenopausal (≥ 2 years after the FMP). The design of the study was a repeated-measures, mixed-effects regression. This was a community-based observational study, with a 10-year follow-up. A total of 720 participants of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Bone Study participated in the study. Annualized lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD decline was measured. The mean annual change in BMD was slowest in pretransmenopause (0.27%/year in FN) and fastest in transmenopause (2.16%/year in LS). In the pretransmenopausal phase, for every doubling of FSH level, LS BMD change was faster by -0.32%/year (P < .0001). In the transmenopausal phase, for every doubling of FSH level, LS BMD change was -0.35%/year faster (P < .0001); for every doubling of SHBG level, LS BMD change was -0.36%/year faster (P < .0001). In the later postmenopausal phase, for each doubling of the E2 level, the LS BMD change was slower by +0.26%/year (P = .049); for each SHBG doubling, the LS BMD change was 0.21%/year slower (P = .048). The FN associations were weaker and inconsistent. Higher E2 levels and lower FSH levels were associated with lower rates of LS bone loss in some but not all menopausal transition phases.

  19. Relation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels to bone mineral density in southern Chinese postmenopausal women: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei-Min; Wei, Qiu-Shi; Tan, Xin; Shao, Yu; Chen, Xian-Hong; Sun, Wei-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in postmenopausal women and has been related to low bone mineral density (BMD). However, controversial results have been reported for the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and BMD. This study was done to investigate whether serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with BMD in postmenopausal women living in Guangzhou in southern China. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 119 asymptomatic postmenopausal women, aged 48-85 yr, who were consecutively selected from Guangzhou city. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and BMD wes investigated. Results: With increasing serum 25(OH)D levels categorized as <20, 20-30, and ≥30ng/ml, the PTH levels decreased gradually (P=0.031). Bivariate correlation analyses showed an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels after controlling for age and BMI (r=-0.209, P=0.023). Although subjects with vitamin D<30 ng/ml had significantly lower BMD, age- and BMI-adjusted serum 25(OH)D was weakly correlated with BMD at femoral neck (r=0.185, P=0.045), and not at lumbar spine (r=0.172, P=0 0.063). In multiple regression analyses, serum 25(OH)D was a predictor for BMD at femoral neck (R2=0.424). However, serum β-CTX was a determinant for BMD at lumbar spine (R2=0.361). Interpretation & conclusions: Serum 25(OH)D levels showed a positive correlation with BMD at femoral neck and serum β-CTX levels were inversely correlated with BMD at lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:26609035

  20. Significant role of level-density parameters in probing nuclear dissipation with light-ion-induced fission excitation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, W.; Wang, N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of the ratio of level-density parameters at saddle to that at ground-state configuration (af/an) on the sensitivity of fission cross sections (σfiss) to presaddle dissipation effects by comparing fission excitation functions measured in the 3He + 197Au (208Pb) reactions with three distinct types of model calculations: the standard Bohr-Wheeler theory with af/an = 1 (i) and af/an ≠ 1 (ii) as well as the Langevin approach with af/an ≠ 1 (iii). It is shown that both cases (i) and (ii) cannot provide a reasonable, satisfactory description of the measured σfiss. A presaddle friction strength (β) of (4-4.5) × 1021 s-1 is extracted through reproducing data with Langevin simulations. We find from the comparison of the experimental and calculated σfiss in cases (ii) and (iii) that a precise determination of β depends sensitively on af/an. The finding indicates that level-density parameters play a significant role in accurately probing presaddle friction; that is, to stringently constrain β it is important to take into account a realistic and an elaborate evaluation of af/an in theoretical calculations. We further find that high energy increases the sensitivity of σfiss to β, suggesting that in experiments, to obtain precise information of presaddle dissipation by measuring σfiss, it is best to populate a compound nucleus with high energy.

  1. Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels in relation to bone mineral density in apparently healthy Syrian adults.

    PubMed

    Sayed-Hassan, Rima; Abazid, Nizar; Koudsi, Abir; Alourfi, Zaynab

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in this study. More than half of the participants with vitamin D level less than 5 ng/mL had secondary hyperparathyroidism, which implicated a major bone health concern. After adjustment for potential predictors, parathyroid hormone (PTH) explained about 3 % of the variance in total hip bone mineral density (BMD). Bone mineral density (BMD) is known to be influenced by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The relationship between 25OHD and PTH with BMD has not been well documented in Syrian adults. We aimed to determine how differences in serum 25OHD and PTH levels impacted hip and lumbar spine BMD among apparently healthy Syrian adults. 25OHD and PTH were measured in 156 participants aged 18-53 years from Damascus and its surroundings. Lumbar spine and hip BMD measurements were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using Hologic Discovery Wi densitometer. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between 25OHD, PTH, and BMD. All participants, except one male, had 25OHD <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L), and 89.1 % of them had 25OHD levels less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was significantly more prevalent in the lowest 25OHD quartile compared to that in the highest quartile (59 vs. 10.3 %, p < 0.0001). Mean bone mineral density at all sites in our participants was lower when compared to that of their Caucasian counterparts in Europe and North America. No significant correlation was found between 25OHD and BMD either at hip or at lumbar spine. In the multivariate analyses, after adjustment for potential predictors, PTH explained about 3 % of the variation in total hip BMD. Low BMD was relatively frequent at all measured sites. PTH, but not 25OHD, was a predictor for total hip BMD in a young population.

  2. Validity of a Novel Method for Estimation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaen, Hideto; Kinchiku, Shigesumi; Kajiya, Shoko; Uenomachi, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Toshinori; Takasaki, Kunitsugu; Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is routinely estimated using the Friedewald equation [LDL-C(F)]. A novel method for LDL-C [LDL-C(M)] estimation recently proposed by Martin et al. was reported to be more accurate than the Friedewald formula in subjects in the United States. The validity of LDL-C(M) in different races and patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to validate the LDL-C(M) estimates in Japanese population with type 2 DM by comparing with LDL-C(F) and directly measured LDL-C [LDL-C(D)]. Methods: Both LDL-C(M) and LDL-C(F) levels were compared against LDL-C(D) measured by selective solubilization method in 1,828 Japanese patients with type 2 DM. Results: On linear regression analysis, LDL-C(M) showed a stronger correlation than that shown by LDL-C(F) (R = 0.979 vs. R = 0.953, respectively) with LDL-C(D). We further analyzed the effect of serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations on the accuracy of LDL-C(F) and LDL-C(M). Although LDL-C levels showed a positive correlation with TG levels, the LDL-C(F) levels tended to show a greater divergence from LDL-C(D) levels than that shown by LDL-C(M) with changes in TG levels. Conclusion: We for the first time demonstrated a more useful measurement of LDL-C levels estimated by Martin's method than that estimated by the Friedewald equation in Japanese patients with DM. PMID:27592628

  3. Relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies and obesity in different glycemic situations

    PubMed Central

    Babakr, Abdullatif Taha; Elsheikh, Osman Mohamed; Almarzouki, Abdullah A; Assiri, Adel Mohamed; Abdalla, Badr Eldin Elsonni; Zaki, Hani Yousif; Fatani, Samir H; NourEldin, EssamEldin Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are controversially discussed to be either pathogenic or protective. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements correlated with increased levels of these antibodies are also controversial, especially in conditions of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate levels of oxLDL antibodies and their correlation with obesity in different glycemic situations. Methods Two hundred and seventy-four adult males were classified into three subgroups: group 1 (n=125), comprising a control group of nondiabetic subjects; group 2 (n=77), comprising subjects with impaired glucose tolerance; and group 3 (n=72), comprising patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index was calculated, and measurement of oxLDL and oxLDL antibodies was performed. Results Higher mean concentrations of oxLDL were found in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (143.5±21.9 U/L and 108.7±23.7 U/L, respectively). The mean value for the control group was 73.5±27.5 U/L (P<0.001). Higher mean concentrations of anti-oxLDL antibodies were observed in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (55.7±17.8 U/L and 40.4±17.6 U/L, respectively). The mean value for the control group was 20.4±10 U/L (P<0.001). Levels of anti-oxLDL antibodies were found to be positively and significantly correlated with body mass index in the control group (r=0.46), impaired glucose tolerance (r=0.51), type 2 diabetes mellitus group (r=0.46), and in the whole study population (r=0.44; P<0.001). Conclusion Anti-oxLDL antibody levels were increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance and were positively correlated with obesity and body mass index. PMID:25368528

  4. Energy level alignment and quantum conductance of functionalized metal-molecule junctions: Density functional theory versus GW calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2013-11-14

    We study the effect of functional groups (CH{sub 3}*4, OCH{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}, Cl, CN, F*4) on the electronic transport properties of 1,4-benzenediamine molecular junctions using the non-equilibrium Green function method. Exchange and correlation effects are included at various levels of theory, namely density functional theory (DFT), energy level-corrected DFT (DFT+Σ), Hartree-Fock and the many-body GW approximation. All methods reproduce the expected trends for the energy of the frontier orbitals according to the electron donating or withdrawing character of the substituent group. However, only the GW method predicts the correct ordering of the conductance amongst the molecules. The absolute GW (DFT) conductance is within a factor of two (three) of the experimental values. Correcting the DFT orbital energies by a simple physically motivated scissors operator, Σ, can bring the DFT conductances close to experiments, but does not improve on the relative ordering. We ascribe this to a too strong pinning of the molecular energy levels to the metal Fermi level by DFT which suppresses the variation in orbital energy with functional group.

  5. Sulfate radical oxidation of aromatic contaminants: a detailed assessment of density functional theory and high-level quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Pari, Sangavi; Wang, Inger A; Liu, Haizhou; Wong, Bryan M

    2017-03-22

    Advanced oxidation processes that utilize highly oxidative radicals are widely used in water reuse treatment. In recent years, the application of sulfate radical (SO4˙(-)) as a promising oxidant for water treatment has gained increasing attention. To understand the efficiency of SO4˙(-) in the degradation of organic contaminants in wastewater effluent, it is important to be able to predict the reaction kinetics of various SO4˙(-)-driven oxidation reactions. In this study, we utilize density functional theory (DFT) and high-level wavefunction-based methods (including computationally-intensive coupled cluster methods), to explore the activation energies of SO4˙(-)-driven oxidation reactions on a series of benzene-derived contaminants. These high-level calculations encompass a wide set of reactions including 110 forward/reverse reactions and 5 different computational methods in total. Based on the high-level coupled-cluster quantum calculations, we find that the popular M06-2X DFT functional is significantly more accurate for OH(-) additions than for SO4˙(-) reactions. Most importantly, we highlight some of the limitations and deficiencies of other computational methods, and we recommend the use of high-level quantum calculations to spot-check environmental chemistry reactions that may lie outside the training set of the M06-2X functional, particularly for water oxidation reactions that involve SO4˙(-) and other inorganic species.

  6. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Fahmi, Saleemah; Esmail, Sophie; Vega, Gloria L.; Grundy, Scott M.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to understand quantitative traits was recently proposed based on the finding that nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variants in certain genes are preferentially enriched at one extreme of the population distribution. The NS variants, although individually rare, are cumulatively frequent and influence quantitative traits, such as plasma lipoprotein levels. Here, we use the NS variant technique to demonstrate that genetic variation in NPC1L1 contributes to variability in cholesterol absorption and plasma levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). The ratio of plasma campesterol (a plant sterol) to lathosterol (a cholesterol precursor) was used to estimate relative cholesterol absorption in a population-based study. Nonsynonymous sequence variations in NPC1L1 were five times more common in low absorbers (n = 26 of 256) than in high absorbers (n = 5 of 256) (P < 0.001). The rare variants identified in low absorbers were found in 6% of 1,832 African-Americans and were associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (96 ± 36 mg/dl vs. 105 ± 36 mg/dl; P = 0.005). These data, together with prior findings, reveal a genetic architecture for LDL-C levels that does not conform to current models for quantitative traits and indicate that a significant fraction of genetic variance in LDL-C is due to multiple alleles with modest effects that are present at low frequencies in the population. PMID:16449388

  7. Population density and feeding duration of cabbage looper larvae on tomato plants alter the levels of plant volatile emissions.

    PubMed

    Miresmailli, Saber; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Zamar, Ruben H; Isman, Murray B

    2012-01-01

    As part of their indirect defense, plants under herbivore attack release volatile chemicals that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. This is a very well-documented phenomenon. However, relatively few studies have investigated the response of plants to different population levels of herbivores and their feeding duration. Working with larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. clarence, and using an ultrafast gas chromatograph (the zNose™) for volatile analyses, the authors studied the effect of larval density and feeding duration on levels of plant volatile emissions. Intense herbivory caused higher emission levels of the herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene and β-caryophyllene than those caused by moderate herbivory. When herbivory had ceased following 12-24 h of larval feeding, plants kept releasing HIPVs at a high level for a longer period of time than they did following only 6 h of larval feeding. The plants' slow adjustment in their volatile emissions following prolonged larval feeding might be strategic, as such feeding is more likely to have ceased just temporarily. This information may help in the development of a pest monitoring system that is based on herbivore-induced plant volatiles. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and of catalase activity in follicular fluid of obese women.

    PubMed

    Bausenwein, Judith; Serke, Heike; Eberle, Katharina; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Jogschies, Petra; Hmeidan, Fayez Abu; Blumenauer, Verona; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-02-01

    The intrafollicular levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and of enzyme antioxidants might contribute to reproductive disorders in obese and infertile women. Relevant data are missing. Eighty-four patients were grouped according to obese versus non-obese status and whether they had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The concentrations of oxLDL and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the serum and follicular fluid were measured. Obese women with and without PCOS had significantly greater amounts of oxLDL in the follicular fluid as compared with non-obese women. The level of oxLDL in the follicular fluid was 1000 times lower than in serum. Obese women with and without PCOS had significantly higher catalase activity in the follicular fluid as compared with non-obese women. No differences were found for the SOD activity in the follicular fluid. The GPx and GR activities were up-regulated in obese patients without and with PCOS, yet not in respect to each serum and follicular fluid sample. We conclude that elevated levels of oxLDL in the follicular fluid of obese women are associated with higher catalase activity; both parameters are independent of PCOS. The levels of oxLDL and catalase activity appear to indicate different degrees of oxidative stress.

  9. Systematic review of green tea epigallocatechin gallate in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of humans.

    PubMed

    Momose, Yuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nabetani, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature for the ability of green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Study subjects were limited to healthy individuals and randomized, controlled trials on human serum lipid levels, especially LDL-C, conducted. A total of 17 trials (n = 1356) met all of the inclusion criteria. According to weighted mean differences for changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI), 107-856 mg/d of EGCG for 4 to 14 weeks reduced LDL-C by -9.29 mg/dl (95% CI, -12.27 to -6.31). Sub-analysis was performed to compare the EGCG lowering effect on LDL-C between non-obese and obese subjects, EGCG dose, baseline of LDL-C levels, or BMI. We concluded that consumption of green tea EGCG resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-C at any baseline level and any dose between 107 and 856 mg/d, and the effect size was slightly dependent on the baseline lipid level of the subjects.

  10. Low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients with high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Juren, Andrew J; Sarwal, Gautamn; Al-Sarraf, Ahmad; Vrablik, Michal; Chan, Darren; Humphries, Karin H; Frohlich, Jiri J

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are among several known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Recent research has shown potential mechanistic links between these two diseases. The aim of our study was to characterize, by examining particular coronary artery disease risk factors, patients with extremely high and low levels of HDL-C who were referred to a prevention clinic. We compared the phenotypes of 113 patients with HDL-C levels greater than the 90th percentile with 212 patients with levels less than the 10th percentile by using a retrospective chart review. The cohort with high HDL-C had a remarkable difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (1.8% vs 21.7%). The high HDL-C cohort also had a greater age (52.1 years vs 46.7 years), more light or moderate alcohol consumption (70.8% vs 49.4%), more healthy diet (30.1% vs 22.4%), more light or moderate exercise (90.8% vs 52.2%), and a lower body mass index (25.2 kg/m² vs 28.1 kg/m²). Compared with the low HDL-C group--and also the general population--the high HDL-C cohort had a remarkably low prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin was positively correlated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (r = 0.391, P < 0.001) and weakly negatively correlated with β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (r = -0.225, P < 0.001; r = -0.091, P = 0.046; r = -0.108, P = 0.018; respectively) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  12. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Naim; Eng, Katharien; Lopez, Rocio; Nobili, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in children. Non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been shown to be a good predictor of cardiovascular events. Recent data in adults found non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to be associated with significantly higher levels of non-HDL-C than simple steatosis, suggestive it might be used as a non-invasive tool to diagnose NASH. The goal of our study was to assess non-HDL-C levels in children with NAFLD. Our cohort consisted of pediatric patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Anthropometric, laboratory, and histologic data were obtained on all patients. Univariable analysis was performed to assess differences in clinical characteristics between groups. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the correlation between non-HDL-C levels and clinical variables. ANCOVA was used to adjust for possible confounders. 302 subjects with NAFLD were included in our study; 203 with NASH and 99 without NASH. Subjects with NASH had significantly higher non-HDL-C levels than those without (p = 0.004). Histologic features of NASH, including ballooning, inflammation, and fibrosis were found to be weakly correlated with non-HDL-C levels, (p < 0.05 for all). After adjusting for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), ALT, and GGT, the association between non-HDL-C and NASH was not significant (p = 0.66). In Conclusion, non-HDL-C levels are higher in children with NASH than those with simple steatosis, suggesting increased CVD risk. This may be a reflection of the higher prevalence of MetS. Non-HDL-C had a positive association with histologic features of NASH.

  13. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  14. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors. PMID:27611778

  15. Tobacco outlet density and demographics at the tract level of analysis in Iowa: implications for environmentally based prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John E; Reid, Robert J; Peterson, N Andrew; Lowe, John B; Hughey, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    This study assessed the geographic association between tobacco outlet density and three demographic correlates-income, race, and ethnicity-at the tract level of analysis for one county in the Midwestern United States. Data for residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. county were derived from year 2003 licenses for 474 tobacco outlets. Demographic variables were based on 2000 census data. Census tracts with lower median household income, higher percent of African American residents, and higher percent of Latinos residents had greater density of tobacco selling retail outlets. Areas characterized by lower income and disproportionately more African Americans and Latinos have greater physical access to tobacco products. Physical access to tobacco is a critical public-health issue because, given that smokers have been shown to be price sensitive, lowering access costs (e.g., reduced travel time) is likely to increase consumption. Findings also suggest the need for structural or environmental interventions, i.e., tobacco outlet zoning laws, to mitigate the health consequences associated with tobacco use in certain populations and geographic regions.

  16. Apoptosis induced by low-level laser in polymorphonuclear cells of acute joint inflammation: comparative analysis of two energy densities.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara Januário; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2017-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory property of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely described in literature, although action mechanisms are not always clarified. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate apoptosis mechanisms in the LLLT anti-inflammatory effects on the arthritis experimental model in vivo at two different energy densities (3 and 30 Jcm(-2)). Arthritis was induced in mice by zymosan solution, animals were distributed into five groups, and morphological analysis, immunocytochemistry and gene expressions for apoptotic proteins were performed. Data showed an anti-inflammatory effect, DNA fragmentation in polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and alteration in gene expression of proteins related to apoptosis pathways after LLLT. p53 gene expression increased at both energy densities, Bcl2 gene expression increased at 3 Jcm(-2), and Bcl2 tissue expression decreased at 30 Jcm(-2). In addition, apoptosis was restricted to PMN cells. Results suggest that apoptosis in PMN cells comprise part of LLLT anti-inflammatory mechanisms by disbalance promotion between expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and p53) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, with pro-apoptotic gene expression selectively in PMN cells.

  17. Relationship between serum leptin levels and bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Salari, Sina; Maziar, Sima; Esfahanian, Fateme; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Ranjbarnovin, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product of the obesity gene, which is produced in fat tissue. It was originally thought to be involved only in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We aimed to investigate the relationship of serum leptin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients on hemodialysis (HD). This study included 72 patients (43 males and 29 females), whose mean age was 55.1 ± 11.4 years, mean body mass index was 23.13 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 and mean duration on HD was 5 ± 3.4 years. The BMD values were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Blood samples were taken for leptin, intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and albumin. The leptin levels were higher in females than in males (22.3 ± 19.6 vs 20.8 ± 23), but this difference was not significant. The serum leptin level had a strong positive correlation with Ca levels in the female patients (r = 0.659 and P = 0.01) and a negative correlation with albumin levels (r = -0.461 and P = 0.01). No correlation was found with age, BMI, duration on dialysis, BMD and serum levels of PTH, BAP and P for the entire patient group or either gender separately. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in females with PTH >300 pg/mL when compared with patients with PTH = 100-300 pg/mL (86 ± 85 vs 47 ± 48) (P = 0.011).Women with BAP <300 IU/L had significantly higher serum leptin than those with BAP 300-600 IU/L (P = 0.024). Women with Ca <8.5 mg/dL had significantly lower serum leptin levels compared with those with Ca levels of 8.5-10.5 mg/dL (P = 0.011). There was no significant difference between the two genders among variables such as age, BMI, duration on dialysis, serum leptin, I-PTH, Ca, P, BAP, albumin and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine.

  18. Probing the density of states of two-level tunneling systems in silicon oxide films using superconducting lumped element resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Skacel, S. T.; Kaiser, Ch.; Wuensch, S.; Siegel, M.; Rotzinger, H.; Lukashenko, A.; Jerger, M.; Weiss, G.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2015-01-12

    We have investigated dielectric losses in amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO) thin films under operating conditions of superconducting qubits (mK temperatures and low microwave powers). For this purpose, we have developed a broadband measurement setup employing multiplexed lumped element resonators using a broadband power combiner and a low-noise amplifier. The measured temperature and power dependences of the dielectric losses are in good agreement with those predicted for atomic two-level tunneling systems (TLS). By measuring the losses at different frequencies, we found that the TLS density of states is energy dependent. This had not been seen previously in loss measurements. These results contribute to a better understanding of decoherence effects in superconducting qubits and suggest a possibility to minimize TLS-related decoherence by reducing the qubit operation frequency.

  19. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  20. Pigeons: A Novel GUI Software for Analysing and Parsing High Density Heterologous Oligonucleotide Microarray Probe Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Ming; May, Sean T.; Mayes, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Genomic DNA-based probe selection by using high density oligonucleotide arrays has recently been applied to heterologous species (Xspecies). With the advent of this new approach, researchers are able to study the genome and transcriptome of a non-model or an underutilised crop species through current state-of-the-art microarray platforms. However, a software package with a graphical user interface (GUI) to analyse and parse the oligonucleotide probe pair level data is still lacking when an experiment is designed on the basis of this cross species approach. A novel computer program called Pigeons has been developed for customised array data analysis to allow the user to import and analyse Affymetrix GeneChip® probe level data through XSpecies. One can determine empirical boundaries for removing poor probes based on genomic hybridisation of the test species to the Xspecies array, followed by making a species-specific Chip Description File (CDF) file for transcriptomics in the heterologous species, or Pigeons can be used to examine an experimental design to identify potential Single-Feature Polymorphisms (SFPs) at the DNA or RNA level. Pigeons is also focused around visualization and interactive analysis of the datasets. The software with its manual (the current release number version 1.2.1) is freely available at the website of the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC). PMID:27605027

  1. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  2. Association of Gross Motor Function Classification System Level and School Attendance with Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Jin; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Cho, Byung Chae; Chung, Myoung Ki; Moon, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-10-11

    The present study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to critically analyze the effects of a variety of factors, particularly the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities questionnaire, and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), on BMD. Fifty patients with CP who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. Collected data included the extent of involvement, muscle tone, demographic data, factors determined through chart review, and laboratory results. Factors associated with BMD in this group were analyzed by performing multiple regression analysis. The mean Z-scores in male and female patients were -3.252 ± 1.822 and -3.789 ± 1.764, respectively, in the proximal part of the femur and -2.219 ± 1.323 and -2.451 ± 1.434, respectively, in the lumbar spine. In multiple regression analysis, the GMFCS level and the average frequency of missed school in the PODCI were significant factors associated with both femur and lumbar spine BMD. Both the GMFCS level and school attendance were independently associated with BMD and should be considered for the prevention and management of osteoporosis in patients with CP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Serum soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halac, G; Kilic, E; Cikrikcioglu, M A; Celik, K; Toprak-Erek, A; Keskin, S; Gultepe, I; Celik, R S; Ozaras, N; Yildiz, A; Aydin, S; Akan, O; Karatoprak, C; Sekin, Y; Asil, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the predisposition for atherosclerosis in patients with RLS through serum sLOX-1 (serum Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1) measurements. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested an association of RLS with certain chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia. LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, macrophages, and in smooth muscle cells under the effect of proatherogenic conditions. This study was a prospective, cross-sectional, case-controlled. We measured the serum sLOX-1 levels in 37 restless legs syndrome patients and 38 controls. Serum sLOX-1 level was significantly lower in the patient group. The two groups were similar in glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, LDL cholesterol, TG, HDL, total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, HGB, HCT, MCV, transferrin saturation rate (TSR), ferritin, CRP, TSH, FT4, FT3, B12, and folic acid levels. Also the two groups were similar with respect to age at menarche, number of previous births, number of abortions and/or curettage, total duration of breastfeeding, percentage of patients in menopause, and age at menopause. Our results may suggest a lower atherosclerotic risk among RLS patients as compared to the general population (Tab. 3, Ref. 33).

