Science.gov

Sample records for 24-bit color values

  1. Digital color representation

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

  2. Commanding Color and Versatile Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project for high school students that combines a still-life drawing with 12 colors of tempera paint colors to teach students about the color wheel. Discusses the process of creating the paintings and the assessment of students. Includes a list of the materials needed. (CMK)

  3. The Value of Color in Newspaper Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohle, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which color halftones can be used in campus newspapers to attract attention to ads, headlines, and editorial copy. Explains how to change the hue, value, and saturation of a color and the effects the changes should achieve. (AYC)

  4. The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2014-08-01

    The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively. PMID:24535839

  5. The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2014-08-01

    The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively.

  6. Gray-preserving color correction without exposure value information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Digital cameras are widely used in many applications, such as digital still cameras, camcorders, camera phones, and video surveillance. Advances in large resolution CCD/CMOS sensors coupled with the availability of low-power image signal processors have led to the development of digital cameras with both high resolution image and short visual clip capabilities. The red, green, or blue color values obtained from a camera sensor are device-dependent. Thus there is a need to characterize these values in a device-independent fashion and provide a color correction. For simplicity, common methods presume a linear transformation to perform the color conversion. The problem translates to finding the transformation matrix and the offset vector. One well known approach uses a white-preserving constraint in the optimization. This approach requires that source data and reference data have the same exposure values. However, source data and reference data usually have different exposure values, and exposure information is either unavailable or inaccurate. We propose a new method that provides color conversion by linear transformation optimization with gray preservation. Our method allows for differing exposures between images from the target sensor and the color reference. Experiments show that images resulted from our method look more colorful than those from previous methods.

  7. Digital watermarking for color images in hue-saturation-value color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachaphetpiboon, Suwat; Thongkor, Kharittha; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a new watermarking scheme for color images, in which all pixels of the image are used for embedding watermark bits in order to achieve the highest amount of embedding. For watermark embedding, the S component in the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is used to carry the watermark bits, while the V component is used in accordance with a human visual system model to determine the proper watermark strength. In the proposed scheme, the number of watermark bits equals the number of pixels in the host image. Watermark extraction is accomplished blindly based on the use of a 3×3 spatial domain Wiener filter. The efficiency of our proposed image watermarking scheme depends mainly on the accuracy of the estimate of the original S component. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed scheme, under no attacks and against various types of attacks, was superior to the previous existing watermarking schemes.

  8. Image mosaicking based on feature points using color-invariant values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Kwon, Oh-Seol; Ko, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Ho-Young; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2008-02-01

    In the field of computer vision, image mosaicking is achieved using image features, such as textures, colors, and shapes between corresponding images, or local descriptors representing neighborhoods of feature points extracted from corresponding images. However, image mosaicking based on feature points has attracted more recent attention due to the simplicity of the geometric transformation, regardless of distortion and differences in intensity generated by camera motion in consecutive images. Yet, since most feature-point matching algorithms extract feature points using gray values, identifying corresponding points becomes difficult in the case of changing illumination and images with a similar intensity. Accordingly, to solve these problems, this paper proposes a method of image mosaicking based on feature points using color information of images. Essentially, the digital values acquired from a real digital color camera are converted to values of a virtual camera with distinct narrow bands. Values based on the surface reflectance and invariant to the chromaticity of various illuminations are then derived from the virtual camera values and defined as color-invariant values invariant to changing illuminations. The validity of these color-invariant values is verified in a test using a Macbeth Color-Checker under simulated illuminations. The test also compares the proposed method using the color-invariant values with the conventional SIFT algorithm. The accuracy of the matching between the feature points extracted using the proposed method is increased, while image mosaicking using color information is also achieved.

  9. Clothing Color Value and Facial Expression: Effects on Evaluations of Female Job Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhorst, Mary Lynn D.; Reed, J. Ann Pinaire

    1986-01-01

    Color value of clothing and facial expression were varied in photographs of six female job applicants. Male and female business persons (N=208) judged the photographs. Facial expression significantly affected evaluations of Character-Sociability characteristics. Clothing color value influenced perceptions of Potency, only for male interviewers.…

  10. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value. PMID:24876653

  11. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  12. Munsell color value as related to organic carbon in Devonian shale of Appalachian basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosterman, J.W.; Whitlow, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of Munsell color value with organic carbon content of 880 samples from 50 drill holes in Appalachian basin shows that a power curve is the best fit for the data. A color value below 3 to 3.5 indicates the presence of organic carbon but is meaningless in determining the organic carbon content because a large increase in amount of organic carbon causes only a minor decrease in color value. Above 4, the color value is one of the factors that can be used in calculating the organic content. For samples containing equal amounts of organic carbon, calcareous shale containing more than 5% calcite is darker than shale containing less than 5% calcite.-Authors

  13. Color images in telepathology: how many colors do we need?

    PubMed

    Doolittle, M H; Doolittle, K W; Winkelman, Z; Weinberg, D S

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that for telepathology, accurate depiction of microscopic images requires the use of "true color" (ie, 24 bits, eight bits each for red, green, and blue) in the digitized image used for transmission. If such a 24-bit color image file, which provides a palette of 16.7 million colors, could be reduced in size by decreasing the possible numbers of colors displayed in the image to 8 bits (palette of 256 colors), the image files would require less storage space, could be transmitted more rapidly, and would require less telecommunications bandwidth. However, such color reduction must not result in detectable image degradation, especially if the images are to be used for diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a carefully controlled study to determine whether pathologists could detect differences in the quality of microscopic images that were reduced from 24 to 8 bits of color. Thirty pathologists were each asked to view a set of 30 image pairs displayed on a computer monitor. Each image pair consisted of the original 24-bit color version and an 8-bit color-reduced version, derived using an adaptive color reduction algorithm with diffusion dithering. Observers were asked whether they could detect any difference in quality between the image pairs. Then, regardless of their answer, they were asked to choose the better quality image of the pair. Overall, there was not a statistically significant ability to consciously detect differences between the image pairs (P < .750). However, when forced to choose, there was a significant preference for the 8-bit images as being of "better quality" (P < .005). We conclude that telepathology applications may be able to take advantage of adaptive color reduction algorithms to reduce image file size without sacrificing image quality. Additional studies must be performed to determine the minimal image requirements for accurate diagnosis by telepatholgy.

  14. Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    The color wheel, because it is an excellent way to teach color theory has become somewhat of a traditional assignment in most basic design courses. Article described a way to change this situation by re-designing and improving upon the basic color wheel. (Author/RK)

  15. Color segmentation in the HSI color space using the K-means algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Hague, G. Eric

    1997-04-01

    Segmentation of images is an important aspect of image recognition. While grayscale image segmentation has become quite a mature field, much less work has been done with regard to color image segmentation. Until recently, this was predominantly due to the lack of available computing power and color display hardware that is required to manipulate true color images (24-bit). TOday, it is not uncommon to find a standard desktop computer system with a true-color 24-bit display, at least 8 million bytes of memory, and 2 gigabytes of hard disk storage. Segmentation of color images is not as simple as segmenting each of the three RGB color components separately. The difficulty of using the RGB color space is that it doesn't closely model the psychological understanding of color. A better color model, which closely follows that of human visual perception is the hue, saturation, intensity model. This color model separates the color components in terms of chromatic and achromatic information. Strickland et al. was able to show the importance of color in the extraction of edge features form an image. His method enhances the edges that are detectable in the luminance image with information from the saturation image. Segmentation of both the saturation and intensity components is easily accomplished with any gray scale segmentation algorithm, since these spaces are linear. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its segmentation difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Instead of applying separate image segmentation to each of the hue, saturation, and intensity components, a better method is to segment the chromatic component separately from the intensity component because of the importance that the chromatic information plays in the segmentation of color images. This paper presents a method of using the gray scale K-means algorithm to segment 24-bit color images. Additionally, this paper will show the importance the hue

  16. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  17. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  18. Normal values of regional left ventricular endocardial motion: multicenter color kinesis study.

    PubMed

    Mor-Avi, V; Spencer, K; Gorcsan, J; Demaria, A; Kimball, T; Monaghan, M; Perez, J; Sun, J P; Weinert, L; Bednarz, J; Collins, K; Edelman, K; Kwan, O L; Glascock, B; Hancock, J; Baumann, C; Thomas, J; Lang, R

    2000-11-01

    Our goal was to establish normal values for quantitative color kinesis indexes of left ventricular (LV) wall motion over a wide range of ages, which are required for objective diagnosis of regional systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Color-encoded images were obtained in 194 normal subjects (95 males, 99 females, age 2 mo to 79 yr) in four standard views. Quantitative indexes of magnitude and timing of systolic and diastolic function were studied for age- and gender-related differences. Normal limits of all ejection and filling indexes were in a narrow range (< or =25% of the mean), with no major gender-related differences. Despite invariable ejection fractions, both peak filling and ejection rates decreased with age (30 and 20%, correspondingly) with a concomitant increase in mean filling and ejection times, resulting in five- and twofold increases in the late to early filling and ejection ratios, correspondingly. Diastolic asynchrony increased with age (from 4.7 +/- 2.0 to 6.4 +/- 3.2 from the 2nd to 7th decade). The normal values of color kinesis indexes should allow objective detection of regional LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

  19. Effect of marination on CIELAB L* values of early-deboned broiler breast meat depends on raw material color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of vacuum-tumbling marination on CIELAB L* values of early-deboned broiler breast fillets (p. major) with different color lightness. Early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler fillets were visually selected based on their color lightness from a commercial plant a...

  20. Color information verification system based on singular value decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-06-01

    A new color image security system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) in gyrator transform (GT) domains is proposed. In the encryption process, a color image is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. Each channel is independently modulated by random phase masks and then separately gyrator transformed at different parameters. The three gyrator spectra are joined by multiplication to get one gray ciphertext. The ciphertext is separated into U, S, and V parts by SVD. All the three parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles. The three encoded information can be assigned to different authorized users for highly secure verification. Only when all the authorized users place the U, S, and V parts in correct multiplication order in the verification system, the correct information can be obtained with all the right keys. In the proposed method, SVD offers one-way asymmetrical decomposition algorithm and it is an optimal matrix decomposition in a least-square sense. The transformation angles of GT provide very sensitive additional keys. The pre-generated keys for red, green and blue channels are served as decryption (private) keys. As all the three encrypted parts are the gray scale ciphertexts with stationary white noise distributions, which have camouflage property to some extent. These advantages enhance the security and robustness. Numerical simulations are presented to support the viability of the proposed verification system.

  1. A novel color image encryption algorithm based on genetic recombination and the four-dimensional memristive hyperchaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiu-Li; Gan, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Miao-Hui; Chen, Yi-Ran

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many image encryption algorithms based on chaos have been proposed. Most of the previous algorithms encrypt components R, G, and B of color images independently and neglect the high correlation between them. In the paper, a novel color image encryption algorithm is introduced. The 24 bit planes of components R, G, and B of the color plain image are obtained and recombined into 4 compound bit planes, and this can make the three components affect each other. A four-dimensional (4D) memristive hyperchaotic system generates the pseudorandom key streams and its initial values come from the SHA 256 hash value of the color plain image. The compound bit planes and key streams are confused according to the principles of genetic recombination, then confusion and diffusion as a union are applied to the bit planes, and the color cipher image is obtained. Experimental results and security analyses demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is secure and effective so that it may be adopted for secure communication. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203094 and 61305042), the Natural Science Foundation of the United States (Grant Nos. CNS-1253424 and ECCS-1202225), the Science and Technology Foundation of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 152102210048), the Foundation and Frontier Project of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 162300410196), the Natural Science Foundation of Educational Committee of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 14A413015), and the Research Foundation of Henan University, China (Grant No. xxjc20140006).

  2. Multichannel linear predictive coding of color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragos, P. A.; Mersereau, R. M.; Schafer, R. W.

    This paper reports on a preliminary study of applying single-channel (scalar) and multichannel (vector) 2-D linear prediction to color image modeling and coding. Also, the novel idea of a multi-input single-output 2-D ADPCM coder is introduced. The results of this study indicate that texture information in multispectral images can be represented by linear prediction coefficients or matrices, whereas the prediction error conveys edge-information. Moreover, by using a single-channel edge-information the investigators obtained, from original color images of 24 bits/pixel, reconstructed images of good quality at information rates of 1 bit/pixel or less.

  3. Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) dried into antioxidant-rich value-added foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a significant source of antioxidants from polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherol and ascorbic acid. In this study, retention of total antioxidants in fresh colored potatoes and processed potato flakes prepared as potential ingredients for snack foods was stu...

  4. CIELAB color space values of burnt granitic soils as a tool for estimating fire severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelo-González, Javier; Cachaldora, Carlos; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco; Prieto, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Soil colour is often used to characterize and differentiate soils, as the colour is one of the most distinctive morphological features of a soil. As the colour of soil is strongly influenced by the type and amount of organic matter and Fe content, both of which are fire-sensitive components, colour and burn severity should be correlated. In this work we explore the usefulness of the CIELAB color space parameters of burnt soils as a tool for estimating fire severity. For this purpose, samples of forest soils developed on granite were collected from three different sites of NW Spain and subjected to controlled thermal shocks at microcosm scale. The thermal shock was performed in topsoil by the action of infrared lamps, which allowed reproducing similar temperatures to those reached in low, moderate and high severity fires. The maximum temperature and the degree hours (DH) reached during the heating were measured as indicators of fire severity. Three different methods of measuring the colour of the burnt samples were compared in order to determine which was best for the purpose of the study. Changes in the colour of the soil and in the contents of organic matter and iron compounds were also analysed. The results obtained in the present study for granitic soils show that the values of the CIELAB parameters defining the colour of the surface of burnt granitic forest soils increased with the temperature and DH reached. Although the amount of organic matter was significantly correlated with all colour parameters and with temperature and DH reached, the Fe compounds were not significantly correlated with either CIELAB parameters, temperature or DH reached. Statistical analysis of data allowed formulate simple expressions for estimating temperature and DH reached from CIELAB and organic matter values.

  5. Critical Race Reflections: Valuing the Experiences of Teachers of Color in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Rita

    2009-01-01

    While research has demonstrated that White teachers often must be taught about the pain of racism in order to not perpetuate it, this may not apply to racial minority teachers. Through personal experience, Teachers of Color are likely aware of the trauma that racism can cause students. Within teacher education, we must create research and teaching…

  6. Color image segmentation by the vector-valued Allen-Cahn phase-field model: a multigrid solution.

    PubMed

    Kay, David A; Tomasi, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    We present an efficient numerical solution of a PDE-driven model for color image segmentation and give numerical examples of the results. The method combines the vector-valued Allen-Cahn phase field equation with initial data fitting terms with prescribed interface width and fidelity constants. Efficient numerical solution is achieved using a multigrid splitting of a finite element space, thereby producing an efficient and robust method for the segmentation of large images. We also present the use of adaptive mesh refinement to further speed up the segmentation process.

  7. End User Perceptual Distorted Scenes Enhancement Algorithm Using Partition-Based Local Color Values for QoE-Guaranteed IPTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsul

    In this letter, we propose distorted scenes enhancement algorithm in order to provide end user perceptual QoE-guaranteed IPTV service. The block edge detection with weight factor and partition-based local color values method can be applied for the degraded video frames which are affected by network transmission errors such as out of order, jitter, and packet loss to improve QoE efficiently. Based on the result of quality metric after using the distorted scenes enhancement algorithm, the distorted scenes have been restored better than others.

  8. Color values and other meat quality characteristics of breast muscles collected from 3 broiler genetic lines slaughtered at 2 ages.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Krischek, C; Wicke, M

    2011-08-01

    Broilers from the lines Ross 308, Ross 708, and Cobb 700 were slaughtered at 28 and 41 d of age at a commercial abattoir. After slaughter, the carcass, breast, and leg weights as well as the breast and leg yields were determined. Further investigations analyzed the color [lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*)], pH at 24 h postmortem, electrical conductivity (EC), drip loss, grill loss, and shear force values as well as the muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the breast muscles. The 41-d-old broilers had higher carcass, breast, and leg weights than the 28-d-old birds. The breast yield values were higher and the leg yields were lower in the 41-d-old broilers. The fiber cross-sectional area values were also higher in the older birds. Within the younger birds the slaughter characteristics were approximately comparable among the lines. The EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values increased but the drip loss and a* values decreased with the age of the broiler. The genetic lines differed within the 28-d-old broilers with regard to EC, grill loss, and shear force values and within the 41-d-old broilers with regard to the EC, L*, grill loss, and shear force values. The pH correlated negatively with the EC, L*, b*, drip loss, and shear force values. During storage, L* and b* values of the breast muscles increased and a* values decreased in all genetic lines, whereas the L* values were generally higher in the older broilers and the a* and b* results were generally higher in the breast muscles of the younger broilers. In conclusion, the carcass and meat quality characteristics of broilers changed with age with positive (carcass and breast muscle weight, drip loss) but also negative (L*, a*, grill loss) effects. The effect of the genetic line was rather low. Despite the age-related changes of meat quality parameter, the pH values remained unchanged, indicating muscle structural influences on the muscle-to-meat-transition with increasing age of the broiler.

  9. Predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography for ischemic stroke-related vertigo.

    PubMed

    Liou, Li-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, I-Fang; Chang, Yang-Pei; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2013-12-01

    Vertigo can be a major presentation of posterior circulation stroke and can be easily misdiagnosed because of its complicated presentation. We thus prospectively assessed the predictive value of vertebral artery extracranial color-coded duplex sonography (ECCS) for the prediction of ischemic stroke-related vertigo. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a sensation of whirling (vertigo); (2) intractable vertigo for more than 1 hour despite appropriate treatment; and (3) those who could complete cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and vertebral artery (V2 segment) ECCS studies. Eventually, 76 consecutive participants with vertigo were enrolled from Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan between August 2010 and August 2011. Demographic data, neurological symptoms, neurologic examinations, and V2 ECCS were assessed. We chose the parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), PSV/EDV, mean velocity (MV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) to represent the hemodynamics. Values from both sides of V2 segments were averaged. We then calculated the average RI (aRI), average PI (aPI), average PSV (aPSV)/EDV, and average (aMV). Axial and coronal diffusion-weighted MRI findings determined the existence of acute ischemic stroke. We grouped and analyzed participants in two ways (way I and way II analyses) based on the diffusion-weighted MRI findings (to determine whether there was acute stroke) and neurological examinations. Using way I analysis, the "MRI (+)" group had significantly higher impedance (aRI, aPI, and aPSV/EDV ratio) and lower velocity (aPSV, aEDV, and aMV(PSV + EDV/2)), compared to the "MRI (-)" group. The cutoff value/sensitivity/specificity of aPSV, aEDV, aMV, aPI, aRI, and aPSV/EDV between the MRI (+) and MRI (-) groups were 41.15/61.5/66.0 (p = 0.0101), 14.55/69.2/72.0 (p = 0.0003), 29.10/92.1/38.0 (p = 0.0013), 1.07/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0066), 0.62/76.9/64.0 (p = 0.0076), and 2.69/80.8/66.0 (p = 0

  10. Statistical Connections between the Properties of Type IA Supernovae and the B-V Colors of Their Parent Galaxies, and the Value of H 0: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, David; Romanishin, W.; Baron, E.

    1996-08-01

    In the 1996 July 1 issue, this paper was printed without it's title as a result of an error at the final stage of typesetting. The title, and authors, of the paper are as follows: See Journal for Abstract. STATISTICAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE PROPERTIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE B - V COLORS OF THEIR PARENT GALAXIES, AND THE VALUE OF H_0_ DAVID BRANCH, W. ROMANISHIN, AND E. BARON Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019

  11. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  12. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Added value of color patterns with emphasis on crater sign of coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-Jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes.A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated.Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, "Stiff Rim" was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of "Crater Sign" and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US.In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with "Crater Sign" in coronal plane of the highest value.

  13. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Added value of color patterns with emphasis on crater sign of coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-Jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes.A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated.Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, "Stiff Rim" was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of "Crater Sign" and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US.In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with "Crater Sign" in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  14. Quantification of elemental and organic carbon in atmospheric particulate matter using color space sensing-hue, saturation, and value (HSV) coordinates.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael R; Graham, Eric; Hamad, Samera; Uchupalanun, Pajean; Ramanathan, Nithya; Schauer, James J

    2016-04-01

    A fast and cost effective application of color sensing was used to quantify color coordinates of atmospheric particulate matter collected on filters to quantify elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) loading. This is a unique and novel approach for estimating OC composition. The method used a colorimeter and digital photography to obtain XYZ color space values and mathematically transformed them to HSV cylindrical-coordinates; a quantification method was applied to estimate the NIOSH and IMPROVE (TOR) EC/OC loadings from a set of globally diverse PM samples. When applied to 315 samples collected at three US EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sampling sites, the HSV model proved to be a robust method for EC measurement with an R(2)=0.917 for predicted versus measured loading results and a CV(RMSE)=16.1%. The OC quantified from the same sample filters had an R(2)=0.671 and a CV(RMSE)=24.8% between the predicted and measured results. The method was applied to NIOSH EC/OC results from a set of samples from rural China, Bagdad, and the San Joaquin Valley, CA, and the EC and OC CV(RMSE) were 30.8% and 49.3%, respectively. Additionally, the method was applied to samples with color quantified by a digital photographic image (DPI) with EC results showing good agreement with a CV(RMSE) of 22.6%. OC concentrations were not captured as accurately with the DPI method, with a CV(RMSE) of 77.5%. The method's low analytical cost makes it a valuable tool for estimating EC/OC exposure in developing regions and for large scale monitoring campaigns.

  15. Quantification of elemental and organic carbon in atmospheric particulate matter using color space sensing-hue, saturation, and value (HSV) coordinates.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael R; Graham, Eric; Hamad, Samera; Uchupalanun, Pajean; Ramanathan, Nithya; Schauer, James J

    2016-04-01

    A fast and cost effective application of color sensing was used to quantify color coordinates of atmospheric particulate matter collected on filters to quantify elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) loading. This is a unique and novel approach for estimating OC composition. The method used a colorimeter and digital photography to obtain XYZ color space values and mathematically transformed them to HSV cylindrical-coordinates; a quantification method was applied to estimate the NIOSH and IMPROVE (TOR) EC/OC loadings from a set of globally diverse PM samples. When applied to 315 samples collected at three US EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sampling sites, the HSV model proved to be a robust method for EC measurement with an R(2)=0.917 for predicted versus measured loading results and a CV(RMSE)=16.1%. The OC quantified from the same sample filters had an R(2)=0.671 and a CV(RMSE)=24.8% between the predicted and measured results. The method was applied to NIOSH EC/OC results from a set of samples from rural China, Bagdad, and the San Joaquin Valley, CA, and the EC and OC CV(RMSE) were 30.8% and 49.3%, respectively. Additionally, the method was applied to samples with color quantified by a digital photographic image (DPI) with EC results showing good agreement with a CV(RMSE) of 22.6%. OC concentrations were not captured as accurately with the DPI method, with a CV(RMSE) of 77.5%. The method's low analytical cost makes it a valuable tool for estimating EC/OC exposure in developing regions and for large scale monitoring campaigns. PMID:26802353

  16. Short-range vertical variation in organic carbon, carbonate carbon, total sulfur contents and Munsell color values in a core from the Upper Pennsylvanian Stark Shale Member of the Dennis Limestone, Wabaunsee County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, M.R.; Leventhal, Joel S.; Hatch, Joseph R.

    1983-01-01

    Organic carbon, total sulfur, carbonate carbon and Munsell color value were determined for 21 successive samples from a 53-cm-thick section of drill core. These samples are from the Stark Shale Member of the Dennis Limestone of Upper Pennsylvanian age, Wabaunsee County, Kansas. The data confirm previous results (Hosterman and Whitlow, 1981) which showed that a limited relationship of color value to organic carbon exists for shales containing about 7 percent or less organic carbon. For samples with 7 percent or more organic carbon, color values are nearly all the same. The color value is useful in screening samples before trace element analysis and in estimating the organic carbon content and metal potential of the shale (Leventhal and others, 1982).