  4. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on vitamin B12 level and the association of the latter with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol on serum B12 and whether observed changes impact bone mineral density (BMD). Serum B12 and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured on 703 women using OC, DMPA or nonhormonal (NH) birth control at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years. OC and DMPA users experienced greater decreases in B12 than NH users (p<.001). A sharp decrease in B12 was observed during the first 6 months of hormonal contraceptive use (OC: 97 pg/mL and DMPA: 64 pg/mL) in contrast to 14 pg/mL among NH users (20%, 13% and 3% of their baseline values, respectively). Over the following 30 months, B12 levels of OC users remained almost flat, while DMPA users had a further 22-unit decrease. Very few women demonstrated B12 deficiency. Moreover, B12 levels were not associated with BMD. Hormonal contraception causes B12 levels to decrease, but this does not appear to be clinically significant or affect BMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD) prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P < 0.001), hematocrit (P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (P < 0.001) and a negative significant association with reticulocytes (P = 0.046), leukocytes (P = 0.015), monocytes (P = 0.004) and platelets (P = 0.005), bilirubins [total bilirubin (P < 0.001), direct bilirubin (P < 0.001) and indirect bilirubin (P < 0.001], iron (P < 0.001), aminotransferases [aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.035)], lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.030), alpha 1-antitrypsin (P < 0.001), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglycerides (P = 0.005) and hemoglobin S (P = 0.002). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was associated with the history of cardiac abnormalities (P = 0.025), pneumonia (P = 0.033) and blood transfusion use (P = 0.025). Lipids and inflammatory markers were associated with the presence of cholelithiasis. Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic

  6. Reconstituted high-density lipoproteins acutely reduce soluble brain Aβ levels in symptomatic APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jérôme; Stukas, Sophie; Button, Emily; Cheng, Wai Hang; Lee, Michael; Fan, Jianjia; Wilkinson, Anna; Kulic, Iva; Wright, Samuel D; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-05-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest a protective role for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its major apolipoprotein (apo)A-I in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). HDL/apoA-I particles are produced by the liver and intestine and, in addition to removing excess cholesterol from the body, are increasingly recognized to have vasoprotective functions. Here we tested the ability of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) consisting of human apoA-I reconstituted with soy phosphatidylcholine for its ability to lower amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in symptomatic APP/PS1 mice, a well-characterized preclinical model of amyloidosis. Animals were treated intravenously either with four weekly doses (chronic study) or a single dose of 60mg/kg of rHDL (acute study). The major finding of our acute study is that soluble brain Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were significantly reduced within 24h of a single dose of rHDL. By contrast, no changes were observed in our chronic study with respect to soluble or deposited Aβ levels in animals assessed 7days after the final weekly dose of rHDL, suggesting that beneficial effects diminish as rHDL is cleared from the body. Further, rHDL-treated animals showed no change in amyloid burden, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ levels, neuroinflammation, or endothelial activation in the chronic study, suggesting that the pathology-modifying effects of rHDL may indeed be acute and may be specific to the soluble Aβ pool. That systemic administration of rHDL can acutely modify brain Aβ levels provides support for further investigation of the therapeutic potential of apoA-I-based agents for AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive association between serum silicon levels and bone mineral density in female rats following oral silicon supplementation with monomethylsilanetriol.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; Watson, A I E; Bhattacharya, P; van Lenthe, G H; Powell, J J

    2015-04-01

    Observational (epidemiological) studies suggest the positive association between dietary silicon intake and bone mineral density may be mediated by circulating estradiol level. Here, we report the results of a silicon supplementation study in rats that strongly support these observations and suggest an interaction between silicon and estradiol. Epidemiological studies report strong positive associations between dietary silicon (Si) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women and indicate that the association may be mediated by estradiol. We have tested this possibility in a mixed-gender rodent intervention study. Tissue samples were obtained from three groups of 20-week-old Sprague Dawley rats (five males and five females per group) that had been supplemented ad libitum for 90 days in their drinking water with (i) <0.1 mg Si/L (vehicle control), (ii) 115 mg Si/L (moderate dose) or (iii) 575 mg Si/L (high dose). All rats received conventional laboratory feed, whilst supplemental Si was in the form of monomethylsilanetriol, increasing dietary Si intakes by 18 and 99 %, for the moderate- and high-dose groups, respectively. Fasting serum and tissue Si concentrations were increased with Si supplementation (p < 0.05), regardless of gender. However, only for female rats was there (i) a trend for a dose-responsive increase in serum osteocalcin concentration with Si intervention and (ii) strong significant associations between serum Si concentrations and measures of bone quality (p < 0.01). Correlations were weaker or insignificant for tibia Si levels and absent for other serum or tibia elemental concentrations and bone quality measures. Our findings support the epidemiological observations that dietary Si positively impacts BMD in younger females, and this may be due to a Si-estradiol interaction. Moreover, these data suggest that the Si effect is mediated systemically, rather than through its incorporation into bone.

  8. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; Chávez-Manzanera, Emma; Meza-Arana, Clara Elena; Brito-Córdova, Griselda; Mehta, Roopa; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men <40 mg/dL and women <50 mg/dL) but normal triglyceride levels (<150 mg/dL) were included. Selected participants completed a 2-week run-in period on an isocaloric diet and then were randomized to receive 300 g of cucumber (control group) or two uncooked Roma tomatoes a day for 4 weeks. Results A total of 50 individuals (women = 41; 82%) with a mean age of 42 ± 15.5 years and a mean body mass index of 27.6 ± 5.0 kg/m2 completed the study. A significant increase in HDL-C levels was observed in the tomato group (from 36.5 ± 7.5 mg/dL to 41.6 ± 6.9 mg/dL, P < 0.0001 versus the control group). After stratification by gender, the difference in HDL-C levels was only significant in women. The mean HDL-C increase was 5.0 ± 2.8 mg/dL (range 1–12 mg/dL). Twenty patients (40%) finished the study with levels >40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption) showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P < 0.0001). Conclusion Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. PMID:23935376

  9. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates the levels of scaffold proteins and glutamate receptors in postsynaptic densities.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Janin; Falley, Katrin; Richter, Dietmar; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Kindler, Stefan

    2009-09-18

    Functional absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes the fragile X syndrome, a hereditary form of mental retardation characterized by a change in dendritic spine morphology. The RNA-binding protein FMRP has been implicated in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis. Here we have analyzed whether the abundance of scaffold proteins and neurotransmitter receptor subunits in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) is altered in the neocortex and hippocampus of FMRP-deficient mice. Whereas the levels of several PSD components are unchanged, concentrations of Shank1 and SAPAP scaffold proteins and various glutamate receptor subunits are altered in both adult and juvenile knock-out mice. With the exception of slightly increased hippocampal SAPAP2 mRNA levels in adult animals, altered postsynaptic protein concentrations do not correlate with similar changes in total and synaptic levels of corresponding mRNAs. Thus, loss of FMRP in neurons appears to mainly affect the translation and not the abundance of particular brain transcripts. Semi-quantitative analysis of RNA levels in FMRP immunoprecipitates showed that in the mouse brain mRNAs encoding PSD components, such as Shank1, SAPAP1-3, PSD-95, and the glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, are associated with FMRP. Luciferase reporter assays performed in primary cortical neurons from knock-out and wild-type mice indicate that FMRP silences translation of Shank1 mRNAs via their 3'-untranslated region. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors relieves translational suppression. As Shank1 controls dendritic spine morphology, our data suggest that dysregulation of Shank1 synthesis may significantly contribute to the abnormal spine development and function observed in brains of fragile X syndrome patients.

  10. Relation between bone mineral density and IL-17 serum levels in Serbian patients with early Rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dimic, Aleksandar; Milenkovic, Sasa; Krtinic, Dane; Aleksic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Different cytokines play important role in the processes that cause articular destruction and extra-articular manifestations in RA. The contribution of cytokines representing the Th1 (INF-γ), Th2 (IL-4) and IL-17A to the pathogenesis of early RA and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in still poorly understood. Serum samples of 38 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4 and INF-γ). BMD was evaluated by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Disease activity score (DAS28) calculation was assessed for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers. The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p<0.001; INF-γ, P<0.001; IL-4, P<0.01) in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR and CRP. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between serum INF-γ levels and the DAS28 score. Significantly positive correlation of BMD values and CRP, DAS28 IL-17A were also demonstrated. DXA analysis revealed that the most common site for osteoporosis was the lumbar spine followed by the femoral neck. BMD values significantly correlated with CRP, DAS28 score and IL-17A serum levels. The mean serum IL-17A levels, in patients with early RA, corresponded with disease activity, severity and BMD loss, indicating the potential usefulness of serum IL-17A in defining the disease activity and bone remodeling. PMID:28352685

  11. WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms correlate with serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein levels in Tibetan gout patients.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bing; Chen, Peng; Jiri, Mutu; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-03-01

    Current evidence suggests heredity and metabolic syndrome contributes to gout progression. Specifically, the WDR1 and CLNK genes may play a role in gout progression in European ancestry populations. However, no studies have focused on Chinese populations, especially Tibetan individuals. This study aims to determine whether variations in these two genes correlate with gout-related indices in Chinese-Tibetan gout patients. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the WDR1 and CLNK genes were detected in 319 Chinese-Tibetan gout patients and 318 controls. We used one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the polymorphisms' effects on gout based on mean serum levels of metabolism indicators, such as albumin, glucose (GLU), triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), creatinine, and uric acid, from fasting venous blood samples. All p values were Bonferroni corrected. Polymorphisms of the WDR1 and CLNK genes affected multiple risk factors for gout development. Significant differences in serum GLU levels were detected between different genotypic groups with WDRI polymorphisms rs4604059 (p = 0.005) and rs12498927 (p = 0.005). In addition, significant differences in serum HDL-C levels were detected between different genotypic groups with the CLNK polymorphism rs2041215 (p = 0.001). Polymorphisms of CLNK also affected levels of albumin, triglycerides, and creatinine. This study is the first to investigate and identify positive correlations between WDR1 and CLNK gene polymorphisms in Chinese-Tibetan populations. Our findings provide significant evidence for the effect of genetic polymorphisms on gout-related factors in Chinese-Tibetan populations.

  12. The association between serum dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate (DHEA-S) level and bone mineral density in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dain; Kim, Hyeonmok; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Beom-Jun; Koh, Jung-Min

    2015-08-01

    Many lines of evidence indicate that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plays a distinct role in bone metabolism and that its sulphated form (DHEA-S), which is easily measured in blood, may be a potential biomarker of osteoporosis-related phenotypes. However, most previous epidemiologic studies focused on postmenopausal women and reported conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the association between the serum DHEA-S level and bone mass in men. This large cross-sectional study included 1089 healthy Korean men who participated in a routine health screening examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total femur, femur neck, and trochanter and serum DHEA-S level were obtained in all subjects. After adjustment for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, testosterone, 25-OH-vitamin D3 and cortisol, higher serum DHEA-S concentrations were associated with higher BMD values at all skeletal sites. Consistently, compared to the subjects in the highest DHEA-S quartile (Q4), those in the lowest DHEA-S quartile (Q1) showed significantly lower BMD values. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratios for the risk of lower BMD (T-score <-1) increased in a dose-dependent manner across decreasing DHEA-S quartiles and the odds for the risk of lower BMD were 2·59-fold higher in Q1 than in Q4. These findings support previous evidences that DHEA-S has favourable effects on bone mass in men and suggest that a low serum DHEA-S level may be a potential risk factor for male osteoporosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intercomparison of gamma ray scattering and transmission techniques for fluid-fluid and fluid-air interface levels detection and density measurements.

    PubMed

    Priyada, P; Margret, M; Ramar, R; Shivaramu

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on the fluid-fluid, fluid-air interface level detection and density determination by gamma scattering method and intercomparison with transmission (gammatography) technique. The Monte Carlo (MC) numerical simulation of the scattering phenomena is done using the MCNP code. The obtained accuracies and resolution of the level detections and density measurements are higher in case of gamma scattering method compared to transmission method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation of plasma total homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels to bone mineral density in Moroccan healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ouzzif, Zhor; Oumghar, Khalid; Sbai, Karim; Mounach, Aziza; Derouiche, El Mustapha; El Maghraoui, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    To test whether in Moroccan healthy postmenopausal women, levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B12 are related to BMD. A total of 188 volunteer postmenopausal women were recruited from our blood taking center between April 2008 and December 2008. Each subject completed a standardized questionnaire designed to document putative risk factors of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was determined by a Lunar Prodigy Vision DXA system, and blood samples for plasma tHcy, folate, vitamin B12, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) were taken. Comparison between women with osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal BMD showed that the osteoporotic women were significantly older, had lower weight and height than the women of the other groups. Plasma tHcy was significantly higher in the osteoporotic group. Levels of tHcy were inversely related to BMD at the lumbar spine, at the total hip and plasma vitamin B12 and positively related to age and creatinine. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and BMI were the main predictors of BMD at the lumbar spine, whereas the main predictors of BMD at the total hip were age, BMI, plasma tHcy, and plasma vitamin B(12). tHcy and vitamin B12 are independent risk factors for osteoporosis in Moroccan healthy postmenopausal women.

  15. Muscle-tendon units localization and activation level analysis based on high-density surface EMG array and NMF algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. Approach. Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the data collection experiments, and 128-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected with a high-density sEMG electrode grid (a grid consists of 8 rows and 16 columns). Then the sEMG envelopes matrix was factorized into a matrix of weighting vectors and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Main results. The experimental results demonstrated that the weightings vectors, which represent invariant pattern of muscle activity across all channels, could be used to estimate the location of MTUs and the time-varying coefficients could be used to depict the variation of MTUs activation level during dynamic motion task. Significance. The proposed method provides one way to analyze in-depth the functional state of MTUs during dynamic tasks and thus can be employed on multiple noteworthy sEMG-based applications such as muscle force estimation, muscle fatigue research and the control of myoelectric prostheses. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 61431017 and 61271138.

  16. Cooper pairs in the Borromean nuclei 6He and 11Li using continuum single particle level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Id Betan, R. M.

    2017-03-01

    A Borromean nucleus is a bound three-body system which is pairwise unbound because none of the two-body subsystem interactions are strong enough to bind them in pairs. As a consequence, the single-particle spectrum of a neutron in the core of a Borromean nucleus is purely continuum, similarly to the spectrum of a free neutron, but two valence neutrons are bound up in such a core. Most of the usual approaches do not use the true continuum to solve the three-body problem but use a discrete basis, like for example, wave functions in a finite box. In this paper the proper continuum is used to solve the pairing Hamiltonian in the continuum spectrum of energy by using the single particle level density devoid of the free gas. It is shown that the density defined in this way modulates the pairing in the continuum. The partial-wave occupation probabilities for the Borromean nuclei 6He and 11Li are calculated as a function of the pairing strength. While at the threshold strength the (s1/2) 2 and (p3/2) 2 configurations are equally important in 6He, the (s1/2) 2 configuration is the main one in 11Li. For very small strength the (s1/2) 2 configuration becomes the dominant in both Borromean nuclei. At the physical strength, the calculated wave function amplitudes show a good agreement with other methods and experimental data which indicates that this simple model grasps the essence of the pairing in the continuum.

  17. Correlating the Local Defect-Level Density with the Macroscopic Composition and Energetics of Chalcopyrite Thin-Film Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Sebastian; Kück, Dennis; Timmer, Alexander; Lauermann, Iver; Ümsür, Bünyamin; Greiner, Dieter; Kaufmann, Christian A; Mönig, Harry

    2015-06-17

    The unusual defect chemistry of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films is a main issue for a profound understanding of recombination losses in chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells. Especially, impurity-driven passivation of electronic levels due to point defects segregating at the surface and at grain boundaries is extensively debated. By combining current imaging tunneling spectroscopy with photoelectron spectroscopy, the local defect-level density and unusual optoelectronic grain-boundary properties of this material are correlated with the macroscopic energy levels and surface composition. Vacuum annealing of different CIGSe materials provides evidence that Na diffusion from the glass substrate does not affect the surface defect passivation or grain-boundary properties of standard Cu-poor materials. Furthermore, we find no major impact on the observed thermally activated dipole compensation or the accompanying change in surface band bending (up to 0.6 eV) due to Na. In contrast, Cu-rich CIGSe shows an opposing surface defect chemistry with only minor heat-induced band bending. Our results lead to a comprehensive picture, where the highly desirable type inversion at the p/n interface in standard chalcopyrite thin-film solar cells is dominated by band bending within the CIGSe absorber rather than the result of Na impurities or an n-type defect phase segregating at the interface. This is in accordance with recent studies suggesting a surface reconstruction as the origin for Cu depletion and band-gap widening at the surface of chalcopyrite thin films.

  18. Cardiovascular Disease, Mortality Risk, and Healthcare Costs by Lipoprotein(a) Levels According to Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Older High-risk Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanglu; Delaney, Joseph A; Quek, Ruben G W; Gardin, Julius M; Hirsch, Calvin H; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Wong, Nathan D

    2016-07-01

    The value of lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) across low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. In older high-risk adults, higher LDL and Lp(a) combined would be associated with higher CVD risk and more healthcare costs. We included 3251 high-risk subjects (prior CVD, diabetes, or 10-year Framingham CVD risk >20%) age ≥65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study and examined the relation of Lp(a) tertiles with incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality within LDL-C strata (spanning <70 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL). We also examined 1-year all-cause and CVD healthcare costs from Medicare claims. Over a 22.5-year follow-up, higher Lp(a) levels predicted CVD and total mortality (both standardized hazard ratio [HR]: 1.06, P < 0.01), whereas higher LDL-C levels predicted higher CHD (standardized HR: 1.09, P < 0.01) but lower total mortality (standardized HR: 0.94, P < 0.001). Adjusted HRs in the highest (vs lowest) tertile of Lp(a) level were 1.95 (P = 0.06) for CVD events and 2.68 (P = 0.03) for CHD events when LDL-C was <70 mg/dL. One-year all-cause healthcare costs were increased for Lp(a) ($771 per SD of 56 µg/mL [P = 0.03], $1976 for Lp(a) 25-64 µg/mL vs <25 µg/mL [P = 0.02], and $1648 for Lp(a) ≥65 µg/mL vs <25 µg/mL [P = 0.054]) but not LDL-C. In older high-risk adults, increased Lp(a) levels were associated with higher CVD risk, especially in those with LDL-C <70 mg/dL, and with higher healthcare costs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nuclear Level Densities for Modeling Nuclear Reactions: An Efficient Approach Using Statistical Spectroscopy: Annual Report 2003-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    The general goal of the project is to develop and implement computer codes and input files to compute nuclear densities of state. Such densities are important input into calculations of statistical neutron capture, and are difficult to access experimentally. In particular, we will focus on calculating densities for nuclides in the mass range A ?????? 50 - 100. We use statistical spectroscopy, a moments method based upon a microscopic framework, the interacting shell model. In this report we present our progress for the past year.

  20. Sedimentation properties in density gradients correspond with levels of sperm DNA fragmentation, chromatin compaction and binding affinity to hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Forough; Binduraihem, Adel; Miller, David

    2017-03-01

    Mature spermatozoa bind hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix via hyaladherins. Immature spermatozoa may be unable to interact because they do not express the appropriate hyaladherins on their surface. Fresh human semen samples were fractionated using differential density gradient centrifugation (DDGC) and the ability of these fractions to bind hyaluronic acid was evaluated. The presence of sperm hyaladherins was also assessed. CD44 was located mainly on the acrosome and equatorial segment and became more restricted to the equatorial segment in capacitated spermatozoa. Hyaluronic acid-TRITC (hyaluronic acid conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanante), a generic hyaluronic-acid-binding reagent, labelled the membrane and the neck region, particularly after capacitation. Sperm populations obtained after DDGC or after interaction with hyaluronic acid were assessed for DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity. Strong relationships between both measures and sperm sedimentation and hyaluronic-acid-binding profiles were revealed. Capacitation enhanced hyaluronic acid binding of both DDGC-pelleted sperm and sperm washed free of seminal fluid. In conclusion, hyaladherins were detected on human sperm and a higher capacity for sperm hyaluronic-acid-binding was shown to correspond with their DDGC sedimentation profiles and with lower levels of DNA fragmentation and better chromatin maturity. Capacitation induced changes in the distribution and presence of hyaladherins may enhance hyaluronic-acid-binding.

  1. Segregation analysis of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study.

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, K D; Kaplan, E B; Namboodiri, K K; Glueck, C J; Laskarzewski, P; Rifkind, B M

    1987-01-01

    Complex segregation analysis with the unified mixed model in white families from nine lipid research clinics was carried out to delineate the mode of familial transmission of plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Three groups of families from the collaborative Lipid Research Clinics Program Family Study were assessed: 1,146 selected at random, 483 obtained through hypercholesterolemic probands, and 177 selected from the random sample because a number had low HDL-C, the sample sizes being 4,279, 1,807 and 735, respectively. The data were first transformed and adjusted for effects of covariates. Analyses were performed within clinic and selection strata and also pooled across clinics within strata. The results were consistent across strata and identified two major HDL-C clusters with means separated by approximately 3 SD. There was significant evidence of transmission of a major factor for low HDL-C, but transmission did not conform to Mendelian segregation expectations. There was also evidence of significant multifactorial transmission. Since low HDL-C levels are a major independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, the association of a major factor with familial aggregation of low HDL-C emphasizes the importance of detailed within-family sampling for low HDL-C after identifying a proband whose predominant dyslipoproteinemia is low HDL-C. PMID:3591798

  2. Consequences of seasonal variation in reservoir water level for predatory fishes: linking visual foraging and prey densities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klobucar, Stephen L.; Budy, Phaedra

    2016-01-01

    In reservoirs, seasonal drawdown can alter the physical environment and may influence predatory fish performance. We investigated the performance of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a western reservoir by coupling field measurements with visual foraging and bioenergetic models at four distinct states (early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall). The models suggested that lake trout prey, juvenile kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), are limited seasonally by suitable temperature and dissolved oxygen. Accordingly, prey densities were greatest in late summer when reservoir volume was lowest and fish were concentrated by stratification. Prey encounter rates (up to 68 fish·day−1) and predator consumption are also predicted to be greatest during late summer. However, our models suggested that turbidity negatively correlates with prey detection and consumption across reservoir states. Under the most turbid conditions, lake trout did not meet physiological demands; however, during less turbid periods, predator consumption reached maximum bioenergetic efficiency. Overall, our findings demonstrate that rapid reservoir fluctuations and associated abiotic conditions can influence predator–prey interactions, and our models describe the potential impacts of water level fluctuation on valuable sport fishes.

  3. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-11-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using /sup 125/I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, /sup 125/I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using /sup 131/I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal.

  4. Energy dependence and systematics of level-density parameters in nuclei of mass number in the range of A = 20–60

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzevich, O. T.

    2015-12-15

    Existing direct and indirect experimental data on level densities in excited nuclei of mass and charge number in the ranges of A = 20–60 and Z = 11–27, respectively, were compiled and analyzed. Contradictions between values extracted from the results of measurements performed by different methods were revealed. Consistent input data were selected, and a systematics of level-density parameters was created on this basis within the generalized model of superfluid nuclei. The effect of the first discrete vibrational levels on extracted parameters was studied.

  5. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol associates with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes beyond circulating levels of triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Prenner, Stuart B; Mulvey, Claire K; Ferguson, Jane F; Rickels, Michael R; Bhatt, Anish B; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-10-01

    While recent genomic studies have focused attention on triglyceride (TG) rich lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) relationship with atherosclerosis and CVD. We examined, in a high-risk type-2 diabetic population, the association of plasma VLDL-C with coronary artery calcification (CAC). The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of CVD risk factors in type-2 diabetics (n = 2118, mean age 59.1 years, 36.5% female, 34.1% Black). Plasma lipids including VLDL-C were calculated (n = 1879) after ultracentrifugation. In Tobit regression, VLDL-C levels were positively associated with increasing CAC after adjusting for age, race, gender, Framingham risk score, body mass index, C-reactive protein, exercise, medication and alcohol use, hemoglobin A1c, and diabetes duration [Tobit ratio (TR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 (0.12-0.65), P = 0.005] and even after inclusion of apolipoprotein B data [TR 0.31 (0.03-0.58), P = 0.030]. Approximately 3-fold stronger effect was observed in women [TR 0.75 (0.16-1.34), P = 0.013] than men [TR 0.20 (-0.10-0.50), P = 0.189; gender interaction P = 0.034]. Plasma VLDL-C was related more strongly to CAC scores than TG levels (e.g., Akaike information criteria of 7263.65 vs. 7263.94) and had stronger CAC association in individuals with TGs >150 mg/dl (TR 0.80, P = 0.010) vs. those with TGs <150 mg/dl (TR 0.27, P = 0.185). In PDHS, VLDL-C is associated with CAC independent of established CVD risk factors, particularly in women, and may have value even beyond apolipoprotein B levels and in patients with elevated TGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of olive and sunflower oils on low density lipoprotein level, composition, size, oxidation and interaction with arterial proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Carmena, R; Ascaso, J F; Camejo, G; Varela, G; Hurt-Camejo, E; Ordovas, J M; Martinez-Valls, J; Bergstöm, M; Wallin, B

    1996-09-06

    The atherogenicity of low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be modulated by its serum levels, structure and affinity for components of the intima, all properties that can be altered by diet. Linoleic acid-rich diets (n-G, 18:2) reduce the levels of LDL whereas those rich in oleic (n-9,18:1) are considered 'neutral'. However, LDL enriched in linoleic acid have been reported to be more vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation than those enriched in oleic, a potentially atherogenic property. The effect of dietary fats on other properties of LDL that may also modulate atherogenesis, such as size and capacity to interact with intima components, are not well established. We explored here how a change from an olive oil-rich diet (OO) to a sunflower oil-rich one (SFO) affects these parameters in a community with a traditional Mediterranean diet. Eighteen free-living volunteers were placed for 3 weeks on a diet with 31% of caloric intake as sunflower oil and then shifted for an additional 3 weeks to a diet in which OO provided 30.5% of the calories. The LDL after SFO had a fatty acids ratio of (18:2 + 18:3 + 20:4) to (16:0 + 16:1 + 18:0 + 18:1) of 1.06 +/- 0.11 compared to 0.73 +/- 0.06 after the OO period. Serum LDL was significantly lower after SFO than after OO. Unexpectedly, copper-catalyzed oxidation of LDL from the SFO period was significantly less than that of the particles from the OO period. The resistance to oxidation of LDL of the SFO and OO period related to alterations in content of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol, in addition to changes in size and fatty acids composition. In vitro binding of LDL to human arterial proteoglycans was also significantly lower for the SFO-LDL than the OO-LDL, a result that can also be attributed to the larger size of the SFO-LDL. Therefore, three properties of LDL: circulating levels, oxidizability, and affinity with intima proteoglycans, that may modulate its atherogenicity, were shifted in a

  7. Density of states of the one-dimensional electron gas: Impurity levels, impurity bands, and the band tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1994-06-01

    The density of states of cylindrical quantum wires is calculated in the presence of charged impurities located in the center of the wire. A multiple-scattering approach (Klauder's fifth approximation), which represents a self-consistent t-matrix approximation, is used. For small impurity densities and in the weak screening limit the ground-state impurity band and four excited-state impurity bands are obtained within our approach. We find good agreement between the numerically obtained spectral densities with the corresponding analytical spectral densities calculated with the single-impurity wave functions. The merging of impurity bands is studied. For large impurity densities we obtain a band tail. We present an analytical expression for the disorder-induced renormalized band-edge energy in the band-tail regime.

  8. Increased expression of apolipoprotein E in transgenic rabbits results in reduced levels of very low density lipoproteins and an accumulation of low density lipoproteins in plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, J; Ji, Z S; Huang, Y; de Silva, H; Sanan, D; Mahley, R W; Innerarity, T L; Taylor, J M

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic rabbits expressing human apo E3 were generated to investigate mechanisms by which apo E modulates plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Compared with nontransgenic littermates expressing approximately 3 mg/dl of endogenous rabbit apo E, male transgenic rabbits expressing approximately 13 mg/dl of human apo E had a 35% decrease in total plasma triglycerides that was due to a reduction in VLDL levels and an absence of large VLDL. With its greater content of apo E, transgenic VLDL had an increased binding affinity for the LDL receptor in vitro, and injected chylomicrons were cleared more rapidly by the liver in transgenic rabbits. In contrast to triglyceride changes, transgenic rabbits had a 70% increase in plasma cholesterol levels due to an accumulation of LDL and apo E-rich HDL. Transgenic and control LDL had the same binding affinity for the LDL receptor. Both transgenic and control rabbits had similar LDL receptor levels, but intravenously injected human LDL were cleared more slowly in transgenic rabbits than in controls. Changes in lipoprotein lipolysis did not contribute to the accumulation of LDL or the reduction in VLDL levels. These observations suggest that the increased content of apo E3 on triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins in transgenic rabbits confers a greater affinity for cell surface receptors, thereby increasing remnant clearance from plasma. The apo E-rich large remnants appear to compete more effectively than LDL for receptor-mediated binding and clearance, resulting in delayed clearance and the accumulation of LDL in plasma. PMID:9593771

  9. Spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level in the metallic LaB6 through accurate X-ray charge density study

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Hidetaka; Nishibori, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Charge densities of iso-structural metal hexaborides, a transparent metal LaB6 and a semiconductor BaB6, have been determined using the d > 0.22 Å ultra-high resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data by a multipole refinement and a maximum entropy method (MEM). The quality of the experimental charge densities was evaluated by comparison with theoretical charge densities. The strong inter-octahedral and relatively weak intra-octahedral boron-boron bonds were observed in the charge densities. A difference of valence charge densities between LaB6 and BaB6 was calculated to reveal a small difference between isostructural metal and semiconductor. The weak electron lobes distributed around the inter B6 octahedral bond were observed in the difference density. We found the electron lobes are the conductive π-electrons in LaB6 from the comparison with the theoretical valence charge density. We successfully observed a spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level from the X-ray charge density study of the series of iso-structural solids. PMID:28120900

  10. Spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level in the metallic LaB6 through accurate X-ray charge density study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Hidetaka; Nishibori, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Charge densities of iso-structural metal hexaborides, a transparent metal LaB6 and a semiconductor BaB6, have been determined using the d > 0.22 Å ultra-high resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data by a multipole refinement and a maximum entropy method (MEM). The quality of the experimental charge densities was evaluated by comparison with theoretical charge densities. The strong inter-octahedral and relatively weak intra-octahedral boron-boron bonds were observed in the charge densities. A difference of valence charge densities between LaB6 and BaB6 was calculated to reveal a small difference between isostructural metal and semiconductor. The weak electron lobes distributed around the inter B6 octahedral bond were observed in the difference density. We found the electron lobes are the conductive π-electrons in LaB6 from the comparison with the theoretical valence charge density. We successfully observed a spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level from the X-ray charge density study of the series of iso-structural solids.

  11. Spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level in the metallic LaB6 through accurate X-ray charge density study.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Hidetaka; Nishibori, Eiji

    2017-01-25

    Charge densities of iso-structural metal hexaborides, a transparent metal LaB6 and a semiconductor BaB6, have been determined using the d > 0.22 Å ultra-high resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data by a multipole refinement and a maximum entropy method (MEM). The quality of the experimental charge densities was evaluated by comparison with theoretical charge densities. The strong inter-octahedral and relatively weak intra-octahedral boron-boron bonds were observed in the charge densities. A difference of valence charge densities between LaB6 and BaB6 was calculated to reveal a small difference between isostructural metal and semiconductor. The weak electron lobes distributed around the inter B6 octahedral bond were observed in the difference density. We found the electron lobes are the conductive π-electrons in LaB6 from the comparison with the theoretical valence charge density. We successfully observed a spatial distribution of electrons near the Fermi level from the X-ray charge density study of the series of iso-structural solids.

  12. Effect of Vitamin Supplementation on Serum Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels in Male Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Najafpour Boushehri, Saeid; Yusof, Rokiah Mohammad; Nasir Mohammad Taib, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Kamran; Yazdekhasti, Narges; Akbarzadeh, Samad

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s):Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs) appear to play a significant role in atherogenesis. In fact, circulating ox-LDL concentrations have been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamins on ox-LDL as a biomarker of CVD in male subjects with CVD risk factors. Materials and Methods:The effect of antioxidant vitamins on ox-LDL as a biomarker of CVD in male subjects with CVD in male subjects with CVD risk factors at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation with vitamin E (400 IU), C (500 mg), ß-carotene (15 mg), and the combined supplements (E, C, and ß-carotene) respectively defined as group E, C, B and control group was considered as group P. Results:The mean values for ox-LDL at the baseline were 86.93 ± 26.30 U/l in group C, 94.52 ± 38.40 U/l in group E, 79.73±2.07 U/l in group B, 85.97±23.07 U/l in combined group, and 84.90± 14.66 U/l in group P. After 12 weeks of intervention the percentage of changes for group C, group E, group B, COM group, and group P were (-18.32), (-2286), (-17.31), (-19.01) and (-2.0), respectively. Using Wilcoxon method, significant differences were detected in the mean ox-LDL concentrations of baseline and after intervention, values in the C, E, B and combined groups (P< 005). Conclusion:This study illustrated that diet supplemented with vitamin C (500 mg), vitamin E (400 IU), ß-carotene (15 mg), and the combination of these vitamins was associated with lower serum ox-LDL levels. PMID:23493764

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of bather density on levels of human-virulent microsporidian spores in recreational water.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Tamang, Leena; Shields, Timothy M; Lucy, Frances E; Breysse, Patrick N

    2007-07-01

    Microsporidial gastroenteritis, a serious disease of immunocompromised people, can have a waterborne etiology. During summer months, samples of recreational bathing waters were tested weekly for human-virulent microsporidian spores and water quality parameters in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores were detected in 59% of weekend (n = 27) and 30% of weekday (n = 33) samples, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores were concomitant in a single weekend sample; the overall prevalence was 43%. The numbers of bathers, water turbidity levels, prevalences of spore-positive samples, and concentrations of spores were significantly higher for weekend than for weekday samples; P values were <0.001, <0.04, <0.03, and <0.04, respectively. Water turbidity and the concentration of waterborne spores were significantly correlated with bather density, with P values of <0.001 and <0.01, respectively. As all water samples were collected on days deemed acceptable for bathing by fecal bacterial standards, this study reinforces the scientific doubt about the reliability of bacterial indicators in predicting human waterborne pathogens. The study provides evidence that bathing in public waters can result in exposure to potentially viable microsporidian spores and that body contact recreation in potable water can play a role in the epidemiology of microsporidiosis. The study indicates that resuspension of bottom sediments by bathers resulted in elevated turbidity values and implies that the microbial load from both sediments and bathers can act as nonpoint sources for the contamination of recreational waters with Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores. Both these mechanisms can be considered for implementation in predictive models for contamination with microsporidian spores.

  14. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of the Impact of Bather Density on Levels of Human-Virulent Microsporidian Spores in Recreational Water▿

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Sunderland, Deirdre; Tamang, Leena; Shields, Timothy M.; Lucy, Frances E.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2007-01-01

    Microsporidial gastroenteritis, a serious disease of immunocompromised people, can have a waterborne etiology. During summer months, samples of recreational bathing waters were tested weekly for human-virulent microsporidian spores and water quality parameters in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores were detected in 59% of weekend (n = 27) and 30% of weekday (n = 33) samples, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores were concomitant in a single weekend sample; the overall prevalence was 43%. The numbers of bathers, water turbidity levels, prevalences of spore-positive samples, and concentrations of spores were significantly higher for weekend than for weekday samples; P values were <0.001, <0.04, <0.03, and <0.04, respectively. Water turbidity and the concentration of waterborne spores were significantly correlated with bather density, with P values of <0.001 and <0.01, respectively. As all water samples were collected on days deemed acceptable for bathing by fecal bacterial standards, this study reinforces the scientific doubt about the reliability of bacterial indicators in predicting human waterborne pathogens. The study provides evidence that bathing in public waters can result in exposure to potentially viable microsporidian spores and that body contact recreation in potable water can play a role in the epidemiology of microsporidiosis. The study indicates that resuspension of bottom sediments by bathers resulted in elevated turbidity values and implies that the microbial load from both sediments and bathers can act as nonpoint sources for the contamination of recreational waters with Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores. Both these mechanisms can be considered for implementation in predictive models for contamination with microsporidian spores. PMID:17483272

  16. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P < 0.001), and this was associated with a significant (P < 0.04) increase in water turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P < 0.03) on weekends than on weekdays, and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with enterococci counts. The concentration of all three waterborne pathogens was significantly correlated with bather density (P < 0.01). The study demonstrated that: (a) human pathogens were present in beach water on days deemed acceptable for bathing according to fecal bacterial standards; (b) enterococci count was a good indicator for the presence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and microsporidian spores in recreational marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  17. Experimental Study of Current Loss of Stainless Steel Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line with Current Density at MA/cm Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hanyu; Zeng, Zhengzhong; Wang, Liangping; Guo, Ning

    2014-06-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is used to transmit high power electric pulses in large pulse power systems. However, current loss is unavoidable, especially when the current density is up to 1 MA/cm. In the paper, the current loss of an MITL made of stainless steel, which is usually used in large pulse power generators, is experimentally studied, and possible mechanisms to explain the current loss of the MITL are analyzed and discussed. From the experimental results, the relationship between loss current density and input current density follows approximately a power law. The loss is also related to the configuration of the MITL.

  18. Effect of controlled low levels of SO/sub 2/ on grasshopper densities on a northern mixed-grass prairie

    SciTech Connect

    McNary, T.J.; Milchunas, D.G.; Leetham, J.W.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Dodd, J.L.

    1981-02-01

    A northern mixed-grass prairie was exposed to monthly median SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 73, 134, and 228 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Total grasshopper density and the density of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced by SO/sub 2/ treatment on late-growing-season dates within each year of SO/sub 2/ exposure. Grasshopper density tended to decrease with increasing SO/sub 2/ concentration. Sulfur dioxide did not alter the relative proportions of M. sanguinipes in the total population. 14 references, 1 figure.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in northern Denmark: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Manthripragada, Angelika D; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of new lipid-lowering therapies, more patients are expected to achieve substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, there are limited data examining the clinical experience of patients with low (<1.3 mmol/L) or very low (<0.65 mmol/L) levels of LDL-C. To provide information on patients with low LDL-C, we identified and characterized persons with low LDL-C using data from Danish medical databases. Methods Using a population-based clinical laboratory database, we identified adults with at least one LDL-C measurement in northern Denmark between 1998 and 2011 (population approximately 1.5 million persons). Based on the lowest measurement during the study period, we divided patients into groups with low (<1.3 mmol/L), moderate (1.3–3.3 mmol/L), or high (>3.3 mmol/L) LDL-C. We described their demographic characteristics, entire comorbidity history, and 90-day prescription history prior to the lowest LDL-C value measured. Finally, we further restricted the analysis to individuals with very low LDL-C (<0.65 mmol/L). Results Among 765,503 persons with an LDL-C measurement, 23% had high LDL-C, 73% had moderate LDL-C, and 4.8% had low LDL-C. In the latter group, 9.6% (0.46% of total) had very low LDL-C. Compared with the moderate and high LDL-C categories, the low LDL-C group included more males and older persons with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, and obesity, as measured by hospital diagnoses or relevant prescription drugs for these diseases. Cancer and use of psychotropic drugs were also more prevalent. These patterns of distribution became even more pronounced when restricting to individuals with very low LDL-C. Conclusion Using Danish medical databases, we identified a cohort of patients with low LDL-C and found that cohort members differed from patients with higher LDL-C levels. These differences may be explained by various factors

  20. [Control rate of increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in cardiology outpatients with coronary heart disease in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Ding, Rong-jing; Ma, Chang-sheng; Chen, Hong; Wu, Yan; Yang, Xin-chun; Hua, Qi; Li, Rui-jie; Ren, Wen-lin; Wang, Ming-sheng; Xiang, Xiao-ping; Du, Xin; Pi, Lin; Hu, Da-yi

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in outpatients with coronary heart disease (CHD) visiting cardiology outpatient clinics of 8 hospitals in Beijing. A total of 903 outpatients with CHD were enrolled from 4 three-tier hospitals and 4 two-tier hospitals in Beijing. All patients were asked to finish the questionnaire including demographic data, CHD history, the knowledge on cholesterol, and the use of statins. Blood lipid was examined and the LDL-C control rate and related factors were then analyzed. Questionnaire was obtained from 876 patients [619 male: 70.7%, mean age: (64.9 ± 10.7) years old] and blood lipid data were available in 709 patients. The general LDL-C control rate was 36.9% (262/709) and was 13.5% (27/173) in very high risk CHD patients, and lower in patients treated in two-tier hospitals than patients treated in three-tier hospitals[31.3% (121/386) vs. 43.7% (141/323), P < 0.01], in female patients than in male patients [27.1% (60/261) vs. 41.3% (201/496), P < 0.01] and in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients [13.5% (27/200) vs. 44.7% (197/441), P < 0.01]. The LDL-C control rate was lower in patients less than 60 years old and patients over 80 years old than that in 60-70 years old patients and 70 - 80 years old patients (P < 0.05). LDL-C control rate was not affected by the history of hypertension, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting, smoking, lipid examination frequency, knowledge on goal level of LDL-C, diet control and regularly physical exercising (all P > 0.05). There were 18.2% (129/709) patients not taking statins or not aware if they were taking statin or not. The main reason for not taking statin [47.9% (23/48)] was statin was no prescribed by doctors, followed by withdrawal by patients due to various reasons [27.1% (13/48)]. LDL-C control rate was low in patients with CHD visiting cardiology outpatient clinics in Beijing. The CHD patients and cardiologists

  1. Perturbed angular distribution of 237Np gamma rays from the 237U parent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansaldo, Eduardo J.

    1980-09-01

    The anisotropy was measured for the 208.0-59.54 keV gamma cascade in 237Np, corresponding to a positive sign for the M1-E2 mixing ratio of the 208.0 keV transition. The sources were prepared by means of the 238U(e, n) reaction. A discussion on the implications of the present results for the study of hyperfine interactions in neptunium compounds and alloys is included.

  2. Fracture risk and bone mineral density levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Yan, S; Liu, C; Xu, Y; Wan, L; Wang, Y; Gao, W; Meng, S; Liu, Y; Liu, R; Xu, D

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggested possible bone loss and fracture risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the strength of the relationship of SLE with fracture risk and the mean difference of bone mineral density (BMD) levels between SLE patients and controls. Literature search was undertaken in multiple indexing databases on September 26, 2015. Studies on the relationship of SLE with fracture risk and the mean difference of BMD levels between SLE patients and controls were included. Data were combined using standard methods of meta-analysis. Twenty-one studies were finally included into the meta-analysis, including 15 studies on the mean difference of BMD levels between SLE patients and controls, and 6 studies were on fracture risk associated with SLE. The meta-analysis showed that SLE patients had significantly lower BMD levels than controls in the whole body (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.04; 95 % CI -0.06 to -0.02; P < 0.001), femoral neck (WMD = -0.06; 95 % CI -0.07 to -0.04; P < 0.001), lumbar spine (WMD = -0.06; 95 % CI -0.09 to -0.03; P < 0.001), and total hip (WMD = -0.05; 95 % CI -0.06 to -0.03; P < 0.001). In addition, the meta-analysis also showed that SLE was significantly associated with increased fracture risk of all sites (relative risk [RR] = 1.97, 95 % CI 1.20-3.25; P = 0.008). Subgroup analysis by adjustment showed that SLE was significantly associated with increased fracture risk of all sites before and after adjusting for confounding factors (unadjusted RR = 2.07, 95 % CI 1.46-2.94, P < 0.001; adjusted RR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.05-1.42, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis by types of fracture showed that SLE was significantly associated with increased risks of hip fracture (RR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.55-2.57; P < 0.001), osteoporotic fracture (RR = 1.36, 95 % CI 1.21-1.53; P < 0.001), and vertebral

  3. Measurements of copper ground-state and metastable level population densities in a copper-chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    The population densities of both the ground and the 2D(5/2) metastable states of copper atoms in a double-pulsed copper-chloride laser are correlated with laser energy as a function of time after the dissociation current pulse. Time-resolved density variations of the ground and excited copper atoms were derived from measurements of optical absorption at 324.7 and 510.6 nm, respectively, over a wide range of operating conditions in laser tubes with diameters of 4 to 40 mm. The minimum delay between the two current pulses at which lasing was observed is shown to be a function of the initial density and subsequent decay of the metastable state. Similarly, the maximum delay is shown to be a function of the initial density and decay of the ground state.

  4. Method for making a low density polyethylene waste form for safe disposal of low level radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.

    1984-06-05

    In the method of the invention low density polyethylene pellets are mixed in a predetermined ratio with radioactive particulate material, then the mixture is fed through a screw-type extruder that melts the low density polyethylene under a predetermined pressure and temperature to form a homogeneous matrix that is extruded and separated into solid monolithic waste forms. The solid waste forms are adapted to be safely handled, stored for a short time, and safely disposed of in approved depositories.

  5. The association between soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels and patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia.

    PubMed

    Balin, Mehmet; Celik, Ahmet; Kobat, M Ali

    2012-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of coronary artery ectasia. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 is involved in multiple phases of vascular dysfunction, including endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, initiation of plaque rupture, and restenosis. The objectives was to study the purpose of the current study was to determine whether soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 is associated with isolated coronary artery ectasia patients. Forty-six patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia without stenosis and 46 control subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries were included in this study. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels were measured in serum by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Plasma levels of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 were significantly higher in the coronary artery ectasia group than normal coronary artery group (1.7 ± 0.8 ng/ml vs. 1.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). No correlation was found between plasma soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels and different types of ectasia in patients with coronary artery ectasia. In this study, we found significantly higher levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in coronary artery ectasia patients when compared to control subjects with normal coronary arteries, suggesting that soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia.

  6. Renormalized particle-particle and particle-hole random-phase approximation correlations at finite temperature: Effects upon the nuclear level density parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Civitarese, O.; Dumrauf, A.G.; Reboiro, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Finite temperature bosonic contributions to the nuclear level density parameter are calculated. The adopted formalism is based on the random-phase approximation treatment of particle-particle, hole-hole, and particle-hole channels of an isospin-independent {delta} force. The particle-particle (hole-hole) channels are renormalized and they are treated together with the particle-hole channels. Random-phase approximation contributions to the level density parameter are found to display low-temperature features which are similar to the ones that are due to the collapse of pairing correlations.

  7. A comparison of bone mineral density and muscle strength in young male adults with different exercise level.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, U; Nordström, P; Lorentzon, R

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate any differences in bone mass at different sites between young adults subjected to a high physical activity and a group of young adults with a low level of physical activity. In addition, we compared the relationship among bone mass, muscle strength, and body constitution in these two groups. The reference group consisted of 20 men, age 24.6 +/- 2.3 years, not training for more than 3 hours per week. The ice hockey players consisted of 20 players, age 23.4 +/- 4.9 years, from an ice hockey team in the second highest national Swedish league, training for about 10 hours per week. The groups were matched according to age, height, and weight. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, humerus, spine, pelvis, femur, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, femur diaphysis, proximal tibia, and tibia diaphysis using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD was significantly higher in the total body (8.1%), humerus (11.4%), spine (12.7%), pelvis (12.4%), femoral neck (10.3%), femur (7.4%), proximal tibia (9.8%), and tibia diaphysis (7.5%) in the high activity group. Fat mass was significantly lower in the high activity group (18.7%). The high activity group also had a significantly higher lean body mass (5.4%) and a significantly higher isokinetic muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle compared with the reference group. In the reference group, there was a general strong independent relationship between muscle strength of the thigh and all BMD sites, except for the head, tibia diaphysis, and proximal tibia. Furthermore, in the same group, body mass index (BMI) independently predicted pelvis BMD. On the contrary, in the high activity group, muscle strength did not predict any BMD site at all. In the same group, body constitutional parameters (weight, height, and fat mass) independently predicted pelvis BMD, and BMI was shown to be an independent predictor of humerus BMD. The differences in BMD between the

  8. γ strength function and level density of 208Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassauer, S.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Tamii, A.

    2016-11-01

    Background: γ strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. Purpose: The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 database for the case of 208Pb. The upward GSF and LD in 208Pb are compared to γ decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. Methods: The E 1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. The total LD in 208Pb is derived from the 1- LD extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. Results: The E 1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 database showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known spin-flip M 1 resonance call for a substantial revision of the model suggested in RIPL-3. The total GSF derived from the present data is larger in the PDR energy region than the Oslo data but the strong fluctuations due to the low LD resulting from the double shell closure of 208Pb prevent a conclusion on a possible violation of the BA hypothesis. Using the parameters suggested by RIPL-3 for a description of the LD in 208Pb with the back-shifted Fermi gas model, remarkable agreement between the two experiments spanning a wide excitation energy range is obtained. Conclusions: Systematic parametrizations of the E 1 and M 1 GSF parts need to be reconsidered at low excitation energies. The good agreement of the LD provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LD in Oslo-type experiments.