  17. Impact of nodular size on the predictive values of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for assessment of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu-rong; Wu, Yu-lian; Luo, Zhi-yan; Wu, Ning-bo; Liu, Xue-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To define the roles of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for the assessment of thyroid nodule to determine whether nodule size affects the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant. Methods: A total of 243 consecutive subjects (214 women, 29 men) with 329 thyroid nodules were examined by gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography in this prospective study. All patients underwent surgery and the final diagnosis was obtained from histopathological examination. Results: Three hundred and twenty-nine nodules (208 benign, 121 malignant) were divided into small (SNs, 5–10 mm, n=137) and large (LNs, >10 mm, n=192) nodules. Microcalcifications were more frequent in malignant LNs than in malignant SNs, but showed no significant difference between benign LNs and SNs. Poorly-circumscribed margins were not significantly different between malignant SNs and LNs, but were less frequent in benign LNs than in benign SNs. Among all nodules, marked intranodular vascularity was more frequent in LNs than in SNs. By comparison, shape ratio of anteroposterior to transverse dimensions (A/T) ≥1 was less frequent in LNs than in SNs. Otherwise, among all nodules, marked hypoechogenicity and elasticity score of 4–6 showed no significant difference between LNs and SNs. Conclusions: The predictive values of microcalcifications, nodular margins, A/T ratio, and marked intranodular vascularity depend on nodule size, but the predictive values of echogenicity and elastography do not. PMID:22949361

  18. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  19. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  20. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  1. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  2. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  3. Industrial Color Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamy, C. S.

    1986-10-01

    Color is a very important property of many products and an essential feature of some. The commercial value of color is evident in the fact that customers reject product that is satisfactory in every other way, but is not the right color. Color isrumerically specified, measured, and controlled just as length or weight are. It has three dimensions: Hue, Value, and Chroma, and may be represented in a three-dimensional space. Colors of objects depend on the illumination and pairs of colors may match in one light but not in another. Controlled illumination is required for color matching. Illuminants were standardized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). As a basis for color measurement, the CIE adopted three spectral sensitivity functions representing a standard observer. Color may be measured by instruments using standard illumination and simulating the standard observer. It is better to measure spectral reflectance or transmittance and compute colorimetric quantities. Color may be inspected on a production line and the data obtained can be used to control the process. When production cannot be controlled as precisely as required, product may be sorted by color.

  4. The Diagnostic Value of Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) in Detecting Blood Flow Signals of Breast Lesions: A Preliminary Study Comparing SMI to Color Doppler Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Li, Gang; Li, Jing; Ren, Wei-dong

    2015-09-01

    The correlation between color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) for detecting blood flow in breast lesions was investigated, as was the diagnostic value of SMI in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions.These lesions were evaluated using both CDFI and SMI according to Adler's method. Pathologic examination showed 57 malignant lesions and 66 benign lesions. The number of blood vessels in a single mass was detected by 2 techniques (SMI and CDFI), and the difference between the 2 values (SMI-CDFI) was calculated. The optimal threshold for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and the diagnostic performances of SMI, CDFI, and SMI-CDFI were calculated.For the total lesions and malignant lesions alone, the difference between SMI and CDFI for detecting blood flow was significant (P < 0.01), but the difference was not significant for benign lesions (P = 0.15). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.82) for CDFI; 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) for SMI; and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95) for SMI-CDFI. Furthermore, the modality of "SMI-CDFI" showed the best diagnostic performance.SMI provides further microvessel information in breast lesions. The diagnostic modality of "SMI-CDFI" can improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in the differentiation between benign and malignant masses.

  5. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  6. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  7. [Color categorization and the structure of perceptive color].

    PubMed

    Endrikhovskiĭ, S N

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, simulating, and predicting color categories. The process of color categorization can be understood as a structuring of preceding color experience on the basis of statistical distribution of light in observers environment. A proposed computational model of color categorization includes: 1) distribution of R, G, B pixel values representing a sample of 630 color images of natural scenes (analogue of physical light experience); 2) transformation of the R, G, B pixel values into L*u*v* coordinates of the CIELUV color space (analogue of the process of color perception); 3) distribution of the L*u*v* coordinates representing the sample of the color images (analogue of perceived color experience); 4) k-means clustering algorithm of the L*u*v* coordinates representing the sample of the color images (analogue of the process of color categorization); 5) location and order of color clusters (analogue of location and order of color categories). The proposed computational model enables us to predict the location and order of color categories, being consistent with psycholinguistic data. PMID:11084999

  8. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  9. Unlocking the Color of White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabiston, Duane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes that teaching students how to unlock the color of white is his passion. Like so many other art teachers, he struggled for years teaching color wheels and making value scales, only to be frustrated when students produced colorful charts and then made colorless paintings. He was teaching students how to mix…

  10. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  11. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  12. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  13. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  14. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  15. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  16. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  17. An object-color space.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 < or = k < or = 1), with two transitions (at wavelengths lambda(1) and lambda(2)) across the spectrum. This color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda

  18. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  19. Requirements for color technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ronald B., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity. Recent research on productivity and growth has moved beyond the classical two factor productivity model of labor and capital to explicitly include knowledge as a third and vital factor. Documents are agents of knowledge in the general office. Documents articulate, express, disseminate, and communicate knowledge. The central question addressed here is how can color, in conjunction with other techniques such as graphics and document design, improve the growth of knowledge? The central thesis is that the effective use of color to convert information into knowledge is one of the most powerful ways to increase office productivity. Material on the value of color is reviewed. This material is related to the role of documents. Document services are the way in which users access and utilize color technology. The requirements for color technology are then defined against the services taxonomy.

  20. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  1. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  2. Image indexing using color correlograms

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Jing; Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Ravi; Mitra, Mandar; Zhu, Wei-Jing

    2001-01-01

    A color correlogram is a three-dimensional table indexed by color and distance between pixels which expresses how the spatial correlation of color changes with distance in a stored image. The color correlogram may be used to distinguish an image from other images in a database. To create a color correlogram, the colors in the image are quantized into m color values, c.sub.i . . . c.sub.m. Also, the distance values k.epsilon.[d] to be used in the correlogram are determined where [d] is the set of distances between pixels in the image, and where dmax is the maximum distance measurement between pixels in the image. Each entry (i, j, k) in the table is the probability of finding a pixel of color c.sub.i at a selected distance k from a pixel of color c.sub.i. A color autocorrelogram, which is a restricted version of the color correlogram that considers color pairs of the form (i,i) only, may also be used to identify an image.

  3. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  4. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  5. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  6. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  7. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  8. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    PubMed

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  9. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  10. Two alternative methods to predict amylose content in rice grain by using tristimulus CIELAB values and developing a specific color board of starch-iodine complex solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amylose content was predicted by measuring tridimensional L*a*b* values in starch-iodine solutions and building a regression model. The developed regression model showed a highly significant relationship (R2= 0.99) between the L*a*b values and the amylose content. Apparent amylose content was strong...

  11. Spas color camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toffales, C.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

  12. Comparative study of visual color differences using reflective and self-luminous color stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, John H.; Lam, C. C.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, visual color difference assessements were conducted using both reflective colors which are dyed cotton fabrics with no obvious texture pattern and self-luminous colors displayed on a CRT monitor. All together, eighty-two pairs of color samples belonging to five different color centres were used. The average color difference for all pairs is about 5.0 CIELAB units. The values of the color difference for the self-luminous color pairs (ΔEself-luminous) are very close to those of the corresponding reflective color pairs (ΔEreflective), i.e., the reproduction of the reflective color pairs onto the CRT monitor was very accurate. Grey scale method was used in the visual assessment of color difference. The assessments were done using five different viewing conditions, i.e., reference viewing condition recommended by CIE (CIE Technical Report CIE 116-1995) and the other conditions which include a 3-inch gap between samples in a pair, small sized sample corresponding to 2° angle of subtend and two different background colors. In comparison with the visual color differences of the reflective pairs under the reference condition, the results obtained from the CRT color pairs are 15% smaller. Under other viewing conditions, the visual color difference of the CRT color pairs are 13 to 18% smaller than those of hte reflective color pairs. Further comparison was made using chromatic color discrimination ellipses for self-luminous and reflective colors.

  13. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  14. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  15. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  16. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  1. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  2. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  3. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  6. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  11. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type....

  14. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type....

  15. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  16. Spectrum, A Colorful Look at Math Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Christopher J.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and describes a program (Microsoft Basic) which: computes the value of a numberic function of two variables (x/y); uses x/y values to determine a spot on the screen; uses the function value to designate a color; and displays the color at the proper spots on the screen. (JN)

  17. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  18. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  19. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  20. Hidden Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.-R.

    2014-10-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom.

  1. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of color Doppler ultrasound examination of salivary gland neoplasms and metastatic tumors from the facial bones].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, A

    1998-01-01

    . Atheromatosis was detected in patients of each group, 7 of them had to be operated on due to a stricture within the proximal part of internal carotid artery. The results of the study express high diagnostic value of colour Doppler ultrasound examination in the neck tumours. The examination should be obligatory performed as one of the first diagnostic measures after admitting a patient. The method seems to be of very little use in diagnosis differentiating inflammation, benign and malignant salivary gland tumours and metastatic masses of the neck hence some other diagnostic procedures should be here employed.

  2. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  3. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  4. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  5. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  6. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  7. 3D histogram visualization in different color spaces with application in color clustering classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents a dynamically visualization procedure for 3D histogram of color images. The procedure runs for RGB, YMC, HSV, HSL device dependent color spaces and for Lab, Luv device independent color spaces and it is easily extendable to other color spaces if the analytical form of color transformations is available. Each histogram value is represented in the color space as a colored ball, in a position corresponding to the place of color in the color space. The paper presents the procedures for nonlinear ball normalization, ordering of drawing, space edges drawing, translation, scaling and rotation of the histogram. The 3D histogram visualization procedure can be used in different applications described in the second part of the paper. It enables to get a clear representation of the range of colors of one image, to derive and compare the efficiency of different clusterization procedures for color classification, to display comparatively the gamut of different color devices, to select the color space for an optimal mapping procedure of the outside gamut colors for minimizing the hue error, to detect bad-alignment in RGB planes for a sequential process.

  8. Specialized Color Function for Display of Signed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    This Mathematica script defines a color function to be used with Mathematica's plotting modules for differentiating data attaining both positive and negative values. Positive values are shown as shades of blue, and negative values are shown in red. The intensity of the color reflects the absolute value of the data value.

  9. Masking the Color Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Charlene

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which sixth graders made mirror-image masks using only two primary colors and one secondary color. Students discussed the effect of color combinations and the use of masks in folk and modern cultures. (AM)

  10. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  11. Basic Color Theory and Color in Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light and its relationship to color, particularly two models of color production: the additive and subtractive models. Explains the importance of these models for understanding how computers and printers generate colors. Argues that it is important to understand these processes given the prevalence of computers in art. (DSK)

  12. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  13. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook

    2011-04-11

    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram.

  14. Associating color appearance with the cone chromaticity space.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C

    2005-07-01

    A cone chromaticity space, a transform of a colorimetric specification system into coordinates that represent cone excitations, does not provide color appearance information. Boynton and Olson (Color Research and Application 12, 94-105, 1987) gathered color naming for the 424 Optical Society of America Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) color samples. Here, a computational algorithm was developed that converts OSA-UCS sample values into L, M, S cone excitations based on the 1964 CIE 10 degrees Standard Observer. This makes it possible to plot the cone chromaticities associated with the eight color names used by Boynton and Olsen's observers to describe the non-dark appearing colors.

  15. Region Adaptive Color Demosaicing Algorithm Using Color Constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Won; Oh, Hyun Mook; Yoo, Du Sic; Kang, Moon Gi

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel way of combining color demosaicing and the auto white balance (AWB) method, which are important parts of image processing. Performance of the AWB is generally affected by demosaicing results because most AWB algorithms are performed posterior to color demosaicing. In this paper, in order to increase the performance and efficiency of the AWB algorithm, the color constancy problem is examined during the color demosaicing step. Initial estimates of the directional luminance and chrominance values are defined for estimating edge direction and calculating the AWB gain. In order to prevent color failure in conventional edge-based AWB methods, we propose a modified edge-based AWB method that used a predefined achromatic region. The estimation of edge direction is performed region adaptively by using the local statistics of the initial estimates of the luminance and chrominance information. Simulated and real Bayer color filter array (CFA) data are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. When compared to conventional methods, the proposed method shows significant improvements in terms of visual and numerical criteria.

  16. Opponent-colors approach to color rendering.

    PubMed

    Worthey, J A

    1982-01-01

    Starting with an opponent-colors formulation of color vision, two parameters, t and d, may be defined that express an illuminant's ability to realize red-green and blue-yellow contrasts of objects. For instance, calculation of t and d for daylight shows that on a gray day, color contrasts are actually reduced. By these measures, many common vapor-discharge illuminants systematically distort object colors. Because red-green contrasts contribute to border distinctness, and both types of color contrast contribute to brightness, such systematic distortions probably affect the overall clarity and brightness of what is perceived visually, Experimental data are consistent with this idea. In relation to color-constancy (retinex) experiments, it is approximately true that the visual system discounts the color of an illuminant but not its t and d.

  17. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  18. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  19. Color: An Unsuspected Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scargall, Hollie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

  20. Illuminant spectrum estimation using a digital color camera and a color chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junsheng; Yu, Hongfei; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Chen, Zaiqing; Tai, Yonghang

    2014-10-01

    Illumination estimation is the main step in color constancy processing, also an important prerequisite for digital color image reproduction and many computer vision applications. In this paper, a method for estimating illuminant spectrum is investigated using a digital color camera and a color chart under the situation when the spectral reflectance of the chart is known. The method is based on measuring CIEXYZ of the chart using the camera. The first step of the method is to gain camera's color correction matrix and gamma values by taking a photo of the chart under a standard illuminant. The second step is to take a photo of the chart under an estimated illuminant, and the camera's inherent RGB values are converted to the standard sRGB values and further converted to CIEXYZ of the chart. Based on measured CIEXYZ and known spectral reflectance of the chart, the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the illuminant is estimated using the Wiener estimation and smoothing estimation. To evaluate the performance of the method quantitatively, the goodnessfitting coefficient (GFC) was used to measure the spectral match and the CIELAB color difference metric was used to evaluate the color match between color patches under the estimated and actual SPDs. The simulated experiment was carried to estimate CIE standard illuminant D50 and C using X-rite ColorChecker 24-color chart, the actual experiment was carried to estimate daylight and illuminant A using two consumergrade cameras and the chart, and the experiment results verified feasible of the investigated method.

  1. Digital color image analysis of core

    SciTech Connect

    Digoggio, R.; Burleigh, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Geologists often identify sands, shales, or UV-fluorescent zones by their color in photos of slabbed core or sidewalls. Similarly, they observe porosity as blue-dyed epoxy in thin sections. Of course, it is difficult to accurately quantify the amount of sand shale, fluorescence, or porosity by eye. With digital images, a computer can quantify the area of an image that is close in shade to a selected color, which is particularly useful for determining net sand or net fluorescence in thinly laminated zones. Digital color photography stores a video image as a large array of numbers (512 {times} 400 {times} 3 colors) in a computer file. With 32 intensity levels each for red, green, and blue, one can distinguish 32,768 different colors. A fluorescent streak or a shale has some natural variation in color that corresponds to hundreds of very similar shades. Thus, to process a digital image, one picks representative shades of some selected feature (e.g., fluorescence). The computer then calculates the eigen values and eigen vectors of the mean-centered covariance matrix of these representative colors. Based on these calculations, it determines which parts of the image have colors similar enough to the representative colors to be considered part of the selected feature. Their results show good agreement with independently measured thin section porosity and with specially prepared images having known amount of a given color.

  2. Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

  3. In vitro color stability of provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Yaman, P; Razzoog, M; Brandau, H E

    1989-04-01

    A provisional restoration must protect the prepared tooth, provide comfort and function and be esthetically acceptable and color stable. This study measured the degree of color change of provisional restorations. Five commercially available resins were evaluated: Trim, Tab, Kind, Snap and Duralay. Five cylindrical samples of each resin were fabricated by mixing the powder and the liquid to a predetermined ratio and pouring the mix into a mold. The Minolta Chroma Meter II Reflectance was used to establish the baseline color L* a* b*. The resins were then subjected to accelerated in vitro aging in a Weather-O-Meter and color readings were recorded. The color differentials on delta E* were computed for each sample (delta E*ab = [(delta L*)2+(delta b*)2]1/2). The difference is a quantitative measurement of color change. The National Bureau of Standards describes delta E* as units (NBS Unit = delta E*ab x 0.92). With this parameter only the allowable delta E*ab need be specified rather than the range of allowable L*, a*, b* values. This is important for color comparison and quality control functions. The results showed that Kind had a slight color change delta E* = -1.72, Trim demonstrated the most color change delta E* = -13.84, while the remaining resins demonstrated a noticeable change in color due to in vitro aging.

  4. Mouthrinses affect color stability of composite

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Arshia Rashid; Shori, Deepa Deepak; Shenoi, Pratima Ramakrishna; Ali, Syed Navid; Shetti, Sanjay; Godhane, Alkesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of alcohol and nonalcohol containing mouth rinses on the color stability of a nanofilled resin composite restorative material. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 samples of a nanofilled resin composite material (Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, FL-9494 Schaan/Liechtenstein) were prepared and immersed in distilled water for 24 h. Baseline color values were recorded using Color Spectrophotometer 3600d (Konica Minolta, Japan). Samples were then randomly distributed into six groups: Group I - distilled water (control group), Group II - Listerine, Group III - Eludril, Group IV - Phosflur, Group V - Amflor, and Group VI - Rexidin. The postimmersion color values of the samples were then recorded, respectively. Results: Significant reduction in the mean color value (before and after immersion) was observed in nonalcohol containing mouth rinses (P < 0.001). Conclusion: All mouthrinses tested in the present in-vitro study caused a color shift in the nanofilled resin composite restorative material, but the color shift was dependent on the material and the mouthrinse used. Group VI (Rexidin) showed maximum color change. PMID:27563186

  5. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  6. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  7. Face Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that incorporates self-portraits and a familiar art technique: coloring paper with crayons, covering the colors with a layer of black, and drawing through the black to reveal the hidden colors. Explains that the students must be expressive by using the colors or concentrating on their facial features. (CMK)

  8. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  9. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  10. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  11. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  12. Creating experimental color harmony map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  13. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  14. Why color synesthesia involves more than color.

    PubMed

    Eagleman, David M; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2009-07-01

    Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimuli can trigger experiences in non-stimulated sensory dimensions. The literature has focused on forms of synesthesia in which stimuli (e.g. music, touch or numbers) trigger experiences of color. Generally missing, however, is the observation that synesthetic colors are often accompanied by the experience of other surface properties such as texture (e.g. a visual experience of linen, metal, marble, velvet, etc). Current frameworks for synesthesia focus only upon the involvement of brain regions such as the V4 color complex. Here, we propose an expanded framework that includes brain regions involved in the encoding of material properties - specifically, larger regions of the medial ventral stream. The overlap of visual texture and color processing within ventral regions might explain why many experiences of synesthesia extend beyond color to other material properties.

  15. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  16. A color-communication scheme for digital imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acosta, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Color pictures generated from digital images are frequently used by geologists, foresters, range managers, and others. These color products are preferred over black and white pictures because the human eye is more sensitive to color differences than to various shades of gray. Color discrimination is a function of perception, and therefore colors in these color composites are generally described subjectively, which can lead to ambiguous color communication. Numerous color-coordinate systems are available that quantitively relate digital triplets representing amounts of red, free, and blue to the parameters of hue, saturation, and intensity perceived by the eye. Most of these systems implement a complex transformation of the primary colors to a color space that is hard to visualize, thus making it difficult to relate digital triplets to perception parameters. This paper presents a color-communcation scheme that relates colors on a color triangle to corresponding values of "hue" (H), "saturation" (S), and chromaticity coordinates (x,y,z). The scheme simplifies the relation between red, green, and blue (RGB) digital triplets and the color generated by these triplets. Some examples of the use of the color-communication scheme in digital image processing are presented.

  17. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  18. Developments in Color Micrographics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourdajian, Ara

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent progress in color micrographics, which has centered about the corporate development of new microfilms whose capacities for reproducing and sustaining color image far exceed those of their predecessors. (Author/EJS)

  19. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  20. Color photography of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S. M.; Fountain, J. W.; Mintor, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Selected color photographs of Jupiter taken with the 154-cm Catalina reflector from October 1965 to September 1973 are presented. Eight oppositions are covered showing the developments in cloud belt structure and color distribution of the Jovian atmosphere.

  1. Ocean color spectrum calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    There is obvious value in developing the means for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. The first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model can be described by a modified single scattering approach based on a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasisingle scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurements made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  2. A new color transfer quality measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Long; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2016-05-01

    Color transfer changes the color contents of a target image by replacing the colors in the target image with colors from another source image. The target image will be repainted/recolored to exhibit the same ambience as the source image. Color transfer is applicable to a wide range of commercial image processing tools and products. While much outstanding research has been conducted on this subject, judging the performance of the recoloring process remains subjective to human evaluation. To obtain an objective quantitative assessment of recoloring algorithms' performance, a new color transfer quality measure is proposed. In this paper, we will first establish the requirements that a good color transfer quality measure should meet. Then, according to these requirements, a new color transfer quality measure is proposed that focuses on measuring the content similarity between a target image and a resulting recolored output image, and the color similarity between the source image and the output image. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed measure, the subjective human perception Mean Opinion Score (MOS) values are used. The high correlation between MOS and the proposed measure demonstrate the measure's performance and demonstrate that it exhibits high consistency with human perception.

  3. MUNSELL COLOR ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT COLOR-RATIO-COMPOSITE IMAGES OF LIMONITIC AREAS IN SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1984-01-01

    Green areas on Landsat 4/5 - 4/6 - 6/7 (red - blue - green) color-ratio-composite (CRC) images represent limonite on the ground. Color variation on such images was analyzed to determine the causes of the color differences within and between the green areas. Digital transformation of the CRC data into the modified cylindrical Munsell color coordinates - hue, value, and saturation - was used to correlate image color characteristics with properties of surficial materials. The amount of limonite visible to the sensor is the primary cause of color differences in green areas on the CRCs. Vegetation density is a secondary cause of color variation of green areas on Landsat CRC images. Digital color analysis of Landsat CRC images can be used to map unknown areas. Color variations of green pixels allows discrimination among limonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic bedrock, nonlimonitic alluvium, and limonitic alluvium.

  4. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  5. Sweetpotato Color Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color is an important attribute that contributes to the appearance of a sweetpotato genotype. A consumer uses color, along with geometric attributes (e.g., gloss, luster, sheen, texture, opaqueness, shape), to subjectively evaluate the appearance of a sweetpotato root. Color can be quantified by t...

  6. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  7. Color signal encoding for high dynamic range and wide color gamut based on human perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezamabadi, Mahdi; Miller, Scott; Daly, Scott; Atkins, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A new EOTF based on human perception, called PQ (Perceptual Quantizer), was proposed in a previous work (SMPTE Mot. Imag. J 2013, 122:52-59) and its performance was evaluated for a wide range of luminance levels and encoding bitdepth values. This paper is an extension of that previous work to include the color aspects of the PQ signal encoding. The efficiency of the PQ encoding and bit-depth requirements were evaluated and compared for standard color gamuts of Rec 709 (SRGB), and the wide color gamuts of Rec 2020, P3, and ACES for a variety of signal representations as RGB, YCbCr, and XYZ. In a selected color space for any potential local gray level 26 color samples were simulated by deviating one quantization step from the original color in each signal dimension. The quantization step sizes were simulated based on the PQ and gamma curves for different bit-depth values and luminance ranges for each of the color gamut spaces and signal representations. Color differences between the gray field and the simulated color samples were computed using CIE DE2000 color difference equation. The maximum color difference values (quantization error) were used as a metric to evaluate the performance of the corresponding EOTF curve. Extended color gamuts were found to require more bits to maintain low quantization error. Extended dynamic range required fewer additional bits in to maintain quantization error. Regarding the visual detection thresholds, the minimum bit-depth required by the PQ and gamma encodings are evaluated and compared through visual experiments.