  9. (γ, 2n)-Reaction cross-section calculations of several even-even lanthanide nuclei using different level density models

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, A.; Sarpün, İ. H.; Aydın, A.; Tel, E.; Çapalı, V.; Özdoǧan, H.

    2015-01-15

    There are several level density models that can be used to predict photo-neutron cross sections. Some of them are Constant Temperature + Fermi Gas Model (CTFGM), Back-Shifted Fermi Gas Model (BSFM), Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM), Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov microscopic Model (HFBM). In this study, the theoretical photo-neutron cross sections produced by (γ, 2n) reactions for several eveneven lanthanide nuclei such as {sup 140,142}Ce, {sup 142,144,146,148,150}Nd, {sup 144,148,150,152,154}Sm, and {sup 160}Gd have been calculated on the different level density models as mentioned above by using TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes for incident photon energies up to 30 MeV. The obtained results have been compared with each other and available experimental data existing in the EXFOR database. Generally, at least one level density model cross-section calculations are in agreement with the experimental results for all reactions except {sup 144}Sm(γ, 2n){sup 142}Sm along the incident photon energy, TALYS 1.6 BSFM option for the level density model cross-section calculations can be chosen if the experimental data are not available or are improbable to be produced due to the experimental difficulty.

  10. The levels of bone turnover markers 25(OH)D and PTH and their relationship with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in a suburban district in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Qiao, J; Li, S S; Yu, W J; He, J W; Fu, W Z; Zhang, Z L

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and investigated relationships between them and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in China suburban district. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 25.03 % at lumbar spine and 6.23 % at femoral neck, and BTMs were negatively correlated with BMDs.

  11. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  12. Development and assessment of 30-meter pine density maps for landscape-level modeling of mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Treesearch

    Benjamin A. Crabb; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting spatial patterns of mountain pine beetle (MPB) population success requires spatially explicit information on host pine distribution. We developed a means of producing spatially explicit datasets of pine density at 30-m resolution using existing geospatial datasets of vegetation composition and structure. Because our ultimate goal is to model MPB population...

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of carabid activity-density in cereals do not explain levels of predation on weed seeds.

    PubMed

    Saska, P; van der Werf, W; de Vries, E; Westerman, P R

    2008-04-01

    Seed predation is an important component of seed mortality of weeds in agro-ecosystems, but the agronomic use and management of this natural weed suppression is hampered by a lack of insight in the underlying ecological processes. In this paper, we investigate whether and how spatial and temporal variation in activity-density of granivorous ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) results in a corresponding pattern of seed predation. Activity-density of carabids was measured by using pitfall traps in two organic winter wheat fields from March to July 2004. Predation of seeds (Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium amplexicaule, Poa annua and Stellaria media) was assessed using seed cards at the same sites and times. As measured by pitfall traps, carabids were the dominant group of insects that had access to the seed cards. In the field, predation of the four different species of seed was in the order: C. bursa-pastoris>P. annua>S. media>L. amplexicaule; and this order of preference was confirmed in the laboratory using the dominant species of carabid. On average, seed predation was higher in the field interior compared to the edge, whereas catches of carabids were highest near the edge. Weeks with elevated seed predation did not concur with high activity-density of carabids. Thus, patterns of spatial and temporal variation in seed predation were not matched by similar patterns in the abundance of granivorous carabid beetles. The lack of correspondence is ascribed to effects of confounding factors, such as weather, the background density of seeds, the composition of the carabid community, and the phenology and physiological state of the beetles. Our results show that differences in seed loss among weed species may be predicted from laboratory trials on preference. However, predator activity-density, as measured in pitfall traps, is an insufficient predictor of seed predation over time and space within a field.

  14. The Relationship between 25 (OH) D Levels (Vitamin D) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in a Saudi Population in a Community-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Hussain, Aneela; Gabr, Alia; Alsoghayer, Suad; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2017-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency has reached high levels in the Saudi population, but there is conflicting evidence both in the Saudi population, and worldwide, regarding the existence of a correlation between these low vitamin D levels and reduced BMD (bone mineral density), or osteoporosis. Objective The objective of this study was primarily to determine whether there was a correlation between vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis in the Saudi population. We aimed to investigate whether the high levels of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency would translate to higher prevalence of osteoporosis, and whether there is a correlation between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density. Materials and methods This was a community based cross sectional study conducted in the Family Medicine Clinics at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic records of 1723 patients were reviewed. Laboratory and radiology results were collected, including vitamin D levels, calcium levels, and bone mineral density scan results. Results Among the whole population, 61.5% had moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency with levels less than 50nmol/L. 9.1% of the population had osteoporosis, and 38.6% had osteopenia. Among the whole population, there was no significant correlation between spine or total femoral BMD and serum 25(OH) D. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the Saudi population. However, no correlation has been found between vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in any age group, in males or females, Saudis or Non-Saudis, in our population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PMID:28046015

  15. Longitudinal Assessment of Disease Sites by Attachment Level Changes and Bone Density Loss by Digital Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    available for density analysis represented up to four probing sites. nensity analysis was therefore calculated in terms of radiographic "complexes’ of... radiographs . Several studies using created defects in dried skulls have reported that interproximal lesions were not visible as long as the cortical plates... defects were noticed radiographically only if they had a minimal depth of 3 mm (Pauls and Trott 1986). Using more standardized techniques of film

  16. Habitat-related birdsong divergence: a multi-level study on the influence of territory density and ambient noise in European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Kok, Jet S; van Rijssel, Jacco C; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Song plays an important role in avian communication and acoustic variation is important at both the individual and population level. Habitat-related variation between populations in particular can reflect adaptations to the environment accumulated over generations, but this may not always be the case. In this study, we test whether variation between individuals matches local conditions with respect to noise level and territory density to examine whether short-term flexibility could contribute to song divergence at the population level. We conducted a case study on an urban and forest population of the European blackbird and show divergence at the population level (i.e. across habitats) in blackbird song, anthropogenic noise level and territory density. Unlike in several other species, we found a lack of any correlation at the individual level (i.e. across individuals) between song features and ambient noise. This suggests species-specific causal explanations for noise-dependent song differentiation which are likely associated with variation in song-copying behaviour or feedback constraints related to variable singing styles. On the other hand, we found that at the level of individual territories, temporal features, but not spectral ones, are correlated to territory density and seasonality. This suggests that short-term individual variation can indeed contribute to habitat-dependent divergence at the population level. As this may undermine the potential role for song as a population marker, we conclude that more investigations on individual song flexibility are required for a better understanding of the impact of population-level song divergence on hybridisation and speciation.

  17. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  18. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  19. Laplacian-Level Kinetic Energy Approximations Based on the Fourth-Order Gradient Expansion: Global Assessment and Application to the Subsystem Formulation of Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Laricchia, Savio; Constantin, Lucian A; Fabiano, Eduardo; Della Sala, Fabio

    2014-01-14

    We tested Laplacian-level meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) noninteracting kinetic energy functionals based on the fourth-order gradient expansion (GE4). We considered several well-known Laplacian-level meta-GGAs from the literature (bare GE4, modified GE4, and the MGGA functional of Perdew and Constantin (Phys. Rev. B 2007,75, 155109)), as well as two newly designed Laplacian-level kinetic energy functionals (L0.4 and L0.6). First, a general assessment of the different functionals is performed to test them for model systems (one-electron densities, Hooke's atom, and different jellium systems) and atomic and molecular kinetic energies as well as for their behavior with respect to density-scaling transformations. Finally, we assessed, for the first time, the performance of the different functionals for subsystem density functional theory (DFT) calculations on noncovalently interacting systems. We found that the different Laplacian-level meta-GGA kinetic functionals may improve the description of different properties of electronic systems, but no clear overall advantage is found over the best GGA functionals. Concerning the subsystem DFT calculations, the here-proposed L0.4 and L0.6 kinetic energy functionals are competitive with state-of-the-art GGAs, whereas all other Laplacian-level functionals fail badly. The performance of the Laplacian-level functionals is rationalized thanks to a two-dimensional reduced-gradient and reduced-Laplacian decomposition of the nonadditive kinetic energy density.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of gemfibrozil for coronary heart disease patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the Department of Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Nyman, John A; Martinson, Melissa S; Nelson, David; Nugent, Sean; Collins, Dorothea; Wittes, Janet; Fye, Carol L; Wilt, Timothy J; Robins, Sander J; Bloomfield Rubins, Hanna

    2002-01-28

    Although numerous clinical trials and economic analyses have established the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of lowering cholesterol for the prevention of coronary heart disease, there are few data on the role of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglyceride levels. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program HDL-C Intervention Trial (VA-HIT) was a multicenter, randomized trial of gemfibrozil, an agent that raised HDL-C levels and lowered triglyceride levels, yet had no effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The study showed that gemfibrozil therapy significantly reduced major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in patients with coronary heart disease, low HDL-C levels, and low LDL-C levels. To report the results of a cost-effectiveness study based on the results of the VA-HIT. The cost per year of life gained with gemfibrozil therapy was calculated. Hazard functions were estimated, and the resulting probabilities were used in a Markov model simulation to estimate the effect of gemfibrozil on life expectancy and costs over a simulated lifetime. Sensitivity analyses were used to account for uncertainty. Using the prices of gemfibrozil that were negotiated by the VA, gemfibrozil was cost saving. Using drug prices found outside the VA, a quality-adjusted life-year saved by gemfibrozil therapy cost between $6300 and $17 100. Gemfibrozil reduces major cardiovascular events in male coronary heart disease patients with low levels of HDL-C and low levels of LDL-C and would result in cost saving at annual drug costs of $100 or less in 1998 dollars. Even at the higher drug prices represented by the average wholesale price in the United States, the cost of a life-year saved is well below the threshold that would be deemed cost-effective. To our knowledge, this is the first economic analysis based on clinical trial data to assess the cost

  1. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: an independent risk factor for late adverse cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Barn, Kulpreet; Laftavi, Mark; Pierce, Drew; Ying, Chin; Boden, William E; Pankewycz, Oleh

    2010-06-01

    Long-term kidney transplant graft and patient survival is often limited by cardiovascular (CV) disease. Risk factors for CV disease such as diabetes, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein levels are well documented; however, the impact of low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has not been defined. We performed a retrospective chart review of 324 consecutive renal transplant recipients from 2001 to 2007 to correlate baseline HDL levels with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) defined as a composite of new onset CV illness, cerebral vascular events and peripheral vascular disease. A total of 92 MACEs occurred over a total of 1913 patient years of follow-up. Low HDL cholesterol levels were noted in 58.3% of patients. Compared with those with normal HDL levels, a greater percentage of patients with low HDL levels had post-transplant MACEs (20% vs. 60% respectively) and experienced an increased rate of all cause mortality. Sixty-two percent of all MACEs occurred in patients with low HDL levels. In the low HDL group, the odds ratio for experiencing a MACE was 1.92. Therefore, HDL cholesterol may provide an important new therapeutic target to prevent vascular morbidity and mortality following renal transplantation.

  2. Postsynaptic density levels of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and PSD-95 protein in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Derminio, Dominique Suzanne; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is converging evidence of involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our group recently identified a decrease in total NR1 mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a case-control study of individuals with schizophrenia (n=37/group). The NR1 subunit is critical to NMDA receptor function at the postsynaptic density, a cellular structure rich in the scaffolding protein, PSD-95. The extent to which the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit is altered at the site of action, in the postsynaptic density, is not clear. Aims: To extend our previous results by measuring levels of NR1 and PSD-95 protein in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions of prefrontal cortex from the same individuals in the case-control study noted above. Methods: Postsynaptic density-enriched fractions were isolated from fresh-frozen prefrontal cortex (BA10) and subjected to western blot analysis for NR1 and PSD-95. Results: We found a 20% decrease in NR1 protein (t(66)=−2.874, P=0.006) and a 30% decrease in PSD-95 protein (t(63)=−2.668, P=0.010) in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from individuals with schizophrenia relative to unaffected controls. Conclusions: Individuals with schizophrenia have less NR1 protein, and therefore potentially fewer functional NMDA receptors, at the postsynaptic density. The associated decrease in PSD-95 protein at the postsynaptic density suggests that not only are glutamate receptors compromised in individuals with schizophrenia, but the overall spine architecture and downstream signaling supported by PSD-95 may also be deficient. PMID:27336043

  3. Postsynaptic density levels of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and PSD-95 protein in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Derminio, Dominique Suzanne; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-01-01

    There is converging evidence of involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our group recently identified a decrease in total NR1 mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a case-control study of individuals with schizophrenia (n=37/group). The NR1 subunit is critical to NMDA receptor function at the postsynaptic density, a cellular structure rich in the scaffolding protein, PSD-95. The extent to which the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit is altered at the site of action, in the postsynaptic density, is not clear. To extend our previous results by measuring levels of NR1 and PSD-95 protein in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions of prefrontal cortex from the same individuals in the case-control study noted above. Postsynaptic density-enriched fractions were isolated from fresh-frozen prefrontal cortex (BA10) and subjected to western blot analysis for NR1 and PSD-95. We found a 20% decrease in NR1 protein (t(66)=-2.874, P=0.006) and a 30% decrease in PSD-95 protein (t(63)=-2.668, P=0.010) in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from individuals with schizophrenia relative to unaffected controls. Individuals with schizophrenia have less NR1 protein, and therefore potentially fewer functional NMDA receptors, at the postsynaptic density. The associated decrease in PSD-95 protein at the postsynaptic density suggests that not only are glutamate receptors compromised in individuals with schizophrenia, but the overall spine architecture and downstream signaling supported by PSD-95 may also be deficient.

  4. Metallic three-coordinated carbon networks with eight-membered rings showing high density of states at the Fermi level.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yusuke; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2014-04-21

    Using a density functional method to study the electronic structure of various three-coordinated sp(2) carbon nanostructures, we find that the presence of an eight-membered ring adjoined to two five-membered rings in a unit cell brings about the simultaneous occurrence of flat and dispersive bands, quite similar to the band structure of precious metals. These bands are parts of an anisotropic Dirac cone tilted from an isotropic one. We reveal that in-phase and out-of-phase oscillations in the sign of the phase of the Kohn-Sham orbital contribute to the appearance of the unique band structures.

  5. Population-density and county-level variation in breast cancer mortality rates among white women residing in the Northeastern and Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Susan R; Graubard, Barry I; Schairer, Catherine; McAdams, Mary; Hoover, Robert N; Gail, Mitchell H

    2003-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of variation in risk factor prevalence to population-density and county-level variation in breast cancer mortality rates. In 1995 we collected risk factor information in a telephone interview of a random digit dialed sample of: (1) 1241 women from counties in the upper and lower tertiles of population density as of 1970 in the Northeast and South of the United States (Design A); (2) 2492 women from counties in the upper and lower tertiles of 1970-1979 breast cancer mortality rates in the four populations from Design A, and; (3) 276 women in Nassau County in New York State. We calculated 1990-94 mortality ratios (MRs) adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. The high/low population-density fully-adjusted MRs in women > or = 55 years were 1.01 (95% CI 0.9-1.2) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.8-1.2). The fully-adjusted MRs for high versus low mortality counties ranged from 0.95 (95% CI 0.8-1.2) to 1.29 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) in women > or = 55 years. Differences in risk factor prevalence explained higher rates in high-density versus low-density areas in older women. Modest elevations in the adjusted high/low breast cancer MRs among older women in certain groups of counties may reflect unidentified risk factors but more likely are due to chance.

  6. Correlation of white female breast cancer incidence trends with nitrogen dioxide emission levels and motor vehicle density patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Bina, William F

    2012-02-01

    The long-term trend of female breast cancer incidence rates in the United States and some European countries demonstrates a similar pattern: an increasing trend in the last century followed by a declining trend in this century. The well-known risk factors cannot explain this trend. We compared the breast cancer incidence trends obtained from SEER data with the trend of nitrogen dioxides (NOx) emission and monitoring data as well as motor vehicle density data. The upward followed by downward trend of NOx is similar to the breast cancer incidence trend but with an offset of 20 years earlier. Motor vehicles are the major source of NOx emissions. The geographic distribution of motor vehicles density in 1970 in the observed US counties is positively correlated with breast cancer incidence rates (R(2) 0.8418, the correlation coefficient = 0.9175) in 1980-1995. Because both the time trend and geographic pattern are associated with breast cancer incidence rates, further studies on the relationship between breast cancer and air pollution are needed.

  7. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  8. Nuclear level densities of 64,66 Zn from neutron evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A. P. D.; Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Schiller, A.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Salas-Bacci, A.

    2013-12-26

    Double differential cross sections of neutrons from d+63,65Cu reactions have been measured at deuteron energies of 6 and 7.5 MeV. The cross sections measured at backward angles have been compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model. Three different level density models were tested: the Fermi-gas model, the Gilbert-Cameron model, and the microscopic approach through the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method (HFBM). The calculations using the Gilbert-Cameron model are in best agreement with our experimental data. Level densities of the residual nuclei 64Zn and 66Zn have been obtained from statistical neutron evaporation spectra. In conclusion, the angle-integrated cross sections have been analyzed with the exciton model of nuclear reaction.

  9. Variation in the human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) gene is associated with plasma soluble LOX-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Tina E; Kume, Noriaki; Mitsuoka, Hirokazu; Brown, Michael D; Phares, Dana A; Ferrell, Robert E; Kita, Toru; Hagberg, James M

    2008-09-01

    The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) expressed on vascular cells plays a major role in atherogenesis by internalizing and degrading oxidized low-density lipoprotein. LOX-1 can be cleaved from the cell surface and released as soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1), and elevated sLOX-1 levels may be indicative of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We examined associations between the LOX-1 gene 3'UTR-C/T and G501C polymorphisms and plasma sLOX-1 levels in 97 healthy older men and women. The frequencies for the 3'UTR-T and 501C alleles were 46 and 10%, respectively. Plasma sLOX-1 levels were significantly higher in the 3'UTR CC genotype group compared with both the CT (P=0.02) and TT genotype groups (P=0.002). Plasma sLOX-1 levels were also significantly higher in the 501GC genotype group compared with the GG genotype group (P=0.004). In univariate analyses, sLOX-1 levels were significantly associated with both the 3'UTR-C/T and G501C polymorphisms. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race and body mass index. In conclusion, variation in the LOX-1 gene is associated with plasma sLOX-1 levels in older men and women.

  10. Quantification of airport community noise impact in terms of noise levels, population density, and human subjective response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fraction Impact Method (FIM), developed by the National Research Council (NRC) for assessing the amount and physiological effect of noise, is described. Here, the number of people exposed to a given level of noise is multiplied by a weighting factor that depends on noise level. It is pointed out that the Aircraft-noise Levels and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO), recently developed at NASA Langley Research Center, can perform the NRC fractional impact calculations for given modes of operation at any U.S. airport. The sensitivity of these calculations to errors in estimates of population, noise level, and human subjective response is discussed. It is found that a change in source noise causes a substantially smaller change in contour area than would be predicted simply on the basis of inverse square law considerations. Another finding is that the impact calculations are generally less sensitive to source noise errors than to systematic errors in population or subjective response.

  11. Quantification of airport community noise impact in terms of noise levels, population density, and human subjective response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fraction Impact Method (FIM), developed by the National Research Council (NRC) for assessing the amount and physiological effect of noise, is described. Here, the number of people exposed to a given level of noise is multiplied by a weighting factor that depends on noise level. It is pointed out that the Aircraft-noise Levels and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO), recently developed at NASA Langley Research Center, can perform the NRC fractional impact calculations for given modes of operation at any U.S. airport. The sensitivity of these calculations to errors in estimates of population, noise level, and human subjective response is discussed. It is found that a change in source noise causes a substantially smaller change in contour area than would be predicted simply on the basis of inverse square law considerations. Another finding is that the impact calculations are generally less sensitive to source noise errors than to systematic errors in population or subjective response.

  12. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon; Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals' mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults' immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (<15 years in the U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities.

  13. The use of tree barks and human fingernails for monitoring metal levels in urban areas of different population densities of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of tree barks as a bioindicator of atmospheric pollution in areas of contrasting population densities and to associate the levels of elements found in this bioindicator with those obtained in fingernail samples collected from students living in the same study areas. Tree bark samples were collected from urban areas near highways in regions with high (Area A), intermediate (Area B), and low (Area C) population densities of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and evaluated for chemical elements concentration. Since these areas also differed in traffic density, NO2 was measured by passive sampling. For a comparative purpose, the elements were also determined in fingernail samples collected from students living in the same areas. Accumulated elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool in exploratory data analysis to identify possible sources. We found that Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V, and Zn were at higher concentrations in tree barks in Area A, while Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Sr were at higher levels in students' fingernails of Area A as well. Furthermore, concentrations of elements found in barks were associated with those identified in fingernails collected from students living in the same areas. PCA demonstrated that vehicular traffic explained 66.4 % of the variance in tree bark and 50.8 % of the variance in fingernails. NO2 levels were significantly different among the areas, what is consistent with their respective vehicular flow and population density. In conclusion, we found conformance of elements levels accumulated in barks and fingernails at three monitoring areas with different profiles. The amount of traffic-related elements accumulated appears to be associated with the degree of urbanization and vehicular flow. Overall, data suggests a relationship between fingernails and tree bark as bioindicators of exposure

  14. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2004–2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals’ mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults’ immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (<15 years in the U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities. PMID:26910461

  15. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  16. Multi-Dimensional Quantum Effect Simulation Using a Density-Gradient Model and Script-Level Programming Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, Connor S.; Biegel, Bryan A.; Yu, Zhi-Ping; Ancona, Mario G.; Bude, J.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A density-gradient (DG) model is used to calculate quantum-mechanical corrections to classical carrier transport in MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) inversion/accumulation layers. The model is compared to measured data and to a fully self-consistent coupled Schrodinger and Poisson equation (SCSP) solver. Good agreement is demonstrated for MOS capacitors with gate oxide as thin as 21 A. It is then applied to study carrier distribution in ultra short MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) with surface roughness. This work represents the first implementation of the DG formulation on multidimensional unstructured meshes. It was enabled by a powerful scripting approach which provides an easy-to-use and flexible framework for solving the fourth-order PDEs (Partial Differential Equation) of the DG model.

  17. OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

    2014-05-01

    We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

  18. Effect of a magnetic flux line on the quantum beats in the Henon-Heiles level density.

    PubMed

    Brack, M.; Bhaduri, R. K.; Law, J.; Maier, Ch.; Murthy, M. V. N.

    1995-03-01

    The quantum density of states of the Henon-Heiles potential displays a pronounced beating pattern. This has been explained by the interference of three isolated classical periodic orbits with nearby actions and periods. A singular magnetic flux line, passing through the origin, drastically alters the beats even though the classical Lagrangian equations of motion remain unchanged. Some of the changes can be easily understood in terms of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. However, we find that the standard periodic orbit theory does not reproduce the diffraction-like quantum effects on those classical orbits which intersect the singular flux line, and argue that corrections of relative order variant Planck's over 2pi are necessary to describe these effects. We also discuss the changes in the distribution of nearest-neighbor spacings in the eigenvalue spectrum, brought about by the flux line. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Expression levels of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase genes in breast tissue from healthy women are associated with mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Haakensen, Vilde D; Biong, Margarethe; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Holmen, Marit Muri; Frantzen, Jan Ole; Chen, Ying; Navjord, Dina; Romundstad, Linda; Lüders, Torben; Bukholm, Ida K; Solvang, Hiroko K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Ursin, Giske; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Helland, Aslaug

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD), as assessed from film screen mammograms, is determined by the relative content of adipose, connective and epithelial tissue in the female breast. In epidemiological studies, a high percentage of MD confers a four to six fold risk elevation of developing breast cancer, even after adjustment for other known breast cancer risk factors. However, the biologic correlates of density are little known. Gene expression analysis using whole genome arrays was performed on breast biopsies from 143 women; 79 women with no malignancy (healthy women) and 64 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, both included from mammographic centres. Percent MD was determined using a previously validated, computerized method on scanned mammograms. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was performed to identify genes influencing MD and a linear regression model was used to assess the independent contribution from different variables to MD. SAM-analysis identified 24 genes differentially expressed between samples from breasts with high and low MD. These genes included three uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes and the oestrogen receptor gene (ESR1). These genes were down-regulated in samples with high MD compared to those with low MD. The UGT gene products, which are known to inactivate oestrogen metabolites, were also down-regulated in tumour samples compared to samples from healthy individuals. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the UGT genes associated with the expression of UGT and other genes in their vicinity were identified. Three UGT enzymes were lower expressed both in breast tissue biopsies from healthy women with high MD and in biopsies from newly diagnosed breast cancers. The association was strongest amongst young women and women using hormonal therapy. UGT2B10 predicts MD independently of age, hormone therapy and parity. Our results indicate that down-regulation of UGT genes in women exposed to female sex hormones is

  20. Expression levels of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase genes in breast tissue from healthy women are associated with mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density (MD), as assessed from film screen mammograms, is determined by the relative content of adipose, connective and epithelial tissue in the female breast. In epidemiological studies, a high percentage of MD confers a four to six fold risk elevation of developing breast cancer, even after adjustment for other known breast cancer risk factors. However, the biologic correlates of density are little known. Methods Gene expression analysis using whole genome arrays was performed on breast biopsies from 143 women; 79 women with no malignancy (healthy women) and 64 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, both included from mammographic centres. Percent MD was determined using a previously validated, computerized method on scanned mammograms. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was performed to identify genes influencing MD and a linear regression model was used to assess the independent contribution from different variables to MD. Results SAM-analysis identified 24 genes differentially expressed between samples from breasts with high and low MD. These genes included three uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes and the oestrogen receptor gene (ESR1). These genes were down-regulated in samples with high MD compared to those with low MD. The UGT gene products, which are known to inactivate oestrogen metabolites, were also down-regulated in tumour samples compared to samples from healthy individuals. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the UGT genes associated with the expression of UGT and other genes in their vicinity were identified. Conclusions Three UGT enzymes were lower expressed both in breast tissue biopsies from healthy women with high MD and in biopsies from newly diagnosed breast cancers. The association was strongest amongst young women and women using hormonal therapy. UGT2B10 predicts MD independently of age, hormone therapy and parity. Our results indicate that down-regulation of UGT genes

  1. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-02

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping.

  2. Impact of dyslipidemic components of metabolic syndrome, adiponectin levels, and anti-diabetes medications on malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein levels in statin-treated diabetes patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A residual risk of cardiovascular disease tends to persist despite standard prevention therapy with statins. This may stem partly from increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. However, how oxidized LDL can be further reduced beyond statin therapy in high-risk diabetes patients remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the clinical factors associated with oxidized LDL levels in statin-treated high-risk diabetes patients. Methods This cross-sectional observational study included 210 diabetes patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) who were treated with statins. We determined serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and investigated the factors influencing the MDA-LDL level. Results In univariate analysis, the MDA-LDL level was significantly correlated with LDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001), TG (p < 0.0001), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.017), and adiponectin (p = 0.001) levels but not with age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, or HbA1c levels. Even after adjusting for the LDL cholesterol level, the correlations between the MDA-LDL level and the TG, HDL cholesterol, and adiponectin levels were still significant. Among these significant factors, multivariate analysis revealed that the MDA-LDL level was independently associated with the LDL cholesterol, TG, and HDL cholesterol but not with adiponectin levels. The MDA-LDL level was also significantly associated with the CRP level (p = 0.014) and the remnant lipoprotein cholesterol level (p < 0.0001) independently of the LDL cholesterol level. The number of metabolic syndrome (MS) components was significantly associated with the MDA-LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the use of metformin and α-glucosidase inhibitors was inversely associated with high MDA

  3. A Proposal for the Optimal Management Target for Serum Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Low-Risk Japanese Workers.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Yoshiyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kato, Katsuhito; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012) indicate that the management target for serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) level is 30 mg/dL higher than that for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) level. However, it remains unclear whether this value is applicable to subjects at a low risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to propose the optimal management target for serum non-HDLC level in low-risk Japanese subjects. Among 20,909 subjects who underwent annual medical checkup at a Japanese company in 2008, we analyzed the data of 17,023 subjects (14,352 men, mean age 37.8±8.6 years) in risk category I according to the JAS Guidelines 2012. The correlation between LDLC and non-HDLC levels was examined. A strong correlation was found between LDLC and non-HDLC levels (r=0.95, p<0.001). The following regression equation for calculation of non-HDLC was obtained from linear regression analysis: non-HDLC (mg/dL)=1.09×LDLC (mg/dL)+7.79. According to this equation, the optimal management target for non-HDLC level corresponding to that for LDLC level (160 mg/dL) was 180 mg/dL. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, obesity, habitual alcohol intake, and current smoking were significantly associated with non-HDLC ≥180 mg/dL. The management target for non-HDLC level is recommended to be set at 20 mg/dL higher than that for the LDLC level (i.e., 180 mg/dL) in low-risk Japanese subjects.

  4. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    HDL composition rather than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels seems to be a key determinant of HDL-induced atheroprotection. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, with lifelong exposure to high LDL levels, show a high prevalence of premature coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that HDL of FH patients might have a modified protein composition and investigated the proteomic signature of HDL obtained from FH patients and their unaffected relatives. HDLs were characterized by 2D electrophoresis/MS in 10 families from the SAFEHEART cohort (3 individuals/family: 2 with genetic FH diagnosis and 1 non-FH relative) clinically characterized and treated as per guidelines. FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients. ApoL1 levels were able to predict presentation of an ischemic cardiac event, and apoL1/HDL-C ratio was associated with the survival rate after the event. FH patients who died because of a fatal cardiac event had lower apoL1 and LCAT content in HDL3 an average of 3.5 years before the event than those who survived. Changes in HDL protein composition could affect patients’ prognosis. The proteomic profile of apoL1 is modified in HDLs of high cardiovascular risk patients, and apoL1 plasma levels are significantly lower in serum and in HDL3 of patients that will suffer an adverse cardiac event within 3 years. PMID:27112635

  5. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2016-06-01

    HDL composition rather than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels seems to be a key determinant of HDL-induced atheroprotection. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, with lifelong exposure to high LDL levels, show a high prevalence of premature coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that HDL of FH patients might have a modified protein composition and investigated the proteomic signature of HDL obtained from FH patients and their unaffected relatives. HDLs were characterized by 2D electrophoresis/MS in 10 families from the SAFEHEART cohort (3 individuals/family: 2 with genetic FH diagnosis and 1 non-FH relative) clinically characterized and treated as per guidelines. FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients. ApoL1 levels were able to predict presentation of an ischemic cardiac event, and apoL1/HDL-C ratio was associated with the survival rate after the event. FH patients who died because of a fatal cardiac event had lower apoL1 and LCAT content in HDL3 an average of 3.5 years before the event than those who survived. Changes in HDL protein composition could affect patients' prognosis. The proteomic profile of apoL1 is modified in HDLs of high cardiovascular risk patients, and apoL1 plasma levels are significantly lower in serum and in HDL3 of patients that will suffer an adverse cardiac event within 3 years. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Gas pressure and electron density at the level of the active zone of hollow cathode arc discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minoo, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the longitudinal variations of the partial pressures of electrons, ions, and neutral particles is proposed as a result of an experimental study of pressure variations at the level of the active zone as a function of the various discharge parameters of a hollow cathode arc. The cathode region where the temperature passes through its maximum is called active zone. The proposed model embodies the very important variations which the partial electron and neutral particles pressures undergo at the level of the active zone.

  7. Increase in the oxidised low-density lipoprotein level by smoking and the possible inhibitory effect of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Arase, Satoshi; Minai, Kosuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) level is a marker of oxidative stress and is linked to progression of arteriosclerosis; however, the clinical factors affecting the oxidised LDL level have not been elucidated. We investigate various factors to identify correlation with MDA-LDL level in high-risk patients requiring catheter intervention. Setting Secondary care (cardiology), single-centre study. Participants 600 patients who were admitted to our hospital and underwent cardiac catheterisation. Primary and secondary outcome measures Blood samples were obtained to measure lipid profiles and MDA-LDL level. Results With regard to smoking status, MDA-LDL level was significantly higher in ex-smokers/current smokers compared with non-smokers. Of note, there was no improvement of MDA-LDL level even in patients who had quit smoking. Multiple regression analysis showed that MDA-LDL level was positively correlated with LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level, Brinkman index and male gender. The correlation between smoking status and either MDA-LDL or LDL-C level was investigated in two groups: namely, patients with and patients without statin treatment. In the non-statin group, MDA-LDL level and MDA-LDL/LDL-C ratio were significantly higher in ex-smokers/current smokers compared with non-smokers, while no significant correlation was observed between smoking status and LDL-C level. In contrast, in the statin group, there were no significant correlations between smoking status and any of the cholesterol parameters. Conclusions We found that MDA-LDL level was affected by multiple factors, such as smoking status, LDL-C level and male gender. The present findings give additional evidence that smoking should be prohibited from a MDA-LDL standpoint. Furthermore, statin therapy might have a beneficial effect on the reduction of MDA-LDL level. PMID:25609666

  8. Density matrix solutions for the susceptibilities of a three-level system with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. C.; Lawandy, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    The susceptibilities for a three-level system with arbitrary pump and signal field strengths are derived for arbitrary longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates. The results are of interest in connection with the calculation of the Raman gain in systems where resonance enhancement plays a dominant role.

  9. Effects of flood frequency and duration on the allometry of community-level stem size-density distributions in a floodplain forest.

    PubMed

    De Jager, Nathan R

    2012-09-01

    Consistent with the self-thinning law of plant population ecology, Niklas et al. in 2003 proposed that stem size-density distributions (SDDs) of multispecies forest communities should change in very predictable ways as a function of the effects of past disturbances on average tree size. To date, empirical tests of this hypothesis have not been pursued in floodplain settings. SDDs were constructed using tree stem-size and density data from forest plots positioned along a flood frequency and duration gradient in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain. As flooding (both frequency and duration) increased, several small tree species were eliminated from forest plots and the persistent species increased in their size. Consistent with the predictions of Niklas et al., these changes corresponded with overall decreases in stem density, increases in average stem size, and reductions in both the Y-intercept and slope terms of the community-level SDDs. This study adds to a growing list of examples suggesting that theories related to forest community composition and biomass must account for both the broader effects of disturbances as well as the underlying biochemical processes that regulate plant growth. Further study is needed to fully address the role different disturbance frequencies play in determining plant density, diversity, average size, and associated size\\frequency distributions.

  10. Impurity levels, impurity bands, excited impurity bands, and band tails: The electronic density of states in quantum wells and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, J.; Ghazali, A.; Gold, A.

    1989-04-01

    We have investigated in quantum wells (QW's) and heterostructures (HS's) the modification of the electronic structure near the band edge, which is induced by selective doping. The density of states has been calculated as a function of the relevant parameters, namely, carrier and impurity concentrations (and depletion concentrations for HS's), QW width, and impurity position. Using a multiple-scattering method which includes a finite-range screened potential and impurity concentration to all orders, we have succeeded in obtaining ground-state and excited-state impurity bands (IB's). We observed these bands merging gradually with the lowest conduction subband as the impurity concentration is increased, leading to the formation of a band tail into the energy gap. Other main results obtained for different values of the parameters are the binding energy for a single impurity, the widths and energy shifts of ground- and excited-state IB's, and the contribution of the electron-impurity interaction to the gap shrinkage in the band-tail regime. Our results are compared with experiments and other theories.

  11. The impact of high level basketball competition, calcium intake, menses, and hormone levels in adolescent bone density: a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bagur-Calafat, C; Farrerons-Minguella, J; Girabent-Farrés, M; Serra-Grima, J R

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present work is to establish the positive influence high-impact physical exercise, specifically high-level basketball, on bone acquisition in adolescent female and verify if the long-term exposure to such programs is the major modifiable factor explaining bone acquisition during adolescence. A prospective cohort study comparing the development of bone mass in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius was carried out over a three-year period in two groups of adolescents: elite basketball players and age-matched controls. Baseline hormone levels and bone remodelling were evaluated. Bone mass, hours of physical exercise, diet, unhealthy habits, anthropometry and menstrual cycle were assessed at baseline and yearly. Differences in acquisition of bone mass were assessed by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite basketball training and competition appears to increase bone mass in girls aged 14-18 years. The most pronounced benefits were observed in lumbar spine and proximal femur, sites most directly involved in the exercise and subjected to greatest impact. The intensive basketball training and competition in adolescent females increases bone mass in the lumbar spine and femur, skeletal sites submitted to high impact in this sport. No significant gain in bone mass was observed in age-matched, normally active, controls.

  12. Level Set Methods for Optimization Problems Involving Geometry and Constraints. I. Frequencies of a Two-Density Inhomogeneous Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osher, Stanley J.; Santosa, Fadil

    2001-07-01

    Many problems in engineering design involve optimizing the geometry to maximize a certain design objective. Geometrical constraints are often imposed. In this paper, we use the level set method devised in (Osher and Sethian, J. Comput. Phys.79, 12 (1988)), the variational level set calculus presented in (Zhao et al., J. Comput. Phys.127, 179 (1996)), and the projected gradient method, as in (Rudin et al., Physica D.60, 259 (1992)), to construct a simple numerical approach for problems of this type. We apply this technique to a model problem involving a vibrating system whose resonant frequency or whose spectral gap is to be optimized subject to constraints on geometry. Our numerical results are quite promising. We expect to use this approach to deal with a wide class of optimal design problems in the future.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from California correlate with diet and human population density.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Park, June-Soo; Henry, Bill W; Holden, Arthur; Fogel, Marilyn L; Linthicum, Janet; Chu, Vivian; Hooper, Kim

    2010-07-01

    Peregrine falcons are now considered a conservation success story due in part to the phasing out of harmful contaminants that adversely affected reproduction. Recent studies have shown that peregrine eggs collected from California cities, however, have high levels of the higher-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (SigmaPBDE(183-209)), a class of industrial flame retardants, in comparison to published data for other wildlife. Sources of these high PBDE levels and unusual PBDE profiles are unknown. Here we analyzed the stable carbon (delta(13)C), hydrogen (deltaD), and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope composition of peregrine eggs collected from urban and nonurban habitats. We found that delta(13)C values were significantly higher in urban versus nonurban eggs, suggesting that urban peregrines indirectly receive anthropogenic subsidies via their consumption of prey reliant on corn-based anthropogenic foods. delta(15)N and deltaD values were significantly lower in urban versus nonurban eggs, reflecting differences in dietary diversity and food/water sources available to peregrines in each habitat. These patterns suggest a link between an anthropogenic diet and high levels of SigmaPBDE(183-209) in California peregrines, and identify anthropogenic food as a potentially important PBDE exposure pathway for urban wildlife. If diet is an important PBDE exposure pathway for peregrines, continued high body burdens of SigmaPBDE(183-209) may be a potential risk to ongoing peregrine conservation efforts in California.

  14. Fenofibrate Increases Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Production Despite Reducing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J.; Maas, Annemarie C. E.; van der Hoorn, José W. A.; van Erk, Marjan J.; van Klinken, Jan B.; Havekes, Louis M.; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M. G.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (−38%) and TG (−60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[3H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (−68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [3H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver. PMID:20501652

  15. Annexin A2 is a C-terminal PCSK9-binding protein that regulates endogenous low density lipoprotein receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gaétan; Poirier, Steve; Seidah, Nabil G

    2008-11-14

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9), which promotes degradation of the hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), is now recognized as a major player in plasma cholesterol metabolism. Several gain-of-function mutations in PCSK9 cause hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis, and thus, inhibition of PCSK9-induced degradation of the LDLR may be used to treat this deadly disease. Herein, we discovered an endogenous PCSK9 binding partner by Far Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrated that PCSK9 binds to a approximately 33-kDa protein identified as annexin A2 (AnxA2) but not to the closely related annexin A1. Furthermore, our functional LDLR assays and small hairpin RNA studies show that AnxA2 and the AnxA2.p11 complex could prevent PCSK9-directed LDLR degradation in HuH7, HepG2, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed that PCSK9 and AnxA2 co-localize at the cell surface, indicating a possible competition with the LDLR. Structure-function analyses demonstrated that the C-terminal cysteine-histidine-rich domain of PCSK9 interacts specifically with the N-terminal repeat R1 of AnxA2. Mutational analysis of this 70-amino acid-long repeat indicated that the RRTKK81 sequence of AnxA2 is implicated in this binding because its mutation to AATAA81 prevents its interaction with PCSK9. To our knowledge, this work constitutes the first to show that PCSK9 activity on LDLR can be regulated by an endogenous inhibitor. The identification of the minimal inhibitory sequence of AnxA2 should pave the way toward the development of PCSK9 inhibitory lead molecules for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice.

    PubMed

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Maas, Annemarie C E; van der Hoorn, José W A; van Erk, Marjan J; van Klinken, Jan B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M G; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2010-08-13

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.

  17. Gardenia oil increases estradiol levels and bone material density by a mechanism associated with upregulation of COX-2 expression in an ovariectomized rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoli; Zhang, Yongli; Shi, Bingyin; Chen, Yahui; Zhang, Zhengxiang; Liu, Tao

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of gardenia oil on bone density and bone biomechanics in ovariectomized female rats. An ovariectomized rat model was established and the rats were administered various doses of gardenia oil. Rats administered diethylstilbestrol or saline served as the positive and the untreated controls, respectively. All rats received the same surgery, with the exception of the ovariectomy in the sham group. The levels of serum 17β-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium, and the bone material density (BMD), maximum stress and maximum strain were determined. The expression of COX-2 was also determined by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gardenia oil increased the serum levels of 17β-estradiol, the BMD, and the maximum stress and maximum strain of bones. The levels of COX-2 protein and COX-2 mRNA were significantly increased in the gardenia oil-treated rats. In conclusion, gardenia oil increases estradiol levels and BMD in an ovariectomized rat model. The effects of gardenia oil are associated with upregulation of the expression of COX-2.

  18. Gardenia oil increases estradiol levels and bone material density by a mechanism associated with upregulation of COX-2 expression in an ovariectomized rat model

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; ZHANG, YONGLI; SHI, BINGYIN; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG; LIU, TAO

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of gardenia oil on bone density and bone biomechanics in ovariectomized female rats. An ovariectomized rat model was established and the rats were administered various doses of gardenia oil. Rats administered diethylstilbestrol or saline served as the positive and the untreated controls, respectively. All rats received the same surgery, with the exception of the ovariectomy in the sham group. The levels of serum 17β-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium, and the bone material density (BMD), maximum stress and maximum strain were determined. The expression of COX-2 was also determined by immunoblotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gardenia oil increased the serum levels of 17β-estradiol, the BMD, and the maximum stress and maximum strain of bones. The levels of COX-2 protein and COX-2 mRNA were significantly increased in the gardenia oil-treated rats. In conclusion, gardenia oil increases estradiol levels and BMD in an ovariectomized rat model. The effects of gardenia oil are associated with upregulation of the expression of COX-2. PMID:24137227

  19. Effect of extended-release niacin on serum lipids and on endothelial function in adults with sickle cell anemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Scoffone, Heather M; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P; Kato, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have low apoA-I and endothelial dysfunction, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven patients with SCD with levels of HDL-C <39 mg/dl or apoA-I <99 mg/dl were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500-mg increments to a maximum of 1,500 mg/day, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C level after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C level compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1 ± 7.7 vs 0.9 ± 3.8 mg/dl, 1-tailed p = 0.07), associated with significantly greater improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C levels (1.24 vs 1.95, p = 0.003) and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I levels (0.46 vs 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in 3 independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C levels achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C.

  20. Primary Low Level of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and Death: Results From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Haitham M; Miller, Michael; Nasir, Khurram; McEvoy, John W; Herrington, David; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    Prior studies observing associations between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have often been conducted among persons with metabolic or other lipid abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the association between primary low HDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and all-cause death after adjustment for confounders in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants who were free of clinical CVD were recruited from 6 US research centers from 2000 to 2002 and followed for a median duration of 10.2 years. We defined "primary low HDL cholesterol" as HDL cholesterol level <40 mg/dL (men) or <50 mg/dL (women), triglyceride level <100 mg/dL, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <100 mg/dL (n = 158). We defined an "optimal" lipid profile as HDL cholesterol ≥40 mg/dL (men) or ≥50 mg/dL (women) and triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL (n = 780). For participants with primary low HDL cholesterol versus those with an optimal lipid profile, adjusted hazard ratios for total CHD, CVD, and death were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 4.21; P = 0.011), 1.93 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; P = 0.020), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.84; P = 0.69), respectively. Participants with primary low HDL cholesterol had higher risks of CHD and CVD than participants with optimal lipid profiles but no difference in survival after a median 10.2 years of follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Methods Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Results Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). Conclusions HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin. PMID:24161017

  2. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Ai, Masumi; Iwamoto, Asami; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Sei; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-10-26

    Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin.

  3. Accurate dipole polarizabilities for water clusters n=2-12 at the coupled-cluster level of theory and benchmarking of various density functionals.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.; Govind, N.; Kowalski, K.; Autschbach, J.; Xantheas, S.; PNNL; Univ. of Buffalo

    2009-12-07

    The static dipole polarizabilities of water clusters (2 {le} N {le} 12) are determined at the coupled-cluster level of theory (CCSD). For the dipole polarizability of the water monomer it was determined that the role of the basis set is more important than that of electron correlation and that the basis set augmentation converges with two sets of diffuse functions. The CCSD results are used to benchmark a variety of density functionals while the performance of several families of basis sets (Dunning, Pople, and Sadlej) in producing accurate values for the polarizabilities was also examined. The Sadlej family of basis sets was found to produce accurate results when compared to the ones obtained with the much larger Dunning basis sets. It was furthermore determined that the PBE0 density functional with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set produces overall remarkably accurate polarizabilities at a moderate computational cost.

  4. Application of food waste based diets in polyculture of low trophic level fish: effects on fish growth, water quality and plankton density.

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Yin; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai Ming; Man, Yu Bon; Liu, Yihui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-08-30

    Food waste was collected from local hotels and fish feed pellets were produced for a 6 months long field feeding trial. Three types of fish feed pellets (control diet: Jinfeng® 613 formulated feed, contains mainly fish meal, plant product and fish oil; Diet A: food waste based diet without meat and 53% cereal; Diet B: food waste based diet with 25% meat and 28% cereal) were used in polyculture fish ponds to investigate the growth of fish (grass carp, bighead and mud carp), changes in water quality and plankton density. No significant differences in the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds of water body were observed between 3 fish ponds after the half-year feeding trial, while pond receiving Diet A had the highest density of plankton. The food waste combination of Diet B seems to be a better formulation in terms of the overall performance on fish growth.

  5. Accurate dipole polarizabilities for water clusters n =2-12 at the coupled-cluster level of theory and benchmarking of various density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Jeff R.; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2009-12-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities of water clusters (2≤N≤12) are determined at the coupled-cluster level of theory (CCSD). For the dipole polarizability of the water monomer it was determined that the role of the basis set is more important than that of electron correlation and that the basis set augmentation converges with two sets of diffuse functions. The CCSD results are used to benchmark a variety of density functionals while the performance of several families of basis sets (Dunning, Pople, and Sadlej) in producing accurate values for the polarizabilities was also examined. The Sadlej family of basis sets was found to produce accurate results when compared to the ones obtained with the much larger Dunning basis sets. It was furthermore determined that the PBE0 density functional with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set produces overall remarkably accurate polarizabilities at a moderate computational cost.

  6. [Prevalence of a high non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in children aged 9-11 years in Mianyang Science City in Sichuan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi-Bin; Yu, Dan; Su, Qin; Wang, Hui-Min; Yin, Hua; Zhou, Zhao-Meng; He, Na; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level and the prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level in children aged 9-11 years in the Mianyang Science City area in Sichuan Province, China. From September to October, 2015, a field investigation was performed for the students from three primary schools in the Mianyang Science City area by cluster sampling. Fasting venous blood was collected for blood lipid tests. The cut-off value of serum non-HDL-C level and prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level in children aged 9-11 years in this area were calculated, as well as the prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level in obese children. In the children aged 9-11 years in this area, the cut-off value of non-HDL-C level was 3.67 mmol/L, and the prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level was 3.7% (22/589). Compared with the non-obese children, the obese children had a significantly higher serum non-HDL-C level (P<0.01) and a significantly higher prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level (10.0% vs 2.9%; P<0.01). The cut-off value of serum non-HDL-C level in children aged 9-11 years in the Mianyang Science City area is established. Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence rate of a high non-HDL-C level in children aged 9-11 years.

  7. The Effect of Residing Altitude on Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Pilot Study From the Omani Arab Population.

    PubMed

    Al Riyami, Nafila B; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Waili, Khalid; Rizvi, Syed G; Al-Yahyaee, Said; Hassan, Mohammed O; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Bayoumi, Riad A

    2015-07-01

    Lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease and higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been observed in populations residing at high altitude. However, this effect has not been investigated in Arab populations, which exhibit considerable genetic homogeneity. We assessed the relationship between residing altitude and HDL-C in 2 genetically similar Omani Arab populations residing at different altitudes. The association between the levels of HDL-C and other metabolic parameters was also investigated. The levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in the high-altitude group compared with the low-altitude group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that altitude was the most significant factor affecting HDL-C, followed by gender, serum triglycerides, and finally the 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose. This finding is consistent with previously published studies from other populations and should be taken into consideration when comparing cardiovascular risk factors in populations residing at different altitudes.

  8. Probing the Fermi energy level and the density of states distribution in PbTe nanocrystal (quantum dot) solids by temperature-dependent thermopower measurements.