  8. Efficient color representation for image segmentation under nonwhite illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Byung

    2003-10-01

    Color image segmentation algorithms often consider object color to be a constant property of an object. If the light source dominantly exhibits a particular color, however, it becomes necessary to consider the color variation induced by the colored illuminant. This paper presents a new approach to segmenting color images that are photographed under non-white illumination conditions. It also addresses how to estimate the color of illuminant in terms of the standard RGB color values rather than the spectrum of the illuminant. With respect to the illumination axis that goes through the origin and the centroid of illuminant color clusters (prior given by the estimation process), the RGB color space is transformed into our new color coordinate system. Our new color scheme shares the intuitiveness of the HSI (HSL or HSV) space that comes from the conical (double-conical or cylindrical) structure of hue and saturation aligned with the intensity variation at its center. It has been developed by locating the ordinary RGB cube in such a way that the illumination axis aligns with the vertical axis (Z-axis) of a larger Cartesian (XYZ) space. The work in this paper uses the dichromatic reflection model [1] to interpret the physics about light and optical effects in color images. The linearity proposed in the dichromatic reflection model is essential and is well preserved in the RGB color space. By proposing a straightforward color model transduction, we suggest dimensionality reduction and provide an efficient way to analyze color images of dielectric objects under non-white illumination conditions. The feasibility of the proposed color representation has been demonstrated by our experiment that is twofold: 1) Segmentation result from a multi-modal histogram-based thresholding technique and 2) Color constancy result from discounting illumination effect further by color balancing.

  9. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  10. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  11. Sunlight-Induced Coloration of Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ya; Tang, Bin; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2016-06-01

    Silk fabrics were colored by gold nanoparticles (NPs) that were in situ synthesized through the induction of sunlight. Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold NPs, the treated silk fabrics presented vivid colors. The photo-induced synthesis of gold NPs was also realized on wet silk through adsorbing gold ions out of solution, which provides a water-saving coloration method for textiles. Besides, the patterning of silk was feasible using this simple sunlight-induced coloration approach. The key factors of coloration including gold ion concentration, pH value, and irradiation time were investigated. Moreover, it was demonstrated that either ultraviolet (UV) light or visible light could induce the generation of gold NPs on silk fabrics. The silk fabrics with gold NPs exhibited high light resistance including great UV-blocking property and excellent fastness to sunlight.

  12. Sunlight-Induced Coloration of Silk.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ya; Tang, Bin; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2016-12-01

    Silk fabrics were colored by gold nanoparticles (NPs) that were in situ synthesized through the induction of sunlight. Owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold NPs, the treated silk fabrics presented vivid colors. The photo-induced synthesis of gold NPs was also realized on wet silk through adsorbing gold ions out of solution, which provides a water-saving coloration method for textiles. Besides, the patterning of silk was feasible using this simple sunlight-induced coloration approach. The key factors of coloration including gold ion concentration, pH value, and irradiation time were investigated. Moreover, it was demonstrated that either ultraviolet (UV) light or visible light could induce the generation of gold NPs on silk fabrics. The silk fabrics with gold NPs exhibited high light resistance including great UV-blocking property and excellent fastness to sunlight.

  13. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    DOE PAGES

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    2015-07-15

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal–oxide–semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signalsmore » captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.« less

  14. Deep Cryogenic Low Power 24 Bits Analog to Digital Converter with Active Reverse Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Turqueti, Marcos; Prestemon, Soren; Albright, Robert

    2015-07-15

    LBNL is developing an innovative data acquisition module for superconductive magnets where the front-end electronics and digitizer resides inside the cryostat. This electronic package allows conventional electronic technologies such as enhanced metal–oxide–semiconductor to work inside cryostats at temperatures as low as 4.2 K. This is achieved by careful management of heat inside the module that keeps the electronic envelop at approximately 85 K. This approach avoids all the difficulties that arise from changes in carrier mobility that occur in semiconductors at deep cryogenic temperatures. There are several advantages in utilizing this system. A significant reduction in electrical noise from signals captured inside the cryostat occurs due to the low temperature that the electronics is immersed in, reducing the thermal noise. The shorter distance that signals are transmitted before digitalization reduces pickup and cross-talk between channels. This improved performance in signal-to-noise rate by itself is a significant advantage. Another important advantage is the simplification of the feedthrough interface on the cryostat head. Data coming out of the cryostat is digital and serial, dramatically reducing the number of lines going through the cryostat feedthrough interface. It is important to notice that all lines coming out of the cryostat are digital and low voltage, reducing the possibility of electric breakdown inside the cryostat. This paper will explain in details the architecture and inner workings of this data acquisition system. It will also provide the performance of the analog to digital converter when the system is immersed in liquid helium, and in liquid nitrogen. Parameters such as power dissipation, integral non-linearity, effective number of bits, signal-to-noise and distortion, will be presented for both temperatures.

  15. Color priming in pop-out search depends on the relative color of the target.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stefanie I; Valuch, Christian; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In visual search for pop-out targets, search times are shorter when the target and non-target colors from the previous trial are repeated than when they change. This priming effect was originally attributed to a feature weighting mechanism that biases attention toward the target features, and away from the non-target features. However, more recent studies have shown that visual selection is strongly context-dependent: according to a relational account of feature priming, the target color is always encoded relative to the non-target color (e.g., as redder or greener). The present study provides a critical test of this hypothesis, by varying the colors of the search items such that either the relative color or the absolute color of the target always remained constant (or both). The results clearly show that color priming depends on the relative color of a target with respect to the non-targets but not on its absolute color value. Moreover, the observed priming effects did not change over the course of the experiment, suggesting that the visual system encodes colors in a relative manner from the start of the experiment. Taken together, these results strongly support a relational account of feature priming in visual search, and are inconsistent with the dominant feature-based views.

  16. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  17. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  18. New dyes based on anthraquinone derivatives for color filter colorants.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeoun; Park, Junghyo; Lee, Sola; Park, Jongwook

    2014-08-01

    Two new compounds which substituted quinoline group in 1,4-position and 1,8-position of anthraquinone were synthesized for color filter. The change in physical properties according to the substituted position of the synthesized compound was systematically identified from the perspectives of optical property and thermal property. The extinction coefficient (ε) of the synthesized substance has a very high value more than 4.26 in log scale. Td value is more than 300 °C, which shows high thermal stability. This showed quite excellent results in optical property and thermal stability. PMID:25936132

  19. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  20. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  1. Benchmarking matching color in composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Romeo, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the color samples (A2, A3 and B1) of three different brands of resin composites using dentine masses. 135 discs were prepared (5 plates for each thickness, color and brand of composite material). A colorimetric evaluation, using white and black background, was performed just after preparation. The color was measured corresponding to "Vita" scale and ΔL, Δa, Δb and ΔE values were calculated using a spectrophotometer. The results showed that Value, Chroma and Hue often differ even if the same commercial color and same thickness is used. In conclusion, this study showed that the perfect aesthetics restoration is possible combining individual abilities, experience and correct techniques. PMID:27512531

  2. Benchmarking matching color in composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Romeo, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate the color samples (A2, A3 and B1) of three different brands of resin composites using dentine masses. 135 discs were prepared (5 plates for each thickness, color and brand of composite material). A colorimetric evaluation, using white and black background, was performed just after preparation. The color was measured corresponding to “Vita” scale and ΔL, Δa, Δb and ΔE values were calculated using a spectrophotometer. The results showed that Value, Chroma and Hue often differ even if the same commercial color and same thickness is used. In conclusion, this study showed that the perfect aesthetics restoration is possible combining individual abilities, experience and correct techniques. PMID:27512531

  3. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  4. Inter-printer color calibration using constrained printer gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Humet, Jacint

    2005-01-01

    Due to the drop size variation of the print heads in inkjet printers, consistent color reproduction becomes challenge for high quality color printing. To improve the color consistency, we developed a method and system to characterize a pair of printers using a colorimeter or a color scanner. Different from prior known approaches that simply try to match colors of one printer to the other without considering the gamut differences, we first constructed an overlapped gamut in which colors can be produced by both printers, and then characterized both printers using a pair of 3-D or 4-D lookup tables (LUT) to produce same colors limited to the overlapped gamut. Each LUT converts nominal device color values into engine-dependent device color values limited to the overlapped gamut. Compared to traditional approaches, the color calibration accuracy is significantly improved. This method can be simply extended to calibrate more than two engines. In a color imaging system that includes a scanner and more than one print engine, this method improves the color consistency very effectively without increasing hardware costs. A few examples for applying this method are: 1) one-pass bi-directional inkjet printing; 2) a printer with two or more sets of pens for printing; and 3) a system embedded with a pair of printers (the number of printers could be easily incremented).

  5. Inter-printer color calibration using constrained printer gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Humet, Jacint

    2004-12-01

    Due to the drop size variation of the print heads in inkjet printers, consistent color reproduction becomes challenge for high quality color printing. To improve the color consistency, we developed a method and system to characterize a pair of printers using a colorimeter or a color scanner. Different from prior known approaches that simply try to match colors of one printer to the other without considering the gamut differences, we first constructed an overlapped gamut in which colors can be produced by both printers, and then characterized both printers using a pair of 3-D or 4-D lookup tables (LUT) to produce same colors limited to the overlapped gamut. Each LUT converts nominal device color values into engine-dependent device color values limited to the overlapped gamut. Compared to traditional approaches, the color calibration accuracy is significantly improved. This method can be simply extended to calibrate more than two engines. In a color imaging system that includes a scanner and more than one print engine, this method improves the color consistency very effectively without increasing hardware costs. A few examples for applying this method are: 1) one-pass bi-directional inkjet printing; 2) a printer with two or more sets of pens for printing; and 3) a system embedded with a pair of printers (the number of printers could be easily incremented).

  6. Colored Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Klein, S.

    1996-03-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences.

  7. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  8. Colored diffraction catastrophes.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M V; Klein, S

    1996-01-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

  9. Quantifying nonhomogeneous colors in agricultural materials. Part II: comparison of machine vision and sensory panel evaluations.

    PubMed

    Balaban, M O; Aparicio, J; Zotarelli, M; Sims, C

    2008-11-01

    The average colors of mangos and apples were measured using machine vision. A method to quantify the perception of nonhomogeneous colors by sensory panelists was developed. Three colors out of several reference colors and their perceived percentage of the total sample area were selected by untrained panelists. Differences between the average colors perceived by panelists and those from the machine vision were reported as DeltaE values (color difference error). Effects of nonhomogeneity of color, and using real samples or their images in the sensory panels on DeltaE were evaluated. In general, samples with more nonuniform colors had higher DeltaE values, suggesting that panelists had more difficulty in evaluating more nonhomogeneous colors. There was no significant difference in DeltaE values between the real fruits and their screen image, therefore images can be used to evaluate color instead of the real samples.

  10. Estimating secondary color.

    PubMed

    Walker, B H

    1993-12-01

    Image quality of a refracting lens system often will be limited by residual secondary color. Information in this paper permits rapid determination of blur spot size, and resulting image quality degradation, due to secondary color for a refracting lens system that has been designed with normal optical glasses and is free of primary color (achromatic). Included here is a brief description of the basic theory involved and an example of how the plotted data are used. PMID:20856581

  11. Measurements of ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    An airborne instrument for determining ocean color and measurements made with the instrument are discussed. It was concluded that a clear relationship exists between the chlorophyll concentration and the color of the water. High altitude measurements from 50,000 feet are described and the effects of atmospheric scattering on the energy reaching the sensor are examined. The measured spectrum of ocean color at high and low altitudes is plotted.

  12. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  13. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  14. Fingers that change color

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small blood vessels. Cryoglobulinemia Frostbite Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease ...

  15. Color encoding for gamut extension and bit-depth extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2005-02-01

    Monitor oriented RGB color spaces (e.g. sRGB) are widely applied for digital image representation for the simplicity in displaying images on monitor displays. However, the physical gamut limits its ability to encode colors accurately for color images that are not limited to the display RGB gamut. To extend the encoding gamut, non-physical RGB primaries may be used to define the color space, or the RGB tone ranges may be extended beyond the physical range. An out-of-gamut color has at least one of the R, G, and B channels that are smaller than 0 or higher than 100%. Instead of using wide-gamut RGB primaries for gamut expansion, we may extend the tone ranges to expand the encoding gamut. Negative tone values and tone values over 100% are allowed. Methods to efficiently and accurately encode out-of-gamut colors are discussed in this paper. Interpretation bits are added to interpret the range of color values or to encode color values with a higher bit-depth. The interpretation bits of R, G, and B primaries can be packed and stored in an alpha channel in some image formats (e.g. TIFF) or stored in a data tag (e.g. in JEPG format). If a color image does not have colors that are out of a regular RGB gamut, a regular program (e.g. Photoshop) is able to manipulate the data correctly.

  16. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  17. Color reproduction with a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

  18. Color stability of resin cements--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Dan; Banasr, Fahad

    2002-08-01

    The long-term success of an aesthetic restoration is predicated on numerous factors that include its color stability. As clinicians incorporate conservative tooth preparation into their restorative designs, the color stability of the underlying cement material increases in importance. This in vitro study evaluated the color stability of several commercially available resin cements under accelerated conditions. The investigation demonstrated that, under the experimental conditions, resin cements tended to change color between 1 week and 14 weeks, and their color change values increased with accelerated aging times.

  19. Clarifying color category border according to color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Takumi; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2015-01-01

    We usually recognize color by two kinds of processes. In the first, the color is recognized continually and a small difference in color is recognized. In the second, the color is recognized discretely. This process recognizes a similar color of a certain range as being in the same color category. The small difference in color is ignored. Recognition by using the color category is important for communication using color. It is known that a color vision defect confuses colors on the confusion locus of color. However, the color category of a color vision defect has not been thoroughly researched. If the color category of the color vision defect is clarified, it will become an important key for color universal design. In this research, we classified color stimuli into four categories to check the shape and the border of the color categories of varied color vision. The experimental result was as follows. The border of protanopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.3068x + 0.4795, y = -0.1906x + 0.4021, y = -0.2624x + 0.3896. The border of deuteranopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.7931x + 0.7036, y = -0.718x + 0.5966, y = -0.6667x + 0.5061.

  20. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  1. Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color coevolve in primates?

    PubMed

    Kamilar, Jason M; Heesy, Christopher P; Bradley, Brenda J

    2013-07-01

    Reddish pelage and red hair ornaments have evolved many times, independently, during primate evolution. It is generally assumed that these red-coat phenotypes, like red skin phenotypes, play a role in sociosexual signaling and, thus evolved in tandem with conspecific color vision. This study examines the phylogenetic distribution of color vision and pelage coloration across the primate order to ask: (1) did red pelage and trichromacy coevolve; or (2) did trichromacy evolve first, and then subsequently red pelage evolved as an exaptation? We collected quantitative, color-corrected photographic color data for 142 museum research skins from 92 species representing 41 genera spanning all major primate lineages. For each species, we quantified the ratio of Red/Green values (from a RGB color model) at 20 anatomical landmarks. For these same species, we compiled data on color vision type (routine trichromatic, polymorphic, routine dichromatic, monochromatic) and data on variables that potentially covary with visual system (VS) and coloration, including activity pattern and body mass dimorphism (proxy for sexual selection). We also considered whether the long-term storage of research skins might influence coloration. Therefore, we included the time since the specimen was collected as an additional predictor. Analyzing the data with phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected. Surprisingly, trichromatic primate species generally exhibited less red hair compared to red-green colorblind species. Thus, our results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates. In addition, we did not find an effect of activity pattern, body mass dimorphism, or time since collection on the redness of primate hair. Our results have important implications for the

  2. Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color coevolve in primates?

    PubMed

    Kamilar, Jason M; Heesy, Christopher P; Bradley, Brenda J

    2013-07-01

    Reddish pelage and red hair ornaments have evolved many times, independently, during primate evolution. It is generally assumed that these red-coat phenotypes, like red skin phenotypes, play a role in sociosexual signaling and, thus evolved in tandem with conspecific color vision. This study examines the phylogenetic distribution of color vision and pelage coloration across the primate order to ask: (1) did red pelage and trichromacy coevolve; or (2) did trichromacy evolve first, and then subsequently red pelage evolved as an exaptation? We collected quantitative, color-corrected photographic color data for 142 museum research skins from 92 species representing 41 genera spanning all major primate lineages. For each species, we quantified the ratio of Red/Green values (from a RGB color model) at 20 anatomical landmarks. For these same species, we compiled data on color vision type (routine trichromatic, polymorphic, routine dichromatic, monochromatic) and data on variables that potentially covary with visual system (VS) and coloration, including activity pattern and body mass dimorphism (proxy for sexual selection). We also considered whether the long-term storage of research skins might influence coloration. Therefore, we included the time since the specimen was collected as an additional predictor. Analyzing the data with phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected. Surprisingly, trichromatic primate species generally exhibited less red hair compared to red-green colorblind species. Thus, our results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates. In addition, we did not find an effect of activity pattern, body mass dimorphism, or time since collection on the redness of primate hair. Our results have important implications for the

  3. Subjective and objective evaluation of veal lean color.

    PubMed

    Lagoda, H L; Wilson, L L; Henning, W R; Flowers, S L; Mills, E W

    2002-07-01

    Because veal lean color continues to be a primary factor that determines veal carcass value and is typically assessed by subjective means, it is important to explore objective methods for color assessment. Objective and subjective evaluations of veal flank and breast lean color were compared as predictors of longissimus lean color at 24 h postmortem. One hundred fifty special-fed Holstein veal calves were Kosher-slaughtered with blood samples collected upon exsanguination and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin content. Lean color was evaluated in the flank and breast at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h postmortem. Color of the longissimus was evaluated at 6 h, when possible, and at 24 h. A panel of three trained individuals used a 5-point color standard developed in the Netherlands to visually evaluate lean color. A Minolta Chromameter CR-300 was used to obtain L*, a*, and b* values. A plant employee assigned packer grades at slaughter. Temperature and pH were also measured at each time period. Hemoglobin was more highly correlated than hematocrit with colorimeter values. Hemoglobin levels correlated well with a* values of the flank at 0 h postmortem (r = 0.52) although the correlation declined at 24 h (r = 0.30). The correlation between packer grades and 24-h visual loin color was r = 0.41. Visual loin color at 24 h postmortem was selected as the predicted variable for regression analysis. Temperature and pH did not contribute significantly to any prediction equations. The equation using breast L*, a*, and b* values at 24 h postmortem to predict 24-h loin color gave a higher prediction coefficient (R2 = 0.44) than the corresponding equation using 0-h breast values (R2 = 0.28). Objective measurement of lean color may be useful in veal carcass grading because it is more precise than subjective methods and would allow for uniformity among processing plants.

  4. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: sometimes, color perception is not categorical.

    PubMed

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). A. L. Gilbert, T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. B. Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green-Blue color boundary and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models nor any of our data suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green-Blue boundary, in either visual field.

  5. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  6. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  7. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  8. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  9. Drawing Color Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the teaching of color symbolism and asserts that racism is embodied and perpetuated through conventional notions of black and white symbolism. Discusses a project with two eighth grade classes, focusing on the discussion of color symbolism in school and popular culture. Considers the importance of analyzing contemporary languages of…

  10. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  11. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  12. Decision support system for predicting color change after tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Ouivirach, Kan

    2016-03-01

    Tooth whitening is becoming increasingly popular among patients and dentists since it is a relatively noninvasive approach. However, the degree of color change after tooth whitening is known to vary substantially between studies. The present study aims to develop a clinical decision support system for predicting color change after in-office tooth whitening. We used the information from patients' data sets, and applied the multiple regression equation of CIELAB color coordinates including L*, a*, and b* of the original tooth color and the color difference (ΔE) that expresses the color change after tooth whitening. To evaluate the system performance, the patient's post-treatment color was used as "gold standard" to compare with the post-treatment color predicted by the system. There was a high degree of agreement between the patient's post-treatment color and the post-treatment color predicted by the system (kappa value=0.894). The results obtained have demonstrated that the decision support system is possible to predict the color change obtained using an in-office whitening system using colorimetric values. PMID:26657921

  13. Decision support system for predicting color change after tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Ouivirach, Kan

    2016-03-01

    Tooth whitening is becoming increasingly popular among patients and dentists since it is a relatively noninvasive approach. However, the degree of color change after tooth whitening is known to vary substantially between studies. The present study aims to develop a clinical decision support system for predicting color change after in-office tooth whitening. We used the information from patients' data sets, and applied the multiple regression equation of CIELAB color coordinates including L*, a*, and b* of the original tooth color and the color difference (ΔE) that expresses the color change after tooth whitening. To evaluate the system performance, the patient's post-treatment color was used as "gold standard" to compare with the post-treatment color predicted by the system. There was a high degree of agreement between the patient's post-treatment color and the post-treatment color predicted by the system (kappa value=0.894). The results obtained have demonstrated that the decision support system is possible to predict the color change obtained using an in-office whitening system using colorimetric values.

  14. Colorimetric characterization for comparative analysis of fungal pigments and natural food colorants.

    PubMed

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-09-20

    Exogenous pigments produced by ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Epicoccum, and Monascus, preselected based on chemotaxonomic knowledge, have been extracted and characterized by quantitative colorimetry. The color characteristics of the fungal extracts were compared to water soluble natural colorants derived from sources currently in use. The tested fungal extracts also included some commercially available Monascus colorants. The a values for the fungal extracts were found to be both positive and negative, the b values were found to be positive, while the hue angles of the fungal color extracts ranged from 40 to 110 indicating the color distribution of fungal extracts over the red-orange-yellow region of the CIELAB color space. The fungal extracts exhibited additional color hues in the red spectrum and similar hues in the yellow spectrum as compared to the reference natural colorants. They were also found to be similar or brighter in terms of chroma to some of the reference natural colorants. Principal component analysis was performed to group and distinguish different colors based on the a and b values. The fungal color extracts could be grouped in accordance with the similarity or difference in the color to those of the existing natural colorants. The diversity of colors was not only found among different fungal genera and/or species but also within the same species on changing the media. There was a marked change in the color composition of the extracts resulting in relatively different hues. Our results, thus, indicate that there exists pigment-producing genera of ascomycetous fungi other than Monascus that produce color shades in the red and the yellow spectra in addition or similar to reference colorants. These color shades could add to the color palette of the natural colorants currently in use. In addition, the multivariate approach in distinguishing and classifying the colorants was shown to be a very useful tool in

  15. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  16. Are corals colorful?

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Marshall, N Justin; Vorobyev, Misha

    2006-01-01

    Using in situ spectrometry data and visual system modeling, we investigate whether the colors conferred to the reef-building corals by GFP-like proteins would look colorful not only to humans, but also to fish occupying different ecological niches on the reef. Some GFP-like proteins, most notably fluorescent greens and nonfluorescent chromoproteins, indeed generate intense color signals. An unexpected finding was that fluorescent proteins might also make corals appear less colorful to fish, counterbalancing the effect of absorption by the photosynthetic pigments of the endosymbiotic algae, which might be a form of protection against herbivores. We conclude that GFP-determined coloration of corals may be an important factor in visual ecology of the reef fishes.