    PubMed

    Ko, Dong-Kyun; Murray, Christopher B

    2011-06-28

    The position of the Fermi energy level (E(F)) with respect to the energy level where the transport process occurs (transport energy level, E(T)) is an important parameter that determines the electrical properties of semiconductors. However, little attention has been devoted to investigating the position of E(F) in semiconductor nanocrystal solids, both theoretically and experimentally. In this study, we perform temperature-dependent thermopower measurements on PbTe nanocrystal solids to directly probe E(F) - E(T). We observe that as the size of the nanocrystals reduces, E(F) - E(T) increases primarily due to the widening of density of state (DOS) gap. Furthermore, by modifying the monodispersity of nanocrystals, we observe an increase in thermopower as the distribution of energy states sharpens. This work promotes a deeper understanding of thermal occupation of energy states as well as electronic transport processes in semiconductor nanocrystal solid systems.

  9. Both rare and common variants in PCSK9 influence plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Wei; North, Kari E; Tin, Adrienne; Haack, Karin; Franceschini, Nora; Saroja Voruganti, V; Laston, Sandy; Zhang, Ying; Best, Lyle G; MacCluer, Jean W; Beaty, Terri H; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kao, W H Linda; Howard, Barbara V

    2015-02-01

    Elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene have been associated not only with plasma LDL-C concentration, but also with ischemic heart disease. Little is known about the genetic architecture of PCSK9 and its influence on LDL-C in American Indians. We aimed to investigate the genetic architecture in the 1p32 region encompassing PCSK9 and its influence on LDL-C in American Indians. The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) is a family-based genetic study. Two thousand four hundred fifty eight American Indians from Arizona, Oklahoma, North Dakota, and South Dakota, who were genotyped by Illumina MetaboChip. We genotyped 486 SNPs in a 3.9 Mb region at chromosome 1p32 encompassing PCSK9 in 2458 American Indians. We examined the association between these SNPs and LDL-C. For common variants (MAF ≥ 1%), meta-analysis across the three geographic regions showed common variants in PCSK9 were significantly associated with higher LDL-C. The most significant SNP rs12067569 (MAF = 1.7 %, β = 16.9 ± 3.7, P = 5.9 × 10(-6)) was in complete LD (r(2) = 1) with a nearby missense SNP, rs505151 (E670G) (β = 15.0 ± 3.6, P = 3.6 × 10(-5)). For rare variants (MAF < 1%), rs11591147 (R46L, MAF = 0.9%) was associated with lower LDL-C (β = - 31.1 ± 7.1, P = 1.4 × 10(-5)). The mean (SD) of LDL-C was 76.9 (7.8) and 107.4 (1.0) mg/dL for those with and without the R46L mutation, respectively. One person who was homozygous for R46L had LDL-C levels of 11 mg/dL. In one family, 6 out of 8 members carrying the R46L mutation had LDL-C levels below the lower 10% percentile of LDL-C among all study participants. Both rare and common variants in PCSK9 influence plasma LDL-C levels in American Indians. Follow-up studies may disclose the influence of these mutations on the risk of CVD and responses to cholesterol-lowering medications.

  10. Both Rare and Common Variants in PCSK9 Influence Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    North, Kari E.; Tin, Adrienne; Haack, Karin; Franceschini, Nora; Saroja Voruganti, V.; Laston, Sandy; Zhang, Ying; Best, Lyle G.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Beaty, Terri H.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Howard, Barbara V.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene have been associated not only with plasma LDL-C concentration, but also with ischemic heart disease. Little is known about the genetic architecture of PCSK9 and its influence on LDL-C in American Indians. Objective: We aimed to investigate the genetic architecture in the 1p32 region encompassing PCSK9 and its influence on LDL-C in American Indians. Design: The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) is a family-based genetic study. Participants: Two thousand four hundred fifty eight American Indians from Arizona, Oklahoma, North Dakota, and South Dakota, who were genotyped by Illumina MetaboChip. Results: We genotyped 486 SNPs in a 3.9 Mb region at chromosome 1p32 encompassing PCSK9 in 2458 American Indians. We examined the association between these SNPs and LDL-C. For common variants (MAF ≥ 1%), meta-analysis across the three geographic regions showed common variants in PCSK9 were significantly associated with higher LDL-C. The most significant SNP rs12067569 (MAF = 1.7 %, β = 16.9 ± 3.7, P = 5.9 × 10−6) was in complete LD (r2 = 1) with a nearby missense SNP, rs505151 (E670G) (β = 15.0 ± 3.6, P = 3.6 × 10−5). For rare variants (MAF < 1%), rs11591147 (R46L, MAF = 0.9%) was associated with lower LDL-C (β = − 31.1 ± 7.1, P = 1.4 × 10−5). The mean (SD) of LDL-C was 76.9 (7.8) and 107.4 (1.0) mg/dL for those with and without the R46L mutation, respectively. One person who was homozygous for R46L had LDL-C levels of 11 mg/dL. In one family, 6 out of 8 members carrying the R46L mutation had LDL-C levels below the lower 10% percentile of LDL-C among all study participants. Conclusions: Both rare and common variants in PCSK9 influence plasma LDL-C levels in American Indians. Follow-up studies may disclose the influence of these mutations on the risk of CVD and responses

  11. Changes in apolipoprotein B and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in gingival crevicular fluids as a result of periodontal tissue conditions.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, M; Kato, R; Moriya, Y; Noguchi, E; Koide, Y; Inoue, S; Itabe, H; Yamamoto, M

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection that can lead to tooth loss. Gingival crevicular fluid can be collected easily and noninvasively. We previously discovered the presence of apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main constituent of low-density lipoprotein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the gingival crevicular fluid of healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated whether periodontal conditions affect the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid. The study population comprised 11 patients with chronic periodontitis. A pair of gingival crevicular fluid samples was collected from each patient at a healthy site and at a site with periodontitis (baseline samples). Thereafter, gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the same patients again at 4 and 8 wk after scaling and root planing (SRP). The levels of apoB, oxLDL, protein and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid, in addition to gingival crevicular fluid volume, were measured. At baseline, the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid were higher at the sites with periodontitis than at the healthy sites. The levels of apoB and oxLDL at periodontal sites decreased after SRP. The level of oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid correlated well with the probing pocket depth. The oxLDL : apoB ratio in gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher than that in plasma. The levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid change according to the periodontal tissue conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors are overexpressed in the foci of deep bowel endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Luciano; Maranhão, Raul C; Tavares, Elaine R; Carvalho, Priscila O; Abrão, Maurício S; Podgaec, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases. This is the first study we know of to investigate lipoprotein receptors expression in deep endometriosis with bowel involvement. During 2014-2015, an exploratory case-control study was conducted with 39 patients, including 20 women with a histological diagnosis of deep endometriosis compromising the bowel and 19 women without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. Peripheral blood samples were collected on the day of surgery for lipid profile analysis, and samples of endometrial tissue and of bowel endometriotic lesions were also collected. The tissue samples were sent for histopathological analysis and for LDL-R and LRP-1 gene expression screening using quantitative real-time PCR. Patients with deep endometriosis had lower LDL-cholesterol than patients without the disease (119 ± 23 versus 156 ± 35; P = 0.001). Gene expression analysis of LDL receptors revealed that LDL-R was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions when compared to the endometrium of the same patient but not more than in the endometrium of women without endometriosis (0.027 ± 0.022 versus 0.012 ± 0.009 versus 0.019 ± 0.01, respectively; P < 0.001). LRP-1 was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions, both when compared with the endometrium of the same patient and when compared with the endometrium of patients without the disease (0.307 ± 0.207 versus 0.089 ± 0.076 and versus 0.126 ± 0.072, respectively; P < 0.001). The study also showed that LDL-R gene expression in the endometrium of women with endometriosis was higher during the

  13. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  14. Association between blood cadmium level and bone mineral density reduction modified by renal function in young and middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-10-01

    The association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been well studied in young and middle-aged men. This study examined the relationship between the level of blood Cd (BCd) and BMD in a young to middle-aged representative male population while considering renal function. Using data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009, 1275 adult men aged 20-64 years were analyzed. BCd was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and renal function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with CKD-EPI formula. The risk of lower bone density was increased according to the increase in BCd levels after adjusting for eGFR and covariates, in which a significant interaction between BCd and eGFR existed. Significant negative associations between BCd and BMD were found: beta (p-value) were -0.03 (0.02), -0.04 (0.004) and -0.03 (0.04) in total femur, lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively, which were limited to the people with eGFR≤lower 25%. Although, a causal relationship could not be determined because of a cross-sectional design in the present study, the results suggest low level Cd toxicity to bone via low eGFR and that measures to reduce environmental Cd exposure may be helpful to prevent bone loss in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Turgay; Inci, Hakan; Sengul, Ahmet Y; Sogut, Bunyamin; Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m(2)/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (p<0.05). Significantly D × S was observed in LW, CP and PG. The weight of carcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m(2)/bird in turkey fattening.

  16. Development of an excited-state calculation method for large systems using dynamical polarizability: A divide-and-conquer approach at the time-dependent density functional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we developed an excited-state calculation method for large systems using dynamical polarizabilities at the time-dependent density functional theory level. Three equivalent theories, namely, coupled-perturbed self-consistent field (CPSCF), random phase approximation (RPA), and Green function (GF), were extended to linear-scaling methods using the divide-and-conquer (DC) technique. The implementations of the standard and DC-based CPSCF, RPA, and GF methods are described. Numerical applications of these methods to polyene chains, single-wall carbon nanotubes, and water clusters confirmed the accuracy and efficiency of the DC-based methods, especially DC-GF.

  17. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  18. ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases NOP receptor density and mRNA levels in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Cannarsa, Rosalia; Carretta, Donatella; Lattanzio, Francesca; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2012-02-01

    Several studies demonstrated a cross-talk between the opioid and cannabinoid system. The NOP receptor and its endogenous ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ represent an opioid-related functional entity that mediates some non-classical opioid effects. The relationship between cannabinoid and nociceptin/NOP system is yet poorly explored. In this study, we used the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to investigate the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) on nociceptin/NOP system. Results revealed that the exposure to ∆(9)-THC (100, 150, and 200 nM) for 24 h produces a dose-dependent NOP receptor B (max) down-regulation. Moreover, ∆(9)-THC caused a dose-dependent decrease in NOP mRNA levels. The selective cannabinoid receptor CB1 antagonist AM251 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide) reduces both effects, suggesting that ∆(9)-THC activation of CB1 receptor is involved in the observed effects. These data show evidence of a cross-talk between NOP and CB1 receptors, thus suggesting a possible interplay between cannabinoid and nociceptin/NOP system.

  19. Starvation and diet composition affect mRNA levels of the high density-lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2005-10-01

    A high density lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) is synthesized in the hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and secreted to the hemolymph. Recently, we reported the HDL-BGBP full length cDNA sequence and found that the predicted polypeptide is larger than the mature protein and also, that it contains a long 5'- and 3'-UTRs that may be involved in transcript level regulation. To test whether starvation and feeding may play a role in regulating HDL-BGBP mRNA levels, two different stimuli were evaluated: starvation and composition of diets. After 24 h, the steady state HDL-BGBP mRNA levels of starved shrimp decreased, suggesting that synthesis of the lipoprotein is less required in the absence of food. When shrimp were fed with diets containing different concentrations of protein and lipids, changes in HDL-BGBP mRNA levels were also detected. Shrimp fed the lower concentration of protein and lipid feed accumulated higher levels of HDL-BGBP mRNA. These results indicate that feeding influences HDL-BGBP transcript levels in the hepatopancreas.

  20. Association of Higher Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Elderly Individuals and Lower Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Christiane; Tang, Ming-Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To reexamine the association of lipid levels with Alzheimer disease (AD) using Cox proportional hazards models. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Manhattan, New York. Participants One thousand one hundred thirty elderly individuals free of cognitive impairment at baseline. Main Outcome Measure High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Results Higher levels of HDL-C (>55 mg/dL) were associated with a decreased risk of both probable and possible AD and probable AD compared with lower HDL-C levels (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.9; P=.03 and hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.9; P=.03). In addition, higher levels of total and non–HDL-C were associated with a decreased risk of AD in analyses adjusting for age, sex, education, ethnic group, and APOEe4 genotype. Conclusion High HDL-C levels in elderly individuals may be associated with a decreased risk of AD. PMID:21149810

  1. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increase with age, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in a rural Uygur population in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Jun; Kang, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the distribution of the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a Uygur case-control study on hypertension. A case-control (339 hypertensive cases, 272 normotensive controls) study on hypertension was conducted, and obesity, hypertension, lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose were analyzed. The demographic data, history of disease and lifestyles, including diet, smoking and salt intake, were recorded and three measurements of blood pressure were obtained by trained observers. The fasting serum lipid profiles and glucose were determined. The HDLC levels of hypertensive participants were significantly higher than normotensive participants after adjustment for age and gender (1.145 versus 1.117 mmol/l, P = 0.001, power = 0.867). After adjustment for related variables, the HDLC levels slightly increased with age, body mass index and fasting glucose (all P = 0.001, power > 0.80) in normotensive participants and only increased with age among hypertensive participants (P = 0.0001, power = 0.971). The serum HDLC levels in Uygur normotensive participants increased with age, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting glucose levels. This was inconsistent with the previous studies and the reason remained unclear. Further study is needed to elucidate both the environmental and genetic determinants of the novel distribution of the HDLC levels and their association with coronary heart disease in the Uygur population.

  2. The effect of circulating nitric oxide level on axial bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women with rheumatoid arthritis: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gunsah; Guler, Hayal; Sezgin, Melek; Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Polat, Gurbuz

    2006-07-01

    The aim is to investigate the differences in the circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, healthy controls and osteoporotic (OP) patients. We also examined whether the circulating NO levels may be correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients. Forty-five patients with RA, 30 healthy women and 30 osteoporotic patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic. All the subjects were female and postmenopausal. Serum NO levels were measured (Nitrite/Nitrate, calorimetric method 1746081, Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and BMD was measured at the spine and hip using dual energy X-Ray absorbtiometry (DEXA, Norland XR-46). Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Circulating NO levels were significantly higher in RA patients than other groups. Moreover, the RA group showed significantly higher BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions compared to osteoporotic patients. However, the RA group showed significantly lower BMD at all sites than the controls. There was no correlation between circulating NO levels and BMD in all groups. We suggest that, unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis, inflammation induced osteoporosis is associated with RA is characterised by relatively preserved bone mass at the axial bone regions, and circulating NO levels as a parameter or determinant of inflammation are not correlated with axial BMD in RA patients.

  3. Quantifying the intrinsic surface charge density and charge-transfer resistance of the graphene-solution interface through bias-free low-level charge measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jinglei; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2016-07-01

    Liquid-based bio-applications of graphene require a quantitative understanding of the graphene-liquid interface, with the surface charge density of adsorbed ions, the interfacial charge transfer resistance, and the interfacial charge noise being of particular importance. We quantified these properties through measurements of the zero-bias Faradaic charge-transfer between graphene electrodes and aqueous solutions of varying ionic strength using a reproducible, low-noise, minimally perturbative charge measurement technique. The measurements indicated that the adsorbed ions had a negative surface charge density of approximately -32.8 mC m-2 and that the specific charge transfer resistance was 6.5 ± 0.3 MΩ cm2. The normalized current noise power spectral density for all ionic concentrations tested collapsed onto a 1/fα characteristic with α = 1.1 ± 0.2. All the results are in excellent agreement with predictions of the theory for the graphene-solution interface. This minimally perturbative method for monitoring charge-transfer at the sub-pC scale exhibits low noise and ultra-low power consumption (˜fW), making it suitable for use in low-level bioelectronics in liquid environments.

  4. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    PubMed

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, p<0.001; rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH) -p<0.001 and autonomy index (AI) -p=0.007, with more favorable results observed in the AAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  5. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m(2) ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m(2) ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m(2) floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p < 0.05) by good management (SD difference: dry litter, 6.65% vs. wet litter, 13.23%; 42 days), which made it advantageous (p < 0.01) for footpad (SD difference: dry litter, 0.118 vs. wet litter, 0.312; weekly average value) and hock health (SD difference: dry litter, 0.090 vs. wet litter, 0.303; weekly average value) of HSD birds, but not (p > 0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in NSD. The similar response of HSD birds to supplemental biotin was observed (p < 0.05) for lesion scores of footpad and hock in particularly finishing chickens, and a significant interaction (p < 0.01) among stocking density, biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Chronic Methamphetamine Self-Administration Dysregulates Oxytocin Plasma Levels and Oxytocin Receptor Fibre Density in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Subthalamic Nucleus of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Baracz, S J; Parker, L M; Suraev, A S; Everett, N A; Goodchild, A K; McGregor, I S; Cornish, J L

    2016-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin attenuates reward and abuse for the psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH). Recent findings have implicated the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and subthalamic nucleus (STh) in oxytocin modulation of acute METH reward and relapse to METH-seeking behaviour. Surprisingly, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) is only modestly involved in both regions in oxytocin attenuation of METH-primed reinstatement. Coupled with the limited investigation of the role of the OTR in psychostimulant-induced behaviours, we primarily investigated whether there are cellular changes to the OTR in the NAc core and STh, as well as changes to oxytocin plasma levels, after chronic METH i.v. self-administration (IVSA) and after extinction of drug-taking. An additional aim was to examine whether changes to central corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels were also apparent because of the interaction of oxytocin with stress-regulatory mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to lever press for i.v. METH (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule or received yoked saline infusions during 2-h sessions for 20 days. An additional cohort of rats underwent behavioural extinction for 15 days after METH IVSA. Subsequent to the last day of IVSA or extinction, blood plasma was collected for enzyme immunoassay, and immunofluorescence was conducted on NAc core and STh coronal sections. Rats that self-administered METH had higher oxytocin plasma levels, and decreased OTR-immunoreactive (-IR) fibres in the NAc core than yoked controls. In animals that self-administered METH and underwent extinction, oxytocin plasma levels remained elevated, OTR-IR fibre density increased in the STh, and a trend towards normalisation of OTR-IR fibre density was evident in the NAc core. CRF-IR fibre density in both brain regions and corticosterone plasma levels did not change across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that oxytocin systems, both centrally

  7. Very low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in four sibs of a family with non-neuropathic Niemann-Pick disease and sea-blue histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Viana, M B; Giugliani, R; Leite, V H; Barth, M L; Lekhwani, C; Slade, C M; Fensom, A

    1990-01-01

    Very low serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol ranging from 8.6 to 13.9 mg/dl were detected in four out of 12 sibs of a Brazilian kindred with the non-neuropathic form of Niemann-Pick disease. Hepatosplenomegaly, interstitial infiltration of the lungs, absence of neurological signs, sea-blue histiocytes in the bone marrow and liver, and high values for serum acid phosphatase (18 to 32 U/l) were common to all affected children. Leucocyte acid sphingomyelinase activity ranged from 3.6 to 6.5% of mean control values, and fibroblast activity from 9 to 13% of mean controls. The parents had low-normal levels. The relationship between these findings is unclear and deserves further investigation. Images PMID:2120445

  8. Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm(2)), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm(2)). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm(2)), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm(2)). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine.

  9. Mendelian randomization analysis in three Japanese populations supports a causal role of alcohol consumption in lowering low-density lipid cholesterol levels and particle numbers.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Sumi, Masaki; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2016-11-01

    While alcohol consumption is known to increase plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, its relationship with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels is unclear. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a rate-controlling enzyme in alcohol metabolism, but a large number of Japanese people have the inactive allele. Here, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using the ALDH2 genotype to clarify a causal role of alcohol on circulating cholesterol levels and lipoprotein particle numbers. This study was conducted in three independent general Japanese populations (men, n = 2289; women, n = 1940; mean age 63.3 ± 11.2 years). Alcohol consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Lipoprotein particle numbers were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol consumption increased linearly in proportion to the number of subjects carrying the enzymatically active *1 allele in men (p < 0.001). The *1 allele was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol level (adjusted mean ± standard error, *1*1: 60 ± 0.5, *1*2: 56 ± 0.6, *2*2: 55 ± 1.3 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with LDL cholesterol level (116 ± 0.9, 124 ± 1.1, 130 ± 2.6 mg/dl, p < 0.001). The *1 allele was also positively associated with HDL particle numbers (per-allele: 2.60 ± 0.32 μmol/l, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with LDL particle numbers (-67.8 ± 19.6 nmol/l, p = 0.001). Additional Mendelian randomization analysis failed to clarify the involvement of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in alcohol-related changes in lipoprotein cholesterol levels. No significant association was observed in women, presumably due to their small amount of alcohol intake. Alcohol consumption has a causal role in not only increasing HDL cholesterol levels but also decreasing LDL cholesterol levels and particle numbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Statins Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease Patients with Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Less Than 100 mg/dL

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanori; Kondo, Fumiaki; Hamada, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Nanae; Furuno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of statins prevents the progression of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Methods We reviewed data obtained from IHD patients who underwent first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients underwent follow-up coronary angiography (re-CAG) after PCI. However, only patients with LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL at PCI were included in this study. Ultimately, 92 patients were enrolled. All patients were divided into two groups: 1) patients who were treated with statins (n = 69), and 2) patients who were not treated with statins (n = 23). Results The two groups had similar LDL-C levels at PCI. At re-CAG, the ratio of patients who underwent PCI for de novo lesion in the statin group was lower than that in the non-statin group (12% vs. 48%) (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, statin usage and LDL-C level at PCI were independent predictors of the ratio of patients undergoing PCI for de novo lesion. Conclusions Statins therapy for patients whose LDL-C levels are less than 100 mg/dL has a beneficial effect on secondary prevention of IHD. PMID:27713605

  11. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-09-01

    There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  12. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  13. A multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring micro-structured fiber with ultra-high-density and low-level crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Guiyao; Zhou, Gai; Xu, Minnan; Hou, Zhiyun; Xia, Changming; Yuan, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring micro-structured fiber (MOMRMF) is proposed for the first time. This compact MOMRMF is presented with 19 rings, each ring supporting 36 modes (34 of them are OAM ones i.e., 684 channels in total) over the whole C wavelength band (1520-1580 nm). Due to the large refractive index difference between silica and air, the effective refractive index (neff) differences between the adjacent eigenmodes are all larger than 10-3, which is practically impossible to gain in other traditional high-density OAM fibers fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) method. Compared with the trench-assisted multi-OAM multi-ring fiber (TA-MOMRF), the lower-level inter-ring crosstalk in the designed MOMRMF also can be achieved by the air hole-assisted. It is believed that both the high-density and low-level crosstalk make such a fiber of great potential in the space-division multiplexing (SDM) system.

  14. Nuclear-level densities in the 49V and 57Co nuclei on the basis of evaporated-neutron spectra in ( p, n) and ( d, n) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, B. V.; Titarenko, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    The spectra of neutrons from the reactions 49Ti( p, n)49V and 57Fe ( p, n)57Co were measured in the range of proton energies between 8 and 11 MeV along with their counterparts from the reactions 48Ti( d, n)49V and 56Fe ( d, n)57Co at the deuteron energies of 2.7 and 3.8 MeV. These measurements were conducted with the aid of a time-of-flight fast-neutron spectrometer on the basis of the EGP-15 pulsed tandem accelerator of the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE, Obninsk). An analysis of measured data was performed within the statistical equilibrium and preequilibrium models of nuclear reactions. The respective calculations based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism of statistical theory were carried out with nuclear-level densities given by the generalized superfluid model of the nucleus, the backshifted Fermi-gas model, and the Gilbert-Cameron composite formula. The nuclear-level densities of 49V and 57Co and their energy dependences were determined. The results were discussed together with available experimental data and data recommended by model systematics.

  15. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  16. Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Netanya G.; Zhang, Xinyan; Bosch, Ronald J.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Choi, Andrew I.; Robinson, Janet K.; Fine, Derek M.; Coombs, Robert W.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Landay, Alan L.; Douek, Daniel C.; Tressler, Randall; Read, Sarah W.; Wilson, Cara C.; Deeks, Steven G.; Lederman, Michael M.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT 01543958. PMID:24864123

  17. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. Methods: We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40–79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Results: Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86–7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13–16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke. PMID:27025681

  18. Switching from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin lowers small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bando, Yukihiro; Toyama, Hitomi; Kanehara, Hideo; Hisada, Azusa; Okafuji, Kazuhiro; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study compared the efficacy of rosuvastatin (5mg/day) and atorvastatin (10mg/day) for reduction of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd LDL-C) levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia with detectable sd LDL-C after receiving 10mg/day atorvastatin for ≥ 24 weeks were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (5mg/day; switched treatment) or atorvastatin (10mg/day; continued treatment) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in sd LDL-C levels and sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio evaluated using the LipoPhor AS(®) system. There were no significant percent changes from baseline for LDL-C levels between the switched (n=55) and the continued treatment group (n=56). However, the former group exhibited a statistically significant reduction from baseline of sd LDL-C levels, sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio compared with the latter group (-3.8 mg/dL vs. -1.4 mg/dL, p=0.014; -2.3% vs. -0.6%, p=0.004, respectively). Multiple regression analysis among all subjects revealed that independent factors contributing to the reduction in sd LDL-C levels were a change in LDL-C (p=0.003) and triglyceride (TG) levels (p=0.006), treatment group (the switched group=1, the continued group=0; standard coefficient=-1.2, p=0.034) and baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p=0.045), respectively. Switching from 10mg atorvastatin to 5mg rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic option to reduce sd LDL-C levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels are related to cardiometabolic risk and decreased after a weight loss treatment in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morell-Azanza, Lydia; García-Calzón, Sonia; Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chueca, Maria; Martínez, José Alfredo; Azcona-Sanjulián, Maria Cristina; Marti, Amelia

    2017-08-01

    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles is an early atherogeninic event. Obese pediatric populations have higher levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) than normal weight children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a weight loss program on the biochemical profile and oxLDL levels in Spanish obese children and adolescents. Forty obese children (mean age 11 years, 51% boys) followed a 10-week weight loss program. They were dichotomized at the median of body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) change, as high (HR) and low responders (LR) after the intervention. The intervention included a moderate energy-restricted diet, nutritional education, and family involvement. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed at the beginning and during the follow up. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMS) was calculated considering metabolic risk factors. Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children (P < .001). After the intervention, oxLDL significantly decreased in the HR group. Moreover, a positive correlation between changes in oxLDL and BMI-SDS (r = 0.385, P = .015) was found after the weight loss program. Interestingly, multiple-adjusted regression models showed an association between changes in total cholesterol [B: 0.127, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 to 0.20] and LDL-cholesterol (B: 0.173, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.26) with changes in oxLDL. Higher baseline oxLDL levels were associated with a higher CMS in obese children. After the weight loss program, a decrease in oxLDL levels was found in HR subjects and the oxLDL levels were associated with BMI-SDS and cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlate positively with C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-chen; Wei, Jing-jing; Wang, Fei; Chen, Man-tian; Zhang, Mao-zhen

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. We, therefore, measured serum levels of Ox-LDL and high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP in 90 ACS patients, 45 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients, and 66 healthy controls using sandwich ELISA. ACS patients were subdivided into: (1) acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n = 45); (2) unstable angina pectoris (UAP; n = 45) groups. In AMI patients, Ox-LDL (177.5 mmol/l) and hs-CRP (25.40 mg/l) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in UAP (Ox-LDL:107.5 mmol/l, hs-CRP:10.7 mg/l) and SAP (Ox-LDL:82.3 mmol/l, hs-CRP:2.10 mg/l) patients as well as controls (Ox-LDL:41.4 mmol/l, hs-CRP:1.76 mg/l). Ox-LDL/hs-CRP levels in UAP patients were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in SAP patients and controls. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between Ox-LDL and CRP (r = 0.622; P < 0.01) levels. Serum levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol did not differ among these patient groups. In conclusion, our data show that Ox-LDL and hs-CRP levels correlate positively in ACS patients, supporting the hypothesis that Ox-LDL and CRP may play a direct role in promoting the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in these individuals. We suggest that Ox-LDL/CRP elevated levels may serve as markers of the severity of the disease in evaluation and management of ACS patients.

  1. High Levels of Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 in Acute Stroke: An Age- and Sex-Matched Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Chiaki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Yoshiko; Kakino, Akemi; Nakai, Michikazu; Toyoda, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is known to be a key molecule in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although high levels of serum soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) were demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there are no reports about acute stroke patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of sLOX-1 in acute stroke patients according to different stroke subtypes. We enrolled a total of 377 patients with a stroke (men/women: 251/126; age: 40-79 years), 250 with ischemic stroke and 127 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients were admitted to our hospital within 3 days after the onset of stroke. As controls, we randomly selected age- and sex-matched subjects without a past history of cardiovascular disease according to stroke subtype from the community-based cohort of the Suita study. Serum LOX-1 levels were compared between stroke patients and healthy controls according to stroke subtype. Median values of serum sLOX-1 in stroke patients were significantly higher than those in controls (526 vs. 486 ng/L in ischemic stroke and 720 vs. 513 ng/L in ICH, respectively). Among subtypes of ischemic stroke, median sLOX-1 levels in atherothrombotic brain infarction (641 ng/L) only were significantly higher than those in controls (496 ng/L). Ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR), 3.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.86-7.74] and ICH (OR, 5.97; 95% CI, 2.13-16.77) were independently associated with high levels of sLOX-1 by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Higher levels of sLOX-1 were observed in patients with acute stoke than in controls. High levels of sLOX-1 can be useful as biomarker for acute stroke.

  2. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein levels and endocytic function are reduced by overexpression of the FE65 adaptor protein, FE65L1.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne Y; Chang, Yang; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Rebeck, G William

    2002-08-01

    The FE65 adaptor protein family was identified in two-hybrid screens as proteins that bind the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies have shown that FE65 binding to APP modulates APP processing. Increased levels of alpha-secretase derived secreted APP (APPsalpha) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) were recovered from conditioned media upon FE65L1 or FE65 overexpression. These effects were associated with an increase in the ratio of mature/immature APP and increased cell-surface APP. FE65 has also been reported to bind low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Here we show that FE65L1 overexpression results in decreased LRP steady state levels, LRPs, and LRP endocytic receptor function. These changes in LRP protein levels are not due to decreased transcription of LRP. Furthermore, pulse/chase experiments demonstrate that changes in LRP protein only occurred 12-18 h after translation. We conclude that the decreases in LRP levels likely reflect routing of LRP away from the cell surface into a degradative pathway. Previous studies suggested that LRP plays an important role for Abeta production of Kunitz protease inhibitor forms of APP in the endocytic pathway. These data show that FE65L1 can differentially affect the metabolic fate of APP and LRP. In addition, these data suggest that the LRP decrease observed in FE65L1 overexpressing cells may in part contribute to altered APP processing.

  3. Anti-TNFα therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNFα treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3 months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2 weeks (p < 0.05) which was paralleled by a significant increase in microvascular endothelial-dependent function (p < 0.05). However, both parameters returned towards baseline at 12 weeks. Conclusion Anti-TNFα therapy in RA patients appears to be accompanied by transient but significant improvements in HDL cholesterol levels, which coexists with an improvement in microvascular endothelial-dependent function. PMID:22824166

  4. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients on lipid-lowering drugs and stratified by triglyceride levels in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohammed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Shehab, Abdullah; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in the Arabian Gulf. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) reduction has been proposed as an additional goal to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Data on non-HDL-C goal attainment in patients with high triglycerides (TGs) on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in the region is scarce. Evaluate non-HDL-C target attainment according to the National Lipid Association in patients on LLDs stratified by TG (<150 [1.69], 150-200 [1.69-2.26], >200 [2.26] mg/dL [mmol/L]) levels in the Arabian Gulf. Overall, 4383 patients on LLD treatment from 6 Middle Eastern countries participating in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia study were evaluated. Patients were classified according to TG levels and ASCVD risk. The overall non-HDL-C goal attainment was 41% of the subjects. Non-HDL-C goal was less likely attained in patients with high TGs (12% vs 27% vs 55%; P < .001). Very high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs attained less their non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TG levels (8% vs 23% vs 51%; P < .001). Similarly, high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs also failed more in attaining non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TGs (26% vs 42% vs 69%; P < .001). In addition, those with high TG also succeeded less in attaining LDL-C and apolipoprotein B goals (P < .001). A large proportion of very high and high ASCVD patients on LLDs in the Arabian Gulf are not at recommended non-HDL-C targets and hence remain at a substantial residual risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The strength of the chemotactic response to a CCR5 binding chemokine is determined by the level of cell surface CCR5 density.

    PubMed

    Desmetz, Caroline; Lin, Yea-Lih; Mettling, Clément; Portalès, Pierre; Rabesandratana, Herisoa; Clot, Jacques; Corbeau, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We have shown that the intensity of expression of the C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 at the single CD4(+) cell level strongly determines the efficiency of its function as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. By analogy, we examined if the number of CCR5 molecules at the cell surface might determine its chemotactic response to CCR5 ligands. To test this hypothesis, we measured by flow cytometry the migration of primary human T cells towards the CCR5-binding chemokine CCL5 in vitro. First, we observed a dose-dependent blockage of this migration exerted by an anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody. Second, we sorted peripheral blood mononuclear cells into five subpopulations expressing various cell surface CCR5 densities, and observed a correlation between the intensity of migration towards CCL5 and the level of CCR5 expression on these subpopulations. Third, we transduced CCR5(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the CCR5 gene, and observed that the CCR5 over-expression induced an over-migration towards CCL5. Finally, we observed in healthy donors a correlation between the chemotactic response of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cell to CCL5 and their level of surface CCR5 expression. T-cell surface CCR5 density, which is constant over time for a given individual, but varies drastically among individuals, might therefore be an important personal determinant of T-cell migration in many biological situations where CCR5-binding chemokines play a role, such as graft rejection, T helper 1-mediated auto-immune diseases, and infectious diseases involving CCR5. Moreover, our data highlight the therapeutic potential of CCR5 antagonists in these situations.

  6. Density-Functional Theory with Dispersion-Correcting Potentials for Methane: Bridging the Efficiency and Accuracy Gap between High-Level Wave Function and Classical Molecular Mechanics Methods.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edmanuel; DiLabio, Gino A

    2013-08-13

    Large clusters of noncovalently bonded molecules can only be efficiently modeled by classical mechanics simulations. One prominent challenge associated with this approach is obtaining force-field parameters that accurately describe noncovalent interactions. High-level correlated wave function methods, such as CCSD(T), are capable of correctly predicting noncovalent interactions, and are widely used to produce reference data. However, high-level correlated methods are generally too computationally costly to generate the critical reference data required for good force-field parameter development. In this work we present an approach to generate Lennard-Jones force-field parameters to accurately account for noncovalent interactions. We propose the use of a computational step that is intermediate to CCSD(T) and classical molecular mechanics, that can bridge the accuracy and computational efficiency gap between them, and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach with methane clusters. On the basis of CCSD(T)-level binding energy data for a small set of methane clusters, we develop methane-specific, atom-centered, dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) for use with the PBE0 density-functional and 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets. We then use the PBE0-DCP approach to compute a detailed map of the interaction forces associated with the removal of a single methane molecule from a cluster of eight methane molecules and use this map to optimize the Lennard-Jones parameters for methane. The quality of the binding energies obtained by the Lennard-Jones parameters we obtained is assessed on a set of methane clusters containing from 2 to 40 molecules. Our Lennard-Jones parameters, used in combination with the intramolecular parameters of the CHARMM force field, are found to closely reproduce the results of our dispersion-corrected density-functional calculations. The approach outlined can be used to develop Lennard-Jones parameters for any kind of molecular system.

  7. Dietary energy source and density: effects of roughage source, roughage equivalent, tallow level, and steer type on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartle, S J; Preston, R L; Miller, M F

    1994-08-01

    The effects of roughage level (10, 20, or 30% roughage equivalent [RE]), roughage source (alfalfa vs cottonseed hulls), roughage regimen (constant RE vs 2% RE during the mid-finishing period), tallow level (1.2 vs 4.6%), and steer type (British crossbred [BRITX] vs Bos indicus crosses [BRX]) were evaluated in three experiments with a common allotment and several overlapping treatments. Steers (n = 432; initial weight = 326 +/- 26 kg) were divided into three BW blocks and allotted randomly to 72 pens and 24 treatments. Steers were fed steam-flaked, sorghum grain-based finishing diets for 124 to 166 d. Diets with 20% RE decreased gain efficiency and 30% RE diets decreased both gain (linear, P < .07) and efficiency (linear, P < .001) compared with 10% RE diets. Reducing roughage level during the mid-finishing period improved overall gain efficiency 2, 7, and 24% (P > .2, < .05, and < .001, respectively) for the 10, 20, and 30% RE diets, respectively. Steers fed cottonseed hulls consumed more feed (9.6 vs 8.8 kg/d, P < .001) but tended to gain less (1.53 vs 1.58 kg/d, P = .11) than steers fed alfalfa, were leaner, and had fewer carcasses grading Choice (62 vs 77%, P < .05). Feeding 4.6% tallow decreased DMI (P < .05) and improved gain efficiency (P < .05) compared with 1.2% tallow. The BRITX steers consumed more feed (6%, P < .001) but were somewhat less efficient (3.5%, P < .05) than BRX steers. Carcasses from BRITX steers tended to be fatter than carcasses from BRX steers and more of them graded Choice (62 vs 37%, P < .01). Commercial BRX steers did not perform as well as BRITX steers on higher-energy-density diets (4.6% tallow or variable roughage regimen). Knowledge of the genetic background of feeder cattle can be important in the selection of dietary energy density and marketing expectations.

  8. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  9. Effect of high parathyroid hormone level on bone mineral density in a vitamin D-sufficient population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hwa; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    The detrimental effect of high parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone has not been adequately evaluated in vitamin D-sufficient Koreans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high PTH on bone mineral density (BMD) in such a population. A total of 5,403 subjects (2,644 men and 2,759 postmenopausal women; ≥50 years old) were selected from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were divided into four groups according to vitamin D status (<20 and ≥20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (≤65 and >65 pg/mL). Total hip and spine BMD were evaluated in each group. High PTH level was found in 50% of vitamin D-deficient subjects and 35% of vitamin D-sufficient subjects. In the vitamin D-deficient group, subjects with normal PTH level had higher total hip and spine BMD than those with high PTH after adjusting for multiple confounding factors, regardless of gender. In the vitamin D-sufficient group, only women with high PTH showed lower total hip and spine BMD than those with normal PTH. Multivariable linear regression analysis found that PTH level was independently associated with total hip BMD in vitamin D-sufficient women as well as vitamin D-insufficient women, but no association was found in men. In conclusion, high serum PTH level has an additive detrimental effect on BMD in postmenopausal women even though they had sufficient vitamin D levels.

  10. Changes in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels After Discharge for Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Real-World Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Tang, Fengming; Zhao, Zhenxiang; McCollam, Patrick L.; Birt, Julie; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressively managing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. The changes in LDL-C after MI and the factors associated with LDL-C levels are unknown. Therefore, we directly measured fasting LDL-C levels in 797 MI patients from 24 US hospitals from 2005 to 2008. Mean LDL-C levels at discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 95.1, 81.9, and 87.1 mg/dL, respectively. In a hierarchical, multivariable, repeated measures model, older age, male sex, and hypertension were associated with lower LDL-C levels, whereas self-reported avoidance of health care because of cost was associated with higher LDL-C. Both the presence and intensity of statin therapy at discharge were strongly associated with LDL-C levels, with adjusted mean 6-month changes of −3.4 mg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): −12.1, 5.3) for no statins; 1.7 mg/dL (95% CI: −4.7, 8.1) for low statins; −10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: −14.5, −6.0) for moderate statins; and −13.9 mg/dL (95% CI: −19.7, −8.0) for intensive statins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that greater reductions in LDL-C levels after MI were strongly associated with the presence and intensity of statin therapy, older age, male sex, hypertension, and better socioeconomic status. These findings support the use of intensive statin therapy in post-MI patients and provide estimates of the expected LDL-C changes after MI in a real-world population. PMID:24743066

  11. Vitamin D levels: its relationship to bone mineral density response and disease activity in premenopausal Malaysian systemic lupus erythematosus patients on corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swan Sim; Othman, Ahmad Zaidi; Zain, Amir Azlan; Chan, Siew Pheng

    2012-02-01

    To determine if baseline vitamin D levels would influence the gain in bone mineral density (BMD) in female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients on corticosteroids (CS) taking bone-active medication. Premenopausal SLE patients participating in a trial assessing the efficacy of calcium alone, calcitriol and calcium, and alendronate and calcium, on BMD in patients on CS, were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to the treatment groups at the start of the study and followed up for 2 years. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured at baseline.   Thirty-eight patients were studied. One (2%) patient had osteoporosis, nine (24%) had osteopenia and all others had normal BMD. The mean baseline 25(OH)D levels were 21.6 ± 4.6 ng/mL (± 1 SD). Twelve (32%) patients had vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL]. There was a significant negative correlation between SLEDAI scores and 25(OH)D levels, that is, patients with high SLEDAI scores had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.033). Left femoral neck BMD was significantly lower in the deficient compared to insufficient group (P = 0.042). There was a trend toward better BMD gain at 2 years in the vitamin D insufficient compared to the deficient group, which did not reach statistical significance. This study showed that in female SLE patients, low vitamin D levels are associated with higher disease activity and suggests that patients who have higher vitamin D levels have a better BMD response during treatment with bone-active agents. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001), respectively. As mucosal H. pylori density score increased from 0 to 3, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers also increased from 24.7 to 44.8 EIU (p for trend < 0.0001). Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17 concentrations and negatively with PGI/II ratio, and the association was the strongest for PGII. The mean PGII concentration of the patients in the highest quartile of IgG titer was twice the mean concentration of the patients in the lowest quartile (17.2 vs. 8.6 EIU, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest that serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer was associated positively with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  13. Effects of olanzapine on muscarinic M3 receptor binding density in the brain relates to weight gain, plasma insulin and metabolic hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Huang, Xu-Feng; Lian, Jiamei; Deng, Chao

    2012-05-01

    The second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA) olanzapine has an efficacy to treat schizophrenia, but can cause obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Cholinergic muscarinic M3 receptors (M3R) are expressed on pancreatic β-cells and in the brain where they influence insulin secretion and may regulate other metabolic hormones via vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract. Olanzapine's M3R antagonism is an important risk factor for its diabetogenic liability. However, the effects of olanzapine on central M3Rs are unknown. Rats were treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg olanzapine/kg or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days). M3R binding densities in the hypothalamic arcuate (Arc) and ventromedial nuclei (VMH), and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brainstem were investigated using [3H]4-DAMP plus pirenzepine and AF-DX116. M3R binding correlations to body weight, food intake, insulin, ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were analyzed. Olanzapine increased M3R binding density in the Arc, VMH and DVC, body weight, food intake, circulating plasma ghrelin and CCK levels, and decreased plasma insulin and glucose. M3R negatively correlated to insulin, and positively correlated to ghrelin, CCK, food intake and body weight. Increased M3R density is a compensatory up-regulation in response to olanzapine's M3R antagonism. Olanzapine acts on M3R in regions of the brain that control food intake and insulin secretion. Olanzapine's M3R blockade in the brain may inhibit the acetylcholine pathway for insulin secretion. These findings support a role for M3Rs in the modulation of insulin, ghrelin and CCK via the vagus nerve and provide a mechanism for olanzapine's diabetogenic and weight gain liability.

  14. Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples.

    PubMed

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria L; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-02-01

    Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies for lipids. We investigated 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with triglycerides, 7 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 1 with both triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in recent Caucasian genome-wide association studies in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1, and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2298) using the Z method to combine statistics. Ten of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant and 5 were significant after Bonferroni correction (P=2.20 x 10(-3) to 2.6 x 10(-11)) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR, and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for triglycerides with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 x 10(-11)) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in whites (12%). It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of 5 Caucasian genome-wide association studies lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (odds ratio, 1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans.

  15. Urban density and the metabolic reach of metropolitan areas: A panel analysis of per capita transportation emissions at the county-level.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; Clement, Matthew; McGee, Julius

    2016-07-01

    We engage a tension in the urban environment literature that positions cities as both drivers of environmental destruction and loci of environmental protection. We argue that the traditional binary view of cities as either harmful or beneficial is too simplistic; we advance a more nuanced understanding of cities to study their internal and external metabolic effects in terms of carbon emissions from on-road transportation at the county-level across the continental United States between 2002 and 2007. First, utilizing satellite imagery from the National Land Cover Database, we create a novel measure of population density by quantifying the number of people per square mile of impervious surface area. Second, we develop a measure of metropolitan adjacency from the rural classifications datasets published by the USDA. In spatial regression models, we find that while higher density reduces emissions, counties that are geographically isolated from metropolitan areas actually have lower per capita emissions, all else equal. We elaborate on the conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of our study in the conclusion.

  16. Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is an early prognostic marker for organ dysfunction and death in patients with suspected sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cirstea, Mihai; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A; Brunham, Liam R; Genga, Kelly R; Boyd, John H

    2017-04-01

    We sought to determine whether an early high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurement at emergency department (ED) admission is prognostic of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death in a suspected sepsis cohort. Two hundred patients with clinically suspected sepsis were recruited at admission to our tertiary care hospital's ED. Lipids were measured at the time of first ED blood draw. Clinical data were collected via chart review. Primary outcomes of interest were development of MODS and 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included need for critical care, single-organ failures, days alive and free of vasopressor and ventilator support, and 90-day mortality. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was greatly decreased in patients who developed MODS and/or died and remained stable over the first week of admission. Receiver operator characteristic analysis demonstrated that HDL-C had superior predictive ability compared with all routine clinical markers for both development of MODS and 28-day mortality, and identified an HDL-C cutoff of 25.1 mg/dL below which patients were at significantly greater risk for development of all adverse outcomes. Plasma HDL-C level was characterized by early decrease and high stability, and was the best prognostic marker for adverse outcomes in a suspected sepsis cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution with Composition of the d-Band Density of States at the Fermi Level in Highly Spin Polarized Co1-xFexS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhns, P. L.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Reyes, A. P.; Moulton, W. G.; Wang, L.; Leighton, C.

    2006-04-01

    Highly spin polarized (SP) and half-metallic ferromagnetic systems are of considerable current interest and of potential importance for spintronic applications. Recent work has demonstrated that Co1-xFexS2 is a highly polarized ferromagnet (FM) where the spin polarization can be tuned by alloy composition. Using Co59 FM-NMR as a probe, we have measured the low-temperature spin relaxation in this system in magnetic fields from 0 to 1.0 T for 0≤x≤0.3. The Co59 spin-lattice relaxation rates follow a linear T dependence. Analysis of the data, using expressions for a FM system, permits information to be obtained on the d-band density of states at the Fermi level. The results are compared with independent density of states values inferred from electronic specific heat measurements and band structure calculations. It is shown that FM-NMR can be an important method for investigating highly SP systems.

  18. Linear-Response and Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Studies of Core-Level Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption.

    PubMed

    Lopata, K; Van Kuiken, B E; Khalil, M; Govind, N

    2012-09-11

    We discuss our implementation and application of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to core-level near-edge absorption spectroscopy, using both linear-response (LR) and real-time (RT) approaches. We briefly describe our restricted excitation window TDDFT (REW-TDDFT) approach for core excitations, which has also been reported by other groups. This is followed by a detailed discussion of real-time TDDFT techniques tailored to core excitations, including obtaining spectral information through delta-function excitation, postprocessing time-dependent signals, and resonant excitation through quasi-monochromatic excitation. We present results for the oxygen K-edge of water and carbon monoxide; the carbon K-edge of carbon monoxide; the ruthenium L3-edge for the hexaamminerutheium(III) ion, including scalar relativistic corrections via the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA); and the carbon and fluorine K-edges for a series of fluorobenzenes. In all cases, the calculated spectra are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, requiring only a uniform shift ranging from -4 eV to +19 eV, i.e., on the order of a few percent of the excitation energy. Real-time TDDFT visualization of excited state charge densities is used to visually examine the nature of each excitation, which gives insight into the effects of atoms bound to the absorbing center.