  17. "Focal" Color Areas and the Development of Color Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Eleanor Rosch

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments using 3- and 4-year-olds as subjects tested the hypothesis that focal colors are more salient than nonfocal colors for young children and are the areas to which color names initially become attached. (NH)

  18. Vector sparse representation of color image using quaternion matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Yu, Licheng; Xu, Hongteng; Zhang, Hao; Nguyen, Truong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional sparse image models treat color image pixel as a scalar, which represents color channels separately or concatenate color channels as a monochrome image. In this paper, we propose a vector sparse representation model for color images using quaternion matrix analysis. As a new tool for color image representation, its potential applications in several image-processing tasks are presented, including color image reconstruction, denoising, inpainting, and super-resolution. The proposed model represents the color image as a quaternion matrix, where a quaternion-based dictionary learning algorithm is presented using the K-quaternion singular value decomposition (QSVD) (generalized K-means clustering for QSVD) method. It conducts the sparse basis selection in quaternion space, which uniformly transforms the channel images to an orthogonal color space. In this new color space, it is significant that the inherent color structures can be completely preserved during vector reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed sparse model is more efficient comparing with the current sparse models for image restoration tasks due to lower redundancy between the atoms of different color channels. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sparse image model avoids the hue bias issue successfully and shows its potential as a general and powerful tool in color image analysis and processing domain. PMID:25643407

  19. An electrochromic painter's palette: color mixing via solution co-processing.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Rayford H; Kerszulis, Justin A; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2015-01-28

    Electrochromic polymers (ECPs) have been shown to be synthetically tunable, producing a full palette of vibrantly colored to highly transmissive polymers. The development of these colored-to-transmissive ECPs employed synthetic design strategies for broad color targeting; however, due to the subtleties of color perception and the intricacies of polymer structure and color relationships, fine color control is difficult. In contrast, color mixing is a well-established practice in the printing industry. We have identified three colored-to-transmissive switching electrochromic polymers, referred to as ECP-Cyan (ECP-C), ECP-Magenta (ECP-M), and ECP-Yellow (ECP-Y), which, via the co-processing of multicomponent ECP mixtures, follow the CMY color mixing model. The presented work qualitatively assesses the thin film characteristics of solution co-processed ECP mixtures. To quantitatively determine the predictability of the color properties of ECP mixtures, we estimated mass extinction coefficients (εmass) from solution spectra of the CMY ECPs and compared the estimated and experimentally observed color values of blends via a calculated color difference (ΔEab). The values of ΔEab range from 8 to 26 across all mixture compositions, with an average value of 15, representing a reasonable degree of agreement between predicted and observed color values. We demonstrate here the ability to co-process ECP mixtures into vibrantly colored, visually continuous films and the ability to estimate the color properties produced in these mixed ECP films.

  20. Perceptual evaluation of color transformed multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we investigated the amount of detail observers perceive in a short timespan. REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty in extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations during free image exploration. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF, and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representations such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior corresponding to daylight color imagery.

  1. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  2. The evolution of color vision in insects.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, A D; Chittka, L

    2001-01-01

    We review the physiological, molecular, and neural mechanisms of insect color vision. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses reveal that the basic bauplan, UV-blue-green-trichromacy, appears to date back to the Devonian ancestor of all pterygote insects. There are variations on this theme, however. These concern the number of color receptor types, their differential expression across the retina, and their fine tuning along the wavelength scale. In a few cases (but not in many others), these differences can be linked to visual ecology. Other insects have virtually identical sets of color receptors despite strong differences in lifestyle. Instead of the adaptionism that has dominated visual ecology in the past, we propose that chance evolutionary processes, history, and constraints should be considered. In addition to phylogenetic analyses designed to explore these factors, we suggest quantifying variance between individuals and populations and using fitness measurements to test the adaptive value of traits identified in insect color vision systems.

  3. Compression of color-mapped images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadenfeldt, A. C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    In a standard image coding scenario, pixel-to-pixel correlation nearly always exists in the data, especially if the image is a natural scene. This correlation is what allows predictive coding schemes (e.g., DPCM) to perform efficient compression. In a color-mapped image, the values stored in the pixel array are no longer directly related to the pixel intensity. Two color indices which are numerically adjacent (close) may point to two very different colors. The correlation still exists, but only via the colormap. This fact can be exploited by sorting the color map to reintroduce the structure. The sorting of colormaps is studied and it is shown how the resulting structure can be used in both lossless and lossy compression of images.

  4. Color Universal Design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Ito, Kei

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the tendency of individuals to categorize colors. Humans recognize colors by categorizing them with specific color names such as red, blue, and yellow. When an individual having a certain type of color vision observes an object, they categorize its color using a particular color name and assume that other people will perceive the color in an identical manner. However, there are many variations in human color vision caused by photoreceptor differences in the eye, including red and green confusion. Thus, another person with a different type of color vision may categorize the color using another name. To address this issue, we attempt to determine the differences in the ranges of colors that people with different types of color vision categorize using particular color names. In the modern urban environment, most visual information, including warning signs and notice boards, is coded by color. Finding the common color categories among different types of color vision is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design, a visual communication method that is viewer-friendly irrespective of color vision type. Herein we report on a systematic comparison between people with common (C-type) and deutan (D-type) color vision. Analysis of protan (P-type) color vision will follow in a subsequent report.

  5. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  6. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  7. Is color appearance matching necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.

    1994-05-01

    An analysis of why people are willing to spend more money to buy color systems versus monochrome systems shows that the colorimetric methods used in today's color management systems are insufficient. To fulfill the user's requirements, it is necessary to preserve the appearance of color when an electronic image is reproduced. After proposing formal definitions for color perception and for color appearance, I will present two problems requiring an appearance model to solve: the color selection problem, and gamut mapping.

  8. Theoretical aspects of color vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  9. [Optimizing Color Rendering for Mixed-Color White Light LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-yu; Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi-feng

    2015-05-01

    To optimize color rendering of mixed-color LEDs, the Gaussian model was used to analyze the color-mixed LED's spectrum power distribution. The peak wavelength "λm", spectral half width "Δλ" and amplitude "A" were basic parameters for optimizing color rendering R9, which is very important for objects to be colorful and vivid under the white light LED's'illuminating. The typical methods for color mixing were used to get white light LEDs. Result was that to get the satisfied color rendering index, one of the color primaries should be certain and then other color primaries would be analyzed through changing three basic parameters step by step. It was concluded that the analysis in this paper would be referential to optimize the color-mixed white LED's color rendering. PMID:26415452

  10. [Optimizing Color Rendering for Mixed-Color White Light LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-yu; Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi-feng

    2015-05-01

    To optimize color rendering of mixed-color LEDs, the Gaussian model was used to analyze the color-mixed LED's spectrum power distribution. The peak wavelength "λm", spectral half width "Δλ" and amplitude "A" were basic parameters for optimizing color rendering R9, which is very important for objects to be colorful and vivid under the white light LED's'illuminating. The typical methods for color mixing were used to get white light LEDs. Result was that to get the satisfied color rendering index, one of the color primaries should be certain and then other color primaries would be analyzed through changing three basic parameters step by step. It was concluded that the analysis in this paper would be referential to optimize the color-mixed white LED's color rendering.

  11. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  12. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. I. Nova-giant Sequence in the Color-Color Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2014-04-01

    We identified a general course of classical nova outbursts in the B - V versus U - B color-color diagram. It is reported that novae show spectra similar to those of A-F supergiants near optical light maximum. However, they do not follow the supergiant sequence in the color-color diagram, neither the blackbody nor the main-sequence sequence. Instead, we found that novae evolve along a new sequence in the pre-maximum and near-maximum phases, which we call "the nova-giant sequence." This sequence is parallel to but Δ(U - B) ≈ -0.2 mag bluer than the supergiant sequence. This is because the mass of a nova envelope is much (~10-4 times) less than that of a normal supergiant. After optical maximum, its color quickly evolves back blueward along the same nova-giant sequence and reaches the point of free-free emission (B - V = -0.03, U - B = -0.97), which coincides with the intersection of the blackbody sequence and the nova-giant sequence, and remains there for a while. Then the color evolves leftward (blueward in B - V but almost constant in U - B), owing mainly to the development of strong emission lines. This is the general course of nova outbursts in the color-color diagram, which was deduced from eight well-observed novae in various speed classes. For a nova with unknown extinction, we can determine a reliable value of the color excess by matching the observed track of the target nova with this general course. This is a new and convenient method for obtaining the color excesses of classical novae. Using this method, we redetermined the color excesses of 20 well-observed novae. The obtained color excesses are in reasonable agreement with the previous results, which in turn support the idea of our general track of nova outbursts. Additionally, we estimated the absolute V magnitudes of about 30 novae using a method for time-stretching nova light curves to analyze the distance-reddening relations of the novae.

  13. The UBV color evolution of classical novae. I. Nova-giant sequence in the color-color diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2014-04-20

    We identified a general course of classical nova outbursts in the B – V versus U – B color-color diagram. It is reported that novae show spectra similar to those of A-F supergiants near optical light maximum. However, they do not follow the supergiant sequence in the color-color diagram, neither the blackbody nor the main-sequence sequence. Instead, we found that novae evolve along a new sequence in the pre-maximum and near-maximum phases, which we call 'the nova-giant sequence'. This sequence is parallel to but Δ(U – B) ≈ –0.2 mag bluer than the supergiant sequence. This is because the mass of a nova envelope is much (∼10{sup –4} times) less than that of a normal supergiant. After optical maximum, its color quickly evolves back blueward along the same nova-giant sequence and reaches the point of free-free emission (B – V = –0.03, U – B = –0.97), which coincides with the intersection of the blackbody sequence and the nova-giant sequence, and remains there for a while. Then the color evolves leftward (blueward in B – V but almost constant in U – B), owing mainly to the development of strong emission lines. This is the general course of nova outbursts in the color-color diagram, which was deduced from eight well-observed novae in various speed classes. For a nova with unknown extinction, we can determine a reliable value of the color excess by matching the observed track of the target nova with this general course. This is a new and convenient method for obtaining the color excesses of classical novae. Using this method, we redetermined the color excesses of 20 well-observed novae. The obtained color excesses are in reasonable agreement with the previous results, which in turn support the idea of our general track of nova outbursts. Additionally, we estimated the absolute V magnitudes of about 30 novae using a method for time-stretching nova light curves to analyze the distance-reddening relations of the novae.

  14. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  15. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  16. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  17. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-07-27

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  18. THE COLOR VISION OF DICHROMATS

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Selig; Shlaer, Simon

    1936-01-01

    1. Protanopes and deuteranopes show one maximum of wavelength discrimination which occurs near their neutral point in the region of 500 mµ (blue-green for color-normal). The value of the just discriminable wavelength interval Δλ is about 1 mµ at this point and is much like the normal. To either side of this, Δλ rises. It increases rapidly on the short-wave side, and slowly on the long-wave side, rising to about 50 mµ at the two ends of the spectrum. 2. The brightness distribution in the spectrum for dichromats falls only partly outside the range established for color-normals. The protanope curve is narrower than normal, and its maximum lies nearly 15 mµ to the left of it. The deuteranope curves are about the same width as the normal, and their maxima lie slightly but definitely to the right of it. The main difference between protanope and deuteranope spectrum sensitivity lies on the red side of brightness curves, where the deuteranope is strikingly higher. This difference furnishes the only reliable diagnostic sign which may be applied to an individual dichromat for separating the two types. 3. The average position for the neutral point of twenty-one protanopes is 496.5 mµ; of twenty-five deuteranopes 504.3 mµ. The range of variation in the position of neutral point is twice as great for the deuteranope as for the protanope. 4. Dichromatic gauging of the spectrum cannot yield unique mixture values for any wavelength because of the large stretches of poor wavelength discrimination. Data have therefore been secured which locate the spectral ranges that can match specific mixtures of two primaries when brightness differences are eliminated. The form of the data is much the same for a protanope and for a deuteranope; the only difference is in the relative brightness of the primaries. 5. Previously accepted anomalies in the spectral matching of dichromats which have led to the rejection of the third law of color mixture for them, have been eliminated. They are

  19. [A color analysis of the Han dynasty's Yangling Tombs colored pottery figurine by spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Zheng, L; Dang, G

    2000-06-01

    Many colored pottery figurines have been discovered from Yangling Tombs in which Han Jingdi, Qi LIU, the fourth emperor of Xi Han dynasty was buried together with his Wang empress. They were of important academic and aesthetic value. The analysis of the colored pottery figurines from Yangling Tombs of Han Dynasty was realized by X-ray diffraction, emission spectrum, infrared spectrum, X-ray fluorescence and fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy(FORS). Consequent results showed that the colored components were respectively mercuric(II) sulphide(HgS), ferric(III) oxide(Fe2O3), and Carbon(C), among which mercuric(II) sulphide was an artificial pigment.

  20. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values <.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The UV exposure resulted in visually noticeable and statistically significant color changes in the L*, a* and b* values in both of the test groups containing thermochromic pigment. Storage in the incubator lead to statistically significant color changes in the a* and b* values of the specimens containing thermochromic pigment, compared to those stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION The specimens containing thermochromic pigment were very sensitive to UV radiation, and the thermochromic pigment is not suitable, as such, to be used in maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  1. Color calibration of swine gastrointestinal tract images acquired by radial imaging capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Jeng, Wei-De; Lai, Chien-Cheng; Wu, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Jyh-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The type of illumination systems and color filters used typically generate varying levels of color difference in capsule endoscopes, which influence medical diagnoses. In order to calibrate the color difference caused by the optical system, this study applied a radial imaging capsule endoscope (RICE) to photograph standard color charts, which were then employed to calculate the color gamut of RICE. Color gamut was also measured using a spectrometer in order to get a high-precision color information, and the results obtained using both methods were compared. Subsequently, color-correction methods, namely polynomial transform and conformal mapping, were used to improve the color difference. Before color calibration, the color difference value caused by the influences of optical systems in RICE was 21.45±1.09. Through the proposed polynomial transformation, the color difference could be reduced effectively to 1.53±0.07. Compared to another proposed conformal mapping, the color difference value was substantially reduced to 1.32±0.11, and the color difference is imperceptible for human eye because it is <1.5. Then, real-time color correction was achieved using this algorithm combined with a field-programmable gate array, and the results of the color correction can be viewed from real-time images.

  2. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  3. Color Video Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes the production and use of color videocassettes with an inexpensive, conventional TV camera and an ordinary petrographic microscope. The videocassettes are used in optical mineralogy and petrology courses. (Author/WB)

  4. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by: Beets, blackberries, or certain food colorings Hemolytic anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medicine Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause ... or drugs Bilirubin Medicines, including methylene blue Urinary ...

  5. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the enamel. This can cause color changes. Metabolic diseases may ... or coffee Genetic defects that affect the tooth enamel, such as ... from environmental sources (natural high water fluoride levels) ...

  8. THE COLOR GLASS CONDENSATE.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-26

    The Color Glass Condensate is a state of high density gluonic matter which controls the high energy limit of hadronic interactions. Its properties are important for the initial conditions for matter produced at RHIC.

  9. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  10. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  12. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/ ...

  13. A novel method for color correction in epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Josep; Garcia, Rafael; Neumann, László

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new color correction pipeline to improve the dermoscopy image quality. Images acquired with different cameras or different dermoscopes often present problems of faithful color reproduction. The colors of these images are often far different the ones observed with the naked eye, and usually vary from one camera to another. Nowadays digital cameras perform "black-box" color corrections taking into account the color temperature of the imaged scene, which may result in some cases in unrealistic color rendering. For this reason, it is necessary to calibrate the imaging system (the camera and a specific dermoscope). The calibration process requires finding a relationship between a device-dependent color space and a standard color space depending only on the human eye. This relation is obtained acquiring known color patches of a color checker and relating them with the pixel values obtained by the camera. In our approach we model the color calibration problem using a new formulation that takes into account the spectral distribution of the dermoscope lighting system and conveys a solution for both RAW and JPEG images. When comparing images captured with different cameras, this new method improves the results between 0.1 and 0.9 ΔE with respect to previous approaches.

  14. Color transfer between high-dynamic-range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, Hristina; Cozot, Rémi; Le Meur, Olivier; Bouatouch, Kadi

    2015-09-01

    Color transfer methods alter the look of a source image with regards to a reference image. So far, the proposed color transfer methods have been limited to low-dynamic-range (LDR) images. Unlike LDR images, which are display-dependent, high-dynamic-range (HDR) images contain real physical values of the world luminance and are able to capture high luminance variations and finest details of real world scenes. Therefore, there exists a strong discrepancy between the two types of images. In this paper, we bridge the gap between the color transfer domain and the HDR imagery by introducing HDR extensions to LDR color transfer methods. We tackle the main issues of applying a color transfer between two HDR images. First, to address the nature of light and color distributions in the context of HDR imagery, we carry out modifications of traditional color spaces. Furthermore, we ensure high precision in the quantization of the dynamic range for histogram computations. As image clustering (based on light and colors) proved to be an important aspect of color transfer, we analyze it and adapt it to the HDR domain. Our framework has been applied to several state-of-the-art color transfer methods. Qualitative experiments have shown that results obtained with the proposed adaptation approach exhibit less artifacts and are visually more pleasing than results obtained when straightforwardly applying existing color transfer methods to HDR images.

  15. A novel method for color correction in epiluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Josep; Garcia, Rafael; Neumann, László

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new color correction pipeline to improve the dermoscopy image quality. Images acquired with different cameras or different dermoscopes often present problems of faithful color reproduction. The colors of these images are often far different the ones observed with the naked eye, and usually vary from one camera to another. Nowadays digital cameras perform "black-box" color corrections taking into account the color temperature of the imaged scene, which may result in some cases in unrealistic color rendering. For this reason, it is necessary to calibrate the imaging system (the camera and a specific dermoscope). The calibration process requires finding a relationship between a device-dependent color space and a standard color space depending only on the human eye. This relation is obtained acquiring known color patches of a color checker and relating them with the pixel values obtained by the camera. In our approach we model the color calibration problem using a new formulation that takes into account the spectral distribution of the dermoscope lighting system and conveys a solution for both RAW and JPEG images. When comparing images captured with different cameras, this new method improves the results between 0.1 and 0.9 ΔE with respect to previous approaches. PMID:21531539

  16. Automatic Skin Color Beautification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

  17. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  18. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  19. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  20. Thermochromism in color measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Mutanen, J.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate color measurements have become more and more important during the past few decades. This is valid not only in physical research but also in industrial production, where the importance of accurate measurements is mainly due to increased quality requirements set by the customers of various goods. The development of technology enables more and more accurate measuring systems. While the accuracy has improved one has noticed, that many unexpected factors affect the color of an object. One of these factors is the temperature of the sample. It is known that for example the reflectance of the ceramic reference tiles used for calibration of colorimeters and spectrophotometers is temperature dependent. This phenomenon is called thermochromism, which is a reversible change of color of the sample as a function of temperature. It may be noticed already at room temperature if the temperature varies few centigrades. Red and orange samples are especially sensitive to temperature variation and may cause difficulties in precise color measurements. We show, how the phenomenon is based on physical processes and not only reflects the instability of red color pigments. We derive simple formulas, which are shown to explain the experimental data. We also discuss the meaning of thermochromism for color measurements, measure the magnitude of it and propose the experimental conditions to avoid this effect.

  1. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  2. The color cone.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2015-02-01

    While the notion of a color cone can be found in writings of Maxwell, Helmholtz, Grassmann, and other scientists of the nineteenth century, it has not been clearly defined as yet. In this paper, the color cone is understood as the set of points in the cone excitation space produced by all possible lights. The spectral curve representing all the monochromatic lights is shown not to entirely belong to the color cone boundary, since its ends turn into the color cone interior. The monochromatic lights represented by the fragment of the spectral curve lying on the color cone boundary make up what is called the effective visible spectrum. The color cone is shown to be a convex hull of the conical surface through the fragment of the spectral curve representing the effective visible spectrum. The effective visible spectrum ends are shown to be determined by the photopigment spectral absorbance being independent of the prereceptor filters (e.g., the spectral transmittance of the lense and macular pigment).

  3. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  4. Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference: a study on Goethe's color circle with RGB color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camgoz, Nilgun; Yener, Cengiz

    2002-06-01

    In order to investigate preference responses for foreground- background color relationships, 85 university undergraduates in Ankara, Turkey, viewed 6 background colors (red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) on which color squares of differing hues, saturations, and brightnesses were presented. All the background colors had maximum brightness (100%) and maximum saturation (100%). Subjects were asked to show the color square they preferred on the presented background color viewed through a computer monitor. The experimental setup consisted of a computer monitor located in a windowless room, illuminated with cove lighting. The findings of the experiment show that the brightness 100%- saturation 100% range is significantly preferred the most (p-value < 0.03). Thus, color squares that are most saturated and brightest are preferred on backgrounds of most saturated and brightest colors. Regardless of the background colors viewed, the subjects preferred blue the most (p-value < 0.01). Findings of the study are also discussed with pertinent research on the field. Through this analysis, an understanding of foreground-background color relationships in terms of preference is sought.

  5. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  6. Real reproduction and evaluation of color based on BRDF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Feng; Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jia; Li, Hongning; Luo, Yanlin; Long, Hongli

    2013-12-01

    It is difficult to reproduce the original color of targets really in different illuminating environment using the traditional methods. So a function which can reconstruct the characteristics of reflection about every point on the surface of target is required urgently to improve the authenticity of color reproduction, which known as the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function(BRDF). A method of color reproduction based on the BRDF measurement is introduced in this paper. Radiometry is combined with the colorimetric theories to measure the irradiance and radiance of GretagMacbeth 24 ColorChecker by using PR-715 Radiation Spectrophotometer of PHOTO RESEARCH, Inc, USA. The BRDF and BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) values of every color piece corresponding to the reference area are calculated according to irradiance and radiance, thus color tristimulus values of 24 ColorChecker are reconstructed. The results reconstructed by BRDF method are compared with values calculated by the reflectance using PR-715, at last, the chromaticity coordinates in color space and color difference between each other are analyzed. The experimental result shows average color difference and sample standard deviation between the method proposed in this paper and traditional reconstruction method depended on reflectance are 2.567 and 1.3049 respectively. The conclusion indicates that the method of color reproduction based on BRDF has the more obvious advantages to describe the color information of object than the reflectance in hemisphere space through the theoretical and experimental analysis. This method proposed in this paper is effective and feasible during the research of reproducing the chromaticity.

  7. The Plaid Theory of Color Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Heather

    1990-01-01

    Develops a multimedia approach for teaching color theory suitable for grade four through adult. Students select the hue, value, and degree of translucence they wish to work with and through a combination of crayon work and tissue collage, create a multicolored plaid. Outlines materials, art concepts, and process involved. (KM)

  8. Asteroid magnitudes, UBV colors, and IRAS albedos and diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper lists absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for known asteroids numbered through 3318. The values presented are those used in reducing asteroid IR flux data obtained with the IRAS. U-B colors are given for 938 asteroids, and B-V colors are given for 945 asteroids. The IRAS albedos and diameters are tabulated for 1790 asteroids.

  9. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  11. Albert H. Munsell: A sense of color at the interface of art and science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    The color theory conceived and commercialized by Albert H. Munsell (1858-1918) has become a universal part of the lexicon of soil science. An American painter noted for his seascapes and portraits, he had a long-standing interest in the description of color. Munsell began studies aimed at standardizing color description, using hue, value, and chroma scales, around 1898. His landmark treatise, "A Color Notation," was published in 1905. Munsell died about 30 years before his color charts came into wide-spread use in soil survey programs in the United States. Dorothy Nickerson, who began her career as secretary and laboratory assistant to Munsell's son, and later spent 37 years at USDA as a color-science specialist, did much to adapt the Munsell Color System to soil-color usage. The legacy of color research pioneered by A.H. Munsell is honored today by the Munsell Color Science Laboratory established in 1983 at the Rochester Institute of Technology.

  12. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  13. Color control using neural networks and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1996-03-01

    A method is proposed for solving the mapping problem from the 3D color space to the 4D CMYK space of printer ink signals by means of neural network. The CIE-L*a*b* color system is used as the color space. The color reproduction problem is considered as the problem of controlling an unknown static system with four inputs and three outputs. A controller finds the CMYK signals necessary to produce the desired L*a*b* values from a printer. Our solution method for this control is based on a two-phase procedure. Validity of our method is shown in an experiment using a dye sublimation printer.