  19. Polysorbates as novel lipid-modulating candidates for reducing serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhang; Ho, Yeung; Yang, Dongxu; Chen, Yi; Hu, Xiaomin; Xue, Ming

    2011-06-25

    Polysorbates are amphiphilic, non-ionic surfactants composed of fatty acid esters of polyoxyethylene sorbitan which are widely used in the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries owing to these special characteristics and their low toxicity profiles. In the present study, polysorbates were investigated for their hypolipidemic activity. C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for four weeks, then were divided into several groups, normal saline, polysorbates and positive control drugs such as lovastatin and colestyramine were administered orally to the animals for another four weeks. Complete lipid profiles of the experimental animals were determined by assessing the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that polysorbates significantly lowered the lipid components. Polysorbates are potential candidates for preventing intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from daily intake and subsequently for preventing hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is upregulated in epicardial fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and correlates with glucose and triglyceride plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Nasarre, L; Juan-Babot, O; Gastelurrutia, P; Llucia-Valldeperas, A; Badimon, L; Bayes-Genis, A; Llorente-Cortés, V

    2014-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptor expression plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of adipose tissue in in vivo models of diabetes. However, there are no studies in diabetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze (a) low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression in epicardial and subcutaneous fat from type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with nondiabetic patients and (b) the possible correlation between the expression of these receptors and plasmatic parameters. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained from diabetic (n = 54) and nondiabetic patients (n = 22) undergoing cardiac surgery before the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adipose LRP1 and VLDLR expression was analyzed at mRNA level by real-time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Adipose samples were also subjected to lipid extraction, and fat cholesterol ester, triglyceride, and free cholesterol contents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. LRP1 expression was higher in epicardial fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients (mRNA 17.63 ± 11.37 versus 7.01 ± 4.86; P = 0.02; protein 11.23 ± 7.23 versus 6.75 ± 5.02, P = 0.04). VLDLR expression was also higher in epicardial fat from diabetic patients but only at mRNA level (231.25 ± 207.57 versus 56.64 ± 45.64, P = 0.02). No differences were found in the expression of LRP1 or VLDLR in the subcutaneous fat from diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Epicardial LRP1 and VLDLR mRNA overexpression positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01 and R(2) = 0.44, P = 0.03, respectively) and epicardial LRP1 also correlated with plasma glucose levels (R(2) = 0.33, P = 0.03). These results suggest that epicardial overexpression of certain lipoprotein receptors such as LRP1 and VLDLR expression may play a key role in the alterations of lipid metabolism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. A reduced-scaling density matrix-based method for the computation of the vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level

    SciTech Connect

    Kussmann, Jörg; Luenser, Arne; Beer, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2015-03-07

    An analytical method to calculate the molecular vibrational Hessian matrix at the self-consistent field level is presented. By analysis of the multipole expansions of the relevant derivatives of Coulomb-type two-electron integral contractions, we show that the effect of the perturbation on the electronic structure due to the displacement of nuclei decays at least as r{sup −2} instead of r{sup −1}. The perturbation is asymptotically local, and the computation of the Hessian matrix can, in principle, be performed with O(N) complexity. Our implementation exhibits linear scaling in all time-determining steps, with some rapid but quadratic-complexity steps remaining. Sample calculations illustrate linear or near-linear scaling in the construction of the complete nuclear Hessian matrix for sparse systems. For more demanding systems, scaling is still considerably sub-quadratic to quadratic, depending on the density of the underlying electronic structure.

  2. Probing the magnetic 5f density of states above the Fermi level in metallic uranium compounds by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Réotier, P. Dalmas; Yaouanc, A.; van der Laan, G.; Kernavanois, N.; Sanchez, J.-P.; Smith, J. L.; Hiess, A.; Huxley, A.; Rogalev, A.

    1999-10-01

    We present x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed at the uranium M4,5 edges of the heavy-fermion superconductors UBe13 and UPt3. Unexpectedly, the dichroic signal at the M5 edge exhibits a double-lobe structure, comprised of a positive and negative peak. Therefore, out of the eight metallic uranium compounds so far investigated by XMCD, five exhibit a single-lobe and three a double-lobe structure at the M5 edge. The existence of this structure points to the importance of the influence of the hybridization, Coulomb and exchange, and crystal-field interactions. The observed line shape can be used to access the magnetic character of the j=7/2 level of the empty 5f density of states.

  3. 2004 Progress Report for Grant No. DE-FG03-03NA00076 Nuclear Level Densities and Gamma-ray Strength Functions: Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. E. Mitchell

    2004-10-18

    To verify the apparent large enhancement of the radiative strength function in light and medium nuclei, the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction was measured. The two-step cascade intensities with soft primary intensities confirm the enhancement. The combined results have been published in Physical Review Letters and featured in the Physics News Update. Data for the Yb isotopes have been combined to examine the systematics of level densities and strength function in three Yb isotopes. A paper on these results have been accepted for publication in Physical Review C. Analysis of the gamma rays from neutron induced reactions on 48Ti have been measured and analyzed for neturon energies from 1 to 250 MeV.

  4. The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms.

    PubMed

    Cheeke, Tanya E; Pace, Brian A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2011-02-01

    Crop plants genetically modified for the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins have broad appeal for reducing insect damage in agricultural systems, yet questions remain about the impact of Bt plants on symbiotic soil organisms. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of transgenic maize isoline Bt 11 (expressing Cry1Ab) and its non-Bt parental line (Providence) was evaluated under different fertilizer level and spore density scenarios. In a three-way factorial design, Bt 11 and non-Bt maize were inoculated with 0, 40, or 80 spores of Glomus mosseae and treated weekly with 'No' (0 g L(-1) ), 'Low' (0.23 g L(-1) ), or 'High' (1.87 g L(-1) ) levels of a complete fertilizer and grown for 60 days in a greenhouse. While no difference in AMF colonization was detected between the Bt 11 and Providence maize cultivars in the lower spore/higher fertilizer treatments, microcosm experiments demonstrated a significant reduction in AMF colonization in Bt 11 maize roots in the 80 spore treatments when fertilizer was limited. These results confirm previous work indicating an altered relationship between this Bt 11 maize isoline and AMF and demonstrate that the magnitude of this response is strongly dependent on both nutrient supply and AMF spore inoculation level. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The behavior of f-levels in hcp and bcc rare-earth elements in the ground state and XPS and BIS spectroscopy from density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Jarlborg, T

    2014-04-16

    The electronic structures of rare-earth elements in the hexagonal close-packed structure and Europium in the body-centered cubic structure are calculated using density-functional theory (DFT). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and bremsstrahlung isochromatic spectroscopy (BIS) simulations are made within DFT by implying that the f-electrons are excited by a large photon energy, either by removal from the occupied states in XPS or by addition to the unoccupied f-states in BIS. The results show sizable differences in the apparent position of the f-states compared to the f-band energy of the ground states. This result is fundamentally different from calculations assuming strong on-site correlation, since all the calculations are based on DFT. The spin-orbit coupling and multiplet splittings are not included, and the present simulation accounts for almost half of the difference between the f-level positions in the DFT ground states and the observed f-level positions. The electronic specific-heat at low T is compatible with the DFT ground state, where f-electrons often reside at the Fermi level.

  6. Inverse relationship of bone mineral density and serum level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Li; Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, the relationship between BMD and the fasting serum concentration of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) was evaluated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 52 PD patients. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4). The serum NT-pro-BNP level was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Ten patients (19.2%) had osteoporosis, 23 patients (44.2%) had osteopenia, and 19 patients had normal BMD. Increased serum NT-pro-BNP (p < 0.001), advanced age (p = 0.012), decreased body mass index (p = 0.006), body height (p = 0.018), and body weight (p = 0.004) were associated with lower lumbar T-scores, but sex, menopausal status, PD modality, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were not. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis with adjustment for age, body height, body weight, body mass index, and log-NT-pro-BNP indicated that a high serum level of log-NT-pro-BNP (R(2) change = 0.346; p < 0.001) and low body weight (R(2) change = 0.208; p < 0.001) were significantly and independently associated with poor lumbar BMD. A high serum level of NT-pro-BNP and low body weight were associated with poor BMD in PD patients.

  7. Ubiquinol-induced gene expression signatures are translated into altered parameters of erythropoiesis and reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Constance; Niklowitz, Petra; Okun, Jürgen G; Haas, Dorothea; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Studies in vitro and in mice indicate a role for Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10) ) in gene expression. To determine this function in relationship to physiological readouts, a 2-week supplementation study with the reduced form of CoQ(10) (ubiquinol, Q(10) H(2) , 150 mg/d) was performed in 53 healthy males. Mean CoQ(10) plasma levels increased 4.8-fold after supplementation. Transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches identified a gene-gene interaction network in CD14-positive monocytes, which functions in inflammation, cell differentiation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-signaling. These Q(10) H(2) -induced gene expression signatures were also described previously in liver tissues of SAMP1 mice. Biochemical and NMR-based analyses showed a reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plasma levels after Q(10) H(2) supplementation. This effect was especially pronounced in atherogenic small dense LDL particles (19-21 nm, 1.045 g/L). In agreement with gene expression signatures, Q(10) H(2) reduces the number of erythrocytes but increases the concentration of reticulocytes. In conclusion, Q(10) H(2) induces characteristic gene expression patterns, which are translated into reduced LDL cholesterol levels and altered parameters of erythropoiesis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  9. Prediction of isometric motor tasks and effort levels based on high-density EMG in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanić, Mislav; Rojas-Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Francesc Alonso, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The development of modern assistive and rehabilitation devices requires reliable and easy-to-use methods to extract neural information for control of devices. Group-specific pattern recognition identifiers are influenced by inter-subject variability. Based on high-density EMG (HD-EMG) maps, our research group has already shown that inter-subject muscle activation patterns exist in a population of healthy subjects. The aim of this paper is to analyze muscle activation patterns associated with four tasks (flexion/extension of the elbow, and supination/pronation of the forearm) at three different effort levels in a group of patients with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (iSCI). Approach. Muscle activation patterns were evaluated by the automatic identification of these four isometric tasks along with the identification of levels of voluntary contractions. Two types of classifiers were considered in the identification: linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine. Main results. Results show that performance of classification increases when combining features extracted from intensity and spatial information of HD-EMG maps (accuracy = 97.5%). Moreover, when compared to a population with injuries at different levels, a lower variability between activation maps was obtained within a group of patients with similar injury suggesting stronger task-specific and effort-level-specific co-activation patterns, which enable better prediction results. Significance. Despite the challenge of identifying both the four tasks and the three effort levels in patients with iSCI, promising results were obtained which support the use of HD-EMG features for providing useful information regarding motion and force intention.

  10. Serum uric acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jayashankar, C A; Andrews, Henley Punnen; Vijayasarathi; Pinnelli, Venkata BharatKumar; Shashidharan, Basappaji; Nithin Kumar, H N; Vemulapalli, Swaapnika

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify the predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). About fifty Asian Indian patients with type 2 DM patients aged >40 years and fifty sex- and age-matched nondiabetic controls were enrolled for this study. Following complete medical history and baseline clinical data, laboratory investigations were performed to assess fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid levels. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, serum uric acid, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, very LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among diabetic patients compared to controls. On univariate analysis, serum LDL cholesterol (odds ratio [OR]: 29.67, P < 0.001), serum uric acid (OR: 25.65, P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 21.12, P < 0.001), hypertension (OR: 17.06, P < 0.001), family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR: 9.43, P = 0.002), and duration of diabetes (OR: 4.65, P = 0.03) were identified as predictors of CVD among diabetic patients. On multivariate regression, only LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.51, P = 0.002) and serum uric acid (OR: 1.21, P = 0.01) were the independent predictors of CAD among diabetic patients. Significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with duration of diabetes (r = 0.38, P = 0.006), BMI (r = 0.35, P = 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.356, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.38, P = 0.007), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.514, P < 0.001), and hypertension (r = 0.524, P < 0.001) was observed. Serum LDL cholesterol and hyperuricemia may serve as independent predictors of CAD among Asian Indian subjects with type 2 DM.

  11. Reduced High-Density Lipoprotein Level is Linked to Worse Ankle Brachial Index and Peak Oxygen Uptake in Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mauer, Karin; Exaire, J. Emilio; Stoner, Julie A.; Guthery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Polly S.; Gardner, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lipid abnormalities are associated with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and contribute to vascular damage and functional impairment. Women with PAD have more limited walking and physical function than men, but the mechanisms for their lower exercise performance are not clear. We determined if alterations in individual lipid components, such as decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), are associated with worsening lower extremity claudication in postmenopausal women with PAD. Methods This cross-sectional cohort study included 69 postmenopausal women with intermittent claudication (Fontaine stage II PAD). Lower extremity walking performance was assessed using a validated treadmill test to measure initial claudication distance (ICD), absolute claudication distance (ACD), peak oxygen uptake, and ankle systolic blood pressure. The lipid profile was determined from a standard lipid panel drawn in a fasted state to obtain cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Results HDL-C was positively correlated with ankle brachial index (r = 0.29, p = 0.019). No other individual components of the lipid profile were associated with exercise performance and hemodynamic measures. Among women with impaired HDL-C (below 50 mg/dL, n=43), the median peak oxygen uptake level was significantly lower (p=0.021) relative to women with normal HDL-C (above 50 mg/dL, n=26). Conclusion Lower HDL-C levels are associated with worse ankle brachial index and decreased peak oxygen uptake in post-menopausal women with PAD. PMID:20529977

  12. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  13. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged <65 years, 65-74 years and >75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <65 years, and HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in patients aged 65-74 years. Non-HDL-C was not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower HDL-C was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <65 years and 65-74 years. Lower HDL-C was an important risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, their relationship with baseline functional and cognitive status, and their utility in predicting mortality in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Chivite, David; Pinto, Xavier; Cuerpo, Sandra; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in oldest-old subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between HDL-C levels and physical and cognitive performance indicators in nonagenarians, and also to determine the influence of HDL-C levels on the 3-year mortality risk. The data analyzed were taken from the NonaSantfeliu Study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody Index (LI) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the Barthel Index (BI) for basic activities (BADL). Cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). The sample consisted of 49 women (79%) and 13 men, aged 94.3 ± 2.6 years. Mean HDL-C levels were 60 ± 16 mg/dL, and 16 subjects (25.8%) had low HDL-C values. HDL-C levels did correlate with BI (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) and LI (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), but not with MEC (r = 0.18, P = 0.15). Normal HDL-C levels at baseline were significantly associated with higher BI scores (P < 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.05) and a lower number of prescription drugs used (P < 0.04, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.49-0.99). Baseline HDL-C levels were significantly lower among the group of nonagenarians who died within the 3 years of follow up (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between HDL-C and mortality lost significance. Higher levels of HDL-C correlate with better functional status and less use of prescribed drugs in nonagenarians. However, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and long-term mortality in this population remains unclear. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Genotype 3 and higher low-density lipoprotein levels are predictors of good response to treatment of recurrent hepatitis C following living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Sanjiv; Choudhary, Narendra S; Saraf, Neeraj; Gautam, Dheeraj; Lipi, Lipika; Rastogi, Amit; Goja, Sanjay; Menon, P Balachandran; Bhangui, Prashant; Ramachandra, Sumana K; Soin, Arvinder S

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation is associated with poor sustained virological response (SVR) in genotype 1, and data on genotype 3 is limited to small numbers. We report one of the largest series of genotype 3 patients treated for recurrent hepatitis C following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). From January 2002 to November 2013, of 1349 transplants, 359 patients had hepatitis C. Patients with histological recurrence were treated with pegylated interferon in escalating dose regimen for 48 weeks and weight-based ribavirin. Virological response was defined as rapid virological response (RVR-4 weeks), early virological response (EVR-12 weeks), end of treatment response (ETR-48 weeks), and SVR (24 weeks after end of treatment). SVR and no-SVR groups were compared for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, ferritin, genotype, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels before initiation of treatment. The study included 67 patients who had at least 18 months of follow up after treatment initiation (45 males), aged 51 ± 6.3 years. Treatment was started after 16 months (median); baseline median RNA was 2.7 × 10(6) IU/mL. There was no significant difference between the SVR and no-SVR groups regarding age, sex ratio, follow up period, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, BMI, prevalence of diabetes, HCV RNA, and ferritin levels. Genotype 3, RVR, EVR, ETR, and higher LDL levels were significantly associated with SVR. Genotype 3 had a significantly higher SVR rate of 71 % as compared to an SVR rate of only 14 % in genotype 1, p = 0.0003. Absence of RVR and EVR predicted treatment failure with a specificity of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. Genotype 3 and higher LDL levels predict SVR in patients treated for hepatitis C recurrence following LDLT, whereas absence of RVR and EVR strongly predict treatment failure.

  16. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-10-05

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  17. Assessing the Driver’s Current Level of Working Memory Load with High Density Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy: A Realistic Driving Simulator Study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, Anirudh; Ihme, Klas; Jipp, Meike; Rieger, Jochem W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver’s cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous ‘n’ speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator. We measured brain activation using multichannel whole head, high density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and predicted working memory load level from the fNIRS data by combining multivariate lasso regression and cross-validation. This allowed us to predict variations in working memory load in a continuous time-resolved manner with mean Pearson correlations between induced and predicted working memory load over 15 participants of 0.61 [standard error (SE) 0.04] and a maximum of 0.8. Restricting the analysis to prefrontal sensors placed over the forehead reduced the mean correlation to 0.38 (SE 0.04), indicating additional information gained through whole head coverage. Moreover, working memory load predictions derived from peripheral heart rate parameters achieved much lower correlations (mean 0.21, SE 0.1). Importantly, whole head fNIRS sampling revealed increasing brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal and bilateral temporo-occipital brain areas with increasing working memory load levels suggesting that these areas are specifically involved in workload-related processing. PMID

  18. Systematic defect donor levels in III-V and II-VI semiconductors revealed by hybrid functional density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petretto, Guido; Bruneval, Fabien

    2015-12-01

    The identification of defect levels from photoluminescence spectroscopy is a useful but challenging task. Density-functional theory (DFT) is a highly valuable tool to this aim. However, the semilocal approximations of DFT that are affected by a band gap underestimation are not reliable to evaluate defect properties, such as charge transition levels. It is now established that hybrid functional approximations to DFT improve the defect description in semiconductors. Here we demonstrate that the use of hybrid functionals systematically stabilizes donor defect states in the lower part of the band gap for many defects, impurities or vacancies, in III-V and in II-VI semiconductors, even though these defects are usually considered as acceptors. These donor defect states are a very general feature and, to the best of our knowledge, have been overlooked in previous studies. The states we identify here may challenge the older assignments to photoluminescent peaks. Though appealing to screen quickly through the possible stable charge states of a defect, semilocal approximations should not be trusted for that purpose.

  19. Serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke in a Japanese population: the Jichi Medical School cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kakehi, Eiichi; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Gotoh, Tadao; Kayaba, Kazunori; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    The predictive value of serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for the incidence of ischemic stroke and its subtypes has not yet been established. The present cohort study investigated their relationships in a Japanese population. The first incidence of ischemic stroke and its subtypes was documented as the primary outcome. A total of 249 ischemic stroke patients (men/women = 145/104) were identified during a follow-up period of 10.7 years among 10 760 community-dwelling subjects (men/women = 4212/6548). Cox proportional hazard model analyses revealed that when compared with the lowest tertile of non-HDL-C, multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the highest tertile were 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.32-0.95, P = .03) on ischemic stroke and 0.29 (95% confidence interval = 0.08-1.05, P = .06) on cardioembolic infarction in women. Men did not show such significant relationships. Low serum non-HDL-C levels may be a predictive marker associated with an increase in the incidence of ischemic stroke and possibly of cardioembolic infarction in Japanese women.

  20. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. II. Rare-gas plasmas and Ar-molecular gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Culver, Cody; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2015-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions from excited plasma species can play a variety of roles in processing plasmas, including damaging the surface properties of materials used in semiconductor processing. Depending on their wavelength, VUV photons can easily transmit thin upper dielectric layers and affect the electrical characteristics of the devices. Despite their importance, measuring VUV fluxes is complicated by the fact that few materials transmit at VUV wavelengths, and both detectors and windows are easily damaged by plasma exposure. The authors have previously reported on measuring VUV fluxes in pure argon plasmas by monitoring the concentrations of Ar(3p{sup 5}4s) resonance atoms that produce the VUV emissions using noninvasive optical emission spectroscopy in the visible/near-infrared wavelength range [Boffard et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 021304 (2014)]. Here, the authors extend this technique to other rare-gases (Ne, Kr, and Xe) and argon-molecular gas plasmas (Ar/H{sub 2}, Ar/O{sub 2}, and Ar/N{sub 2}). Results of a model for VUV emissions that couples radiation trapping and the measured rare-gas resonance level densities are compared to measurements made with both a calibrated VUV photodiode and a sodium salicylate fluorescence detection scheme. In these more complicated gas mixtures, VUV emissions from a variety of sources beyond the principal resonance levels of the rare gases are found to contribute to the total VUV flux.

  1. Structure and mineralisation density of antler and pedicle bone in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study

    PubMed Central

    KIERDORF, UWE; KIERDORF, HORST; BOYDE, ALAN

    2000-01-01

    The structure and relative degree of mineralisation of antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags exposed either to low or high levels of environmental fluoride were determined by digital quantitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. Bone fluoride content (BFC) in antlers (845±86 mg F−/kg ash, arithmetic mean± S.E.M.) and pedicles (1448±154 mg F−/kg ash) of deer from a highly fluoride polluted area in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of controls from uncontaminated regions in West Germany (antlers: 206±41, pedicles: 322±52 mg F−/kg ash). Mean (56.5±4.5%) and maximum (84.9±2.1%) mineralised bone area of the control antlers significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) exceeded the corresponding values for the N. Bohemian deer (43.3±1.3 and 73.3±1.9%, respectively), while the pedicles from the 2 groups did not differ significantly. In the pooled antler samples (n = 18), negative correlations existed between BFC and mean (rs = −0.62, P < 0.01) as well as maximum (rs = −0.69, P < 0.01) mineralised bone area. Morphological imaging revealed a decreased width and an increased porosity of the antler cortex in the N. Bohemian specimens. Mean (148.5±1.7) and maximum (154.2±1.7) BSE-signal intensities (= grey levels; range between a monobrominated (grey level 0) and a monoiodinated (grey level 255) dimethacrylate resin standard) of the antlers from the controls were significantly higher than those of the N. Bohemian deer (140.7±2.1 and 145.7±2.2, respectively; P < 0.05 for both comparisons). In the pooled antler samples, negative correlations between BFC and mean (rs = −0.51, P < 0.05) as well as maximum (rs = −0.52, P < 0.05) BSE-signal intensities were observed. No significant differences in mineralisation density parameters were found for the 2 pedicle samples, and BFC and mineralisation density of the pooled pedicles were uncorrelated. Morphological imaging revealed bone mottling

  2. Incorporating a Genetic Risk Score Into Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimates: Effect on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels (the MI-GENES Clinical Trial).

    PubMed

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Jouni, Hayan; Austin, Erin E; Brown, Sherry-Ann; Kruisselbrink, Teresa M; Isseh, Iyad N; Haddad, Raad A; Marroush, Tariq S; Shameer, Khader; Olson, Janet E; Broeckel, Ulrich; Green, Robert C; Schaid, Daniel J; Montori, Victor M; Bailey, Kent R

    2016-03-22

    Whether knowledge of genetic risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) affects health-related outcomes is unknown. We investigated whether incorporating a genetic risk score (GRS) in CHD risk estimates lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Participants (n=203, 45-65 years of age, at intermediate risk for CHD, and not on statins) were randomly assigned to receive their 10-year probability of CHD based either on a conventional risk score (CRS) or CRS + GRS ((+)GRS). Participants in the (+)GRS group were stratified as having high or average/low GRS. Risk was disclosed by a genetic counselor followed by shared decision making regarding statin therapy with a physician. We compared the primary end point of LDL-C levels at 6 months and assessed whether any differences were attributable to changes in dietary fat intake, physical activity levels, or statin use. Participants (mean age, 59.4±5 years; 48% men; mean 10-year CHD risk, 8.5±4.1%) were allocated to receive either CRS (n=100) or (+)GRS (n=103). At the end of the study period, the (+)GRS group had a lower LDL-C than the CRS group (96.5±32.7 versus 105.9±33.3 mg/dL; P=0.04). Participants with high GRS had lower LDL-C levels (92.3±32.9 mg/dL) than CRS participants (P=0.02) but not participants with low GRS (100.9±32.2 mg/dL; P=0.18). Statins were initiated more often in the (+)GRS group than in the CRS group (39% versus 22%, P<0.01). No significant differences in dietary fat intake and physical activity levels were noted. Disclosure of CHD risk estimates that incorporated genetic risk information led to lower LDL-C levels than disclosure of CHD risk based on conventional risk factors alone. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01936675. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-06-01

    The influence of inoculation level, material hydration, and stainless steel surface roughness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes from inoculated bologna to processing surfaces (stainless steel and polyethylene) was assessed. Slices of bologna (14 g) were inoculated with Listeria at different levels, from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm2. Transfer experiments were done at a constant contact time (30 s) and pressure (45 kPa) with a universal testing machine. After transfer, cells that had been transferred to sterile stainless steel and polyethylene were removed and counted, and the efficiency of transfer (EOT) was calculated. As the inoculation level increased from 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/cm(2), the absolute level of transfer increased in a similar fashion. By calculating EOTs, the data were normalized, and the initial inoculation level had no effect on the transfer (P > 0.05). The influence of hydration level on stainless steel, high-density polyethylene, and material type was investigated, and the EOTs ranged from 0.1 to 1 under all the conditions tested. Our results show that transfers to wetted processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.43) were no different from dried processing surfaces (mean EOT = 0.35) (P > 0.05). Material type was shown to be a significant factor, with greater numbers of Listeria transferring from bologna to stainless steel (mean EOT = 0.49) than from bologna to polyethylene (mean EOT = 0.28) (P < 0.01). Stainless steel with three different surface roughness (Ra) values of <0.8 microm (target Ra = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 Vmicrom) and two different finishes (mechanically polished versus mechanically polished and further electropolished) was used to evaluate its effect on the transfer. The surface roughness and finish on the stainless steel did not have any effect on the transfer of Listeria (P > 0.05).