  14. Simulating coronas in color.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley D; Lock, James A

    2003-01-20

    Coronas are simulated in color by use of the Mie scattering theory of light by small droplets through clouds of finite optical thickness embedded in a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere. The primary factors that affect color, visibility, and number of rings of coronas are droplet size, width of the size distribution, and cloud optical thickness. The color sequence of coronas and iridescence varies when the droplet radius is smaller than approximately 6-microm. As radius increases to approximately 3.5 microm, new color bands appear at the center of the corona and fade as they move outward. As the radius continues to increase to approximately 6 microm, successively more inner rings become fixed in the manner described by classical diffraction theory, while outer rings continue their outward migration. Wave clouds or rippled cloud segments produce the brightest and most vivid multiple ringed coronas and iridescence because their integrated dropsize distributions along sunbeams are much narrower than in convective or stratiform clouds. The visibility of coronas and the appearance of the background sky vary with cloud optical depth tau. First the corona becomes visible as a white aureole in a blue sky when tau approximately 0.001. Color purity then rapidly increases to an almost flat maximum in the range 0.05 < or = tau < or = 0.5 and then decreases, so coronas are almost completely washed out by a bright gray background when tau > or = 4.

  15. Hard color-shrinkage for color-image processing of a digital color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takahiro; Ueda, Yasutaka; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Komatsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The classic shrinkage works well for monochrome-image denoising. To utilize inter-channel color correlations, a noisy image undergoes the color-transformation from the RGB to the luminance-and-chrominance color space, and the luminance and the chrominance components are separately denoised. However, this approach cannot cope with signaldependent noise of a digital color camera. To utilize the noise's signal-dependencies, previously we have proposed the soft color-shrinkage where the inter-channel color correlations are directly utilized in the RGB color space. The soft color-shrinkage works well; but involves a large amount of computations. To alleviate the drawback, taking up the l0-l2 optimization problem whose solution yields the hard shrinkage, we introduce the l0 norms of color differences and the l0 norms of color sums into the model, and derive hard color-shrinkage as its solution. For each triplet of three primary colors, the hard color-shrinkage has 24 feasible solutions, and from among them selects the optimal feasible solution giving the minimal energy. We propose a method to control its shrinkage parameters spatially-adaptively according to both the local image statistics and the noise's signal-dependencies, and apply the spatially-adaptive hard color-shrinkage to removal of signal-dependent noise in a shift-invariant wavelet transform domain. The hard color-shrinkage performs mostly better than the soft color-shrinkage, from objective and subjective viewpoints.

  16. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

  17. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  18. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  19. Color control of a lighting system using RGBW LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Midori; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Tominaga, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    A lighting system is proposed to render objects under a variety of colored illumination. The proposed system is constructed with a LED unit, white diffusion filters, dimmers, and a personal computer as a controller. The LED unit is composed of four kinds of color LED lamps which are 12 red (R), 14 green (G), 12 blue (B) and 10 white (W) colors. The LED lamps have a linear input-output relationship and a larger color gamut than Adobe RGB. Since the lighting system has an independent white light source, white illumination can be produced using the white light source and a mixture of RGB primary sources. Therefore, to determine illumination color we have to solve a mapping problem from 3D color space to 4D space of RGBW digital values. This paper proposes an effective algorithm for determining the digital control signals of the RGBW lights, so that colored light is generated with arbitrary (x, y) chromaticity and luminance value Y. The performance of proposed method is examined in an experiment, where the accuracy of the colored light is evaluated with regard to the CIE color difference.

  20. A color based face detection system using multiple templates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Bu, Jia-Jun; Chen, Chun

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400 x 300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  1. Ebony and Ivory: Relationship between African American Young Women's Skin Color and Ratings of Self and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; McFall-Roberts, Ebuni; Flowers, Claudia; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Many individuals face discrimination because of their skin color; however, skin color of African American young adults has not been studied in detail. This study examines relationships between skin color and perceptions among African American college women. The study yielded a positive correlation between personal values and self-rated skin color

  2. Comparison of color stability of a composite resin in different color media

    PubMed Central

    Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Sharafi, Ala; Kazemi, Shantia; Khazaei, Saber; Shirani, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Color change of composite restorations in different color media during the time is a common problem in esthetic dentistry, causing the need to replace the restoration, and spending a great deal of cost and time to patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different common drinks consumed by patients on one of the widely used composites in dentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared with a light-cured composite (Z100-shade A2) and divided into five groups of 13 specimens. Samples of each group were immersed in staining solutions (tea, coffee, lemonade, and cola) and distilled water (as control). Color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured relative to the standard illuminant D65 over a white background, using the CIE L*a*b* system. Color change values were calculated before and after 1, 7, and 14 days of immersion. Repeated measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Tea and coffee produced the most discoloration, whereas, water exhibited the least color change after immersion for 14 days in Z100 (P < 0.05). After one day of immersion, coffee caused the lowest discoloration in the test composite, compared to tea, cola, distilled water, and lemonade (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Staining solutions and immersion time are significant factors that affect color stability of composite resins. PMID:23162586

  3. Characteristic coloring curve for white bread during baking.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Masanobu; Inoue, Michiko; Araki, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of heating conditions on the crust color formation was investigated during the baking of white bread. The surface temperatures were monitored with thermocouples attached to the inside surface of the loaf pan cover. The trace of the surface color in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color coordinate system is defined as the characteristic coloring curve. The overall baking process was classified into the following four stages based on the characteristic coloring curve: i) pre-heating (surface temperature < 110 °C), ii) Maillard reaction (110-150 °C), iii) caramelization (150-200 °C), and iv) over-baking (surface temperature>200 °C). A linear relationship was observed between the L(*) decrease and the increase in weight loss of a sample at each oven air temperature. The L(*) value appeared to be suitable as an indicator to control the surface color by baking conditions.

  4. Objective color classification of ecstasy tablets by hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda; Lopatka, Martin; Aalders, Maurice

    2013-07-01

    The general procedure followed in the examination of ecstasy tablets for profiling purposes includes a color description, which depends highly on the observers' perception. This study aims to provide objective quantitative color information using visible hyperspectral imaging. Both self-manufactured and illicit tablets, created with different amounts of known colorants were analyzed. We derived reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of these tablets, and successfully determined the most likely colorant used in the production of all self-manufactured tablets and four of five illicit tablets studied. Upon classification, the concentration of the colorant was estimated using a photon propagation model and a single reference measurement of a tablet of known concentration. The estimated concentrations showed a high correlation with the actual values (R(2) = 0.9374). The achieved color information, combined with other physical and chemical characteristics, can provide a powerful tool for the comparison of tablet seizures, which may reveal their origin.

  5. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  6. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  7. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  8. Future of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  9. Design and implementation of automatic color information collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Wenjie; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In liquid crystal display (LCD) colorimetric characterization, it needs to convert RGB the device-dependent color space to CIEXYZ or CIELab the device-independent color space. Namely establishing the relationship between RGB and CIE using the data of device color and the corresponding data of CIE. Thus a color automatic message acquisition software is designed. We use openGL to fulfill the full screen display function, write c++ program and call the Eyeone equipment library functions to accomplish the equipment calibration, set the sample types, and realize functions such as sampling and preservation. The software can drive monitors or projectors display the set of sample colors automatically and collect the corresponding CIE values. The sample color of RGB values and the acquisition of CIE values can be stored in a text document, which is convenient for future extraction and analysis. Taking the cubic polynomial as an example, each channel is sampled of 17 sets using this system. And 100 sets of test data are also sampled. Using the least square method we can get the model. The average of color differences are around 2.4874, which is much lower than the CIE2000 commonly required level of 6.00.The successful implementation of the system saves the time of sample color data acquisition, and improves the efficiency of LCD colorimetric characterization.

  10. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ito, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the tendency of individuals to categorize colors. Humans recognize colors by categorizing them using specific color names, such as red, blue, and yellow. When an individual with a certain type of color vision observes an object, they categorize its color using a particular color name and assume that other people will perceive the color in an identical manner. However, there are some variations in human color vision as a result of differences in photoreceptors in the eye, including red and green confusion. Thus, another person with a different type of color vision may categorize a color using a completely different name. To address this issue, we attempted to determine the differences in the ranges of color that people with different types of color vision observe. This is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design, a visual communication method that is viewer-friendly irrespective of color vision type. Herein, we report on a systematic comparison among individuals with trichromat (C-type), protan (P-type) and deutan (D-type) color vision. This paper is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 752805-1.

  11. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  12. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  13. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    PubMed

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  14. Age-related changes in color appearance depend on unique-hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Katsunori; Tsuchiya, Nao; Yamashita, Kazuyuki

    2002-06-01

    In order to compare color appearance as seen by elderly and young people, we conducted an experiment where the subjects responded to the color appearance of 75 color chips using a categorical color naming method and an elemental color scaling method. The results show that categorical color naming between elderly and young subjects is almost identical for most color chips, but there were significant differences in the elemental color scaling between the two age groups depending on unique-hue components. The differences in yellow and blue components between elderly and young subjects suggest that the neural mechanism of color vision in elderly people may over perform on constancy of color appearance so as to compensate for the age-related change of the human crystalline lens. In addition, the chromatic components in elderly subjects indicate higher values than those in young subjects for low saturation color chips, whereas the chromatic components in elderly subjects indicate lower values than those in young subjects when viewing high saturation color chips. These results show that the age-related changes of unique hue components strongly depend on saturation of colors, and suggest that the practical range of color appearance in elderly people is small in comparison with young people.

  15. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  16. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  17. Structural Colors of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  18. Perfect Color Registration Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovedahl, Gerald G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes apparatus and procedures to design and construct a "printing box" as a graphic arts project to make color prints on T-shirts using photography, indirect and direct photo screen methods, and other types of stencils. Step-by-step photographs illustrate the process. (MF)

  19. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  20. Seeing science in color.

    PubMed

    2007-03-01

    Around 7%-10% of men have some form of what is commonly called red-green color blindness. New style specifications at Nature Structural & Molecular Biology aim to enable all readers to see the full spectrum of data in images. PMID:17334402

  1. Evolution of color vision.

    PubMed

    Pichaud, F; Briscoe, A; Desplan, C

    1999-10-01

    Color vision is achieved by comparing the inputs from retinal photoreceptor neurons that differ in their wavelength sensitivity. Recent studies have elucidated the distribution and phylogeny of opsins, the family of light-sensitive molecules involved in this process. Interesting new findings suggest that animals have evolved a strategy to achieve specific sensitivity through the mutually exclusive expression of different opsin genes in photoreceptors.

  2. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  4. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  5. Color Counts, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Julia H.

    1983-01-01

    Students with undetected color blindness can have problems with specific teaching methods and materials. The problem should be ruled out in children with suspected learning disabilities and taken into account in career counseling. Nine examples of simple classroom modifications are described. (CL)

  6. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  7. Study of Perovskite QD Down-Converted LEDs and Six-Color White LEDs for Future Displays with Excellent Color Performance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Kang, Heejoon; Lee, Soyoung; Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag

    2016-07-20

    A narrow-emitting red, green, and blue (RGB) perovskite quantum dot (PeQD)-based tricolored display system can widen the color gamut over the National Television System Committee (NTSC) to 120%, but this value is misleading with regard to the color perception of cyan and yellow reproduced in the narrow RGB spectra. We propose that a PeQD-based six-color display system can reproduce true-to-life spectral distributions with high fidelity, widen the color gamut, and close the cyan and yellow gap in the RGB tricolored display by adding cyan (Cy), yellowish green (Yg), and orange colors (Or). In this study, we demonstrated pure-colored CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or their halide mixtures; Cl/Br and Br/I) PeQD-based monochromatic down-converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LED) for the first time, and we incorporated PeQDs with UV-curable binders and long-wavelength-pass-dichroic filters (LPDFs). CsPbX3 PeQD-based pure Cy-, G-, Yg-, Or-, R-emitting monochromatic DC-LED provide luminous efficacy (LE) values of 81, 184, 79, 80, and 35 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA. We also confirmed the suitability and the possibility of access to future color-by-blue backlights for field-sequential-color liquid crystal displays, using six-color multipackage white LEDs, as well as future six-colored light-emitting devices with high vision and color performance. The fabricated six-color multipackage white LEDs exhibited an appropriate LE (62 lm/W at total 120 mA), excellent color qualities (color rendering index (CRI) = 96, special CRI for red (R9) = 97) at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500 K, and a wide color gamut covering the NTSC up to 145% in the 1931 Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates space. PMID:27349270

  8. Study of Perovskite QD Down-Converted LEDs and Six-Color White LEDs for Future Displays with Excellent Color Performance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Kang, Heejoon; Lee, Soyoung; Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag

    2016-07-20

    A narrow-emitting red, green, and blue (RGB) perovskite quantum dot (PeQD)-based tricolored display system can widen the color gamut over the National Television System Committee (NTSC) to 120%, but this value is misleading with regard to the color perception of cyan and yellow reproduced in the narrow RGB spectra. We propose that a PeQD-based six-color display system can reproduce true-to-life spectral distributions with high fidelity, widen the color gamut, and close the cyan and yellow gap in the RGB tricolored display by adding cyan (Cy), yellowish green (Yg), and orange colors (Or). In this study, we demonstrated pure-colored CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or their halide mixtures; Cl/Br and Br/I) PeQD-based monochromatic down-converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LED) for the first time, and we incorporated PeQDs with UV-curable binders and long-wavelength-pass-dichroic filters (LPDFs). CsPbX3 PeQD-based pure Cy-, G-, Yg-, Or-, R-emitting monochromatic DC-LED provide luminous efficacy (LE) values of 81, 184, 79, 80, and 35 lm/W, respectively, at 20 mA. We also confirmed the suitability and the possibility of access to future color-by-blue backlights for field-sequential-color liquid crystal displays, using six-color multipackage white LEDs, as well as future six-colored light-emitting devices with high vision and color performance. The fabricated six-color multipackage white LEDs exhibited an appropriate LE (62 lm/W at total 120 mA), excellent color qualities (color rendering index (CRI) = 96, special CRI for red (R9) = 97) at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6500 K, and a wide color gamut covering the NTSC up to 145% in the 1931 Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates space.

  9. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  10. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  11. Color control of printers by neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Shoji

    1998-07-01

    A method is proposed for solving the mapping problem from the 3D color space to the 4D CMYK space of printer ink signals by means of a neural network. The CIE-L*a*b* color system is used as the device-independent color space. The color reproduction problem is considered as the problem of controlling an unknown static system with four inputs and three outputs. A controller determines the CMYK signals necessary to produce the desired L*a*b* values with a given printer. Our solution method for this control problem is based on a two-phase procedure which eliminates the need for UCR and GCR. The first phase determines a neural network as a model of the given printer, and the second phase determines the combined neural network system by combining the printer model and the controller in such a way that it represents an identity mapping in the L*a*b* color space. Then the network of the controller part realizes the mapping from the L*a*b* space to the CMYK space. Practical algorithms are presented in the form of multilayer feedforward networks. The feasibility of the proposed method is shown in experiments using a dye sublimation printer and an ink jet printer.

  12. Foreign Language Experience and Color Word Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Cyrus R.

    If various color names are printed in various color inks, an observer has great difficulty in rapidly naming the ink colors (Stroop Color Word Test) unless the color names and the ink colors are mutually reinforcing, or the color names are unknown to the observer. The latter suggests a partial measure of second-language fluency, the feasibility of…

  13. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties...

  14. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties...

  15. How to identify up to 30 colors without training: color concept retrieval by free color naming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Swartling, Tiina

    1994-05-01

    Used as a redundant code, color is shown to be advantageous in visual search tasks. It enhances attention, detection, and recall of information. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings have shown color and spatial perception to be interrelated functions. Studies on eye movements show that colored symbols are easier to detect and that eye fixations are more correctly directed to color-coded symbols. Usually between 5 and 15 colors have been found useful in classification tasks, but this umber can be increased to between 20 to 30 by careful selection of colors, and by a subject's practice with the identification task and familiarity with the particular colors. Recent neurophysiological findings concerning the language-concept connection in color suggest that color concept retrieval would be enhanced by free color naming or by the use of natural associations between color concepts and color words. To test this hypothesis, we had subjects give their own free associations to a set of 35 colors presented on a display. They were able to identify as many as 30 colors without training.

  16. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  17. Understanding colors in nature.

    PubMed

    Bohren, C F

    1988-01-01

    There are two ways in which white light is transformed into colored light by interaction with matter: absorption and scattering. Absorption transforms light into other forms of energy, whereas scattering redirects it. Reflection, refraction, and diffraction are not distinct from scattering but rather are manifestations of it. There is a hierarchy of theories for describing any color phenomenon. For example, many features of rainbows--but not all--can be described satisfactorily by geometrical optics. More accurate descriptions require more exact theories. What one observes when matter is illuminated depends on its disposition. A microscope slide scatters light mostly in two directions. When smashed to bits, it scatters in all directions. Yet its chemical composition has not changed. Glass particles, unlike those in smoke, are usually too large to give colors upon scattering. The colors one sees when smoke is illuminated depend on whether one observes light that has or has not been scattered. Moreover, particle size is crucial in determining what colors are observed. As with scattering, there is a hierarchy of theories of absorption. One can content oneself with an empirical description of absorption or seek a fuller understanding by appealing to microscopic theories. Yet it is sometimes difficult to associate a definite microscopic mechanism with a given absorption feature. Ice is intrinsically blue, yet this cannot be attributed readily to a specific mechanism. Beer has no yellow absorption feature; absorption by it is least in the red and rises steadily toward the blue. Over short paths, beer is yellow; over long paths, it is reddish. Selective scattering by molecules causes the blue of the sky.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3070522

  18. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  19. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  20. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  1. Green tagging in displaying color Doppler aliasing: a comparison to standard color mapping in renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Mennitt, Kevin; Belfi, Lily; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Chen, Zong; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    To quantitatively assess the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of green tagging and standard color flow images in displaying fast flow velocity, we retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) detected by renal color Doppler ultrasound and confirmed with digital subtraction angiography. At the site of RAS, blood flow with high velocity that appeared as aliasing on color flow images was computationally analyzed with both green tagging and standard color mapping. To assess the difference in the CNR between normal background flow and the aliased signal as a function of visualizing aliasing between the two color mappings, we used GetColorpixels (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China) to count the values in the color channels after segmenting color pixels from gray-scale pixels. We then calculated the CNR in each color channel-red, green, and blue (RGB)--in the aliasing region on green tagging and standard color mapping. The CNRs in the red, green and blue channels were 0.35 ± 0.44, 1.11 ± 0.41 and 0.51 ± 0.19, respectively, on standard color mapping, and 0.97 ± 0.80, 4.01 ± 1.36 and 0.64 ± 0.29, respectively, on green tagging. We used a single-factor analysis of variance and two-tailed t-test to assess the difference in CNR in each color channel between the two color mappings at the site of RAS. With these comparisons, there was no significant difference in the CNR in the red or blue channel between green tagging and standard color mapping (p > 0.05). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the CNR in the green channel between the two color mappings (p = 0.00019). Furthermore, the CNR measured in the green channel on the green tagging image was significantly higher than the CNRs in all other color channels on both color mapping images (p = 0.000). Hence, we conclude that green tagging has significantly higher visibility as a function of high-velocity flow than standard color mapping. The

  2. Comparison of Color Model in Cotton Image Under Conditions of Natural Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. H.; Kong, F. T.; Wu, J. Z.; Wang, S. W.; Liu, J. J.; Zhao, P.

    Although the color images contain a large amount of information reflecting the species characteristics, different color models also get different information. The selection of color models is the key to separating crops from background effectively and rapidly. Taking the cotton images collected under natural light as the object, we convert the color components of RGB color model, HSL color model and YIQ color model respectively. Then, we use subjective evaluation and objective evaluation methods, evaluating the 9 color components of conversion. It is concluded that the Q component of the soil, straw and plastic film region gray values remain the same without larger fluctuation when using subjective evaluation method. In the objective evaluation, we use the variance method, average gradient method, gray prediction objective evaluation error statistics method and information entropy method respectively to find the minimum numerical of Q color component suitable for background segmentation.

  3. Color Changes Mark Polymer Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how polydiacetylenes can be used as educational aids. These polymers have conjugated backbones, which cause changes in color when the polydiacetylenes undergo various chemical and physical processes. Diagrams summarize all chemical reactions and their associated color changes. (CS)

  4. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  5. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  6. Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Xing; Yang, Yanlong; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua

    2015-09-29

    In merits of super-resolved resolution and fast speed of three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning capability, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has found variety of applications in biomedical imaging. So far, most SIM systems use monochrome CCD or CMOS cameras to acquire images and discard the natural color information of the specimens. Although multicolor integration scheme are employed, multiple excitation sources and detectors are required and the spectral information is limited to a few of wavelengths. Here, we report a new method for full-color SIM with a color digital camera. A data processing algorithm based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) color space is proposed, in which the recorded color raw images are processed in the Hue, Saturation, Value color channels, and then reconstructed to a 3D image with full color. We demonstrated some 3D optical sectioning results on samples such as mixed pollen grains, insects, micro-chips and the surface of coins. The presented technique is applicable to some circumstance where color information plays crucial roles, such as in materials science and surface morphology.

  7. On the rainbow coloring for some graph operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafik, Agustin, Ika Hesti; Fajariyato, Anang; Alfarisi, Ridho

    2016-02-01

    Let G = (V, E) be a nontrivial, finite, simple and undirected connected graph on which is defined a coloring f : E(G) → {1,2, …, k}, k ∈ N. The adjacent edges may be colored the same colors. A path in an edge colored graph is said to be a rainbow path if no two edges on the path have the same color. An edge colored graph G is rainbow connected if there exists a rainbow u - v path for every two vertices u and v of G. The rainbow connection number of a graph G, denoted by rc(G), is the smallest number of k colors required to edge color the graph such that the graph is rainbow connected. In this paper, we determine the exact values of rainbow connection number of some special graph operations, namely cartesian product, tensor product, composition of two special graphs and also amalgamation of special graphs. The result shows that all exact values of rc(G) attain a lower bound of the rainbow connectivity, namely diam(G).

  8. Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Xing; Yang, Yanlong; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    In merits of super-resolved resolution and fast speed of three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning capability, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has found variety of applications in biomedical imaging. So far, most SIM systems use monochrome CCD or CMOS cameras to acquire images and discard the natural color information of the specimens. Although multicolor integration scheme are employed, multiple excitation sources and detectors are required and the spectral information is limited to a few of wavelengths. Here, we report a new method for full-color SIM with a color digital camera. A data processing algorithm based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) color space is proposed, in which the recorded color raw images are processed in the Hue, Saturation, Value color channels, and then reconstructed to a 3D image with full color. We demonstrated some 3D optical sectioning results on samples such as mixed pollen grains, insects, micro-chips and the surface of coins. The presented technique is applicable to some circumstance where color information plays crucial roles, such as in materials science and surface morphology. PMID:26415516

  9. Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Xing; Yang, Yanlong; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua

    2015-09-01

    In merits of super-resolved resolution and fast speed of three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning capability, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has found variety of applications in biomedical imaging. So far, most SIM systems use monochrome CCD or CMOS cameras to acquire images and discard the natural color information of the specimens. Although multicolor integration scheme are employed, multiple excitation sources and detectors are required and the spectral information is limited to a few of wavelengths. Here, we report a new method for full-color SIM with a color digital camera. A data processing algorithm based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) color space is proposed, in which the recorded color raw images are processed in the Hue, Saturation, Value color channels, and then reconstructed to a 3D image with full color. We demonstrated some 3D optical sectioning results on samples such as mixed pollen grains, insects, micro-chips and the surface of coins. The presented technique is applicable to some circumstance where color information plays crucial roles, such as in materials science and surface morphology.

  10. Prediction of pork color attributes using computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng Hung; Bachmeier, Laura; Somers, Rose Marie; Chen, Kun Jie; Newman, David

    2016-03-01

    Color image processing and regression methods were utilized to evaluate color score of pork center cut loin samples. One hundred loin samples of subjective color scores 1 to 5 (NPB, 2011; n=20 for each color score) were selected to determine correlation values between Minolta colorimeter measurements and image processing features. Eighteen image color features were extracted from three different RGB (red, green, blue) model, HSI (hue, saturation, intensity) and L*a*b* color spaces. When comparing Minolta colorimeter values with those obtained from image processing, correlations were significant (P<0.0001) for L* (0.91), a* (0.80), and b* (0.66). Two comparable regression models (linear and stepwise) were used to evaluate prediction results of pork color attributes. The proposed linear regression model had a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.83 compared to the stepwise regression results (R(2)=0.70). These results indicate that computer vision methods have potential to be used as a tool in predicting pork color attributes. PMID:26619035

  11. Full-color structured illumination optical sectioning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jia; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yao, Baoli; Zhou, Xing; Yang, Yanlong; Yan, Shaohui; Min, Junwei; Yu, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    In merits of super-resolved resolution and fast speed of three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning capability, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has found variety of applications in biomedical imaging. So far, most SIM systems use monochrome CCD or CMOS cameras to acquire images and discard the natural color information of the specimens. Although multicolor integration scheme are employed, multiple excitation sources and detectors are required and the spectral information is limited to a few of wavelengths. Here, we report a new method for full-color SIM with a color digital camera. A data processing algorithm based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) color space is proposed, in which the recorded color raw images are processed in the Hue, Saturation, Value color channels, and then reconstructed to a 3D image with full color. We demonstrated some 3D optical sectioning results on samples such as mixed pollen grains, insects, micro-chips and the surface of coins. The presented technique is applicable to some circumstance where color information plays crucial roles, such as in materials science and surface morphology. PMID:26415516

  12. Using color for face verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Mariusz

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents research on importance of color information in face verification system. Four most popular color spaces where used: RGB, YIQ, YCbCr, luminance and compared using four types of discriminant classifiers. Experiments conducted on facial databases with complex background, different poses and light condition show that color information can improve the verification accuracy compared to the traditionally used luminance information. To achieve the best performance we recommend to use multi frames verification encoded to YIQ color space.

  13. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  14. Color contrast enhancement for color night vision based on color mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyan; Han, Lei; Wang, Yujin; Wang, Bangfeng

    2013-03-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, bringing a lot of pixel-level color fusion algorithms. Color constancy and color contrast are two important topics for color image fusion. However, there is no work considering these two aspects in the meanwhile. The paper focuses on enhancing the color contrast between targets and their backgrounds and maintaining the color constancy. Firstly, a group of visible and infrared images are rendered with natural colors with color contrast enhancement algorithm. Then a color reference palette is derived from source images and their corresponding fused results. To enrich this palette, the nearest Euclidean distance determines the absent colors. The complete palette can be deployed in real-time to different multi-band image sequences of similar scenes. Experimental results based on different data sets show that the targets are popped out with intense colors while backgrounds present natural color appearance. Some objective analysis also shows that the presented method not only inherits more detail information from source images but also brings bigger color distance when comparing with the existing algorithms.

  15. Converting color images to grayscale images by reducing dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Kwang; Song, Woo-Jin

    2010-05-01

    A novel color-to-grayscale method is presented for converting color images to grayscale images by reducing dimensions. The proposed method converts three-dimensional (3-D) RGB color vectors into one-dimensional (1-D) grayscale values by projecting the 3-D vector into a two-dimensional (2-D) intermediate one followed by compressing the 2-D vector into the 1-D value. Characteristics of color are introduced to facilitate the final determination of the 1-D values in the reducing dimensions. The proposed method has the advantages of preserving chromatic contrasts, maintaining luminance consistency, and having a low computational cost. Furthermore, the proposed method has high resistance to artifacts, such as halos, which can occur when using local contents.

  16. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  17. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  18. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care. PMID:20128107

  19. Color-Video Thermal Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.; Laren, C. A.; Tonis, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-simulation method produces color-video representation of temperatures in combustion-chamber wall. New method displays two-dimensional or three-dimensional temperature variation. Colors in display represent specific temperature ranges. Colors change to show changes in temperature with flow, pressure, heat flux, and other factors during startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown.

  20. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  1. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  2. Violating expectations of color order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, Bil; Bender, Walter R.

    1996-04-01

    An exploration of emotion in color communication is presented in this paper. It begins with an outline of a proposed theory of emotion and a hypothesis of how color may induce emotion. A discussion follows that details what is essential in a color message to predict emotional responses. Experiments are described that might assist in validating the theory put forth in this paper.

  3. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  4. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  5. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  6. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  7. Structural color in Myxomycetes.

    PubMed

    Inchaussandague, Marina; Skigin, Diana; Carmaran, Cecilia; Rosenfeldt, Sonia

    2010-07-19

    In this paper we report evidence of structural color in Myxomycetes, a group of eukaryotic microorganisms with an uncertain taxonomic position. We investigated the Diachea leucopoda, which belongs to the Physarales order, Myxomycetes class, and found that its peridium -protective layer that encloses the mass of spores- is basically a corrugated layer of a transparent material, which produces a multicolored pointillistic effect, characteristic of this species. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques have been employed to characterize the samples. A simple optical model of a planar slab is proposed to calculate the reflectance. The chromaticity coordinates are obtained, and the results confirm that the color observed is a result of an interference effect.

  8. RGBW color separation for field sequential color LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pei-Li

    2008-01-01

    Field sequential color (FSC) LCD is one of the preferred display technologies to achieve wide color gamut and high luminous efficiency. But this technology suffers from an unpleasing color breakup effect. This phenomenon can be reduced by adding a white primary. As RGBW primaries are recommended for FSC-LCD, the next question is how to convert standard RGB signals to RGBW without large color variations. The present study first optimal the spectra of RGB primaries using the 3D gamut boundaries of standard object color spectra (SOCS) database and Adobe RGB in CIECAM02 space with observer metamerism constraint. The optimal RGB primaries then were used to derive six modes for RGB to RGBW conversion. The final step is to further optimize color correction matrix based on CIE170-1:2006 'age and size dependent cone fundamentals' to compensate the visual color shift of elders.

  9. Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, Rafael; Melgosa, Manuel; Oleari, Claudio

    2006-09-01

    An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification is a color-difference formula in a nonuniform space. First, the BFD (Bradford University) ellipses are considered in the OSA-UCS space, and their very high regularity suggests a new and very simple color-difference formula at constant luminance. Then the COM (combined) data set used for the development of the CIEDE2000 formula is considered in the OSA-UCS space, and the color-difference formula is extended to sample pairs with a different luminance factor. The value of the performance factor PF/3 for the proposed OSA-UCS-based formula shows that the formula performs like the more complex CIEDE2000 formula for small-medium color differences.

  10. Color filter array demosaicing: an adaptive progressive interpolation based on the edge type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiqi; Liu, Zhaohui

    2015-10-01

    Color filter array (CFA) is one of the key points for single-sensor digital cameras to produce color images. Bayer CFA is the most commonly used pattern. In this array structure, the sampling frequency of green is two times of red or blue, which is consistent with the sensitivity of human eyes to colors. However, each sensor pixel only samples one of three primary color values. To render a full-color image, an interpolation process, commonly referred to CFA demosaicing, is required to estimate the other two missing color values at each pixel. In this paper, we explore an adaptive progressive interpolation based on the edge type algorithm. The proposed demosaicing method consists of two successive steps: an interpolation step that estimates missing color values according to various edges and a post-processing step by iterative interpolation.

  11. Illuminant estimation for color constancy: why spatial-domain methods work and the role of the color distribution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dongliang; Prasad, Dilip K; Brown, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    Color constancy is a well-studied topic in color vision. Methods are generally categorized as (1) low-level statistical methods, (2) gamut-based methods, and (3) learning-based methods. In this work, we distinguish methods depending on whether they work directly from color values (i.e., color domain) or from values obtained from the image's spatial information (e.g., image gradients/frequencies). We show that spatial information does not provide any additional information that cannot be obtained directly from the color distribution and that the indirect aim of spatial-domain methods is to obtain large color differences for estimating the illumination direction. This finding allows us to develop a simple and efficient illumination estimation method that chooses bright and dark pixels using a projection distance in the color distribution and then applies principal component analysis to estimate the illumination direction. Our method gives state-of-the-art results on existing public color constancy datasets as well as on our newly collected dataset (NUS dataset) containing 1736 images from eight different high-end consumer cameras.

  12. Color universal design: the selection of four easily distinguishable colors for all color vision types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Okabe, Masataka; Iga, Koichi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Musha, Kohei; Ito, Kei

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a practical application of the concept of Color Universal Design (CUD), the design that is recognizable to all color vision types. In our research, we looked for a clearly distinguishable combination of hues of four colors - black, red, green, and blue - which are frequently used in these circumstances. Red-green confusion people do not confuse all kinds of red and all kinds of green. By selecting particular hues for each color, the ability to distinguish between the four colors should be greatly improved. Our study thus concluded that, by carefully selecting hues within the range of each color category, it is possible to establish color-combinations which are easily distinguishable to people of all color-vision types in order to facilitate visual communication.

  13. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  14. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  15. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  16. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  17. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-02-20

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.

  18. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  19. Color stability of the artificial iris button in an ocular prosthesis before and after acrylic resin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Amália; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Oliveira, Kamila Freitas; Iyda, Mariana Garib; Haddad, Marcela Filié; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ocular prosthesis fabrication technique and the paint on the color stability of the artificial iris button before and after polymerization of the colorless resin. Sixty samples simulating artificial eyes were made, including 30 samples with blue- and 30 samples with sepia-colored artificial irises. Ten samples were made by each of three techniques (i.e., conventional, prefabricated cap, and inverted painting) for each color. The color of the artificial iris button was measured through reflection spectrophotometry by the CIE L*a* b* system before and after polymerization of the prosthesis (colorless resin). Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey honestly significant different (HSD) tests (α=0.05). All of the samples exhibited color changes. Samples made by the prefabricated cap technique exhibited the highest color change values for both colors (P<.05). The inverted painting technique exhibited the lowest color change values for the sepia-colored artificial irises (P<.05). Sepia-colored artificial irises exhibited lower color change values than blue-colored artificial irises for both techniques (P<.05). In conclusion, the technique used to obtain the ocular prosthesis significantly affected the stability of the artificial iris color for each color tone and the conventional technique and the painting technique inverted were considered clinically acceptable for sepia color.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... represents a group of conditions that affect the perception of color. Red-green color vision defects are ... two forms of color vision deficiency disrupt color perception but do not affect the sharpness of vision ( ...

  1. [Color changes of light-cured composite resins. (1)].

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Y; Goto, G

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the color changes of light-cured composite resins over specified periods of time. Composite resin disks which were 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness, and made by the 3M Co. light-cured composite resin Silux Plus (shades: U, Y, DY, L, G, UO, YO) were made with 2 minutes of light exposure through a 1 mm thick glass plate. The specimens were stored in 37 degrees C artical saliva. Chromatical values of the specimens immediately after curing, 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after curing were measured without background color, backed by a white plate. Color measuring was performed with the Murakami Color Research Laboratory Fast Spectrophotometer CMS-500 and the Flexible Sensor FS-3. 1) In the cases without background color, the delta E*ab values of all shades increased for 1 year proportionately to the time elapsed. In the cases backed by a white plate, the delta E*ab values of all shades increased for 6 months after curing, however, compared to the 6 month delta E*ab values, the 1 year delta E*ab values increased in some shades and decreased in other shades. 2) Both in the cases of with and without background color, compared to the delta E*ab values of immediately after curing, the 3 month delta E*ab values of all shades were over 1.2, and the 1 year delta E*ab values of many shades were near or over 2.5 and detectable to the naked eye. 3) Both in the cases of with and without background color, the L* values of all shades decreased for 6 months after curing. However, compared to the 6 month L* values, the 1 year L* values decreased in some shades and increased in other shades. 4) In the cases without background color, the a* values of all shades increased for 1 year after curing. In the cases backed by a white plate, the a* values of all shades increased for 6 months, however, compared to the 6 month a* values, the 1 year a* values of all shades decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  2. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  3. Color stabilizes textbook visual processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Orlovska, Madara; Bluss, Kristaps

    2011-05-01

    We report that pages with color illustrations elicit more homogeneous duration of fixations in 12 elementary school children. For six first graders, we compared the reading of the color cover and a greyscale illustrated text page of an abcbook. For six second grade pupils, we demonstrated a color and a greyscale fairytale book page. The fixations we recorded are concordant with the duration for preschoolers reported elsewhere. Average duration of fixations on a page with color elements are shorter than on greyscale ones, 425 (SE=13.4) and 461 (18.3) ms, respectively. The correlation analysis lends support that a color page is processed differently than its greyscale version. Fixation duration for color and greyscale condition was correlated neither for text (r=.567, p=.241) nor for images (r=.517, p=.294) for the second graders. Our research suggests that color elements on textbook pages encourage emergent readers to perform better in acquisition.

  4. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  5. Parton branching in the color mutation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Wu, Yuanfang

    1999-11-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in the soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and Cq, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences, can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  6. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception.

  7. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception. PMID:23732118

  8. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....

  10. 7 CFR 51.2276 - Color chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color chart. 51.2276 Section 51.2276 Agriculture....2276 Color chart. The color chart (USDA Walnut Color Chart) to which reference is made in §§ 51.2281 and 51.2282 illustrates the four shades of walnut skin color listed as color classifications....

  11. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table...

  12. The State of Students of Color, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandal, Bruce A.

    This report reviews the educational experiences of students of color in Minnesota schools, colleges, and universities, highlighting students and communities of color; students of color K-12 enrollments; students of color K-12 achievement; students of color college success; early college awareness; and redefining success for students of color. The…

  13. Effect of Ingested Liquids on Color Change of Composite Resins

    PubMed Central

    Malek Afzali, Beheshteh; Ghasemi, Amir; Mirani, Asrin; Akbarzade Baghban, Alireza; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Color change of composite restorations is well known to dentists. However, the effect of commonly consumed drinks on discoloration of composite resins has yet to be determined. This study sought to assess the color change of a nanofilled (Premise) and a flowable composite resin (Premise flowable) following simulated consumption of tea, cola, iron drops and multivitamin syrup. Materials and Methods: Forty disk-shaped specimens (7 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated from each composite resin. The baseline color values were measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using digital imaging. The specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into five groups (eight each) according to the storage media namely tea, cola, iron drops, multivitamin syrup or distilled water (control). The specimens were immersed in staining solutions for three hours daily over a 40-day test period. Following this, the color change values (ΔE*) were calculated. For statistical analyses, the color differences were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P< 0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in ΔE* values between the two types of composite resins (P>0.05). In both composite materials, the difference among the solutions was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Under the tested experimental conditions, both restorative materials were susceptible to discoloration by all four staining solutions. The color change values were not related to the solution or the type of material used. PMID:27123017

  14. Low color distortion adaptive dimming scheme for power efficient LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyoungsik; Song, Eun-Ji

    2013-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the color compensation algorithm to reduce the color distortion caused by mismatches between the reference gamma value of a dimming algorithm and the display gamma values of an LCD panel in a low power adaptive dimming scheme. In 2010, we presented the YrYgYb algorithm, which used the display gamma values extracted from the luminance data of red, green, and blue sub-pixels, Yr, Yg, and Yb, with the simulation results. It was based on the ideal panel model where the color coordinates were maintained at the fixed values over the gray levels. Whereas, this work introduces an XrYgZb color compensation algorithm which obtains the display gamma values of red, green, and blue from the different tri-stimulus data of Xr, Yg, and Zb, to obtain further reduction on the color distortion. Both simulation and measurement results ensure that a XrYgZb algorithm outperforms a previous YrYgYb algorithm. In simulation which has been conducted at the practical model derived from the measured data, the XrYgZb scheme achieves lower maximum and average color difference values of 3.7743 and 0.6230 over 24 test picture images, compared to 4.864 and 0.7156 in the YrYgYb one. In measurement of a 19-inch LCD panel, the XrYgZb method also accomplishes smaller color difference values of 1.444072 and 5.588195 over 49 combinations of red, green, and blue data, compared to 1.50578 and 6.00403 of the YrYgYb at the backlight dimming ratios of 0.85 and 0.4.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  16. Doubled Color Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  17. Color image encryption based on color blend and chaos permutation in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel color image encryption method by using Color Blend (CB) and Chaos Permutation (CP) operations in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (RPMPFRFT) domain. The original color image is first exchanged and mixed randomly from the standard red-green-blue (RGB) color space to R‧G‧B‧ color space by rotating the color cube with a random angle matrix. Then RPMPFRFT is employed for changing the pixel values of color image, three components of the scrambled RGB color space are converted by RPMPFRFT with three different transform pairs, respectively. Comparing to the complex output transform, the RPMPFRFT transform ensures that the output is real which can save storage space of image and convenient for transmission in practical applications. To further enhance the security of the encryption system, the output of the former steps is scrambled by juxtaposition of sections of the image in the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier domains and the alignment of sections is determined by two coupled chaotic logistic maps. The parameters in the Color Blend, Chaos Permutation and the RPMPFRFT transform are regarded as the key in the encryption algorithm. The proposed color image encryption can also be applied to encrypt three gray images by transforming the gray images into three RGB color components of a specially constructed color image. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is feasible, secure, sensitive to keys and robust to noise attack and data loss.

  18. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V.; Lakić, Nada S.; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G.; Barać, Miroljub B.; Sikimić, Višnja M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01) depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  19. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  20. Rover wheel & tracks - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera shows wheel tracks in the orange-red martian soil. One of the rover's cleated wheels is visible at left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  2. 'Snow White' in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench.

    The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Determination of the time dependence of colored afterimages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, H.-D.

    2008-02-01

    Investigations have been done with high-brightness LEDs in order to determine the flight of colors for these high-intensity light sources. By simply glancing into such a device for time durations of less than 10 seconds a long-lasting afterimage that slowly changes colors was observed. A computer assisted measuring system was developed in order to determine the dependency on various parameters like color, optical power, exposure duration of the stimulating LED. For that a specially designed color wheel diagram has been designed and used which contains the necessary information on hue, saturation, and brightness. The time-dependent process and changes of the afterimage colors were determined for 4 different dominant wavelengths, i.e. 455 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 625 nm, in the optical power range between 0.05 mW and 0.5 mW for exposure durations between 0.5 s and 5 s. The results obtained with 5 test persons will be reported and especially the time course of the color fractions is given in an 8-bit color space with the respective RGB values. The progression of the afterimage colors as a function of the applied optical energy will be shown in the CIE chromaticity diagram together with the respective total afterimage duration.

  4. The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    People with normal trichromatic color vision experience variegated hue percepts under dim illuminations where only rod photoreceptors mediate vision. Here, hue perceptions were determined for persons with congenital color vision deficiencies over a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. Deuteranomalous trichromats, deuteranopes and protanopes served as observers. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10 to 0.0003 Lux (1.0 to -3.5 log Lux). Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; "red," "pink," "orange," "yellow," "green," "blue," "purple," and "gray." Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above -0.5 log Lux, the dichromatic and anomalous trichromatic observers sorted the samples into the original representative color groups, with some exceptions. At light levels where rods alone mediate vision, the color names assigned by the deuteranomalous trichromats were similar to the color names used by color normals; higher scotopic reflectance samples were classified as blue-green-grey and lower reflectance samples as red-orange. Color names reported by the dichromats at the dimmest light levels had extensive overlap in their sample scotopic lightness distributions. Dichromats did not assign scotopic color names based on the sample scotopic lightness, as did deuteranomalous trichromats and colour-normals. We reasoned that the reduction in color gamut that a dichromat experiences at photopic light levels leads to a limited association of rod color perception with objects differing in scotopic reflectance. PMID:18598421

  5. The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10-0.0003 Lux. Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; red, pink, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and gray. Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above 0.32 Lux, observers sorted the samples into the originally chosen color groups with few exceptions. For 0.1-0.01 Lux, the red and orange samples were usually correctly identified as either red or orange. The remaining samples tended to be grouped into two categories, associated with the scotopic sample reflectance. The lowest reflectance samples were below threshold and were named black. The higher reflectance group was named predominately as green or blue-green (three observers; the fourth observer used blue or achromatic). At the three dimmest levels (< or = 0.0032 Lux) there continued to be conspicuous color percepts. Color categories were reliably assigned based on relative sample scotopic lightness. Of the samples above threshold, those with lower reflectance were classified as red or orange (all observers) and the higher reflectance samples as green or blue-green (three observers) or achromatic or blue (the fourth observer). Rods and L-cones presumably mediated color percepts at the intermediate light levels used in the study. At the three lowest light levels there were distinct color appearances mediated exclusively by rods. We speculate that at these light levels the visual system estimates probable colors based on prior natural experience. PMID:16961990

  6. Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition using the IES TM-30-15 Method

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Kevin W.; Royer, Michael P.; David, Aurelien

    2015-11-30

    A system for evaluating the color rendition of light sources was recently published as IES TM-30-15 IES Method for Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition. The system includes a fidelity index (Rf) to quantify similarity to a reference illuminant, a relative-gamut index (Rg) to quantify saturation relative to a reference illuminant, and a color vector icon that visually presents information about color rendition. The calculation employs CAM02-UCS and uses a newly-developed set of reflectance functions, comprising 99 color evaluation samples (CES). The CES were down-selected from 105,000 real object samples and are uniformly distributed in color space (fairly representing different colors) and wavelength space (avoiding artificial increase of color rendition values by selective optimization).

  7. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen; Corell, Dennis D.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five-color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated lookup tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor. The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated lookup table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius of 0.0013 in the uniform chromaticity diagram (CIE1976).

  8. The Color “Fruit”: Object Memories Defined by Color

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David E.; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K.

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems. PMID:23717677

  9. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    PubMed

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution. PMID:25920889

  10. Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Felix, Carlos E.; Myler, Harley R.

    1995-03-01

    Various edge detectors have been proposed as well as several different types of adaptive edge detectors, but the performance of many of these edge detectors depends on the features and the noise present in the grayscale image. Attempts have been made to extend edge detection to color images by applying grayscale edge detection methods to each of the individual red, blue, and green color components as well as to the hue, saturation, and intensity color components of the color image. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its detection difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Normal edge detection of a color image containing adjacent pixels with hue of 0 and 2(pi) could yield the presence of an edge when an edge is really not present. This paper presents a method of mapping the 2(pi) modulus hue space to a linear space enabling the edge detection of the hue color component using the Sobel edge detector. The results of this algorithm are compared against the edge detection methods using the red, blue, and green color components. By combining the hue edge image with the intensity and saturation edge images, more edge information is observed.

  11. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    PubMed

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  12. Assessing color reproduction tolerances in commercial print workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Hoarau, Eric; Kothari, Sunil; Lin, I.-Jong; Zeng, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Except for linear devices like CRTs, color transformations from colorimetric specifications to device coordinates are mostly obtained by measuring a set of samples, inverting the table, and looking up values in the table (including interpolation), and mapping the gamut from input to output device. The accuracy of a transformation is determined by reproducing a second set of samples and measuring the reproduction errors. Accuracy as the average predicted perceptual error is then used as a metric for quality. Accuracy and precision are important metrics in commercial print because a print service provider can charge a higher price for more accurate color, or can widen his tolerances when customers prefer cheap prints. The disadvantage of determining tolerances through averaging perceptual errors is that the colors in the sample sets are independent and this is not necessarily a good correlate of print quality as determined through psychophysics studies. Indeed, images consist of color palettes and the main quality factor is not color fidelity but color integrity. For example, if the divergence of the field of error vectors is zero, color constancy is likely to take over and humans will perceive the color reproduction as being of good quality, even if the average error is relatively large. However, if the errors are small but in random directions, the perceived image quality is poor because the relation among colors is altered. We propose a standard practice to determine tolerance based on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM-100) for the second set and to evaluate the color transpositions-a metric for color integrity-instead of the color differences. The quality metric is then the FM-100 score. There are industry standards for the tolerances of color judges, and the same tolerances and classification can be use for print workflows or its components (e.g., presses, proofers, displays). We generalize this practice to arbitrary perceptually uniform scales tailored to

  13. Moon Color Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet, red, and near-infrared filters. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, 600 miles across, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. At the upper right is the large, dark Oceanus Procellarum; below it is the smaller Mare Humorum. These, like the small dark Mare Orientale in the center of the basin, formed over 3 billion years ago as basaltic lava flows. At the lower left, among the southern cratered highlands of the far side, is the South-Pole-Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but twice as great in diameter and much older and more degraded by cratering and weathering. The cratered highlands of the near and far sides and the Maria are covered with scattered bright, young ray craters.

  14. Neurogeometry of color vision.

    PubMed

    Alleysson, David; Méary, David

    2012-01-01

    In neurogeometry, principles of differential geometry and neuron dynamics are used to model the representation of forms in the primary visual cortex, V1. This approach is well-suited for explaining the perception of illusory contours such as Kanizsa's figure (see Petitot (2008) for a review). In its current version, neurogeometry uses achromatic inputs to the visual system as the starting-point for form estimation. Here we ask how neurogeometry operates when the input is chromatic as in color vision. We propose that even when considering only the perception of form, the random nature of the cone mosaic must be taken into account. The main challenge for neurogeometry is to explain how achromatic information could be estimated from the sparse chromatic sampling provided by the cone mosaic. This article also discusses the non-linearity involved in a neural geometry for chromatic processing. We present empirical results on color discrimination to illustrate the geometric complexity for the discrimination contour when the adaptation state of the observer is not conditioned. The underlying non-linear geometry must conciliate both mosaic sampling and regulation of visual information in the visual system. PMID:22480445

  15. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  16. Martian soil color variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Rocks and soils on the surface are thought to be composed of minerals similar to those found on Earth's surface. One of the most important tools for recognizing these minerals is the spectrum of sunlight reflected by them. At the visible and near-infrared light wavelengths measured by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), the most important coloring materials in the Martian surface are iron minerals. There are two broad classes of iron minerals. Minerals which occur in igneous rocks (such as pyroxene) have a relatively flat spectrum and they reflect only a small amount of light; they are said to have a low reflectance. Ferric iron minerals, which occur as weathering products, reflect longer-wavelength light and absorb short-wavelength light, hence their very red color. The relative brightnesses of Martian surface materials in IMP's different wavelength filter is a powerful tool for recognizing the iron minerals present.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  17. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  18. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  19. Color image reproduction based on multispectral and multiprimary imaging: experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Teraji, Taishi; Ohsawa, Kenro; Uchiyama, Toshio; Motomura, Hideto; Murakami, Yuri; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2001-12-01

    Multispectral imaging is significant technology for the acquisition and display of accurate color information. Natural color reproduction under arbitrary illumination becomes possible using spectral information of both image and illumination light. In addition, multiprimary color display, i.e., using more than three primary colors, has been also developed for the reproduction of expanded color gamut, and for discounting observer metamerism. In this paper, we present the concept for the multispectral data interchange for natural color reproduction, and the experimental results using 16-band multispectral camera and 6-primary color display. In the experiment, the accuracy of color reproduction is evaluated in CIE (Delta) Ea*b* for both image capture and display systems. The average and maximum (Delta) Ea*b* = 1.0 and 2.1 in 16-band mutispectral camera system, using Macbeth 24 color patches. In the six-primary color projection display, average and maximum (Delta) Ea*b* = 1.3 and 2.7 with 30 test colors inside the display gamut. Moreover, the color reproduction results with different spectral distributions but same CIE tristimulus value are visually compared, and it is confirmed that the 6-primary display gives improved agreement between the original and reproduced colors.

  20. A method of color correction of camera based on HSV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rujin; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobing; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Wulin; Li, Yihao

    2014-09-01

    A novel color correction method of camera based on HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value) model is proposed in this paper, which aims at the problem that spectrum response of camera differs from the CIE criterion, and that the image color of camera is aberrant. Firstly, the color of image is corrected based on HSV model to which image is transformed from RGB model. As a result, the color of image accords with the human vision for the coherence between HSV model and human vision; Secondly, the colors checker with 24 kinds of color under standard light source is used to compute correction coefficient matrix, which improves the spectrum response of camera and the CIE criterion. Furthermore, the colors checker with 24 kinds of color improves the applicability of the color correction coefficient matrix for different image. The experimental results show that the color difference between corrected color and color checker is lower based on proposed method, and the corrected color of image is consistent with the human eyes.

  1. Color signatures in Amorsolo paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, Maricor N.; Palomero, Cherry May; Cruz, Larry; Yambao, Clod Marlan Krister; Dado, Julie Mae; Salvador-Campaner, Janice May

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a two-year project aimed at capturing quantifiable color signatures of oil paintings of Fernando Amorsolo, the Philippine's first National Artists. Color signatures are found by comparing CIE xy measurements of skin color in portraits and ground, sky and foliage in landscapes. The results are compared with results of visual examination and art historical data as well as works done by Amorsolo's contemporaries and mentors.

  2. Boundary emphasis transfer function generation based on HSL color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Wu, Jianhuang; Luo, Shengzhou; Ma, Xin

    2011-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been received much attention since it need not to extract geometric primitives for visualization and its performance is generally better than surface rendering. Transfer functions, which are used for mapping scalar field to optical properties, are of vital importance in obtaining a sensible rendering result from volume data. Though traditional color transfer functions are in RGB color space, HSL color space that conveys semantic meanings is more intuitive and user-friendly. In this paper, we present a novel approach aims to emphasize and distinguish strong boundaries between different materials. We achieve it by using data value, gradient magnitude and dimension of the volumetric data to set opacity. Then, through a linear map from data value, gradient magnitude and second derivative to hue, saturation and lightness respectively, a color transfer function is obtained in HSL color space. Experimental tests on real-world datasets indicate that our method could achieve desirable rendering results with revealing important boundaries between different structures and indicating data value's distribution in the volume by using different colors.

  3. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  4. Color constancy by category correlation.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Vanrell, Maria; Baldrich, Ramon; Tous, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    Finding color representations that are stable to illuminant changes is still an open problem in computer vision. Until now, most approaches have been based on physical constraints or statistical assumptions derived from the scene, whereas very little attention has been paid to the effects that selected illuminants have on the final color image representation. The novelty of this paper is to propose perceptual constraints that are computed on the corrected images. We define the category hypothesis, which weights the set of feasible illuminants according to their ability to map the corrected image onto specific colors. Here, we choose these colors as the universal color categories related to basic linguistic terms, which have been psychophysically measured. These color categories encode natural color statistics, and their relevance across different cultures is indicated by the fact that they have received a common color name. From this category hypothesis, we propose a fast implementation that allows the sampling of a large set of illuminants. Experiments prove that our method rivals current state-of-art performance without the need for training algorithmic parameters. Additionally, the method can be used as a framework to insert top-down information from other sources, thus opening further research directions in solving for color constancy.

  5. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  6. Color and the worldwide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinlock, Raymond S.

    2002-06-01

    Guidelines to publishing and transmitting color via the Internet. An introduction to how individuals can cope with color issues using off the shelf package solutions and a glimpse to what there is on the development frontier. Topics to be discussed include: (1) Optimizing your files for transfer via the net with an off the shelf software package. (2) Embedded color management packages in some off the shelf packages. (3) Mac and Window differences. (4) A look at compression pros and cons. (5) An introduction to some of the high end color calibration systems and equipment.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure assessment of the colors added as excipient because some colors have been reported to cause allergic reactions and hypersensitivity in children. The present methods provide simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative determination of the drug, AT, along with the color in synthetic mixtures and commercial drug formulations without any interference. The limit of detection varied from 0.0001-0.31 μg/ml while limit of quantification ranged from 0.002-1.04 μg/ml in all the three methods. The calibration curve of all the three derivative methods exhibited good linear relationship with excellent regression coefficients (0.9986-1.000). Both intra-day and inter-day precisions showed %RSD value less than 2% while the percentage recovery was found between 96.8-103.8%. The sensitivity of the proposed methods is almost comparable to HPLC and thus, can be used for determination of drug AT, and color simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation on routine basis. The present methods also showed that colors like SSY and ET are saturating more than 50% of acceptable daily intake (ADI) value which is alarming and needs to be considered for modification by regulatory authorities to safeguard the health of children. PMID:25374343

  8. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chantal-Marie; Seltmann, Katja C

    2014-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource. PMID:25197234

  9. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chantal-Marie; Seltmann, Katja C

    2014-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource.

  10. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Chantal-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource. PMID:25197234

  11. Planetwide Color Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The first color movie of Jupiter from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows what it would look like to peel the entire globe of Jupiter, stretch it out on a wall into the form of a rectangular map, and watch its atmosphere evolve with time.

    The brief movie clip spans 24 Jupiter rotations between Oct. 31 and Nov. 9, 2000.

    Various patterns of motion are apparent all across Jupiter at the cloudtop level seen here. The Great Red Spot shows its counterclockwise rotation, and the uneven distribution of its high haze is obvious. To the east (right) of the Red Spot, oval storms, like ball bearings, roll over and pass each other. Horizontal bands adjacent to each other move at different rates. Strings of small storms rotate around northern-hemisphere ovals. The large grayish-blue 'hot spots' at the northern edge of the white Equatorial Zone change over the course of time as they march eastward across the planet. Ovals in the north rotate counter to those in the south. Small, very bright features appear quickly and randomly in turbulent regions, candidates for lightning storms.

    The clip consists of 14 unevenly spaced timesteps, each a true color cylindrical projection of the complete circumference of Jupiter, from 60 degrees south to 60 degrees north. The maps are made by first assembling mosaics of six images taken by Cassini's narrow-angle camera in the same spectral filter over the course of one Jupiter rotation and, consequently, covering the whole planet. Three such global maps -- in red, green and blue filters -- are combined to make one color map showing Jupiter during one Jovian rotation. Fourteen such maps, spanning 24 Jovian rotations at uneven time intervals comprise the movie. The maps were reduced in scale by a factor of two to make them accessible on the Internet at reasonable rates. Occasional appearances of Io, Europa, and their shadows have not been removed.

    The smallest visible features at the equator are about 600 kilometers (about 370 miles

  12. Measurement of meat color using a computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Braghieri, Ada

    2013-01-01

    The limits of the colorimeter and a technique of image analysis in evaluating the color of beef, pork, and chicken were investigated. The Minolta CR-400 colorimeter and a computer vision system (CVS) were employed to measure colorimetric characteristics. To evaluate the chromatic fidelity of the image of the sample displayed on the monitor, a similarity test was carried out using a trained panel. The panelists found the digital images of the samples visualized on the monitor very similar to the actual ones (P<0.001). During the first similarity test the panelists observed at the same time both the actual meat sample and the sample image on the monitor in order to evaluate the similarity between them (test A). Moreover, the panelists were asked to evaluate the similarity between two colors, both generated by the software Adobe Photoshop CS3 one using the L, a and b values read by the colorimeter and the other obtained using the CVS (test B); which of the two colors was more similar to the sample visualized on the monitor was also assessed (test C). The panelists found the digital images very similar to the actual samples (P<0.001). As to the similarity (test B) between the CVS- and colorimeter-based colors the panelists found significant differences between them (P<0.001). Test C showed that the color of the sample on the monitor was more similar to the CVS generated color than to the colorimeter generated color. The differences between the values of the L, a, b, hue angle and chroma obtained with the CVS and the colorimeter were statistically significant (P<0.05-0.001). These results showed that the colorimeter did not generate coordinates corresponding to the true color of meat. Instead, the CVS method seemed to give valid measurements that reproduced a color very similar to the real one.

  13. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  14. Color Preferences Differ with Variations in Color Perception.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B

    2015-10-01

    A recent study demonstrates that color preferences of red-green dichromats differ systematically from color preferences of typical trichromatic observers. These differences can be partially explained by variations in cone-opponent mechanisms of dichromatic and trichromatic observers, but they may also be explained from an ecological perspective. PMID:26340866

  15. Sequential color video to parallel color video converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

  16. Children's Color Perception in Relation to Habitat and Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Powell, Gloria J.

    1981-01-01

    Developmental color perception of 278 four- and eight-year-old Black and White children in three societies was examined in relation to the theories that proximity to the equator and that fundus pigmentation (as measured by skin color) reduce shortwave (blue-green) in comparison to long-wave perception. (Author/MP)

  17. Fast color contrast enhancement method for color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yujin; Wang, Bangfeng

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in color image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. In this study a simple and fast fusion approach for color night vision is presented. The contrast of infrared and visible images is adjusted by local histogram equalization. Then the two enhanced images are fused into the three components of a Lab image in terms of a simple linear fusion strategy. To obtain false color images possessing a natural day-time color appearance, this paper adopts an approach which transfers color from the reference to the fused images in a simplified Lab space. To enhance the contrast between the target and the background, a stretch factor is introduced into the transferring equation in the b channel. Experimental results based on three different data sets show that the hot targets are popped out with intense colors while the background details present natural color appearance. Target detection experiments also show that the presented method has a better performance than the former methods, owing to the target recognition area, detection rate, color distance and running time.

  18. Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-05-01

    A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered.

  19. Colorful Revision: Color-Coded Comments Connected to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers have had a favorable response to their experimentation with digital feedback on students' writing. Students much preferred a simpler system of highlighting and commenting in color. After experimentation the author found that this color-coded system was more effective for them and less time-consuming for her. Of course, any system…

  20. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  1. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  2. AGV trace sensing and processing technology based on RGB color sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kebao; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Juncheng; Yun, Yuliang

    2009-05-01

    AGV(Automatic Guided Vehicle) is widely used in manufacturing factories, harbors, docks and logistics fields, because of its accurate automatic tracking. An AGV tracking method of detecting trace color based on RGB color sensor is provided here. DR, DG, DB values of trace color are obtained by color sensor, with which hue value denoting trace color characteristic can be calculated. Combined with graph theory algorithm, hue value can be used as a parameter for tracking deviation and branch identification to implement shortest path tracking. In addition, considering discreteness and uncertainty of single sensor in detecting trace information, sensor array is adopted for information fusion to achieve accurate tracking. Compared to tracking trace by single intensity sensor, AGV tracking based on RGB color sensor array has much better trace tracking and branch identification performances on complex roads.

  3. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Shen, Li-Ling; Su, Shan-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Tongue color ( shé sè) has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine ( zhōng yī). However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle ( yuè jīng zhōu qī). This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red-green-blue (RGB), hue-saturation-brightness (HSB), luminance-a-b (Lab), and cyan-magenta-yellow-black (CMYK) models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis ( shé zhěn) or performing clinical studies among childbearing women. PMID:27419092

  4. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  5. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  6. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  7. False color viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  8. Coloring the Mu transpososome

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Isabel K; Chang, Jeff; Druivenga, Nathan; McKinney, Colin; Medikonduri, Ram K; Mills, Stacy; Navarra-Madsen, Junalyn; Ponnusamy, Arun; Sweet, Jesse; Thompson, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Background Tangle analysis has been applied successfully to study proteins which bind two segments of DNA and can knot and link circular DNA. We show how tangle analysis can be extended to model any stable protein-DNA complex. Results We discuss a computational method for finding the topological conformation of DNA bound within a protein complex. We use an elementary invariant from knot theory called colorability to encode and search for possible DNA conformations. We apply this method to analyze the experimental results of Pathania, Jayaram, and Harshey (Cell 2002). We show that the only topological DNA conformation bound by Mu transposase which is biologically likely is the five crossing solution found by Pathania et al (although other possibilities are discussed). Conclusion Our algorithm can be used to analyze the results of the experimental technique described in Pathania et al in order to determine the topological conformation of DNA bound within a stable protein-DNA complex. PMID:17022825

  9. Sojourner at Moe - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This color image shows the Sojourner rover's Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) deployed against the rock 'Moe' on the morning of Sol 65. The rock behind the rover is 'Half Dome', which was previously measured by the APXS.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and na

  11. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  12. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  13. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  14. Topography of Io (color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.

    North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. [Establishment of background color to discriminate among tablets: sharper and more feasible with color-weak simulation as access to safe medication].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Makiko; Maeda, Hatsuo; Okamoto, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    Color-weak persons, who in Japan represent approximately 5% of male and 0.2% of female population, may not be able to discriminate among colors of tablets. Thus using color-weak simulation by Variantor™ we evaluated the effects of background colors (light, medium, and dark gray, purple, blue, and blue green) on discrimination among yellow, yellow red, red, and mixed group tablets by our established method. In addition, the influence of white 10-mm ruled squares on background sheets was examined, and the change in color of the tablets and background sheets through the simulation measured. Variance analysis of the data obtained from 42 volunteers demonstrated that with color-weak vision, the best discrimination among yellow, yellow red, or mixed group tablets was achieved on a dark gray background sheet, and a blue background sheet was useful to discriminate among each tablet group in all colors including red. These results were compared with those previously obtained with healthy and cataractous vision, suggesting that gap in color hue and chroma as well as value between background sheets and tablets affects discrimination with color-weak vision. The observed positive effects of white ruled squares, in contrast to those observed on healthy and cataractous vision, demonstrate that a background sheet arranged by two colors allows color-weak persons to discriminate among all sets of tablets in a sharp and feasible manner.

  16. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  17. New flesh colors in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently six published flesh colors in watermelon along with the associated genes for each of the designated flesh colors. Previous results have shown that segregation patterns did not fit with published results for canary yellow and red flesh. We believe that part of the problem has been...

  18. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  19. Color Wheels Can Be Creative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating color wheels is an appropriate assignment in the art classroom for students of all ages, including high school students, because it still offers older students a challenge. Discusses how students can create color wheels and lists the materials that are needed. (CMK)

  20. Gold color in dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Cameron, T

    1997-01-01

    This article will help the dental laboratory with alloy selection by exploring how the relationship among color, ductility and strength applies to gold and how color can be quantified. Because higher quality materials translate into higher profits, upselling to the dentist and patient is also discussed.

  1. A Quilt of Many Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse, Don

    2012-01-01

    The author discovered artist Eleanor McCain's work on "Dear Ada," an art blog he follows. McCain makes brightly colored art quilts using various rectangles and squares. She creates visual "pop" by using these shapes in a variety of sizes and bright colors. There is an interesting spatial "push and pull" that happens when looking at her quilts.…

  2. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-01

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  3. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-01

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration. PMID:17686428

  4. Colored pencils for scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Hodge, G P

    1985-02-01

    Only a few years ago, colored pencils were relegated to the "kids category" along with crayons and finger paints. They were not considered sophisticated enough for professional artists to take seriously. Today, however, artists are using them with so much confidence and finesse that the best colored pencil drawings can hold their own with those of any other technique. PMID:3997799

  5. Color Perception with Diffraction Gratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglak, Haym; Campbell, Don

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment enabling students to apply concept of diffraction, determine limits of their color perception, learn how to measure wavelength with a simple apparatus, observe continuous and line spectra, and associate colors with corresponding wavelengths. The homemade diffraction-grating spectrometer used is easily constructed. (JN)

  6. Two-color particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Larry P.; Post, M. E.; Sarka, B.; Trump, D. D.

    1990-11-01

    A novel method for determining two-dimensional velocity flowfields has been developed. The technique, two-color particle-image velocimetry (PIV), is similar to existing PIV techniques except that two different-color laser sources are used to form the light sheets required for exposing the position of particles in a seeded flowfield. A green-colored laser sheet (formed by a doubled Nd:YAG laser) and a red-colored laser sheet (formed by Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser) are employed sequentially to expose the particle positions which are recorded on 35-mm color film. Analysis of the resulting images involves digitizing the exposed film with color filters to separate the green- and red-particle image fields and processing the digitized images with velocity-displacement software. The two-color PIV technique has the advantage that direction, as well as particle displacement, is uniquely determined because the green-particle image occurs before the red one by a known time increment. Velocity measurements utilizing the two-color PIV technique on a propane jet diffusion flame have been made and are discussed.

  7. Two-color particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, L. P.; Post, M. E.; Trump, D. D.; Sarka, B.

    A novel method for determining two-dimensional velocity flowfields has been developed. The technique, two-color particle-image velocimetry (PIV), is similar to existing PIV techniques except that two different-color laser sources are used to form the light sheets required for exposing the position of particles in a seeded flowfield. A green-colored laser sheet (formed by a doubled Nd:YAG laser) and a red-colored laser sheet (formed by Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser) are employed sequentially to expose the particle positions which are recorded on 35-mm color film. Analysis of the resulting images involves digitizing the exposed film with color filters to separate the green- and red-particle image fields and processing the digitized images with velocity-displacement software. The two-color PIV technique has the advantage that direction, as well as particle displacement, is uniquely determined because the green-particle image occurs before the red one by a known time increment. Velocity measurements utilizing the two-color PIV technique on a propane jet diffusion flame have been made and are discussed.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1829 - Well colored.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1829 Well colored. Well colored means that a good yellow or better ground color predominates over the green color on the entire fruit surface with no distinct green color present, and that some portion of...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be... uniformity of the exterior color or general appearance as to color of the olives within the container....

  11. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  12. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  15. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  17. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  18. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3011 - Color intensity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color intensity. 29.3011 Section 29.3011 Agriculture... Color intensity. The varying degree of saturation or chroma. Color intensity as applied to tobacco describes the strength or weakness of a specific color or hue. It is applicable to all colors...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be... uniformity of the exterior color or general appearance as to color of the olives within the container....

  4. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  5. Pathfinder Landing Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 May 2004 This image of the Mars Pathfinder Landing site was acquired July 17, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.4, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  6. Novel quality-effective zooming algorithm for color filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kuo-Liang; Yang, Wei-Jen; Yu, Jun-Hong; Yan, Wen-Ming; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic images are captured by a single charge-coupled device/complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CCD/CMOS) sensor with the Bayer color filter array. We present a new quality-effective zooming algorithm for mosaic images. First, based on adaptive heterogeneity projection masks and Sobel- and luminance-estimation-based masks, more accurate gradient information is extracted from the mosaic image directly. According to the extracted gradient information, the mosaic green (G) channel is first zoomed. To reduce color artifacts, instead of directly moving the original red (R) value to its right position and the blue (B) value to its lower position, the color difference interpolation is utilized to expand the G-R and G-B color difference values. Finally, the zoomed mosaic R and B channels can be constructed using the zoomed G channel and the two expanded color difference values; afterward, the zoomed mosaic image is obtained. Based on 24 popular test mosaic images, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed zooming algorithm has more than 1.79 dB quality improvement when compared with two previous zooming algorithms, one by Battiato et al. (2002) and the other by Lukac et al. (2005).

  7. Correlation based efficient face recognition and color change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbouz, M.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Alam, M. S.; Qasmi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the human face via correlation is a topic attracting widespread interest. At the heart of this technique lies the comparison of an unknown target image to a known reference database of images. However, the color information in the target image remains notoriously difficult to interpret. In this paper, we report a new technique which: (i) is robust against illumination change, (ii) offers discrimination ability to detect color change between faces having similar shape, and (iii) is specifically designed to detect red colored stains (i.e. facial bleeding). We adopt the Vanderlugt correlator (VLC) architecture with a segmented phase filter and we decompose the color target image using normalized red, green, and blue (RGB), and hue, saturation, and value (HSV) scales. We propose a new strategy to effectively utilize color information in signatures for further increasing the discrimination ability. The proposed algorithm has been found to be very efficient for discriminating face subjects with different skin colors, and those having color stains in different areas of the facial image.

  8. Minimization of color shift generated in RGBW quad structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Yun, Jae Kyeong; Baek, Heume-Il; Kim, Ki Duk; Oh, Eui Yeol; Chung, In Jae

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of RGBW Quad Structure Technology is to realize higher brightness than that of normal panel (RGB stripe structure) by adding white sub-pixel to existing RGB stripe structure. However, there is side effect called 'color shift' resulted from increasing brightness. This side effect degrades general color characteristics due to change of 'Hue', 'Brightness' and 'Saturation' as compared with existing RGB stripe structure. Especially, skin-tone colors show a tendency to get darker in contrast to normal panel. We"ve tried to minimize 'color shift' through use of LUT (Look Up Table) for linear arithmetic processing of input data, data bit expansion to 12-bit for minimizing arithmetic tolerance and brightness weight of white sub-pixel on each R, G, B pixel. The objective of this study is to minimize and keep Δu'v' value (we commonly use to represent a color difference), quantitative basis of color difference between RGB stripe structure and RGBW quad structure, below 0.01 level (existing 0.02 or higher) using Macbeth colorchecker that is general reference of color characteristics.

  9. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  10. Three Fresh Exposures, Enhanced Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This enhanced-color panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features three holes created by the rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004) inside 'Endurance Crater.' The enhanced image makes the red colors a little redder and blue colors a little bluer, allowing viewers to see differences too subtle to be seen without the exaggeration. When compared with an approximately true color image, the tailings from the rock abrasion tool and the interior of the abraded holes are more prominent in this view. Being able to discriminate color variations helps scientists determine rocks' compositional differences and texture variations. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  11. Sports and colors: the color effect of team shirts on basketball games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Masanori

    2002-06-01

    The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.

  12. In vitro color change of three dental veneering resins in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, J.K.; Muttagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts. Materials and Methods The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai), auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai) and light polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA) when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India), coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, India) and tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red), G (green) and B (blue) form and converted into H (hue), S (saturation) and V (value). Results Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract and for light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change. Conclusion These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts. PMID:22457841

  13. Three-dimensional histogram visualization in different color spaces and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1995-10-01

    A visualization procedure for the 3D histogram of color images is presented. The procedure assumes that the histogram is available as a table that associates to a pixel color the number of its appearance in the image. The procedure runs for the RGB, YMC, HSV, HSL, L*a*b, and L*u*v color spaces and it is easily extendable to other color spaces if the analytical form of color transformations is available. Each histogram value is represented in the color space as a colored ball, in a position corresponding to the place of the color in the space. A simple drawing procedure is used instead of more complicated 3D rendering techniques. The 3D histogram visualization offers a clear and intuitive representation of the color distribution of the image. The procedure is applied to derive a clusterization technique for color classification and visualize its results, to display comparatively the gamut of different color devices, and to detect the misalignment of the RGB planes of a color image. Diagrams illustrating the visualization procedure are presented for each application.

  14. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  15. Color gamut reduction techniques for printing with custom inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chosson, Sylvain M.; Hersch, Roger D.

    2001-12-01

    Printing with custom inks is of interest both for artistic purposes and for printing security documents such as banknotes. However, in order to create designs with only a few custom inks, a general purpose high-quality gamut reduction technique is needed. Most existing gamut mapping techniques map an input gamut such as the gamut of a CRT display into the gamut of an output device such as a CMYK printer. In the present contribution, we are interested in printing with up to three custom inks, which in the general case define a rather narrow color gamut compared with the gamut of standard CMYK printers. The proposed color gamut reduction techniques should work for any combination of custom inks and have a smooth and predictable behavior. When the black ink is available, the lightness levels present in the original image remain nearly identical. Original colors with hues outside the target gamut are projected onto the gray axis. Original colors with hues inside the target gamut hues are rendered as faithful as possible. When the black ink is not available, we map the gray axis G into a colored curve G' connecting in the 3D color space the paper white and the darkest available color formed by the superposition of the 3 inks. The mapped gray axis curve G'(a) is given by the Neugebauer equations when enforcing an equal amount a of custom inks c1, c2 and c3. Original lightness values are mapped onto lightness values along that curve. After lightness mapping, hue and saturation mappings are carried out. When the target gamut does not incorporate the gray axis, we divide it into two volumes, one on the desaturated side of the mapped gray axis curve G' and the other on the saturated side of the G' curve. Colors whose hues are not part of the target color gamut are mapped to colors located on the desaturated side of the G' curve. Colors within the set of printable hues remain within the target color gamut and retain as much as possible their original hue and saturation.

  16. Spectral sharpening of color sensors: diagonal color constancy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-02-26

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years.

  17. [Coloration mechanism and chromaticity of Xiuyan Jade of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Ya; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2012-09-01

    The coloration mechanism of Xiuyan Jade was studied with the chemical composition, valance and coordination states of transition metal ions. The result of inductively-coupled plasma atom emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) indicated that there are little other transition metal elements except for iron and manganese. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) revealed that Fe3+ ions locate at both octahedral sites and tetrahedral sites. Optical absorption spectrum (OAS) showed the presence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. Moreover, depending on the results of OAS, Fe2+ ions determine the green color of Xiuyan Jade, while the coexistence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions introduces the yellow color of Xiuyan Jade. The chromaticity coordinate was calculated according to diffuse reflectance spectrum. The result demonstrated that chromaticity coordinates can be used to quantitatively distinguish Xiuyan Jade with similar color, which can provide a scientific reference for the evaluation of the value of Xiuyan Jade.

  18. Color vision in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antônio C; Didonet, Julia J; Araújo, Carolina S; Saletti, Patrícia G; Borges, Tânia R J; Pessoa, Valdir F

    2008-01-01

    Electrophysiological and molecular genetic studies have shown that howler monkeys (Alouatta) are unique among all studied platyrrhines: they have the potential to display trichromatic color vision among males and females. This study examined the color discrimination abilities of four howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) through a series of tasks involving a behavioral paradigm of discrimination learning. The animals were maintained and housed as a group in the Zoological Gardens of Brasília and were tested in their own home cages. Stimuli consisting of pairs of Munsell color chips were presented in random brightness values to assure that discriminations were based on color rather than brightness cues. All the animals (three males, one female) successfully discriminated all the stimulus pairs, including those that would be expected to be difficult for a dichromatic monkey. These results are consistent with the earlier predictions suggesting that howler monkeys are routinely trichromatic. PMID:18598395

  19. System of color wheels for streptomycete taxonomy.

    PubMed

    TRESNER, H D; BACKUS, E J

    1963-07-01

    In the sundry systems of streptomycete taxonomy, color of the sporulating aerial mycelium is frequently employed as a systematic criterion. Color series, each containing species of similar spore colors, are generally erected; however, the range of colors encompassed within a series is often not clearly delineated by the usual word description. Therefore, a system is proposed in which the color content of each series is more accurately defined by means of color tabs. Seven spore-color series are recognized (i.e., red, gray, yellow, blue, green, violet, and white), each of which is represented by a color wheel that displays the range of colors included therein. By comparing spore colors with the color wheels, unclassified isolates can readily be assigned to appropriate color groups.

  20. 7 CFR 58.719 - Coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.719 Coloring. Coloring shall be Annatto or any other cheese or butter color which is...

  1. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Zheng; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shi-Kun

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation.

  2. Strong color fields and heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, I.; Pajares, C.

    2010-09-15

    The clustering of color sources provides a natural framework for soft partonic interactions producing strong color fields. We study the consequences of these color fields in the production of heavy flavor and the behavior of the nuclear modification factor.

  3. Color of scents: chromatic stimuli modulate odor responses in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Osterbauer, Robert A; Matthews, Paul M; Jenkinson, Mark; Beckmann, Christian F; Hansen, Peter C; Calvert, Gemma A

    2005-06-01

    Color has a profound effect on the perception of odors. For example, strawberry-flavored drinks smell more pleasant when colored red than green and descriptions of the "nose" of a wine are dramatically influenced by its color. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate a neurophysiological correlate of these cross-modal visual influences on olfactory perception. Subjects were scanned while exposed either to odors or colors in isolation or to color-odor combinations that were rated on the basis of how well they were perceived to match. Activity in caudal regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and in the insular cortex increased progressively with the perceived congruency of the odor-color pairs. These findings demonstrate the neuronal correlates of olfactory response modulation by color cues in brain areas previously identified as encoding the hedonic value of smells. PMID:15689393

  4. Assessing fluorescent color: a review of common practices and their limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitel, Steve

    2003-07-01

    Fluorescent Colorants are widely used around the world to enhance visibility. The outstanding brightness and cleanliness of the colors lend themselves to applications in safety materials, advertising, toys, magazines, packaging, and other areas. The brightness and cleanliness is a result of the colorants ability to reradiate absorbed energy as visible light, usually shorter more energetic photons as longer less energetic photons. This can give reflectance values of well over 100%, sometimes as high as 300%, in the perceived color. A good working definition of fluorescent color is: A colorant that absorbs light energy and reradiates the energy at visible wavelengths. Light that is not absorbed is reflected, as in conventional color. Emission ceases when the excitation energy is removed.

  5. Neptune in Primary Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These two NASA Hubble Space Telescope images provide views of weather on opposite hemispheres of Neptune. Taken Aug. 13, 1996, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, these composite images blend information from different wavelengths to bring out features of Neptune's blustery weather. The predominant blue color of the planet is a result of the absorption of red and infrared light by Neptune's methane atmosphere. Clouds elevated above most of the methane absorption appear white, while the very highest clouds tend to be yellow-red as seen in the bright feature at the top of the right-hand image. Neptune's powerful equatorial jet -- where winds blow at nearly 900 mph -- is centered on the dark blue belt just south of Neptune's equator. Farther south, the green belt indicates a region where the atmosphere absorbs blue light.

    The images are part of a series of images made by Hubble during nine orbits spanning one 16.11-hour rotation of Neptune. The team making the observation was directed by Lawrence Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  6. 'Clovis' in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This approximate true-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters of the rover's panoramic camera on sol 217 (August 13, 2004).

    Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  7. GPU color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  8. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat.

    PubMed

    Orkusz, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The aim was realized by determination of total heme pigment concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness); and sensory evaluation of the surface color. The experimental material was White Kołuda goose boneless breast meat with the skin from industrial slaughter. The following 2 protective atmospheres were used in the study: vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) consisting of 80% O2 and 20% CO2. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed. However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 14 d of storage in the muscles packed in vacuum. One can state a decrease of the value of the color parameter a* as well as an increase of the value of the color parameter b* in the samples packed in MA. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. The obtained data indicated that the surface color of goose breast meat packed in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum packed was maintained for 11 and 14 d, respectively.

  9. Color segmentation using MDL clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Richard S.; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a procedure for segmentation of color face images. A cluster analysis algorithm uses a subsample of the input image color pixels to detect clusters in color space. The clustering program consists of two parts. The first part searches for a hierarchical clustering using the NIHC algorithm. The second part searches the resultant cluster tree for a level clustering having minimum description length (MDL). One of the primary advantages of the MDL paradigm is that it enables writing robust vision algorithms that do not depend on user-specified threshold parameters or other " magic numbers. " This technical note describes an application of minimal length encoding in the analysis of digitized human face images at the NTT Human Interface Laboratories. We use MDL clustering to segment color images of human faces. For color segmentation we search for clusters in color space. Using only a subsample of points from the original face image our clustering program detects color clusters corresponding to the hair skin and background regions in the image. Then a maximum likelyhood classifier assigns the remaining pixels to each class. The clustering program tends to group small facial features such as the nostrils mouth and eyes together but they can be separated from the larger classes through connected components analysis.

  10. Biomimetics, color, and the arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Franziska

    2015-03-01

    Color as dramatic, dynamic and dazzling as the iridescent hues on the wings of certain butterflies has never been encountered in the art world. Unlike and unmatched by the chemical pigments of the artists' palette, this changeable color is created by transparent, colorless nanostructures that, as with prisms, diffract and reflect light to render spectral color visible. Until now, iridescent colors, by their very nature, have defied artists' best efforts to fully capture these rainbow hues. Now, for the first time, the artist and researcher Franziska Schenk employs latest nature-inspired color-shift technology to actually simulate the iridescence of butterflies and beetles on canvas. Crucially, studying the ingenious ways in which a range of such displays are created by insects has provided the artist with vital clues on how to adapt and adopt these challenging optical nano-materials for painting. And indeed, after years of meticulous and painstaking research both in the lab and studio, the desired effect is achieved. The resulting paintings, like an iridescent insect, do in fact fluctuate in perceived color - depending on the light and viewing angle. In tracing the artist's respective biomimetic approach, the paper not only provides an insight into the new color technology's evolution and innovative artistic possibilities, but also suggests what artists can learn from nature.

  11. Astronomy with the color blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-12-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the field, although one should be cautious in assuming that such an image shows what the subject would "really look like" if a person could see it without the aid of a telescope. The details of how the eye processes light have a significant impact on how such images should be understood, and the step from perception to interpretation is even more problematic when the viewer is color blind. We report here on an approach to manipulating stacked tricolor images that, while abandoning attempts to portray the color distribution "realistically," do result in enabling those suffering from deuteranomaly (the most common form of color blindness) to perceive color distinctions they would otherwise not be able to see.

  12. Color and depth priors in natural images.

    PubMed

    Su, Che-Chun; Cormack, Lawrence K; Bovik, Alan C

    2013-06-01

    Natural scene statistics have played an increasingly important role in both our understanding of the function and evolution of the human vision system, and in the development of modern image processing applications. Because range (egocentric distance) is arguably the most important thing a visual system must compute (from an evolutionary perspective), the joint statistics between image information (color and luminance) and range information are of particular interest. It seems obvious that where there is a depth discontinuity, there must be a higher probability of a brightness or color discontinuity too. This is true, but the more interesting case is in the other direction--because image information is much more easily computed than range information, the key conditional probabilities are those of finding a range discontinuity given an image discontinuity. Here, the intuition is much weaker; the plethora of shadows and textures in the natural environment imply that many image discontinuities must exist without corresponding changes in range. In this paper, we extend previous work in two ways--we use as our starting point a very high quality data set of coregistered color and range values collected specifically for this purpose, and we evaluate the statistics of perceptually relevant chromatic information in addition to luminance, range, and binocular disparity information. The most fundamental finding is that the probabilities of finding range changes do in fact depend in a useful and systematic way on color and luminance changes; larger range changes are associated with larger image changes. Second, we are able to parametrically model the prior marginal and conditional distributions of luminance, color, range, and (computed) binocular disparity. Finally, we provide a proof of principle that this information is useful by showing that our distribution models improve the performance of a Bayesian stereo algorithm on an independent set of input images. To summarize

  13. Color analysis of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Akin; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Artunc, Celal

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the color properties of three different ceramic systems. Three groups of 10 specimens each were prepared: Dental porcelain alloy was used as a framework for conventional and ProBOND metal-ceramic systems, while glass-ceramic ingots were used as a framework for 10 samples using an all-ceramic system. For the former, dentin porcelain was applied and a ceramic veneering material was applied to the ingot frameworks. Using a dental spectrophotometer, the pre- and post-glaze color compatibility between disc specimens and A3 shade was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare color differences among groups in this study, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to make bilateral comparisons among the three different ceramic systems. The values obtained during the dentin stage revealed a significant difference in the all-ceramic group (p < 0.05). After glazing, there was no significant difference between ProBOND samples and all-ceramic samples (p > 0.05). These results suggest that ProBOND can yield esthetically superior results in clinical applications compared to conventional ceramic systems. PMID:20478787

  14. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne

    2008-11-01

    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  15. Immune reactivity to food coloring.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely

  16. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  17. Immune reactivity to food coloring.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely

  18. Color preferences of art students: surface colors: II.

    PubMed

    Götz, K O; Götz, K

    1975-08-01

    In a previous study (Götz & Götz, 1974b) the preferences of 14 surface colors were analyzed. While this set contained only one red, one blue, one yellow, etc., the color set of the present investigation was extended, and the preferences of 5 different reds, blues, yellow, etc. were analyzed. Between the five variations of red and yellow, respectively, the greatest affective differences were found, while the opposite was true for the 5 oranges, pinks, and grays. The most preferred colors are 2 reds, 2 blues, and 2 yellows; least preferred are a greenish yellow, a penetrating red-violet, and all 5 pinks. Significant sex differences were found for 8 colors.

  19. Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Granstroem, Helena

    2007-09-15

    A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

  20. Color and chemistry on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  1. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards.

    PubMed

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F; Nield, Kathryn M; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600?nm and emitted above 700?nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  2. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  3. Motion detection in color image sequence and shadow elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Most of the researches are concentrated on motion detection in gray value image sequences and the methods for motion detection are based on background subtraction or on temporal gray value derivatives. The methods based on background subtraction, including auto-adaptive ones, meet difficulties in presence of illumination changes and of slowly moving objects and need to be re-initialized from time to time. The methods based on temporal derivatives are in general sensible to noise. Color images containing much richer information than the gray value ones, it would be interesting to use them to better detect moving objects. In this paper, we address the problem of motion detection in color image sequences and the problems of illumination changes and shadow elimination. Our motion detection method is based on fuzzy segmentation of the color difference image in help of non-symmetrical π membership functions. The elimination of false moving objects detected due to illumination change is realized by combining the background subtraction method with the temporal derivative method and motion continuity. Shadows are removed by comparing the color of mobile pixels detected in the current frame with that in the precedent frame in HSL color space. Experimental results are reported.

  4. Visual Color Comparisons in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J I

    1997-06-01

    Color is used extensively in forensic science for the characterization and comparison of physical evidence, and should thus be well understood. Fundamental elements of color perception and color comparison systems are first reviewed. The second portion of this article discusses instances in which defects in color perception may occur, and the recognition of opportunities by means of which color perception and color discrimination may be expressed and enhanced. Application and limitations of color comparisons in forensic science, including soil, paint, and fibers comparisons and color tests, are reviewed.

  5. Two-color bright squeezed vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, Ivan N.; Chekhova, Maria V.

    2010-07-15

    In a strongly pumped nondegenerate traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier, we produce a two-color squeezed vacuum with up to millions of photons per pulse. Our approach to registering this macroscopic quantum state is direct detection of a large number of transverse and longitudinal modes, which is achieved by making the detection time and area much larger than the coherence time and area, respectively. Using this approach, we obtain a record value of twin-beam squeezing for direct detection of bright squeezed vacuum. This makes direct detection of macroscopic squeezed vacuum a practical tool for quantum information applications.

  6. Chromaticity of color perception and object color knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nina S.; Frankland, Steven M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor theories of semantic memory require overlap between conceptual and perceptual representations. One source of evidence for such overlap comes from neuroimaging reports of co-activation during memory retrieval and perception; for example, regions involved in color perception (i.e., regions that respond more to colored than grayscale stimuli) are activated by retrieval of object color. One unanswered question from these studies is whether distinctions that are observed during perception are likewise observed during memory retrieval. That is, are regions defined by a chromaticity effect in perception similarly modulated by the chromaticity of remembered objects (e.g., lemons more than coal)? Subjects performed color perception and color retrieval tasks while undergoing fMRI. We observed increased activation during both perception and memory retrieval of chromatic compared to achromatic stimuli in overlapping areas of the left lingual gyrus, but not in dorsal or anterior regions activated during color perception. These results support sensorimotor theories but suggest important distinctions within the conceptual system. PMID:22192637

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  8. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  9. Autophagy supports color vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  10. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  11. Image analysis and green tea color change kinetics during thin-layer drying.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinpour, Soleiman

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of air temperature and air flow velocity on kinetics of color parameter changes during hot-air drying of green tea, to obtain the best model for hot-air drying of green tea, to apply a computer vision system and to study the color changes during drying. In the proposed computer vision system system, at first RGB values of the images were converted into XYZ values and then to Commission International d'Eclairage L*a*b* color coordinates. The obtained color parameters of L*, a* and b* were calibrated with Hunter-Lab colorimeter. These values were also used for calculation of the color difference, chroma, hue angle and browning index. The values of L* and b* decreased, while the values of a* and color difference (ΔE*ab ) increased during hot-air drying. Drying data were fitted to three kinetic models. Zero, first-order and fractional conversion models were utilized to describe the color changes of green tea. The suitability of fitness was determined using the coefficient of determination (R (2)) and root-mean-square error. Results showed that the fraction conversion model had more acceptable fitness than the other two models in most of color parameters.

  12. Semantics of color in chromatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of <>: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for <>, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  13. Balanced Paths in Colored Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Alessandro; Faella, Marco; Mogavero, Fabio; Murano, Aniello

    We consider finite graphs whose edges are labeled with elements, called colors, taken from a fixed finite alphabet. We study the problem of determining whether there is an infinite path where either (i) all colors occur with the same asymptotic frequency, or (ii) there is a constant which bounds the difference between the occurrences of any two colors for all prefixes of the path. These two notions can be viewed as refinements of the classical notion of fair path, whose simplest form checks whether all colors occur infinitely often. Our notions provide stronger criteria, particularly suitable for scheduling applications based on a coarse-grained model of the jobs involved. We show that both problems are solvable in polynomial time, by reducing them to the feasibility of a linear program.

  14. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your mint-flavored toothpaste. They are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when ... even though tattoo parlors often claim that the pigments in their inks are "FDA-approved." Likewise, no ...

  15. Listening to Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn B.

    Idiomatic expressions in American English provide an important clue to the speaker's values and attitudes, many of which are represented in bipolar language (e.g., "warm hearted"-"cold blooded,""walking on air"-"feeling low"). Most bipolar idiomatic continua which predict meaning also reveal positive and negative evaluations connected with…

  16. Comparative in vitro assessment of color stability of hybrid esthetic restorative materials against various children's beverages

    PubMed Central

    Hotwani, Kavita; Thosar, Nilima; Baliga, Sudhindra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the color stability of two hybrid tooth-colored restorative materials, namely, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II LC Capsules - GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and giomer (Beautifil II - Shofu Inc, Kyoto, Japan) when subjected to immersion in various children's beverages. Materials and Methods: Standardized disc specimens were prepared using the test restorative materials. After preparation and rehydration of the specimens, baseline color evaluations were performed using spectrophotometer. The readings were recorded according to CIELAB color space. The experimental groups were further subdivided for immersion in orange juice, bournvita milk, and coke. Subsequent to immersion and pH cycling, new color evaluations were carried out after 1 week and 4 weeks for all the experimental groups. The mean color change values were calculated. Results: The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis. The results indicated that giomer specimens exhibited less color change as compared to RMGIC specimens indicating better color stability. The maximum color changes were found with the use of coke for a period of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Amongst the two materials, giomer showed less color changes as compared to RMGIC indicating a better color stability. PMID:24554866

  17. Structural color from colloidal glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkiriadou, Sofia

    When a material has inhomogeneities at a lengthscale comparable to the wavelength of light, interference can give rise to structural colors: colors that originate from the interaction of the material's microstructure with light and do not require absorbing dyes. In this thesis we study a class of these materials, called photonic glasses, where the inhomogeneities form a dense and random arrangement. Photonic glasses have angle-independent structural colors that look like those of conventional dyes. However, when this work started, there was only a handful of colors accessible with photonic glasses, mostly hues of blue. We use various types of colloidal particles to make photonic glasses, and we study, both theoretically and experimentally, how the optical properties of these glasses relate to their structure and constituent particles. Based on our observations from glasses of conventional particles, we construct a theoretical model that explains the scarcity of yellow, orange, and red photonic glasses. Guided by this model, we develop novel colloidal systems that allow a higher degree of control over structural color. We assemble glasses of soft, core-shell particles with scattering cores and transparent shells, where the resonant wavelength can be tuned independently of the reflectivity. We then encapsulate glasses of these core-shell particles into emulsion droplets of tunable size; in this system, we observe, for the first time, angle-independent structural colors that cover the entire visible spectrum. To enhance color saturation, we begin experimenting with inverse glasses, where the refractive index of the particles is lower than the refractive index of the medium, with promising results. Finally, based on our theoretical model for scattering from colloidal glasses, we begin an exploration of the color gamut that could be achieved with this technique, and we find that photonic glasses are a promising approach to a new type of long-lasting, non-toxic, and

  18. A color sensor wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  19. Effective color design for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  20. Influence of copigmentation and phenolic composition on wine color.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, J; Alonso-Alonso, O; Gallo-Montesdeoca, A; Díaz-Romero, C; Darias-Martín, J

    2016-06-01

    Chromatic characteristics and their relationships with copigmentation and phenolic composition were studied in 160 bottled red wines. Free anthocyanins, copigmented anthocyanins and polymeric pigments contributing to color were calculated according to Boulton protocol and related to main changes produced in wine visible spectra after destroying any copigmented anthocyanins effect. Color differences between copigmented and non copigmented wines were quantified and related with ageing, cultivar and phenolic profile. Phenomenon of co-pigmentation visually increases the colour at 420, 520 and 620 nm for most of wines. Copigmented wines showed a mean value of 8.26 CIELab units higher than non copigmented (ΔEab(c-nc)), being this shift deeper for young wines than for aged wines. Copigmentation mostly changed hue and decreased L, a* and b* values therefore resulted into purplish and darker wine. Visual variations in color caused by copigmentation was related to particularly anthocyanins and copigments (mostly flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids).