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Sample records for 24-h blood glucose

  1. Ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms mark calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Carolien A; van Heemst, Diana; Hoogeveen, Evelien S; Slagboom, P Eline; Maier, Andrea B; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2013-04-01

    Glucose metabolism marks health and disease and is causally inferred in the aging process. Ambulant continuous glucose monitoring provides 24-h glucose rhythms under daily life conditions. We aimed to describe ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms measured under daily life condition in relation to calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals. In the general population and families with propensity for longevity, we studied parameters from 24-h glucose rhythms; glucose levels; and its variability, obtained by continuous glucose monitoring. Participants were 21 young (aged 22-37 years), 37 middle-aged (aged 44-72 years) individuals from the general population, and 26 middle-aged (aged 52-74 years) individuals with propensity for longevity. All were free of diabetes. Compared with young individuals, middle-aged individuals from the general population had higher mean glucose levels (5.3 vs. 4.7 mmol L(-1) , P < 0.001), both diurnally (P < 0.001) and nocturnally (P = 0.002). Glucose variability was higher in the middle-aged compared with the young (standard deviation 0.70 vs. 0.57 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.025). Compared with middle-aged individuals from the general population, middle-aged individuals with propensity for longevity had lower overall mean glucose levels (5.2 vs. 5.4 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.047), which were more different nocturnally (4.8 vs. 5.2 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.003) than diurnally (5.3 vs. 5.5 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.14). There were no differences in glucose variability between these groups. Results were independent of body mass index. Among individuals without diabetes, we observed significantly different 24-h glucose rhythms depending on calendar and biological age.

  2. The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation in ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Giorgio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2008-05-30

    The present study was aimed at investigating whether the blood pressure-R-R interval relation obtained by ABPM may give useful information about autonomic control in the 24 h period. To this purpose ABPM was performed in 60 healthy young subjects (30 females and 30 males, mean age 21.8+/-1.0 years) and the collected variables were copied to a software program to convert heart rate into R-R interval values, for statistical analysis and graphic representation. The following data were calculated: 1) day and night means+/-SD; 2) difference and percent difference in mean night less mean day R-R interval (Delta y), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (Delta x) and their Delta y/Delta x ratios; 3) intercept (a_24 h), slope (b_24 h) and r coefficient (r_24 h) of the linear regressions of 24 h R-R interval over diastolic and systolic blood pressure values. In all subjects night, with respect to day, was characterized by R-R interval lengthening and blood pressure lowering. Despite this common pattern, day and night means and SDs, night and day differences, Delta y/Delta x ratios, a_24 h and b_24 h were different from individual to individual, but they were characteristic and reproducible in 20 out of the 21 subjects in which ABPM was repeated twice. Subjects could thus be classified according to their Delta y/Delta x ratios and slope (b_24 h). The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation as calculated from ABPM yields individually characteristic indices of circadian sympatho-vagal reciprocity. This novel approach may be helpful in characterizing the 24 h autonomic control of several groups of patients.

  3. Effect of octreotide on 24-h blood pressure profile in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Barzon, L; Boscaro, M; Casiglia, E; Sonino, N

    1998-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of octreotide, a somatostatin analog drug potentially able to inhibit growth hormone (GH), on the circadian blood pressure profile in a group of patients with acromegaly. Ten patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma were studied before and 6 months after treatment with subcutaneous octreotide 0.2 to 0.6 mg/day. Twenty-four hour blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min at daytime (07:00 to 22:59) and every 30 min at nighttime (23:00 to 06:59) using a TM-2420 recorder. No correlation was found between GH levels and 24-h blood pressure in baseline conditions. Untreated patients had a significant nocturnal decrease of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), and all showed a circadian systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. During octreotide treatment, 24 h as well as nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly increased (P < .05), whereas daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change. Treated patients did not have a nocturnal decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P = NS), and eight lost their systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. In conclusion, blood pressure circadian rhythm seems to be maintained in acromegaly. Octreotide treatment is associated with an increase of 24-h and nighttime blood pressure, and with loss of circadian blood pressure rhythm. Splanchnic vasoconstriction by this drug, shifting blood to peripheral vessels, may explain this phenomenon.

  4. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose A A A What's in this article? What ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  5. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Bar for Blood Glucose Meter Performance Recalls & Alerts Shasta Technologies GenStrip Blood Glucose Test Strips May ... Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA ...

  6. All about Blood Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 15 All About Blood Glucose Keeping your blood glucose (sugar)in your target range can prevent or delay the health problems ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 1/15 Toolkit No.15: All About Blood Glucose continued team about when and ...

  7. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors on ambulatory 24-h blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Chagai; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly being used in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated in patients with IRD and TNF-α inhibitors reduce this risk. We assessed whether the beneficial effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cardiovascular risk is mediated by blood pressure reduction. We measured blood pressure levels with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements device in patients with IRD before and 3 months after treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The study population consisted of 15 subjects (6 men; mean age 45.9 ± 14.1 years). Most patients had either rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis and adalimumab was the most common TNF-α inhibitor used. Mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels remained the same after treatment (121 ± 12/66 ± 7 before and 123 ± 11/67 ± 10 mm Hg after; p = 0.88 and 0.66, respectively). The study demonstrates that TNF-α inhibitors have no effect on blood pressure levels.

  8. What are the approaches for evaluating antihypertensive treatment by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring?

    PubMed

    Neutel, J M; Smith, D H; Weber, M A

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of trough blood pressure in a clinic setting have been the traditional method of assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive agents. The duration of action of antihypertensive drugs has been assessed by calculation of a trough-to-peak ratio; drugs with a trough-to-peak ratio greater than 50% are typically given once-a-day indications. However, the use of clinical measurements to assess antihypertensive agents can be misleading. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a simple technique that provides accurate and reproducible data on both the efficacy and duration of action of antihypertensive agents. Although several complicated techniques have been used for the analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, studies have demonstrated that calculation of simple blood pressure means (24 h mean, day-time mean and night-time mean) will provide all the data required to assess the efficacy of a drug. Calculations of systolic and diastolic load also provide useful information, and the index correlates closely with target-organ damage. Assessing the reduction of blood pressure during the last 2-6 h of the dosing interval provides critical information on the duration of action of agents with once-a-day dosing. Trough-to-peak ratio can also be calculated from an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, a simple line graph constructed from hourly means makes available, at a simple glance, a large amount of information about a drug. The reproducibility of ambulatory monitoring, together with the absence of placebo effect and the ability to exclude patients with white-coat hypertension, make the technique an extremely powerful tool for the assessment of antihypertensive agents that clearly provides more data on the efficacy and duration of action of an antihypertensive agent than do traditional clinical measurements.

  9. Effects of the long-acting calcium channel blocker barnidipine hydrochloride on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Iwao; Abe, Keishi

    2002-02-01

    The effect of the long acting calcium channel blocker, barnidipine hydrochloride (barnidipine) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in J-MUBA (Japanese Multicentre Study on Barnidipine with Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring). Following an observation period of two weeks, antihypertensive treatment with barnidipine was continued for at least six months. At the end of each period, ABP were measured. The patients were divided into high- and low-range groups based on ABP measurement. Throughout the 24 h, barnidipine exerted an excellent antihypertensive effect in the high-range group, but not in the low-range group. Barnidipine had comparable effects in the daytime and nighttime in inverted dippers and non-dippers, but it was more effective on daytime ABP than on nighttime ABP in dippers and in extreme dippers. Morning blood pressure before and after waking was evaluated before and after barnidipine administration in 233 patients. Barnidipine inhibited increases in blood pressure before and after waking, especially in surge-type patients whose blood pressure increased rapidly after waking. A positive correlation among 24-h ABP, daytime and night time ABP, morning blood pressure, and clinic blood pressure during the observation period and the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine was observed, with barnidipine exhibiting stronger antihypertensive effects in patients with persistently high blood pressure. It was concluded that the antihypertensive effects of barnidipine are maintained for 24 h but it has no excessive hypotensive effects on lower blood pressure and is thus a safe antihypertensive agent.

  10. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  11. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  12. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  13. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  14. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  15. Relationship between 24-h urine sodium/potassium ratio and central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Byong-Kyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-11-24

    Studies evaluating the relationship between measured 24-h urine sodium (24HUNa), potassium (24HUK) and aortic blood pressure (BP) are rare, and no such study has been performed with an Asian population. We evaluated the relationship between 24HUNa, 24HUK, casual BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic BP by analyzing data from 524 participants with valid 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory BP and central BP measurements (mean age 48.1±9.8 years, 193 men). Hypertension was defined as a 24-h ambulatory BP ⩾130/80 mm Hg or current treatment for hypertension (n=219). The participants with hypertension and high 24HUNa (mean 210.5±52.0 mmol  per day, range 151.0-432.0) showed higher 24-h systolic (P=0.037) and diastolic BP (P=0.037) and aortic systolic BP (AoSBP, P=0.038) than the participants with hypertension and low 24HUNa (mean 115.7±25.0 mmol per day, range 45.6-150.0), adjusted for confounders. The participants with hypertension and a high ratio of 24HUNa and 24HUK (24HUNa/24HUK, mean 4.03±1.00, range 2.93-7.96) had higher AoSBP than the participants with hypertension and a low 24HUNa/24HUK ratio (mean 2.13±0.54, range 0.53-2.91), adjusted for confounders (P=0.026). The participants with hypertension demonstrated a significant linear relationship between AoSBP and 24HUNa/24HUK ratio that was independent of 24HUNa, according to the multiple regression analysis (P=0.047). In hypertensive patients, 24HUNa/24HUK was positively and more strongly related to AoSBP compared with 24HUNa alone. The result indicates that high sodium and low potassium intake may increase the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease by elevating AoSBP.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.161.

  16. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  17. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  18. Role of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, D.; Chaturvedi, S.; Chandy, S.; Agarwal, I.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a major determinant of CKD progression. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has been proposed to be better in detecting hypertension as compared to casual blood pressure (CBP). This study aims to study the usefulness of ABPM in detecting masked hypertension, evaluating the adequacy of blood pressure (BP) control and predicting left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) amongst children with CKD. A prospective cross-sectional study of 46 children with stage 3–5 CKD was conducted at the Pediatric Nephrology department of a tertiary hospital in South India. All children underwent CBP, ABPM and an echocardiography. Results were categorized as normal BP; confirmed hypertension; masked hypertension and white coat hypertension. Out of 46 children studied, 11 were undergoing dialysis. While 39.1% children had stage 3 and 4 CKD each, 21.7% had stage 5 CKD. Masked hypertension was detected in 19.6% and 21.7% had confirmed hypertension. Thirty-four (73.9%) children were already receiving antihypertensive medication. In these, CBP was elevated in 23.5% and ABP in 47%. Among children with hypertension as defined by ABPM, LVH was detected in 32.2%. We found that higher the number of abnormal ABPM indices (assessed by BP Index, nocturnal dipping and BP Load) higher the likelihood of LVH (P = 0.046). ABPM is better in detecting hypertension and monitoring adequacy of treatment in children with CKD. The high prevalence of masked hypertension and its association with LVH supports early echocardiography and ambulatory BP monitoring to evaluate cardiovascular risks in this population. PMID:26664211

  19. Prediction of hypertensive crisis based on average, variability and approximate entropy of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, A W; Erne, P; Ammann, S; Perrig, M; Bürgi, U; Stuck, A E

    2008-01-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) of blood pressure (BP) can be easily measured based on software analysing 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), but the clinical value of this measure is unknown. In a prospective study we investigated whether ApEn of BP predicts, in addition to average and variability of BP, the risk of hypertensive crisis. In 57 patients with known hypertension we measured ApEn, average and variability of systolic and diastolic BP based on 24-h ABPM. Eight of these fifty-seven patients developed hypertensive crisis during follow-up (mean follow-up duration 726 days). In bivariate regression analysis, ApEn of systolic BP (P<0.01), average of systolic BP (P=0.02) and average of diastolic BP (P=0.03) were significant predictors of hypertensive crisis. The incidence rate ratio of hypertensive crisis was 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 631.5; P<0.01) for high ApEn of systolic BP as compared to low values. In multivariable regression analysis, ApEn of systolic (P=0.01) and average of diastolic BP (P<0.01) were independent predictors of hypertensive crisis. A combination of these two measures had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 91%, respectively. ApEn, combined with other measures of 24-h ABPM, is a potentially powerful predictor of hypertensive crisis. If confirmed in independent samples, these findings have major clinical implications since measures predicting the risk of hypertensive crisis define patients requiring intensive follow-up and intensified therapy.

  20. SY 13-3 DISTRIBUTION OF 24-H AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease and kidney damage in adults and children. There is a paucity of data on the long-term sequelae of persistent hypertension in children, but it is already known that children with hypertension have evidence of end organ damage and are at risk of hypertension into adulthood. The prevalence of hypertension in children is rising, most likely due to a concurrent rise in obesity rates. In children with hypertension, non-pharmacological measures are often recommended as first-line therapy, but a significant proportion of children will eventually require pharmacological treatment to reduce blood pressure, especially those with evidence of end organ damage at presentation or during follow-up. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an essential tool in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of arterial hypertension in children. In this review I will describe and discuss current methods to evaluate of BP level, the distribution of ABPM, outline available methods for BP assessment and discuss the clinical consequences of BP variability.

  1. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  2. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day.

  3. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  4. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  5. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  6. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  7. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D. ...

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  9. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer.

    PubMed

    Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina; Fischer, Ronald; Peetz, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of whole blood storage on common coagulation parameters in order to confirm or revise acceptable storage limits as defined by current guidelines and diverse study reports. Aliquots were taken from the citrated whole blood of inpatients and outpatients (n = 147) within 4 h after blood withdrawal and after extended storage of whole blood for 8 and 24 h at ambient temperature. Aliquots were centrifuged and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer. For each parameter, samples from 33-56 patients were investigated covering a wide range of normal and pathological values. Samples from patients receiving heparin were excluded from analyses of APTT and TT. All assays were performed using reagents and an analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH. The mean percentage change after 8 and 24-h storage was below 10% for all parameters. Considering the changes in individual samples, all parameters can be reliably tested after 8-h storage, since less than 15% of the samples demonstrated individual changes of above 10%. The acceptable storage time can be extended to 24 h for PT, TT and D-dimer. Clinically relevant changes were detected after 24-h storage for APTT: 41% of the investigated samples demonstrated changes of above 10%. After 24-h storage, changes for Fbg and AT values were more than 15% in five out of 49 and in three out of 45 samples, respectively. This sporadic increase of values is clinically acceptable except for borderline samples.

  10. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  11. Why control blood glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  12. Blood glucose prediction using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Chit Siang; Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Raveendran, P.; Soh, Phey Hong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2008-02-01

    We used neural network for blood glucose level determination in this study. The data set used in this study was collected using a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system with six laser diodes, each laser diode operating at distinct near infrared wavelength between 1500nm and 1800nm. The neural network is specifically used to determine blood glucose level of one individual who participated in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) session. Partial least squares regression is also used for blood glucose level determination for the purpose of comparison with the neural network model. The neural network model performs better in the prediction of blood glucose level as compared with the partial least squares model.

  13. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear.

  14. [Glucose homeostasis in children. I. Regulation of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Otto Buczkowska, E; Szirer, G; Jarosz-Chobot, P

    2001-01-01

    The amount of glucose in the circulation depends on its absorption from the intestine, uptake by and release from the liver and uptake by peripheral tissues. Insulin and glucagon together control the metabolities required by peripheral tissues and both are involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Insulin is considered to be an anabolic hormone in that it promotes the synthesis of protein, lipid and glycogen. The key target tissues for insulin are liver, muscles and adipose tissue. Glucagon acts largely to increase catabolic processes. Between meals or during fast, the most tightly regulated process is the release of glucose from the liver. During fasting glucose is produced from glycogen and is formed by enzymes on the gluconeogenic pathway. Fetal metabolism is directed to ensure anabolism with formation of glycogen, fat and protein. Glucogen is stored in the liver and serves as the immediate source of new glucose during first few hours after birth. Glucose is the most important substrate for brain metabolism. Due to the large size of neonatal brain in relation to body weight cerebral glucose consumption is particularly high. Postnatal hormonal changes have a central role in regulating glucose mobilization through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The initial glucagon surge is the key adaptive change which triggers the switch to glucose production. The control of insulin and glucagon secretion is of fundamental importance during first hours after birth. Children have a decreased tolerance to starvation when compared with adults, they are more prone to develop hypoglycaemia after short fasting. The faster rate in the fall of blood glucose and gluconeogenic substrates and rapid rate of ketogenesis are characteristic features of fasting adaptation in children.

  15. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  16. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  17. Modeling of relationship between glucose concentration in blood and glucose concentration in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Ji, Yongjie; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, using the detection of interstitial fluid glucose concentration to realize the real-time continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration gets more and more attention, because for one person, the relationship between blood glucose concentration and interstitial fluid glucose concentration satisfies specific rules. However, the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid is not entirely equal to the glucose concentration in blood and has a physiological lag because of the physiological difference of cells in blood and interstitial fluid. Because the clinical diagnostic criteria of diabetes are still blood glucose concentration, the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid should be established. The physiological difference in glucose molecules uptake, utilization, and elimination by cells in blood and interstitial fluid and the diffusion velocity of glucose molecule from blood to interstitial fluid will be induced to the mass transfer model to express the physiological lag parameter. Based on the continuous monitoring of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid, the project had studied the mass transfer model to establish the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid. We have preliminary achieved to evaluate the physiological lag parameter exactly and predict the glucose concentration in blood through the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid accurately.

  18. Regulation of Blood Glucose by Hypothalamic Pyruvate Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tony K. T.; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Pocai, Alessandro; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    The brain keenly depends on glucose for energy, and mammalians have redundant systems to control glucose production. An increase in circulating glucose inhibits glucose production in the liver, but this negative feedback is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here we report that a primary increase in hypothalamic glucose levels lowers blood glucose through inhibition of glucose production in rats. The effect of glucose requires its conversion to lactate followed by stimulation of pyruvate metabolism, which leads to activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. Thus, interventions designed to enhance the hypothalamic sensing of glucose may improve glucose homeostasis in diabetes.

  19. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  20. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. Methodology/Principal Findings Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs) were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias <15% from reference glucose (when >6.5 mmol/L) and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L). No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. Conclusion At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy. PMID:21103399

  1. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-07-01

    Management of diabetic disease requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose concentration. Development of a noninvasive technique capable of reliable and sensitive monitoring of blood glucose concentration would considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients and reduce mortality associated with this disease. Recently, we proposed to use Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested in animals several aspects of specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique. Influence of temperature and tissue heterogeneity on the OCT signal profile is experimentally studied in this paper. We also theoretically investigated the changes in tissue scattering induced by variation of concentration of glucose and other osmolytes. Obtained results suggest that although several physical and chemical agents could potentially interfere with blood glucose concentration measurements using the OCT technique, their effect is smaller compared to that of glucose under normal physiological conditions.

  2. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  3. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring: A Review and Preview

    PubMed Central

    Saudek, Christopher D.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians inappropriately think of blood glucose as a stable value because technology reduces a continuously varying parameter into a point-in-time measurement. Continuous blood glucose monitoring (CBGM) will force us to change this bad habit. Data management principles are suggested which will be necessary for conceptualizing the new data. The physiology of normal blood glucose fluctuations will be studied for the first time and the diagnosis of diabetes will be duly defined. Most importantly, closed loop insulin delivery systems will be capable of correcting abnormal glucose metabolism in diabetes. Thus, the development of CBGM will change our concepts of physiology, disease and therapy.

  4. Mathematical modeling on experimental protocol of glucose adjustment for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Min, Xiaolin; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Currently, blood glucose concentration levels from OGTT(Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) results are used to build PLS model in noninvasive blood glucose sensing by Near-Infrared(NIR) Spectroscopy. However, the univocal dynamic change trend of blood glucose concentration based on OGTT results is not various enough to provide comprehensive data to make PLS model robust and accurate. In this talk, with the final purpose of improving the stability and accuracy of the PLS model, we introduced an integrated minimal model(IMM) of glucose metabolism system. First, by adjusting parameters, which represent different metabolism characteristics and individual differences, comparatively ideal mediation programs to different groups of people, even individuals were customized. Second, with different glucose input types(oral method, intravenous injection, or intravenous drip), we got various changes of blood glucose concentration. And by studying the adjustment methods of blood glucose concentration, we would thus customize corresponding experimental protocols of glucose adjustment to different people for noninvasive blood glucose concentration and supply comprehensive data for PLS model.

  5. Towards a Wearable Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Solanki, J.; Choudhary, Om P.; Chouksey, S.; Malvia, N.; Chaturvedi, P.; Sen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Every day, about 150 Million people worldwide face the problem of diabetic metabolic control. Both the hypo- and hyper- glycaemic conditions of patients have fatal consequences and warrant blood glucose monitoring at regular interval. Existing blood glucose monitors can be widely classified into three classes viz., invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. Invasive monitoring requires small volume of blood and are inappropriate for continuous monitoring of blood glucose. Minimally invasive monitors analyze tissue fluid or extract few micro litre of blood only. Also the skin injury is minimal. On the other hand, noninvasive devices are painless and void of any skin injury. We use an indigenously developed polarization sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography to measure the blood glucose levels. Current trends and recent results with the device are discussed.

  6. Self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Hirsch, I B

    2011-02-01

    Many would argue that the introduction of modern-day diabetes management started 30 years ago with the introduction of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at home. While that may be true, it is interesting that many of today's fundamental questions have yet to be answered. Furthermore, the technology itself continues to change, to improve and to better exist with our non-diabetes technology. For example, the first SMBG 'apps' are available now for smart-phones (iPhone), and we can expect the phones themselves to participate more directly with SMBG and diabetes management. Still, both researchers (and payors) continue to ask some fundamental questions. 1. What is the efficacy of SMBG for patients not requiring insulin therapy? 2. What is the optimum frequency of SMBG for patients who do require insulin therapy? 3. What is the role of software to assist in data management for SMBG (for both patients and clinicians)? 4. What is the cost effectiveness of SMBG for all of the different patient populations with diabetes? 5. What is the ideal chemistry which results in the least amount of interfering substances with SMBG? 6. What is an acceptable accuracy for SMBG both at home and in the hospital? The accuracy question is more important than ever since all continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for now are calibrated with SMBG results. 7 What is the best strategy for teaching patients how best to use their SMBG data? 8. What is the best way to integrate SMBG with insulin pump therapy? 9. What is the role of SMBG with today's CGM devices? 10. What will the role of SMBG be 5-10 years from now with future CGM devices? These are just some of the questions which need more thought and study as we move into 2011. In this chapter we have selected papers that appeared in the PubMed on this topic and chose those we thought were most influential in this area. We have then addressed many of these topics although answers are far from clear for many of them. Although SMBG is not 'new

  7. Blood pressure-lowering effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor ertugliflozin, assessed via ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Amin, N B; Wang, X; Mitchell, J R; Lee, D S; Nucci, G; Rusnak, J M

    2015-08-01

    This study compared the blood pressure-lowering effect of ertugliflozin (1, 5, 25 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg) and placebo in 194 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension for 4 weeks using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Endpoints (change from baseline to week 4) were: 24-h mean systolic blood pressure (SBP; primary); daytime, night-time, seated predose SBP, 24-h, daytime, night-time, seated predose diastolic blood pressure, 24-h urinary glucose excretion and fasting plasma glucose (FPG; secondary). Safety and tolerability were monitored. Significant decreases in placebo-corrected 24-h mean SBP (-3.0 to -4.0 mmHg) were recorded for all doses of ertugliflozin (for HCTZ, this was -3.2 mmHg). Daytime, but not night-time SBP was consistently reduced. Ertugliflozin produced dose-dependent significant decreases in FPG and increases in urinary glucose excretion. No notable changes in plasma renin activity or urinary aldosterone were seen. The most common adverse events were urinary tract infection, genital fungal infection, upper respiratory tract infection and musculoskeletal pain.

  8. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and 24-h blood pressure profile in obese men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Togeiro, Sônia Maria; Hayashi, Lílian F; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Ribeiro, Artur Beltrame; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation may be the mechanism of this relationship. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in obese men with and without OSAS and to determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) influenced responses. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and overnight cortisol suppression test with 0.25 mg of dexamethasone were performed in 16 obese men with OSAS and 13 obese men controls. Nine men with severe apnea were reevaluated 3 mo after nCPAP therapy. Body mass index and blood pressure of OSAS patients and obese controls were similar. In OSAS patients, the percentage of fall in systolic blood pressure at night (P = 0.027) and salivary cortisol suppression postdexamethasone (P = 0.038) were lower, whereas heart rate (P = 0.022) was higher compared with obese controls. After nCPAP therapy, patients showed a reduction in heart rate (P = 0.036) and a greater cortisol suppression after dexamethasone (P = 0.001). No difference in arterial blood pressure (P = 0.183) was observed after 3 mo of nCPAP therapy. Improvement in cortisol suppression was positively correlated with an improvement in apnea-hypopnea index during nCPAP therapy (r = 0.799, P = 0.010). In conclusion, men with OSAS present increased postdexamethasone cortisol levels and heart rate, which were recovered by nCPAP.

  9. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Jorge F.; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients’ education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM. PMID:25208965

  10. Effects of metomidate hydrochloride sedation on blood glucose and marketability of transported threespot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Tina C; Hill, Jeffrey E; Hartman, Kathleen H; Yanong, Roy P E

    2012-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether sedation with metomidate hydrochloride (hereafter, "metomidate") during transportation of threespot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus would prevent an increase in blood glucose levels and improve fish marketability (i.e., based on appearance and behavior) in comparison with unsedated controls. Threespot gourami are obligate air-breathers that possess a labyrinth organ, enabling the fish to respire air above the water surface; these fish should be lightly sedated during transport. Fish were transported for approximately 24 h via truck and domestic airline. Blood was sampled at 0, 2, 6, and 12 h posttransport ation, and appearance and behavior were observed at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h and 7 d posttransportation. Metomidate concentrations tested were 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/L. At the concentrations tested, metomidate neither inhibited elevations in blood glucose nor improved marketability. Fish that were transported with 0.3-mg/L metomidate were less marketable based on behavioral indices, and fish that were transported with 0.4-mg/L metomidate had higher glucose levels than control fish. Use of metomidate as a transport sedative for threespot gourami should be considered with caution and may be problematic at the concentrations tested; however, further research examining additional indices of stress may clarify metomidate use for this species.

  11. Metabolic ketoacidosis with normal blood glucose: A rare complication of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Saad; Khan, Noman; Zeb, Hassan; Tahir, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ketoacidosis is a significant and often a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus seen mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as occasionally in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually manifests with high blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL, but euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as ketoacidosis associated with blood glucose level less than 250 mg/dL. Normal blood glucose in such patients results in significant delay in diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis, thus increasing mortality and morbidity. We present a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis secondary to canagliflozin in a type 2 diabetic patient. PMID:27928503

  12. Spectral transmission by the specimens of blood-glucose mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, Elena K.; Korolevich, Alexander N.

    2006-08-01

    Influence of glucose addition to specimens of diluted blood on the transmission spectrums have been investigated by experimentally and by the simulation. The coefficients of extinction, scattering and absorption of erythrocytes were calculated with using Mie theory for spherical particles of equal volume. Transmission spectrums were measured with the spectrophotometer Cary500 in the wavelength range 460-860 nm. Specimens of liquid for imbedding of erythrocytes were preparing by mixing blood plasma and 50-% glucose solution with the different concentrations. The volume concentrations (hematocrit) of red blood cells (RBC) were maintained to have the same values in all specimens by adding equal volume of whole blood to immersion liquid of equal volumes. It has been shown that transmission is decreasing for all wavelengths with the addition of glucose solution on condition that the volume concentrations less than 0.35-0.4. The subsequent increase of the glucose concentration results in increasing of spectral transmission.

  13. Practicality and accuracy of prehospital rapid venous blood glucose determination.

    PubMed

    Holstein, A; Kühne, D; Elsing, H G; Thiessen, E; Plaschke, A; Widjaja, A; Vogel, M Y; Egberts, E H

    2000-10-01

    Blood glucose testing plays an important role in emergency medicine. Although the use of visual reagent test strips is widely established in this setting, the accuracy of reflectometric blood glucose determinations under emergency conditions has rarely been investigated. In a prospective study, 522 of a total of 3,217 patients undergoing emergency blood glucose testing had parallel blood glucose measurements performed using a specific enzymatic method. These 522 patients (aged 61.4 years, 54% men, 90 cases of severe hypoglycemia) had an intravenous access placed at the scene of the emergency. Venous whole blood from the introducer needle of the access was applied to the test strip and the glucose measured with a GlucoTouch reflectometer (LifeScan, Inc.). A blood sample from the intravenous access was then immediately collected in a monovette for subsequent glucose determination in a chemical laboratory (hexokinase method) within 20 to 40 minutes. The emergency glucose measurements (mean: 7.3 mmol/L [95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9 to 7.7]; range: 0.55 to 27.7) correlated well with the reference laboratory results (Pearson's r = .98; linear regression analysis: slope 1.0, axial intercept 1.74). Error grid analysis also showed good agreement between corresponding measurements: zone A 96.7%, B 2.5%, C 0% and D 0.8%. The mean difference using the Bland-Altman method was 0.14 mmoVL; 2 SD 1.8 mmol/L; minimum -7.0 mmol/L; maximum 4.4 mmol/L. The accuracy of the rapid venous blood glucose determination by constantly changing emergency teams was high. Especially in 90 hypoglycemic patients, there were no deviations from the reference method that could have led to clinically relevant wrong decisions. The method of collecting whole blood directly from the venous access is simple and robust, and is independent of the hemodynamic status of the patient.

  14. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  15. Effect of high altitude on blood glucose meter performance.

    PubMed

    Fink, Kenneth S; Christensen, Dale B; Ellsworth, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Participation in high-altitude wilderness activities may expose persons to extreme environmental conditions, and for those with diabetes mellitus, euglycemia is important to ensure safe travel. We conducted a field assessment of the precision and accuracy of seven commonly used blood glucose meters while mountaineering on Mount Rainier, located in Washington State (elevation 14,410 ft). At various elevations each climber-subject used the randomly assigned device to measure the glucose level of capillary blood and three different concentrations of standardized control solutions, and a venous sample was also collected for later glucose analysis. Ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the effect of elevation and of other environmental potential covariates on the precision and accuracy of blood glucose meters. Elevation affects glucometer precision (p = 0.08), but becomes less significant (p = 0.21) when adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. The overall effect of elevation was to underestimate glucose levels by approximately 1-2% (unadjusted) for each 1,000 ft gain in elevation. Blood glucose meter accuracy was affected by elevation (p = 0.03), temperature (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p = 0.04) after adjustment for the other variables. The interaction between elevation and relative humidity had a meaningful but not statistically significant effect on accuracy (p = 0.07). Thus, elevation, temperature, and relative humidity affect blood glucose meter performance, and elevated glucose levels are more greatly underestimated at higher elevations. Further research will help to identify which blood glucose meters are best suited for specific environments.

  16. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.

    2016-03-01

    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.

  17. Effect of aluminum phosphide on blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Abder-Rahman, H

    1999-02-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP), a poison extensively used as a grain fumigant and rodenticide, can cause an increase or decrease in blood glucose levels Both hypo- and hyper-glycemic effects of AlP can be attributed to the wide variety of changes in magnesium, calcium, phosphate, citrate and cortisol levels. These biochemical changes can act as active stimulatory or inhibitory modulators to enzymes and hormones that catalyze and regulate glucose metabolism. According to the type of biochemical changes, AlP can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in blood glucose levels. A case of AlP-caused death is reported.

  18. A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Holt, Tim A; Khovanova, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles.

  19. Simulation on how to customize glucose adjustment method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the limitations of taking OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) as the glucose adjustment protocol for non-invasive blood glucose sensing. Previous studies built a mathematical model of glucose metabolism system-IMM (the Integrated Minimal Model) to probe other available adjustment methods. In this talk, a further study would be focused on more detailed combination options of different glucose input types for glucose adjustment projects in non-invasive blood glucose sensing. And predictive models of blood glucose concentration have been established by means of partial least squares (PLS) method, which could be used to evaluate the quality of different glucose adjustment options. Results of PLS modeling suggested that predictive models under combined glucose input types, compared with OGTT, show a great enhancement in the stability. This would finally improve the precision of non-invasive blood glucose sensing.

  20. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection on white blood cell counts, hematological variables, and serum glucose, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in ewes fed low- or high-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Löest, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Carter, B H; Limesand, S W

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxins (LPS) elicit inflammatory responses reflective of acute bacterial infection. We determined if feeding ewes high-CP (15.5%) or low-CP (8.5%) diets for 10 d altered inflammatory responses to an intravenous bolus of 0 (control), 0.75 (L75), or 1.50 (L150) μg of LPS/kg of BW in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 5/treatment). Rectal temperatures, heart and respiratory rates, blood leukocyte concentrations, and serum cortisol, insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured for 24 h after an LPS bolus (bolus = 0 h). In general, rectal temperatures were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in control ewes fed high CP, but LPS increased (P ≤ 0.05) rectal temperatures in a dose-dependent manner at most times between 2 and 24 h after the bolus. Peak rectal temperatures in L75 and L150 occurred 4 h after the bolus. A monophasic, dose-independent increase (P ≤ 0.023) in serum cortisol occurred from 0.5 to 24 h after the bolus, with peak cortisol at 4 h. Serum insulin was increased (P ≤ 0.016) by LPS in a dose-dependent manner from 4 to 24 h after the bolus. Insulin did not differ between control ewes fed high- and low-CP diets but was greater (P < 0.001) in L75 ewes fed low CP compared with high CP and in L150 ewes fed high CP compared with low CP. Increased insulin was not preceded by increased serum glucose. Total white blood cell concentrations were not affected (P ≥ 0.135) by LPS, but the neutrophil and monocyte fractions of white blood cells were increased (P ≤ 0.047) by LPS at 12 and 24 h and at 24 h after the bolus, respectively, and the lymphocyte fraction was increased (P = 0.037) at 2 h and decreased (P ≤ 0.006) at 12 and 24 h after the bolus. Red blood cell and hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit (%) were increased (P ≤ 0.022) by LPS at 2 and 4 h after the bolus. Rectal temperatures and serum glucose were greater (P ≤ 0.033) in ewes fed a high-CP diet before LPS injection, but these effects were lost at

  1. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium entry blocker, as determined by the ambulatory blood pressure level averaged for 24 h, daytime, and nighttime. Barnidipine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Abe, K; Nishiyama, A; Sekino, M; Yoshinaga, K

    1997-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, administered once daily in the morning in a dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in 34 patients (51.3+/-9.6 years). Hypertension was diagnosed based on the clinic BP. The patients were classified into groups according to the ambulatory BP: group 1, dippers with true hypertension; group 2, nondippers with true hypertension; group 3, dippers with false hypertension; and Group 4, nondippers with false hypertension. Barnidipine reduced the clinic systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in all groups and significantly reduced the average 24 h ambulatory BP (133.0+/-16.5/90.7+/-12.3 mm Hg v 119.7+/-13.7/81.8+/-10.3 mm Hg, P < .0001 for both SBP and DBP). Barnidipine significantly reduced the daytime ambulatory SBP in groups 1, 2, and 3, but not in group 4, and significantly reduced daytime ambulatory DBP in group 1 but not in groups 2, 3, and 4. Barnidipine significantly reduced the nighttime ambulatory SBP only in group 2 and the nighttime ambulatory DBP in groups 2 and 4. Once-a-day administration of barnidipine influenced 24 h BP on true hypertensives (the ratio of the trough to peak effect > 50%), but had minimal effect on low BP such as the nocturnal BP in dippers and the ambulatory BP in false hypertensives. These findings suggest that barnidipine can be used safely in patients with isolated clinic ("white coat") hypertension and in those with dipping patterns of circadian BP variation whose nocturnal BP is low before treatment.

  2. Noninvasive Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Valdez, Tulio A; Zhang, Chi; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-21

    The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. In the quest for better sensing approaches, optical technologies have surfaced as attractive candidates as researchers have sought to exploit the endogenous contrast of glucose, notably its absorption, scattering, and polarization properties. Vibrational spectroscopy, especially spontaneous Raman scattering, has exhibited substantial promise due to its exquisite molecular specificity and minimal interference of water in the spectral profiles acquired from the blood-tissue matrix. Yet, it has hitherto been challenging to leverage the Raman scattering signatures of glucose for prediction in all but the most basic studies and under the least demanding conditions. In this Account, we discuss the newly developed array of methodologies that address the key challenges in measuring blood glucose accurately using Raman spectroscopy and unlock new prospects for translation to sustained noninvasive measurements in people with diabetes. Owing to the weak intensity of spontaneous Raman scattering, recent research has focused on enhancement of signals from the blood constituents by designing novel excitation-collection geometries and tissue modulation methods while our attempts have led to the incorporation of nonimaging optical elements. Additionally, invoking mass transfer modeling into chemometric algorithms has

  3. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  4. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  5. Glucose measurement in interstitial fluid by microdialysis for the calibration of minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dachao; Wang, Ridong; Chong, Hao; Liu, Yu; Xu, Kexin

    2013-03-01

    According to the requirement of the calibration in minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring, a method based on microdialysis was presented to monitor glucose level in interstitial fluid continuously. An experimental system simulating the continuous change of glucose concentration in vivo was built. The influences on recovery of microdialysis caused by flow rate, glucose concentration, and temperature etc. were studied. The results led to the conclusion that the recovery fell by 71.7% when perfusion rate increased from 0.3 μL/min to 3.0 μL/min, while the different concentrations of glucose solutions scarcely contribute to the recovery instead, and the temperatures from 25 to 58 °C caused the recovery to increase by 34.6%.

  6. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Bernard L; Barnes, Christopher J; Campaigne, Barbara N; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes. PMID:18200813

  7. Robust blood-glucose control using Mathematica.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Levente; Paláncz, Béla; Benyó, Balázs; Török, László; Benyó, Zoltán

    2006-01-01

    A robust control design on frequency domain using Mathematica is presented for regularization of glucose level in type I diabetes persons under intensive care. The method originally proposed under Mathematica by Helton and Merino, --now with an improved disturbance rejection constraint inequality--is employed, using a three-state minimal patient model. The robustness of the resulted high-order linear controller is demonstrated by nonlinear closed loop simulation in state-space, in case of standard meal disturbances and is compared with H infinity design implemented with the mu-toolbox of Matlab. The controller designed with model parameters represented the most favorable plant dynamics from the point of view of control purposes, can operate properly even in case of parameter values of the worst-case scenario.

  8. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  9. Acute effects of nicorandil on glucose tolerance in subjects with borderline fasting blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Boes, U; Wallner, S; Wascher, T C

    2001-02-15

    The acute effect of the anti-ischemic potassium channel opener nicorandil on glucose tolerance and post-challenge insulin levels was investigated in 11 subjects (6 males and 5 females, age 59 +/- 2 years) with borderline fasting blood glucose in a single blinded randomised study. All participants were submitted to two oral glucose tolerance tests in randomised order, once without any premedication and once 30 minutes after oral administration of 20 mg nicorandil. This single dose of nicorandil significantly increased blood glucose levels at 120 minutes (173 +/- 16 vs. 150 +/- 11 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) and 180 minutes (106 +/- 11 vs. 88 +/- 7 mg/dl, p < 0.05 by ANOVA) after ingestion of 75 mg of glucose. Serum insulin levels were not significantly altered. In conclusion we suggest that controlled studies in patients with coronary artery disease should be performed to investigate whether long term treatment with nicorandil increases progression rates from impaired glucose tolerance to type-II diabetes and/or from normal to impaired glucose tolerance with a possibly negative impact on the course of cardiovascular disease in comparison to conventional anti-anginal drugs.

  10. Accuracy of the CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Bern; Leazenby, Cheryl; Halldorsdottir, Solveig

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the CONTOUR® blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) according to the International Organization for Standardization's International Standard 15197 (ISO 15197:2003) guidelines and to more stringent criteria. Method Finger stick blood samples from 105 subjects with diabetes (25 with type 1, 77 with type 2, and 3 with type unknown) were tested using the CONTOUR BGMS and YSI glucose analyzer. Results 99.3% of results were within ISO 15197:2003 criteria (±15 mg/dl of YSI results at glucose concentrations <75 mg/dl and ±20% at glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dl). Additionally, 96.7% of results were accurate according to more stringent criteria (±15 mg/dl of YSI results for glucose concentrations <100 mg/dl and ±15% for glucose concentrations ≥100 mg/dl). Error grid analysis showed that 99.3% and 0.7% of results were within zones A and B, respectively. Conclusion The CONTOUR BGMS exceeded both the minimum acceptable accuracy based on ISO 15197:2003 and the more stringent accuracy criteria. PMID:21880245

  11. The utility of blood glucose meters in biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Jennifer; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2005-06-01

    Most methods used to measure glucose concentrations in biotechnological settings are labour-intensive and/or expensive. With this in mind we have investigated the possibility of employing blood glucose meters, the use of which has the benefit of being fast, convenient and inexpensive, for this purpose. Accu-Chek Advantage (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) and Precision QID (Medisense, Abbott Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) meters were tested using glucose samples of known concentration, at pH 7.5 and 4.8. The Accu-Chek Advantage meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. This meter showed a linear response for glucose concentrations between 0.50 and 6.0 g/litre, and the effect of pH was small. The Precision QID meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose oxidase and is more sensitive to pH. The displayed glucose concentrations at low pH values were consistently lower than at higher pH values. At both pH values the response curve reached a plateau, which limited the effective range of this meter to a range of 0.30-2.5 g/litre. Unlike the Precision QID meter, the Accu-Chek Advantage meter also responded to xylose and arabinose. A synergistic effect of combining sugars was observed when a mixture of sugars consisting of glucose and arabinose, or glucose and xylose, was applied: the displayed concentrations were consistently higher than was expected on the basis of the individual calibration curves. The use of glucose meters is a fast and convenient alternative to existing methods and may be of particular use for screening purposes where a high degree of accuracy is not crucial. The choice of meter should depend on the application, and in this respect the pH, expected concentration range and the presence of other sugars are among the factors that should be considered.

  12. Hybrid CARS for Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Pestov, Dmitry; Zhang, Aihua; Murawski, Robert; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Laane, Jaan; Scully, Marlan

    2007-10-01

    We develop a spectroscopy technique that combines the advantages of both the frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and the time-resolved CARS. We use broadband preparation pulses to get an instantaneous coherent excitation of multiplex molecular vibration levels and subsequent optically shaped time-delayed narrowband probing pulse to detect these vibrations. This technique can suppress the nonresonant background and retrieve the molecular fingerprint signal efficiently and rapidly. We employ this technique to glucose detection, the final goal of which is accurate, non-invasive (i.e. painless) and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration in the Diabetes diagnosis to replace the current glucose measurement process, which requires painful fingerpricks and therefore cannot be performed more than a few times a day. We have gotten the CARS spectra of glucose aqueous solution down to 2 mM.

  13. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    PubMed

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here.

  14. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland–Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. PMID:26330393

  15. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Arnold, Mark A.; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-03-01

    Tight control of blood glucose levels has been shown to dramatically reduce the long-term complications of diabetes. Current invasive technology for monitoring glucose levels is effective but underutilized by people with diabetes because of the pain of repeated finger-sticks and the cost of reagent strips. Optical sensing of glucose could potentially allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical non-invasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise-ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is very small due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 μm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 micron wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the laser system and its potential for use in a non-invasive glucose sensor.

  16. Intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate reduces hyperglycemia in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) by enhancing blood glucose consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Kurata, Manami; Yamazaki, Hanae; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Nadamoto, Tomonori; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on the blood glucose levels of mice using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg body weight AITC reduced the increase in blood glucose level after 2 g/kg body weight glucose was given intraperitoneally, compared with that of control mice. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for the reduction, respiratory gas analysis employing (13)C-labeled glucose was performed. The intragastrically administering AITC increased (13)CO2 emission, compared to vehicle, after intraperitoneal administration of (13)C-labeled glucose. This indicated that AITC increased the utilization of exogenously administered glucose, which was excessive glucose in the blood. To examine whether transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediated this reduction in the blood glucose levels, we used TRPA1 and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Intragastrically administering AITC reduced the increase in the blood glucose level in TRPA1 KO mice but not in TRPV1 KO mice. These findings suggest that dietary AITC might reduce the increases in blood glucose levels by increasing the utilization of excessive glucose in the blood by activating TRPV1.

  17. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  18. Dynamical Analysis in the Mathematical Modelling of Human Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Saebyok; Kang, Byungmin

    2012-01-01

    We want to apply the geometrical method to a dynamical system of human blood glucose. Due to the educational importance of model building, we show a relatively general modelling process using observational facts. Next, two models of some concrete forms are analysed in the phase plane by means of linear stability, phase portrait and vector…

  19. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  20. Addition of oligosaccharide decreases the freezing lesions on human red blood cell membrane in the presence of dextran and glucose.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo Bo; Han, Ying; Liu, Min Xia; Fang, Lei; Du, Wei; Ren, Su Ping; Wang, Jie Xi; Wang, Yan

    2011-04-01

    Although incubation with glucose before freezing can increase the recovery of human red blood cells frozen with polymer, this method can also result in membrane lesions. This study will evaluate whether addition of oligosaccharide (trehalose, sucrose, maltose, or raffinose) can improve the quality of red blood cell membrane after freezing in the presence of glucose and dextran. Following incubation with glucose or the combinations of glucose and oligosaccharides for 3h in a 37°C water bath, red blood cells were frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24h using 40% dextran (W/V) as the extracellular protective solution. The postthaw quality was assessed by percent hemolysis, osmotic fragility, mean corpuscle volume (MCV), distribution of phosphatidylserine, the postthaw 4°C stability, and the integrity of membrane. The results indicated the loading efficiency of glucose or oligosaccharide was dependent on their concentrations. Moreover, addition of trehalose or sucrose could efficiently decrease osmotic fragility of red blood cells caused by incubation with glucose before freezing. The percentage of damaged cell following incubation with glucose was 38.04±21.68% and significantly more than that of the unfrozen cells (0.95±0.28%, P<0.01). However, with the increase of the concentrations of trehalose, the percentages of damaged cells were decreased steadily. When the concentration of trehalose was 400mM, the percentage of damaged cells was 1.97±0.73% and similar to that of the unfrozen cells (P>0.05). Moreover, similar to trehalose, raffinose can also efficiently prevent the osmotic injury caused by incubation with glucose. The microscopy results also indicated addition of trehalose could efficiently decrease the formation of ghosts caused by incubation with glucose. In addition, the gradient hemolysis study showed addition of oligosaccharide could significantly decrease the osmotic fragility of red blood cells caused by incubation with glucose. After freezing and thawing

  1. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  2. Near-infrared spectral methods for noninvasively measuring blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Sun; Kong, Deyi; Mei, Tao; Tao, Yongchun

    2004-05-01

    Determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients is a frequently occurring procedure and an important tool for diabetes management. Use of noninvasive detection techniques can relieve patients from the pain of frequent finger pokes and avoid the infection of disease via blood. This thesis discusses current research and analyzes the advantages and shortages of different measurement methods, including: optical methods (Transmission, Polarimetry and scattering), then, we give emphasis to analyze the technology of near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectral range 700 nm ~2300 nm was used because of its good transparency for biological tissue and presence of glucose absorption band. In this work, we present an outline of noninvasive blood glucose measurement. A near-infrared light beam is passed through the finger, and the spectral components of the emergent beam are measured using spectroscopic techniques. The device includes light sources having the wavelengths of 600 nm - 1800 nm to illuminate the tissue. Receptors associated with the light sources for receiving light and generating a transmission signal representing the light transmitted are also provided. Once a transmission signal is received by receptors, and the high and low values from each of the signals are stored in the device. The averaged values are then analyzed to determine the glucose concentration, which is displayed on the device.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared glucose absorption signals: toward noninvasive blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptari, Vidi A.; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2000-11-01

    Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring is a long pursued goal in clinical diagnostic. Among several other optical methods, near infrared absorption spectroscopy is the most promising one for the noninvasive application to date. However, realization has not been achieved. A major obstacle is the low signal-to-noise ration pertinent to physiological blood glucose measurement using the near infrared absorption technique. Sensitivity analysis of aqueous glucose absorption signals was performed in the combination band region and in the first-overtone region. The analysis involved quantification of both glucose absorption signal and the corresponding spectral noise within a particular wavelength region. Glucose absorption band at 4430cm-1 (2257nm) in the combination band region was found to give an order of magnitude higher signal-to-noise ratio than the strongest band in the first-overtone region. A Fourier- filtering algorithm was applied to the raw absorbance data to remove some of the unwanted spectral variations. With simple peak-to-peak analysis to the Fourier-filtered absorbance data, repeatability of less than +/-0.5mmol/L was achieved. In addition, effects of temperature variations on the absorption spectra were studied. The effects of sample temperature were compensated with the application of the Fourier filter.

  4. The role of pancreatic insulin secretion in neonatal glucoregulation. II. Infants with disordered blood glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Hawdon, J M; Aynsley-Green, A; Bartlett, K; Ward Platt, M P

    1993-01-01

    Some neonates, such as those who are preterm or small for dates, become hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. These disorders represent a failure of neonatal metabolic adaptation, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Data from studies of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic infants were reviewed in the light of new data from studies of healthy neonates. Data from 28 neonates, who had disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, were analysed to determine the interrelationships between circulating concentrations of glucose, intermediary metabolites, glucagon and insulin, and glucose production rates. Blood glucose concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 26.1 mmol/l, and glucose production rates from 0 to 19.2 mg/kg/min. Blood glucose concentrations were positively related to intravenous glucose infusion rates and to glucose production rates. A negative relationship existed between plasma glucagon and blood glucose concentrations, but there was a wide variation in plasma insulin levels at all blood glucose concentrations. No relationship between either plasma insulin or glucagon concentration and glucose production rate was shown. It is concluded that in neonates with disordered blood glucose homoeostasis, blood glucose concentration is influenced by the rate of administration of glucose, with less precise internal control mechanisms than older subjects. This emphasises the importance of blood glucose monitoring and careful prescribing of exogenous glucose by clinicians caring for such infants. PMID:8466263

  5. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement using multiple laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, E. T.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Soh, P. H.; Ng, K.; Yeo, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    In the event of diabetes clinicians have advocated that frequent monitoring of a diabetic's blood glucose level is the key to avoid future complications (kidney failure, blindness, amputations, premature death, etc.,) associated with the disease. While the test-strip glucose meters available in current consumer markets allow for frequent monitoring, a more convenient technique that is accurate, painless and sample-free is preferable in a diabetic's daily routine. This paper presents a non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique using diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) signals. This technique uses a set of laser diodes, each operating at fixed wavelengths in the first overtone region. The NIR signals from the laser diodes are channeled to the measurement site viz., the nail-bed by means of optical fibers. A series of in vivo experiments have been performed on eight normal human subjects using a standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) protocol. The reflected NIR signals are inputs to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm for calibration and future predictions. The calibration models used are developed using in vivo datasets and are unique to a particular individual. The 1218 paired points collected from the eight test subjects plotted on the Clarke Error Grid, revealed that 87.3% of these points fall within the A zone while the remainder, within the B zone, both of which, are clinically accepted. The standard error of prediction was +/-13.14mg/dL for the best calibration model. A Bland-Altman analysis of the 1218 paired points yields a 76.3% confidence level for a measurement accuracy of +/-20mg/dL. These results demonstrate the initial potential of the technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurements in vivo.

  6. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    PubMed

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  7. Development of Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensor Using the Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Keiichi; Tamura, Kazuto; Kaneko, Wataru; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Toba, Eiji

    Recently, diabetics have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a very serious problem for us. About 23.6 millions of people in Japan approach the danger of diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to get insulin injection. And they have to measure blood glucose again and again a day. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood glucose based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. Non-invasive measurement was carried out by using 3 methods. And standard error of prediction is about ±20mg/dl by 3 method. This paper also describes practical application of this method.

  8. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels. PMID:7181526

  9. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  10. High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women.

    PubMed

    Havel, P J; Townsend, R; Chaump, L; Teff, K

    1999-02-01

    Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 +/- 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730-kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 +/- 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 +/- 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 +/- 16%; P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 +/- 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 +/- 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

  11. Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring with a Long-Term Subconjunctival Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Achim Josef; Knuth, Monika; Nikolaus, Katharina Sibylle; Krivánek, Roland; Küster, Frank; Hasslacher, Christoph; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the feasibility of an implantable subconjunctival glucose monitoring system (SGMS) for long-term glucose monitoring, we investigated the in vivo performance of the system. Method The SGMS consists of an implantable ocular mini implant (OMI) and a handheld fluorescence photometer. A clinical study was performed on 47 diabetes patients split into two cohorts. Two different types of OMI were used, with and without a biocompatible surface coating. Duration of the study was 1 year. Correlation between capillary blood glucose and SGMS-derived interstitial fluid glucose was investigated during the first 6 months of the study. Results Both OMI types were tolerated well in the eyes of the patients. At the beginning of the study, the SGMS of both cohorts revealed a high accuracy with mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values of 7–12%. The performance of the uncoated OMIs deteriorated within 3 months of wearing time, exhibiting a MARD value of 20%. The performance of the surface-coated OMIs was preserved longer. Glucose correlation measurement with reasonable results (MARD of 14%) could be performed for up to 6 months of wear. Conclusions The biocompatible surface coating on the OMIs enabled a longer duration of action of up to 6 months compared with 3 months for uncoated implants in a clinical trial. PMID:23439157

  12. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Tuba; Al, Ayhan; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively). Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05). The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people. PMID:28217501

  13. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  14. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2013-12-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin-borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations.

  15. The impact of continuous glucose monitoring on low interstitial glucose values and low blood glucose values assessed by point-of-care blood glucose meters: results of a crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Norbert; Schumann, Beatrix; Kulzer, Bernhard; Haak, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In a randomized crossover trial the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was tested on the occurrence of low blood glucose values measured by point of care (POC) measurement and on low glucose values measured by CGM in the interstitial fluid. A total of 41 type 1 diabetic patients (age 42.0 ± 11.4 years, diabetes duration 15.3 ± 10.1 years, A1c 8.2 ± 1.4%) used a CGM system (Dexcom SEVEN PLUS system) twice. In first study phase (CGM blind), patients were blind regarding the CGM current glucose levels and were not alerted when critical glucose values were reached. In the second phase (CGM real time), patients had access to current glucose levels and were alerted if critical glucose values were reached. During CGM real time the proportion of hypoglycemic POC blood glucose values were significantly reduced (7.5 ± 5.6% vs 10.1 ± 7.5%; P = .04), whereas the proportion of euglycemic blood glucose values were significantly enhanced (73.7 ± 18.3% vs 68.3 ± 12.1%; P = .01). The duration of low glucose periods in the interstitial fluid was significantly lower in the CGM real time phase (125 ± 89 vs 181 ± 125 minutes per day; P = .005). The time until a low blood glucose was detected by POC measurement was shortened by 33.2 ± 76.1 minutes (P = .03). The study demonstrated that CGM is able to not only reduce duration of hypoglycemia measured by CGM in interstitial fluid, but also reduce the proportion of low POC blood glucose measurements. In addition, hypoglycemia can be detected earlier.

  16. [Are blood glucose measurements made with portable glucometers reliable?].

    PubMed

    Guzmán D, Ana María; Quiroga G, Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Examinations performed beside the bed of patients ("Point-of-care testing, POCT") provide immediate results and are simple to perform. The most common of these tests is the self control of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. The use of these devices at the hospital level, introduces a new set of requirements to health institutions, which should monitor all aspects of the process, including training of final users, proper quality control, development of written procedures for use and even participation in surveys of external quality control, avoiding the generation of errors and guaranteeing patient safety.

  17. Capillary bedside blood glucose measurement in neonates: missing a diagnosis of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Öcal, Murat; Tanrıverdi, Sibel; Baysal, Birsen; Deniz, Ahmet; Öncel, Kahraman; Demirbilek, Hüseyin

    2015-03-01

    A number of factors may lead to inaccuracy in measurement of capillary blood glucose with a glucometer. Measurement of other carbohydrate molecules such as galactose and fructose along with glucose can potentially be a cause of error. We report a newborn patient who was referred to our hospital with conjugated bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and high capillary blood glucose levels measured with a glucometer. Simultaneous biochemical measurements revealed normal blood glucose levels. Further investigation led to a diagnosis of classical galactosemia. Capillary blood glucose level measured with glucometer also dropped to normal values following cessation of breastfeeding and initiation of feeding with a lactose-free formula.

  18. Texturing Blood-Glucose-Monitoring Optics Using Oxygen Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A method has been invented for utilizing directed, hyperthermal oxygen atoms and ions for texturing tips of polymeric optical fibers or other polymeric optical components for use in optical measurement of concentration of glucose in blood. The required texture of the sensory surface of such a component amounts to a landscape of microscopic hills having high aspect ratios (hills taller than they are wide), with an average distance between hills of no more than about 5 m. This limit on the average distance between hills is chosen so that blood cells (which are wider) cannot enter the valleys between the hills, where they could obstruct optical sensing of glucose in the blood plasma. On the other hand, the plasma is required to enter the valleys, and a high aspect ratio is intended to maximize the hillside and valley surface area in contact with the plasma, thereby making it possible to obtain a given level of optical glucose- measurement sensitivity with a relatively small volume of blood. The present method of texturing by use of directed, hyperthermal (particle energy >1 eV) oxygen atoms and ions stands in contrast to a prior method of texturing by use of thermal monatomic oxygen characterized by a temperature of the order of 0.5 eV. The prior method yields low-aspect- ratio (approximately hemispherical) craters that are tens of microns wide . too wide to exclude blood cells. The figure schematically depicts parts of a typical apparatus for texturing according to the present method. One or more polymeric optical components to be textured (e.g., multiple optical fibers bundled together for simultaneous processing) are mounted in a vacuum chamber facing a suitable ion- or atom-accelerating device capable of generating a beam of oxygen atoms and/or ions having kinetic energies >1 eV. Typically, such a device includes a heated cathode, in which case it is desirable to interpose a water-cooled thermal-radiation shield to prevent melting of the polymeric component(s) to

  19. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  20. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  1. Lag time changes between capillary blood glucose and in-vivo interstitial glucose levels by HATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova

    2011-03-01

    Method of the lag/latency time (LT) measurement, calculation and interpretation can be simultaneously applied to study in vivo glucose diffusion from the capillary to the skin tissue, to calibrate spectroscopically measured glucose levels during real-time glucose monitoring of dynamic processes in the skin tissue and to study glucose optical properties in the living skin tissue. Based on previous reports on determining interstitial glucose levels and their LT's by HATR-FTIR spectroscopy, here the LT was calculated for each glucose absorbance level at about 1030-41, 1080, 1118 and 1153 cm-1 during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with different doses (5g, 20g, 75g). The LT showed dose-dependency and described intra-/inter-subject changes of skin glucose dynamics in healthy and diabetes subjects. The time required for glucose to diffuse from the capillary to the skin tissue was shorter in a diabetes subject, than in a healthy subject, independently on intaken dose of glucose. Nevertheless, in both subjects the LT changes ranged within 0-50 minutes. Measurement of the LT demonstrated a potential to provide insight to healthy and diabetic glucose dynamics between the blood and interstitial fluid compartments in the upper layer of the skin tissue. Also, the LT might be regarded as a method to calibrate dynamic measurements of glucose in vivo by this spectroscopy method and to characterize living skin tissue glucose optical properties.

  2. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose <7.8 mmol/L and 2hr blood glucose <11.1 mmol/L) compared to lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the

  3. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  4. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    2008-01-01

    A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter, if this is available This experiment is proposed for use by students in a general chemistry, biology, organic chemistry, and physical chemistry…

  5. Spurious hyperglycaemia--a hazard of finger prick blood glucose estimation.

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, E; Cohen, H

    1984-01-01

    Two diabetic patients presented in coma to the accident and emergency department. Although they were hypoglycaemic, the initial blood glucose reagent strip readings were high. We postulate that glucose contamination of their fingers occurred and resulted in spuriously high readings. A small survey highlights the problems resulting from such contamination. Correct handling of blood glucose reagent strips is stressed and we advise venous blood samples in all diabetic emergencies presenting to the accident and emergency department. PMID:6536275

  6. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  7. Comparison of arterial and capillary blood glucose with the use of the Accu-Chek III.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, K M

    1995-01-01

    Glucose monitoring is a widely-used procedure in caring for critically ill patients. The determination of a blood glucose using arterial blood has not been approved with the use of glucose meters. After comparing the data from 75 subjects using the parameters established by the American Diabetes Association, arterial blood proved to be an accurate indicator of a subject's blood glucose level. The benefits enjoyed by both the patients and nursing staff establish a convincing reason to incorporate this procedure into current nursing practice. This article will describe the sample, method and results used to affect change in clinical practice.

  8. Blood Glucose Variability and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Naranje, Kirti Mahadeorao; Poddar, Banani; Bhriguvanshi, Arpita; Lal, Richa; Azim, Afzal; Singh, Ratender K.; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To find the incidence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose [BG] ≥150 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (BG ≤60 mg/dl), and variability (presence of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia) in critically ill children in the 1st week of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and their association with mortality, length of ICU stay, and organ dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The design was a retrospective observational cohort study. Consecutive children ≤18 years of age admitted from March 2003 to April 2012 in a combined adult and pediatric closed ICU. Relevant data were collected from chart review and hospital database. Results: Out of 258 patients included, isolated hyperglycemia was seen in 139 (53.9%) and was unrelated to mortality and morbidity. Isolated variability in BG was noted in 76 (29.5%) patients and hypoglycemia was seen in 9 (3.5%) patients. BG variability was independently associated with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome on multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6–31.1). Those with BG variability had longer ICU stay (11 days vs. 4 days, on log-rank test, P = 0.001). Insulin use was associated with the occurrence of variability (adjusted OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8–7.0). Conclusion: Glucose disorders were frequently observed in critically ill children. BG variability was associated with multiorgan dysfunction and increased ICU stay.

  9. Which patients should be evaluated for blood glucose variability?

    PubMed

    Candido, R

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes is characterized by glycaemic disorders that include both sustained chronic hyperglycaemia and acute fluctuations (i.e. glycaemic variability). Increasing attention is being paid to the role of glycaemic variability as a relevant determinant for diabetes control and prevention of its vascular complications. As a consequence, it is strongly suggested that a global antidiabetic strategy should be aimed at reducing to a minimum the different components of glycaemic control (i.e. HbA1c, fasting and postprandial glucose, as well as glycaemic variability). Subjects at risk of hypoglycaemia, subjects with postprandial hyperglycaemia and patients who need to adjust or start insulin seem to be the categories that require glycaemic variability monitoring. The analysis of blood glucose variability represents an additional tool in the global assessment of glycaemic control and can serve as a guide to the clinician in the management of therapy and for the patients both in the prevention of acute complications, in particular hypoglycaemia, and chronic disease, in particular macrovascular complications.

  10. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    PubMed

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  11. Application of transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the measurement of blood glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenliang; Liu, Rong; Cui, Houxin; Xu, Kexin; Lv, Lina

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) light in the palm tissue are analyzed, and the principle and feasibility of using transcutaneous diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose detection are presented. An optical probe suitable for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum of human palm and a non-invasive blood glucose detection system using NIR spectroscopy are designed. Based on this system, oral glucose tolerance tests are performed to measure the blood glucose concentrations of two young healthy volunteers. The partial least square calibration model is then constructed by all individual experimental data. The final result shows that correlation coefficients of the two experiments between the predicted blood glucose concentrations and the reference blood glucose concentrations are 0.9870 and 0.9854, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction of full cross validation are 0.54 and 0.52 mmol/l, respectively.

  12. Counterregulatory deficits occur within 24 h of a single hypoglycemic episode in conscious, unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lauren; Ansari, Tasneem; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-induced Counterregulatory failure is a dangerous complication of insulin use in diabetes mellitus. Controlled hypoglycemia studies in gene knockout models, which require the use of mice, would aid in identifying causes of defective counterregulation. Because stress can influence Counterregulatory hormones and glucose homeostasis, we developed glucose clamps with remote blood sampling in conscious, unrestrained mice. Male C57BL/6 mice implanted with indwelling carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were subjected to 2 h of hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps 24 h apart, with a 6-h fast before each clamp. On day 1,, blood glucose was maintained (euglycemia, 178 ± 4 mg/dl) or decreased to 62 ± 1 mg/dl (hypoglycemia) by insulin (20 mU·kg−1·min−1) and variable glucose infusion. Donor blood was continuously infused to replace blood sample volume. Baseline plasma epinephrine (32 ± 8 pg/ml), corticosterone (16.1 ± 1.8 μg/dl), and glucagon (35 ± 3 pg/ml) were unchanged during euglycemia but increased significantly during hypoglycemia, with a glycemic threshold of ~80 mg/dl. On day 2, all mice underwent a hypoglycemic clamp (blood glucose, 64 ± 1 mg/dl). Compared with mice that were euglycemic on day 1, previously hypoglycemic mice had significantly higher glucose requirements and significantly lower plasma glucagon and corticosterone (n = 6/group) on day 2. Epinephrine tended to decrease, although not significantly, in repeatedly hypoglycemic mice. Pre- and post-clamp insulin levels were similar between groups. We conclude that counterregulatory responses to acute and repeated hypoglycemia in unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice reproduce aspects of counterregulation in humans, and that repeated hypoglycemia in mice is a useful model of counterregulatory failure. PMID:16533951

  13. Wireless enzyme sensor system for real-time monitoring of blood glucose levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideaki; Yonemori, Yuki; Hibi, Kyoko; Ren, Huifeng; Hayashi, Tetsuhito; Tsugawa, Wakako; Sode, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Periodic checks of fish health and the rapid detection of abnormalities are thus necessary at fish farms. Several studies indicate that blood glucose levels closely correlate to stress levels in fish and represent the state of respiratory or nutritional disturbance. We prepared a wireless enzyme sensor system to determine blood glucose levels in fish. It can be rapidly and conveniently monitored using the newly developed needle-type enzyme sensor, consisting of a Pt-Ir wire, Ag/AgCl paste, and glucose oxidase. To prevent the effects of interfering anionic species, such as uric acid and ascorbic acid, on the sensor response, the Pt-Ir electrode was coated with Nafion, and then glucose oxidase was immobilized on the coated electrode. The calibration curve of the glucose concentration was linear, from 0.18 to 144mg/dl, and the detection limit was 0.18mg/dl. The sensor was used to wirelessly monitor fish glucose levels. The sensor-calibrated glucose levels and actual blood glucose levels were in excellent agreement. The fluid of the inner sclera of the fish eyeball (EISF) was a suitable site for sensor implantation to obtain glucose sample. There was a close correlation between glucose concentrations in the EISF and those in the blood. Glucose concentrations in fish blood could be monitored in free-swimming fish in an aquarium for 3 days.

  14. A Simple Flow Cytometric Method to Measure Glucose Uptake and Glucose Transporter Expression for Monocyte Subpopulations in Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Anzinger, Joshua J; Butterfield, Tiffany R; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-08-12

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that can be activated by pathogens and inflammation associated with certain chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of monocytes induces effector functions and a concomitant shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that is accompanied by increased glucose transporter expression. This increased glycolytic metabolism is also observed for trained immunity of monocytes, a form of innate immunological memory. Although in vitro protocols examining glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake by monocytes have been described, none have been examined by multi-parametric flow cytometry in whole blood. We describe a multi-parametric flow cytometric protocol for the measurement of fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG uptake in whole blood by total monocytes and the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte subpopulations. This method can be used to examine glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake for total monocytes and monocyte subpopulations during homeostasis and inflammatory disease, and can be easily modified to examine glucose uptake for other leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations within blood.

  15. Self-reported discrimination, diabetes distress, and continuous blood glucose in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with continuous glucose levels and variability in individuals with diabetes, and whether diabetes distress mediated these associations. Seventy-four Black and White women with type 2 diabetes completed the Experience of Discrimination scale, a measure of lifetime racial discrimination, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes, a measure of diabetes distress. Participants wore a continuous glucose monitor for 24 h after 8 h of fasting, a standard meal, and a 4-h run in period. Higher discrimination predicted higher continuous mean glucose and higher standard deviation of glucose. For both mean and standard deviation of glucose, a race × discrimination interaction indicated a stronger relationship between discrimination and glucose for Whites than for Blacks. Diabetes distress mediated the discrimination-mean glucose relationship. Whites who report discrimination may be uniquely sensitive to distress. These preliminary findings suggest that racial discrimination adversely affects glucose control in women with diabetes, and does so indirectly through diabetes distress. Diabetes distress may be an important therapeutic target to reduce the ill effects of racial discrimination in persons with diabetes.

  16. Postprandial blood glucose level in maintenance hemodialysis patients predicts post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus.

    PubMed

    Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H

    2010-03-01

    Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.

  17. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity.

  18. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  19. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  20. Blood glucose levels in diabetic patients following corticosteroid injections into the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jeffrey G.; London, Daniel A.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify diabetic patients’ change in blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injection for common hand diseases and to assess which patient-level risk factors may predict an increase in blood glucose levels. Methods Patients were recruited for this case-crossover study in the clinic of fellowship-trained hand surgeons at a tertiary care center. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 receiving a corticosteroid injection recorded their morning fasting blood glucose levels for 14 days after their injection. Fasting glucose levels on days 1–7 after injection qualified as “case” data with levels on days 10–14 providing control data. A mixed model with a priori contrasts were used to compare post-injection blood glucose levels to baseline levels. A linear regression model was used to determine patient predictors of a post-injection rise in blood glucose levels. Results Forty of 67 patients (60%) recruited for the study returned completed blood glucose logs. There was a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels following injection limited to post-injection days 1 and 2. Among patient risk factors in our linear regression model, type 1 diabetes and use of insulin each predicted a post-injection increase in blood glucose levels from baseline while higher HbA1c levels did not predict increases. Discussion Corticosteroid injections in the hand transiently increase blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetics are more likely to experience this transient rise in blood glucose levels. Level of Evidence Therapeutic Level III PMID:24679910

  1. Carbon dot based non enzymatic approach for the detection and estimation of glucose in blood serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Krishna, A.; Nair, Priya A.; Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we generated a simple, reliable and selective approach based on carbon dots (CDs) and 4-cyanophenylboronic acid (CPBA) for blood glucose sensing. The methodology relies on the quenching of the emission of CDs by CPBA followed by its recovery by glucose. The system consisting of CDs and CPBA was characterised by Fourier transform infra red spectrum, transmissions electron microscopic, dynamic light scattering instrument, UV-visible and fluorescence techniques. The response of the probe, CD-BA in presence of different concentrations of glucose was assessed. Linear range was obtained for glucose concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Interferences by other saccharides and various biomolecules coexisting in blood serum were negligible. The chemo sensor thus developed has been successfully used for the estimation of glucose in human blood serum. The system being sensitive, efficient and easy to perform is a promising platform for blood glucose sensing.

  2. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  3. Two-wavelength carbon dioxide laser application for in-vitro blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina; Müller, Gehard; Albrecht, Hansjörg; Antoniou, Christina; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    To develop a fast and easy clinical method for glucose measurements on whole blood samples, changes in glucose spectra are investigated varying temperature, glucose concentration, and solvent using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR- FTIR) measurements. The results show a stability of the spectra at different temperatures and wavelength shifts of the absorption bands when water is replaced by blood. Because the ATR measurements are influenced by sedimentation of the red blood cells, a two-wavelength CO2 laser is used to determine the glucose concentration in whole blood samples. For this purpose, the first laser wavelength lambda(1) is tuned to the maximum of the glucose absorption band in blood at 1080 cm(-1), and the second laser wavelength lambda 2 is tuned to 950 cm(-1) for background measurements. The transmitted laser power through the optical cell containing the whole blood sample at lambda 1 and lambda 2 is used to determine the ratio. This signal correlates well with the glucose concentration in the whole blood samples. The CO2 laser measurement is too fast to be influenced by the red blood cell sedimentation, and will be a suitable method for glucose determination in whole blood.

  4. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    PubMed

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control groups during the period between 0 and 72 h after PGF2α administration. No significant difference was detected in the growth of dominant follicles, maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicles and the changes in oestradiol and progesterone during the follicular phase between treatment and control groups. This study showed the clear daily fluctuations and stimulatory changes in the blood glucose concentrations at 24-h intervals during the short-term treatment of propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  5. Accuracy of point-of-care blood glucose measurements in critically ill patients in shock.

    PubMed

    Garingarao, Carlo Jan Pati-An; Buenaluz-Sedurante, Myrna; Jimeno, Cecilia Alegado

    2014-09-01

    A widely used method in monitoring glycemic status of ICU patients is point-of-care (POC) monitoring devices. A possible limitation to this method is altered peripheral blood flow in patients in shock, which may result in over/underestimations of their true glycemic status. This study aims to determine the accuracy of blood glucose measurements with a POC meter compared to laboratory methods in critically ill patients in shock. POC blood glucose was measured with a glucose-1-dehydrogenase-based reflectometric meter. The reference method was venous plasma glucose measured by a clinical chemistry analyzer (glucose oxidase-based). Outcomes assessed were concordance to ISO 15197:2003 minimum accuracy criteria for glucose meters, bias in glucose measurements obtained by the 2 methods using Bland-Altman analysis, and clinical accuracy through modified error grid analysis. A total of 186 paired glucose measurements were obtained. ISO 2003 accuracy criteria were met in 95.7% and 79.8% of POC glucose values in the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. Mean bias for the normotensive group was -12.4 mg/dL, while mean bias in the hypotensive group was -34.9 mg/dL. POC glucose measurements within the target zone for clinical accuracy were 90.2% and 79.8% for the normotensive and hypotensive group, respectively. POC blood glucose measurements were significantly less accurate in the hypotensive subgroup of ICU patients compared to the normotensive group. We recommend a lower threshold in confirming POC blood glucose with a central laboratory method if clinically incompatible. In light of recently updated accuracy standards, we also recommend alternative methods of glucose monitoring for the ICU population as a whole regardless of blood pressure status.

  6. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  7. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  8. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (P<0.001), 45 (P<0.001), and 60 (P=0.001) minutes. At 120 minutes, blood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (P<0.001). These results suggest cinnamon may be effective in moderating postprandial glucose response in normal weight and obese adults.

  9. Relationship of office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure to blood glucose and lipid variables in the PAMELA population.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Michele; Polo Friz, Hernan; Grassi, Guido; Giannattasio, Cristina; Sega, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Alterations in blood glucose and cholesterol are more frequently detectable in hypertensive than in normotensive conditions. However, no information exists as to whether this phenomenon involves only office or also home and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ie, when values are representative of daily life). In 2045 subjects enrolled in the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study, we measured home, 24-hour, and office blood pressure. Measurements also included fasting blood glucose and serum total and HDL cholesterol values. Prevalence of diabetes (> or =126 mg/dL or use of antidiabetic drugs), impaired fasting blood glucose (> or =110 to <126 mg/dL), and hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > or =240 mg/dL or 200 mg/dL) increased progressively from "optimal" to "normal," "high-normal," and "elevated" office systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Fasting blood glucose and total serum cholesterol also increased progressively from the first to the fourth group, with HDL cholesterol values showing a concomitant progressive decrease. This was also the case for quartiles of office, home, and 24-hour blood pressure. In the whole population, there was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol or blood glucose and all blood pressure values (P always <0.0001), with a much smaller and less consistent relationship with heart rate. In a multivariate analysis that included gender, body mass index, age, and antihypertensive treatment, all blood pressure values remained highly significantly related to values of either metabolic variables. Thus, in the PAMELA population, glucose and lipid values are independently related to blood pressure. This is also the case when daily life blood pressure values are considered.

  10. Blood Glucose Measurement in the Intensive Care Unit: What Is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huong T.; Harris, Neil S.; Estilong, Abby J.; Olson, Arvid; Rice, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal glucose measurements are common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients for numerous reasons and hypoglycemia is especially dangerous because these patients are often sedated and unable to relate the associated symptoms. Additionally, wide swings in blood glucose have been closely tied to increased mortality. Therefore, accurate and timely glucose measurement in this population is critical. Clinicians have several choices available to assess blood glucose values in the ICU, including central laboratory devices, blood gas analyzers, and point-of-care meters. In this review, the method of glucose measurement will be reviewed for each device, and the important characteristics, including accuracy, cost, speed of result, and sample volume, will be reviewed, specifically as these are used in the ICU environment. Following evaluation of the individual measurement devices and after considering the many features of each, recommendations are made for optimal ICU glucose determination. PMID:23567008

  11. New optical method for noninvasive blood glucose measurement by optical ultrasonic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Lin, Jieqing; Xie, Wenming; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    A new optical technique for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose levels based on ultrasonic modulation of scattering light is proposed. The ultrasound-modulated scattered light has an accurate separation of scattering and absorption changes in tissue. And the optical scattering and absorbing coefficient of tissue depend on the concentration of glucose in the extracellular fluid. As the glucose induced to scattering and absorption changes, the ultrasoundmodulated light also changes. In this paper, a correlation is observed between ultrasound-modulated light intensity as well as its modulation depth and blood glucose concentration in phantom experiments. In addition, some researches about ultrasound-modulated signal affected by the temperature of glucose aqueous solution are done. Preliminary experiments find that this method is a promising noninvasive blood glucose measurement.

  12. In vivo noninvasive measurement of preprandial and postprandial blood glucose using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xiyang; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Blood glucose concentration measurement is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. However, conventional glucose measurement methods are invasive and not suitable for real-time monitoring. This study demonstrated a noninvasive blood glucose measurement method using optical coherence tomography to image human lip in vivo. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and depth-resolved technique capable of acquiring tissue structure images in real time. Human lip has very thin skin and is full of blood vessels, which is appropriate for noninvasive glucose measurement. To verify the feasibility of OCT for glucose concentration monitoring, two groups of OCT imaging data were obtained from human lips of normal people. In one group, OCT images of lip were acquired from people on an empty stomach. In the other group, the same sites of lip were observed by OCT 2 hours after breakfast. Evident differences were found from two groups of OCT images that correspond to preprandial glucose and 2- hour postprandial glucose, respectively. The relationship between OCT image and blood glucose concentration was investigated. The result indicates that OCT possesses considerable prospects in terms of noninvasive blood glucose measurement.

  13. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  14. Comparison of Chemstrip bG visual blood glucose method with Accu-Chek III monitor method for measuring blood glucose in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, M A; Bounous, D I; Brown, J; Fuchs, D W

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) measure blood glucose values in a flock of broiler chicks tentatively diagnosed as having spiking mortality syndrome (SMS), and 2) compare the blood glucose values using two methods: the Chemstrip bG visual method and the Chemstrip bG Accu-Chek III monitor method. Results indicated that Chemstrip bG reagent test strips can be used successfully to assay blood glucose values in chicks with SMS and that these strips will detect hypoglycemia when hypoglycemia is present. Readings obtained by the visual method were as reliable as those obtained by the more expensive and time-consuming digital electronic monitor method. Blood glucose values were lowest in the chicks with the most severe clinical signs. Malassimilation is a differential diagnosis for hypoglycemia among neonatal mammals, and blood glucose values are lower in inappetent or starving chicks. Therefore, the hypothesis that gastrointestinal or endocrine disease could be major etiologies of hypoglycemia and spiking mortality should be investigated.

  15. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  16. Cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow in Huntington's Disease (HD)

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Wapenski, J.; Riege, W.; Baxter, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    Previous studies in the authors' Laboratory have been carried out on 13 patients symptomatic of HD (SHD) and 15 asymptomatic at-risk for HD (ARHD) with a ECAT II and identification of changes in caudate metabolism using an index technique. The authors report now studies of additional 28 subjects (11 SHD, 17 ARHD) studied drug free and compared to age/sex matched controls using the higher resolution NeuroECAT, FDG for glucose utilization (LCMRGlc) and 0-15 water for cerebral blood flow (CBF). Patients had neurological, psychiatric-tests, x-ray CT and were video taped to determine type, timing and amount of choreathetic movements during study. In SHD (disease duration 4.9 +- 2.7 yrs), significant decreases (30%) in LCMRGlc were found in striatum (SHD=19.3 +- 7.7, controls = 29.9 +- 5.8 ..mu.. moles/min/100g) despite no to moderate caudate atrophy on x-ray CT. Hemisphere and cortical CMRGlc were not significantly decreased. There was a significant correlation between disease duration and ratio of caudate to putamen (Cd/Put). Pattern of LCMRGlc and CBF matched in SHD. The caudate to hemisphere LCMRGlc ratio was not different between ARHD and controls except variance was about 4 times greater for ARHD (ARHD=1.21 +- 0.15, controls = 1.28 +- 0.04) indicating presence of subpopulations in ARHD group. Four ARHD subjects had a ratio of 1 Std. Dev. from mean of SHD (no normals had values in this range). The 2 ARHD subjects with lowest caudate LCMRGlc had Cd/Put ratios > 2 Std. Dev. from controls. Results show 1) LCMRGlc abnormalities in all SHD patients and subpopulations in ARHD, 2) metabolic alterations appear to begin in caudate and spread to putamen and that a Cd/Put value of 0.7 should be found at start of symptoms, and 3) cortex and thalamus are relatively spared in ARHD and early SHD.

  17. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-07-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  18. Glucose Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier: Function, Regulation and Gateways for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Patching, Simon G

    2017-03-01

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) at the blood-brain barrier maintain the continuous high glucose and energy demands of the brain. They also act as therapeutic targets and provide routes of entry for drug delivery to the brain and central nervous system for treatment of neurological and neurovascular conditions and brain tumours. This article first describes the distribution, function and regulation of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier, the major ones being the sodium-independent facilitative transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. Other GLUTs and sodium-dependent transporters (SGLTs) have also been identified at lower levels and under various physiological conditions. It then considers the effects on glucose transporter expression and distribution of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia associated with diabetes and oxygen/glucose deprivation associated with cerebral ischemia. A reduction in glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier that occurs before the onset of the main pathophysiological changes and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease is a potential causative effect in the vascular hypothesis of the disease. Mutations in glucose transporters, notably those identified in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and some recreational drug compounds also alter the expression and/or activity of glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier. Approaches for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier include the pro-drug strategy whereby drug molecules are conjugated to glucose transporter substrates or encapsulated in nano-enabled delivery systems (e.g. liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles) that are functionalised to target glucose transporters. Finally, the continuous development of blood-brain barrier in vitro models is important for studying glucose transporter function, effects of disease conditions and interactions with drugs and xenobiotics.

  19. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  20. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current "finger-stick" methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively..

  1. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    SciTech Connect

    Meshram, N. D.; Dahikar, P. B.

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  2. Interference of maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose with some blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Schleis, Thomas G

    2007-09-01

    Maltose, a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules, is used in a number of biological preparations as a stabilizing agent or osmolality regulator. Icodextrin, which is converted to maltose, is present in a peritoneal dialysis solution. Galactose and xylose are found in some foods, herbs, and dietary supplements; they are also used in diagnostic tests. When some blood glucose monitoring systems are used--specifically, those that use test strips containing the enzymes glucose dehydrogenase-pyrroloquinolinequinone or glucose dye oxidoreductase--in patients receiving maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose, interference of blood glucose levels can occur. Maltose, icodextrin, galactose, and xylose are misinterpreted as glucose, which can result in erroneously elevated serum glucose levels. This interference can result in the administration of insulin, which may lead to hypoglycemia. In severe cases of hypoglycemia, deaths have occurred. If patients are receiving maltose, icodextrin, galactose, or xylose, clinicians must review the package inserts of all test strips to determine the type of glucose monitoring system being used and to use only those systems whose tests strips contain glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or glucose dehydrogenase-flavin adenine dinucleotide.

  3. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  4. Performance Analysis of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Blood Glucose Regulation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jyoti; Rani, Asha; Singh, Vijander

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy-PID (FPID) control scheme for a blood glucose control of type 1 diabetic subjects. A new metaheuristic Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is utilized to optimize the gains of FPID controller. CSA provides fast convergence and is capable of handling global optimization of continuous nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is an amalgamation of fuzzy logic and optimization which may provide an efficient solution for complex problems like blood glucose control. The task is to maintain normal glucose levels in the shortest possible time with minimum insulin dose. The glucose control is achieved by tuning the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and FPID controller with the help of Genetic Algorithm and CSA for comparative analysis. The designed controllers are tested on Bergman minimal model to control the blood glucose level in the facets of parameter uncertainties, meal disturbances and sensor noise. The results reveal that the performance of CSA-FPID controller is superior as compared to other designed controllers.

  5. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  6. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  7. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  8. Cerebral energy metabolism, glucose transport and blood flow: changes with maturation and adaptation to hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, A

    1997-02-01

    Brain maturation is characterized by a peak of cerebral energy metabolism and blood flow occurring between 3 and 8 years of age in humans and around 14-17 days of postnatal life in rats. This high activity coincides with the period of active brain growth. The human brain is dependent on glucose alone during that period, whereas rat brain uses both glucose and ketone bodies to cover its energetic and biosynthetic needs. The maturation of the density of glucose transporter sites-GLUT1 located at the blood-brain barrier and GLUT3 at the neuronal membrane-parallels the development of cerebral glucose utilization. During moderate acute hypoglycaemia, there are no changes in cerebral functional activity; cerebral glucose utilization decreases and blood flow increases only when hypoglycaemia is severe (lower than 2 mumol/ml). During chronic hypoglycaemia, the brain adapts to the low circulating levels of glucose: the number of glucose transporter sites is increased, and cerebral glucose utilization and function are maintained at normal levels while cerebral blood flow is more moderately increased than during acute hypoglycaemia. Neuronal damage consecutive to severe and prolonged hypoglycaemia occurs mainly in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and caudate-putamen as a result of active release of excitatory amino acids.

  9. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  10. Analytic characteristics of three Bayer contour blood glucose monitoring systems in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, Dennis J; Nenninger, Denise A; Simmons, David A; Pardo, Scott; Pandya, Mauli; Fullam, Jeanellen

    2015-03-01

    Hypoglycemia in infants is common, is difficult to recognize, and may lead to permanent neurologic impairment. Low glucose concentrations and high hematocrits in newborns pose significant analytic challenges for whole blood glucose meters. Three Bayer glucose monitoring systems were evaluated using 211 blood samples from 162 neonates (age range 5 hours to 29 days, median age 3 days). Hematocrit and whole blood glucose were determined in heparinized whole blood, and plasma glucose was determined using the Roche Cobas 6000. Accuracy was evaluated against plasma concentrations using ISO 15197:2013 and CLSI POCT 12-A3 criteria. Glucose imprecision on the Cobas system was 1.8-2.6% (CV) from 26-610 mg/dL. Imprecision across all meter systems was 2.8% (CV) at 130 mg/dL. Glucose concentrations, hematocrit, and total bilirubin ranged from 20-150 mg/dL, 18 -75%, and 0.5-19.6 mg/dL, respectively. Linear regression analysis of whole blood versus plasma for the 3 combined systems yielded an average slope of 1.06 and correlation coefficient greater than 0.980. Bias between the Contour and Cobas was not significantly correlated with hematocrit. Greater than 99% of meter results were within 15 mg/dL and 20% of plasma results at glucose concentrations ≤ 75 and > 75 mg/dL, respectively. Of meter results, 97% were within 12.5 mg/dL of plasma results at concentrations ≤ 100 mg/dL, while 96% of meter results were within 12.5% of plasma at concentrations > 100 mg/dL. The Bayer CONTOUR Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems exceed ISO 15197:2013 and CLSI criteria in neonatal blood samples.

  11. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Praful P.; Sanki, Pradyut K.; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  12. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  13. Empirical Dynamic Model Identification for Blood-Glucose Dynamics in Response to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dasanayake, Isuru S.; Seborg, Dale E.; Pinsker, Jordan E.; Doyle, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic response of blood glucose concentration in response to physical activity of people with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is captured by subspace identification methods. Activity (input) and subcutaneous blood glucose measurements (output) are employed to construct a personalized prediction model through semi-definite programming. The model is calibrated and subsequently validated with non-overlapping data sets from 15 T1DM subjects. This preliminary clinical evaluation reveals the underlying linear dynamics between blood glucose concentration and physical activity. These types of models can enhance our capabilities of achieving tighter blood glucose control and early detection of hypoglycemia for people with T1DM. PMID:26997750

  14. High Blood Glucose: What It Means and How To Treat It

    MedlinePlus

    ... illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you ... Are you using the correct technique? Could your meter be dirty? Have your strips expired? Have your ...

  15. Interaction Between Midlife Blood Glucose and APOE Genotype Predicts Later Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bangen, Katherine J; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Fox, Caroline S; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; McKee, Ann C; Au, Rhoda; Delano-Wood, Lisa

    2016-07-06

    Elevated blood glucose and the apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 allele have both been associated with increased dementia risk; however, the neuropathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We examined the impact of APOE genotype and midlife blood glucose on post-mortem vascular and Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Ninety-four participants from the Framingham Heart Study without diagnosed diabetes underwent health examination at midlife and brain autopsy at death. Histopathological measures of vascular and AD neuropathology were obtained and analyzed. Results demonstrated that, among APOE ɛ4 carriers, elevated blood glucose was associated with more severe AD pathology. There was no such relationship with vascular pathology. In a relatively healthy sample with low vascular risk burden, midlife elevated blood glucose was associated with greater AD pathology among APOE ɛ4 carriers. A better understanding of interactive effects of APOE genotype and vascular risk on neuropathology has implications for identification of individuals at risk for decline and long-term preventive treatment.

  16. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  17. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  18. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.

    2006-01-01

    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  19. Performance characteristics of the HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer using whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Voss, E M; Cembrowski, G S

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated the HemoCue B-Glucose (HemoCue Inc, Mission Viejo, Calif) analyzer for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. One hundred eighteen capillary whole-blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on the HemoCue B-Glucose and the YSI 2300 STAT Glucose/L-Lactate (Yellow Springs [Ohio] Instruments) analyzers; corresponding plasma glucose levels were measured in duplicate on the Roche Cobas MIRA (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Nutley, NJ) analyzer. Plasma glucose levels were converted to whole-blood equivalent glucose levels by using a factor of 1.11. The following regression equations were obtained: HemoCue = 1.02 (YSI) + 0.19, Sy/x = 0.52, r2 = .984; and HemoCue = 0.98 (whole-blood equivalent glucose levels) + 0.26, Sy/x = 0.55, r2 = .982. Within-run coefficients of variation were 4.0%, 3.5%, 2.2%, and 1.0% at glucose concentrations of 3.9, 5.4, 8.7, and 17.1 mmol/L (71, 97, 156, and 308 mg/dL), respectively. Between-run imprecision and total imprecision using lyopholized materials with three lot numbers of cuvettes were 4.2% and 5.6% at 2.1 mmol/L (37 mg/dL) and 2.4% and 2.7% at 5.2 mmol/L (95 mg/dL), respectively. The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer displayed linearity between 0 and 22.2 mmol/L (0 and 400 mg/dL), and the percent recovery averaged 98.7% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD). The HemoCue B-Glucose analyzer is a rapid, simple, and reliable method for determinations of whole-blood glucose levels.

  20. Blood glucose regulation mechanism in depressive disorder animal model during hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-06-01

    Depression is more common among diabetes people than in the general population. In the present study, blood glucose change in depression animal model was characterized by various types of hyperglycemia models such as d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and drug-induced hyperglycemia models. First, the ICR mice were enforced into chronic restraint stress for 2h daily for 2 weeks to produce depression animal model. The animals were fed with d-glucose (2g/kg), forced into restraint stress for 30min, or administered with clonidine (5μg/5μl) supraspinally or spinally to produce hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level in depression group was down-regulated compared to that observed in the normal group in d-glucose-fed-, restraint stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia models. The up-regulated corticosterone level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group while the up-regulation of plasma corticosterone level is further elevated after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration in the depression group. The up-regulated insulin level induced by d-glucose feeding or restraint stress was reduced in the depression group. On the other hand, blood corticosterone level in depression group was up-regulated compared to the normal group after i.t. or i.c.v. clonidine administration. Whereas the insulin level in depression group was not altered when mice were administered clonidine i.t. or i.c.v. Our results suggest that the blood glucose level in depression group is down-regulated compared to the normal group during d-glucose-fed-, immobilization stress-, and clonidine-induced hyperglycemia in mice. The down-regulation of the blood glucose level might be one of the important pathophysiologic changes in depression.

  1. Multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen and glucose detection in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-An

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a multiple enzyme-doped thread-based microfluidic system for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose detection in human whole blood. A novel enzyme-doped thread coated with a thin polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane is produced for on-site electrochemical detection of urea and glucose in whole blood. Multiple enzymes can be directly applied to the thread without delicate pretreatment or a surface modification process prior to sealing the thread with PVC membrane. Results indicate that the developed device exhibits a good linear dynamic range for detecting urea and glucose in concentrations from 0.1 mM–10.0 mM (R2 = 0.9850) and 0.1 mM–13.0 mM (R2 = 0.9668), which is suitable for adoption in detecting the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 1.78–7.12 mM) and glucose (3.89–6.11 mM) in serum. The detection result also shows that the developed thread-based microfluidic system can successfully separate and detect the ions, BUN, and glucose in blood. The calculated concentrations of BUN and glucose ante cibum (glucose before meal) in the whole blood sample are 3.98 mM and 4.94 mM, respectively. The developed thread-based microfluidic system provides a simple yet high performance for clinical diagnostics. PMID:25825613

  2. Increases in Whole Blood Glucose Measurements Using Optically Based Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Analyzers Due to Extreme Canadian Winters

    PubMed Central

    Cembrowski, George C.; Smith, Barbara; O'Malley, Ellen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Temperature and humidity have been reported to influence the results of whole blood glucose (WBG) measurements. Methods To determine whether patient WBG values were affected by seasonal variation, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 3 years' worth of weekly averages of patient WBG in five Edmonton hospitals. Results In all five hospitals, the winter WBG averages were consistently higher than the summer WBG averages, with the differences varying between 5% and 9%. Whole blood glucose averages were negatively correlated with the outside temperature. This seasonal variation was not observed in weekly patient averages of specimens run in a central hospital laboratory. Interpretation It is probable that the seasonal variation of WBG arises from the very low indoor humidities that are associated with external subzero temperatures. These increases in WBG in cold weather may be due to limitations in the WBG measuring systems when operated in decreased humidities and/or increased evaporation of the blood sample during the blood glucose measurement process. The implications of this seasonal variation are significant in that it (1) introduces increased variability in patient WBG, (2) may result in increased glucose-lowering therapy during periods of external cold and low indoor humidity, and (3) confounds evaluations of WBG meter technology in geographic regions of subzero temperature and low indoor humidity. To mitigate the risk of diagnosing and treating factitious hyperglycemia, the humidity of patient care areas must be strictly controlled. PMID:20144309

  3. Polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry for blood glucose monitoring in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Jitendra; Choudhary, Om Prakash; Sen, P.; Andrews, J. T.

    2013-07-01

    A device based on polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry is developed to monitor blood glucose levels in human subjects. The device was initially tested with tissue phantom. The measurements with human subjects for various glucose concentration levels are found to be linearly dependent on the ellipticity obtainable from the home-made phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry device. The linearity obtained between glucose concentration and ellipticity are explained with theoretical calculations using Mie theory. A comparison of results with standard clinical methods establishes the utility of the present device for non-invasive glucose monitoring.

  4. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  5. Historical achievements of self-monitoring of blood glucose technology development in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shigeki

    2011-09-01

    Japanese companies were the first in the world to achieve a colorimetric glucose measurement meter back in 1973. Over the following 40 or so years, they succeeded in achieving a much greater level of user-friendliness and performance and in so doing, have contributed to the spread of self-monitoring of blood glucose. This article aims to unravel the history of blood glucose measurement's technological developments; to look at the direction and features of the development path Japan is taking; as well as to introduce some Japanese products that are on the market.

  6. Effects of 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily vs. 50 mg sitagliptin once daily on blood glucose fluctuations evaluated by long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kimachi, Kimihiko; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nakamura, Akinobu; Nagai, So; Kondo, Takuma; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-03-03

    To date, several clinical trials have compared differences in glucose fluctuation observed with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most patients were assessed for limited periods or during hospitalization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of switching from sitagliptin to vildagliptin, or vice versa, on 12-week glucose fluctuations using self-monitoring of blood glucose in the standard care setting. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, open-label controlled trial in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-two patients were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg) twice daily or sitagliptin (50 mg) once daily and were allocated to one of two groups: vildagliptin treatment for 12 weeks before switching to sitagliptin for 12 weeks, or vice versa. Daily profiles of blood glucose were assessed several times during each treatment period, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions and M-value were calculated. Metabolic biomarkers such as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol were also assessed. With vildagliptin treatment, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions was significantly improved compared with sitagliptin treatment (57.9 ± 22.2 vs. 68.9 ± 33.0 mg/dL; p=0.0045). M-value (p=0.019) and mean blood glucose (p=0.0021) were also lower with vildagliptin, as were HbA1c, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. There were no significant differences in other metabolic parameters evaluated. Reduction of daily blood glucose profile fluctuations by vildagliptin was superior to that of sitagliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Effect of repaglinide versus glimepiride on daily blood glucose variability and changes in blood inflammatory and oxidative stress markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1c is the main treatment target for patients with type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown recently that postprandial glucose and daily glucose fluctuations affect the progression of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic damages. Methods Continuous glucose monitoring was performed in patients with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the efficacy of repaglinide vs. glimepiride on postprandial glucose spikes and fluctuations. A total of 10 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with glimepiride monotherapy were enrolled. After observation period for 8 weeks, glimepiride was changed to repaglinide. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed whilst consuming calorie-restricted diets for two days at baseline and at the end of the 12-week trial. Blood and urine samples were collected for measurement of glucose control parameters and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers on the last day of taking either glimepiride or repaglinide. Results Nine patients completed the trial. Although the glucose control parameters were not significantly different between glimepiride and repaglinide, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions measured by continuous glucose monitoring was significantly reduced by changing treatment from glimepiride to repaglinide. The levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and urinary 8-hydoroxydeoxyguanosine were reduced significantly by repaglinide treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that repaglinide may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes by minimizing glucose fluctuations thereby reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24843385

  8. Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto A.

    2002-07-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose determination has been investigated by more than 100 research groups in the world during the past fifteen years. The commonly optical methods are based on the capacity of near-IR light to penetrate a few hundreds micrometers or a few millimeters into human tissue where it interacts with glucose. A change of glucose concentration may modify the optical parameters in tissue, with the result that its glucose concentration can be extracted by analyzing the received optical signals. This paper demonstrates that glucose affects on the scattering coefficient of human blood, by applying the streak camera and pulsed photoacoustic techniques; and drinking water seems also affecting on PA signal from skin surface.

  9. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  10. Analysis of Blood Glucose Concentration by Interstitial Fluid Extracted in a Minimally Invasive way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaotang; Xu, Kexin; Cao, Xuejun; Qu, Xinghua; Li, Dachao

    2009-08-01

    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid (ISF) transdermal extraction and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection. 55 kHz low-frequency ultrasound pulses are applied for 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using D-galactose/D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is also employed to increase SPR measurement precision. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development with a current glucose resolution of approximately 1 mg/l.

  11. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  12. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  13. Proportional Insulin Infusion in Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, Johan

    2017-01-01

    A differential equation model is formulated that describes the dynamics of glucose concentration in blood circulation. The model accounts for the intake of food, expenditure of calories and the control of glucose levels by insulin and glucagon. These and other hormones affect the blood glucose level in various ways. In this study only main effects are taken into consideration. Moreover, by making a quasi-steady state approximation the model is reduced to a single nonlinear differential equation of which parameters are fit to data from healthy subjects. Feedback provided by insulin plays a key role in the control of the blood glucose level. Reduced β-cell function and insulin resistance may hamper this process. With the present model it is shown how by closed-loop control these defects, in an organic way, can be compensated with continuous infusion of exogenous insulin. PMID:28060898

  14. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  15. Blood glucose clearance after feeding and exercise in polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    De La Corte, F D; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Hower-Moritz, M

    1999-07-01

    Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in Quarter Horses (QH) and QH crosses is a glycogen storage disorder in which blood glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity, following an i.v. or oral glucose challenge, are enhanced. Exercise is known also to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in many animal species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect of exercise on glucose clearance in PSSM and control horses when an oral carbohydrate meal (8 Mcal sweet feed) was fed following either 12 h fasting alone (NEX protocol) or following fasting and a standard exercise protocol (EX protocol). In the NEX protocol, horses fasted 12 h and then were fed 8 megacalories (Mcal) of sweet feed (2.3 kg). In the EX protocol, horses were fed sweet feed 2 h after an exercise test (SET). Blood glucose was analysed for < 480 min after feeding. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the EX protocol. With the NEX protocol, the mean of all blood glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly lower in fed-PSSM horses than controls (P < 0.013). The EX protocol in control horses caused a less pronounced percentage change in glucose concentration from baseline following feeding compared to the NEX protocol (mean peak EX 26.5% vs. NEX 70.2%, respectively) (P < 0.0003). In PSSM horses, the EX protocol also resulted in a lower percent change in glucose concentration following feeding compared to the NEX protocol (44.7 vs. 67.5%, respectively) (P = 0.021). The magnitude of the difference in percentage change of blood glucose concentration with the EX protocol was less in PSSM than that seen for controls (mean peak PSSM-EX 44.7% vs. 26.5% for controls, respectively) (P < 0.006). No significant differences in the insulin:glucose ratios were found for control horses between NEX and EX. In PSSM horses, the insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased in the EX vs. NEX. In conclusion, exercise in normal horses results in enhanced glucose clearance following

  16. Development of the MOSFET hybrid biosensor for self-monitoring of blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Tatsuro; Hirai, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    We focus on the research to develop a compact Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The SMBG consists of (1) a micro electrical pumping system for blood extraction, (2) a painless microneedle as same size as a female mosquito's labium and (3) a biosensor to detect and evaluate an amount of glucose in extracted blood, by using enzyme such as glucose oxidase (GOx). A gold (Au) plate immobilized GOx was used as a biosensor and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET. GOx was immobilized on a self-assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA (bovine serum albumin) as an additional bonding material. The electrode could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor system. The system can measure the change of gate voltage. The extracting speed for whole blood using the micro electrical pumping system was about 2 μl/min. The extracted volume was sufficient to determine the glucose level in the blood; it was comparable to the volume extracted in a commercial glucose level monitor. In the functional evaluation of the biosensor system using hydrogen peroxide solution, it is shown that the averaged output voltage increases in alignment to hydrogen peroxide concentration. The linear value was shown with the averaged output voltage in corresponding hydrogen peroxide concentration with the averaged output voltage obtained from the biosensor system by glucose solution concentration. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the averaged output voltage from the biosensor system obtained by whole blood showed the same voltage in corresponding glucose solution concentration. The hybrid biosensor obtained the useful performance for the SMBG.

  17. Fasting Blood Glucose and Insulin Level in Opium Addict versus Non-Addict Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdi, Farzaneh; Salajegheh, Pouria; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Divsalar, Kouros

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of lay person believe that opium lowers blood glucose. However some studies show the opposite results. In this study, we tried to evaluate the effect of opium on blood glucose and insulin resistance. Methods This comparative study including 53 addicts in case groups who used opium just in the form of smoking and 55 non-addicts in a control group, took part in the study, after proving not to be opium users. After taking blood samples, their fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin and lipid profiles were evaluated. Furthermore, insulin resistance index was analyzed via the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula with the cut-off points of 7.2 and 7.1. Findings Age and gender were not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of insulin resistance between the two groups, according to the cut-off points of 7.1 and 7.2 (P = 0.196 and P = 0.248, respectively). Mean insulin resistance index was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.325). In the case group, fasting blood insulin was considerably lower (P = 0.025) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was significantly higher (P = 0.016) than the control group. Conclusion According to the level of insulin and FBS in addicts, it does not seem that opium has a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose and insulin resistance. PMID:26322211

  18. Blood glucose. The diabetes math of too high, too low, and just right.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Erika

    2011-04-01

    Medicine is full of numbers that describe the health of a human body. Most basically, there are numbers like body temperature, an indication of fever and infection, and blood pressure, a measure of the circulatory system's health. The mathematics of medicine is particularly crucial when it comes to diabetes. If you regularly test your blood glucose with a meter, you're familiar with some of the most important numbers for managing this condition. There are also different types of laboratory tests for blood glucose, each with its own numerical language. Here's how they all add up.

  19. A non-invasive blood glucose meter design using multi-type sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Nguyen, Hienvu; Roveda, Janet

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a multi optical modalities blood glucose monitor. The Monte Carlo tissues optics simulation with typical human skin model suggests the SNR ratio for a detector sensor is 104 with high sensitivity that can detect low blood sugar limit at 1 mMole/dL ( <20 mg/dL). A Bayesian filtering algorithm is proposed for multisensor fusion to identify whether e user has the danger of having diabetes. The new design has real time response (on the average of 2 minutes) and provides great potential to perform real time monitoring for blood glucose.

  20. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  1. Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xian; Huang, Fuxiang; Hu, Xiaotang; Xu, Kexin

    2007-02-01

    Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum is proposed by the paper. Low-frequency ultrasound with 55 KHz is applied for about 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability to interstitial fluid by disrupting the stratum corneum lipid bilayers and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin successfully by 10in.Hg vacuum for 15 minutes. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is measured by an instrument with immobilized enzyme sensor. And then a method of data analysis is set up to prediction the glucose concentration in the blood by the measurement of the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid. At last, Clarke Error Grid analysis is performed to assess if the prediction accuracy could satisfy the requirements of clinical application. The whole method and experimental system above is set up in the article and the feasibility of this way for blood glucose detecting is primarily validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring. Additional a prototype of miniature diabetes monitoring device with the technique of surface plasma resonance to measure the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is also being developed.

  2. A correction method using a support vector machine to minimize hematocrit interference in blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyeon; Park, Hodong; Cho, Sungpil; Nam, Hakhyun; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care testing glucose meters are widely used, important tools for determining the blood glucose levels of people with diabetes, patients in intensive care units, pregnant women, and newborn infants. However, a number of studies have concluded that a change in hematocrit (Hct) levels can seriously affect the accuracy of glucose measurements. The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for glucose calculation with improved accuracy using the Hct compensation method that minimizes the effects of Hct on glucose measurements. The glucose concentrations in this study were calculated with an adaptive calibration curve using linear fitting prediction and a support vector machine, which minimized the bias in the glucose concentrations caused by the Hct interference. This was followed by an evaluation of performance according to the international organization for standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 based on bias with respect to the reference method, the coefficient of variation, and the valid blood samples/total blood samples within the ±20% and 15% error grids. Chronoamperometry was performed to verify the effect of Hct variation and to compare the proposed method. As a result, the average coefficients of variation for chronoamperometry and the Hct compensation method were 2.43% and 3.71%, respectively, while the average biases (%) for these methods were 12.08% and 5.69%, respectively. The results of chronoamperometry demonstrated that a decrease in Hct levels increases glucose concentrations, whereas an increase in Hct levels reduces glucose concentrations. Finally, the proposed method has improved the accuracy of glucose measurements compared to existing chronoamperometry methods.

  3. Noninvasive blood glucose sensing on human body with near-infrared reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen-hao; Hao, Chang-ning; Zhang, Lin-lin; Huang, Yan-chao; Shi, Yi-qin; Jiang, Geng-ru; Duan, Jun-li

    2011-08-01

    The non-invasive blood glucose sensing method has shown its high impact on the clinic application. This can make the measurement on the clinically relevant concentrations of glucose be free from the pain of patient. The transmission spectrum study indicates that the dependence of glucose concentration on the absorbance is in linear manner for the glucose concentration in the region of 30mg/dL to 4.5×104mg/dL. By the near infrared reflection spectroscopy of fiber spectrometer, the reflection band between 1.2μm and 1.35μm can be used to correlated with the glucose concentration in the range of 30 to 300 mg/dL. This reflection band is finally used to measure the glucose concentration effect in non-invasive manner, which gives the statistical significance of P value 0.02. Our experiment result shows that it is possible to get the glucose concentration by the near infrared reflection spectrum measurement on the human forefinger. This non-invasive blood glucose sensing method may useful in clinic after more experiment for different people.

  4. Reduction of blood glucose level by orexins in fasting normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Yoshitaka; Honda, Ritsu; Wada, Tsutomu; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Kimura, Ikuko

    2002-07-19

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are neuropeptides implicated in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the effects of orexins on blood glucose levels in response to fasting in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After the injection of orexin-A and orexin-B (0.01-1 nmol/kg, i.v.), the blood glucose levels in both normal mice and diabetic mice in the fasting state decreased. In contrast, neither orexin-A nor orexin-B affected the glucose levels in the animals allowed free access to food. Intracerebroventricular administration of orexin-A and orexin-B was associated with glucose-lowering effects in fasting diabetic mice. The serum insulin level did not significantly change following the administration of orexin-A or orexin-B, in either the normal or the diabetic mice in the fasting state. These results demonstrate that orexins lower the blood glucose levels exclusively in the fasting state. The orexins may stimulate some neural and hormonal network and thereby promote blood glucose utilization.

  5. Accuracy Evaluation of Five Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems: The North American Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsdottir, Solveig; Warchal-Windham, Mary Ellen; Wallace, Jane F.; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan Lee; Simmons, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated differences in accuracy between the CONTOUR® NEXT EZ (EZ) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and four other BGMSs [ACCU-CHEK® Aviva (ACAP), FreeStyle Freedom Lite® (FFL), ONE TOUCH® Ultra®2 (OTU2), and TRUEtrack® (TT)]. Methods Up to three capillary blood samples (N = 393) were collected from 146 subjects with and without diabetes. One sample per subject was tested with fresh (natural) blood; the other samples were glycolyzed to lower blood glucose to <70 mg/dl. Meter results were compared with results from plasma from the same sample tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer. Blood glucose monitoring system accuracy was compared using mean absolute relative difference (MARD; from laboratory reference method results) and other analyses. Separate analyses on fresh (natural) samples only were conducted to determine potential effects of glycolysis on MARD values of systems utilizing glucose-oxidase-based test strip chemistry. Results Across the tested glucose range, the EZ had the lowest MARD of 4.7%; the ACAP, FFL, OTU2, and TT had MARD values of 6.3%, 18.3%, 23.4%, and 26.2%, respectively. For samples with glucose concentrations <70 mg/dl, the EZ had the lowest MARD (0.65%), compared with the ACAP (2.5%), FFL (18.3%), OTU2 (22.4%), and TT (33.2%) systems. Conclusions The EZ had the lowest MARD across the tested glucose ranges when compared with four other BGMSs when all samples were analyzed as well as when natural samples only were analyzed. PMID:24124957

  6. Dapagliflozin‐lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo‐Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti‐diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. Experimental Approach The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor‐deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid‐filled lung technique. Key Results Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony‐forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Conclusion and Implications Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. PMID:28192604

  7. Method and apparatus for non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Graham H.; Watson, Roger M.; Noell, J. Oakey

    1992-06-09

    A new and improved method and apparatus are provided for non-invasive monitoring of changes in blood glucose concentration in a tissue specimen and particularly in an individual. The method uses acoustic velocity measurements for monitoring the effect of glucose concentration upon the density and adiabatic compressibility of the serum. In a preferred embodiment, the acoustic velocity measurements are made through the earlobe of a subject by means of an acoustic probe or monitor which includes a transducer for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic energy pulses to and from the blood flowing in the subject's earlobe and a reflector for facilitating reflection of the acoustic pulses from the blood. The probe is designed in such a way that when properly affixed to an ear, the transducer is positioned flush against the anterior portion of an earlobe while the reflector is positioned flush against the interior portion of the earlobe. A microthermocouple is provided on the probe for monitoring the internal temperature of the blood being sampled. An electrical system, essentially comprising a frequency generator, a time intervalometer and an oscilloscope, is linked to the glucose monitoring probe. The electrical system analyzes selected ones of the pulses reflected from the blood sample in order to determine therefrom the acoustic velocity of the blood which, in turn, provides a representation of the blood glucose concentration levels at the time of the acoustic velocity measurements.

  8. Effect of different types of anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueqiong; Wang, Jinjing; Chen, Kang; Li, Yijun; Wang, Haibin; Mu, Yiming; Chen, Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Systematic review which analyzes the impact of different anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose levels of diabetes patients. Methods: We searched Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wangfang, CNKI, and CBM database through June 2016, included in randomized controlled trial (RCT), about different anesthesia on intraoperative blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Two researchers in 1 group independently screened literatures with eligibility criteria, extracted information, and used RevMan5.3 software to perform meta-analysis. Results: We included 11 trials and performed the meta-analysis with 10 trials. The meta-analysis results suggested that compared with general anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia has a better glycemic control in intraoperative blood glucose levels (WMD −1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.77 to 0.76), the epidural anesthesia had no significant effects compared with general anesthesia (WMD −0.74, 95% CI 4.41–2.92), and the combined spinal-epidural anesthesia had no significant effects compared with epidural anesthesia (WMD −0.28, 95% CI −1.02 to 0.46). One study suggested that compared with epidural anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia can lower blood glucose levels Conclusion: Existing evidence showed that compared with general anesthesia, the combined general-epidural anesthesia has a better glycemic control in intraoperative blood glucose levels. PMID:28353577

  9. The fluctuation of blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations before and after insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Nasir, Zulfa

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical-systems model of plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations has been developed to investigate the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon regulations in type 1 diabetic patients. Simulation results show that the normal regulation of blood glucose concentration depends on insulin and glucagon concentrations. On type 1 diabetic case, the role of insulin on regulating blood glucose is not optimal because of the destruction of β cells in pancreas. These β cells destructions cause hyperglycemic episode affecting the whole body metabolism. To get over this, type 1 diabetic patients need insulin therapy to control the blood glucose level. This research has been done by using rapid acting insulin (lispro), long-acting insulin (glargine) and the combination between them to know the effects of insulin therapy on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations. Simulation results show that these different types of insulin have different effects on blood glucose concentration. Insulin therapy using lispro shows better blood glucose control after consumption of meals. Glargin gives better blood glucose control between meals and during sleep. Combination between lispro and glargine shows better glycemic control for whole day blood glucose level.

  10. Accessibility attributes of blood glucose meter and home blood pressure monitor displays for visually impaired persons.

    PubMed

    Blubaugh, Morgan V; Uslan, Mark M

    2012-03-01

    The vast majority of diabetes-related self-management technology utilizes small visual displays (SVDs) that often produce a low level of contrast and suffer from high levels of reflection (glare). This is a major accessibility issue for the 3.5 million Americans with diabetes who have reduced vision. The purpose of this article is to gather comparative data on the key display attributes of the SVDs used in blood glucose meters (BGMs) and home blood pressure monitors (HBPMs) on the market today and determine which displays offer the best prospect for being accessible to people with reduced vision. Nine BGMs and eight HBPMs were identified for this study on the basis of amount of devices sold, fullfunctionality speech output, and advanced display technologies. An optical instrumentation system obtained contrast, reflection (glare), and font height measurements for all 17 displays. The contrast, reflection, and font-height values for the BGMs and HBPMs varied greatly between models. The Michelson contrast values for the BGMs ranged from 11% to 98% and font heights ranged 0.39-1.00 in. for the measurement results. The HBPMs had Michelson contrast values ranging 55-96% and font height ranging 0.28-0.94 in. for the measurement results. Due largely to the lack of display design standards for the technical requirements of SVDs, there is tremendous variability in the quality and readability of BGM and HBPM displays. There were two BGMs and one HBPM that exhibited high-contrast values and large font heights, but most of the devices exhibited either poor contrast or exceptionally high reflection.

  11. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p < 10(-4)). A weak positive relationship was found between blood glucose and breath acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  12. Red blood cell glucose metabolism in human chronic fluoride toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Saralakumari, D.; Rao, P.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Fluoride is a well known inhibitor of many enzyme systems in vitro. The most widely studied classic example of fluoride inhibition is its potent inhibition of glycolysis, specifically its action on the enzyme enolase. Despite the plethora of in vitro studies on the effects of fluoride on the enzyme activity, there is a paucity of information concerning the in vivo metabolic lesions caused by the chronic toxic doses of fluoride in humans. The present study has been undertaken with a view to assess the changes in glucose metabolism and related enzymes in erythrocytes of humans consuming toxic doses of fluoride for prolonged periods.

  13. Increasing blood glucose variability is a precursor of sepsis and mortality in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Pisarchik, Alexander N; Pochepen, Olga N; Pisarchyk, Liudmila A

    2012-01-01

    High glycemic variability, rather than a mean glucose level, is an important factor associated with sepsis and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. In this retrospective study we analyze the blood glucose data of 172 nondiabetic patients 18-60 yrs old with second and third-degree burns of total body surface area greater than 30% and 5%, respectively, admitted to ICU in 2004-2008. The analysis identified significant association of increasing daily glucose excursion (DELTA) accompanied by evident episodes of hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/l) and hypoglycemia (<2.8 mmol/l), with sepsis and forthcoming death, even when the mean daily glucose was within a range of acceptable glycemia. No association was found in sepsis complication and hospital mortality with doses of intravenous insulin and glucose infusion. A strong increase in DELTA before sepsis and death is treated as fluctuation amplification near the onset of dynamical instability.

  14. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  15. Effect of Sulfonylureas Administered Centrally on the Blood Glucose Level in Immobilization Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level. PMID:25954123

  16. Research of transmissive near infrared spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Yasheng; Shao, Liwei; Huang, Dehuang

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) has prospectively applied in non-invasive blood glucose measurement due to glucose absorption among the 1.0-2.5m spectral bands. However, this significant technology is hard to be developed because of other blood components and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this work, we presented a non-invasive glucose measurement system using Fourier transform spectrometer which will work in fingertips or other human body tissues. A refrigerated InGaAs detector with high quantum efficiency performing well in the range of 1.0-1.7μm wavelength is used to acquire transmissive radiation. Preliminary experiment investigations were set up to test glucose levels of aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The analytical modeling of the interferogram data is based on arithmetic Fourier transform and supported by the curvilineal characterization. Experimental results show the variation of light intensity among different glucose concentrations and emphasize the obvious absorption of glucose in NIR wave-range. This study confirms the suitability that NIR can be developed in non-invasive glucose measurement.

  17. Smart point-of-care systems for molecular diagnostics based on nanotechnology: whole blood glucose analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P.; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-07-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) film chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations of blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent was adsorbed onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the PET film chip. The AFSiO2 nanoparticles can immobilize the assay reagent with an electrostatic attraction and eased to develop the opaque platform which was technically suitable chip to analyze by the camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique. The photon number decreases with increasing glucose concentration. The simple sensing approach, utilizing enzyme immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticle chip and assay detection method was developed for quantitative glucose measurement.

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of strip performance in multiple blood glucose monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Macleod, Kirsty; Grady, Mike; Cameron, Hilary; Pfützner, Andreas; Setford, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose results are required for optimal insulin dosing and detection of hypoglycemia. However, blood glucose monitoring systems may be susceptible to error from test strip, user, environmental and pharmacological factors. This report evaluated 5 blood glucose monitoring systems that each use Verio glucose test strips for precision, effect of hematocrit and interferences in laboratory testing, and lay user and system accuracy in clinical testing according to the guidelines in ISO15197:2013(E). Performance of OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ met or exceeded standards described in ISO15197:2013 for precision, hematocrit performance and interference testing in a laboratory setting. Performance of OneTouch(®) Verio IQ™, OneTouch(®) Verio Pro™, OneTouch(®) Verio™, OneTouch(®) VerioVue™ and Omni Pod each met or exceeded accuracy standards for user performance and system accuracy in a clinical setting set forth in ISO15197:2013(E).

  19. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  20. Carbohydrate Ingestion Before and During Soccer Match Play and Blood Glucose and Lactate Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Applied research study. Patients or Other Participants: Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg−1·min−1). Intervention(s): Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 minutes; second half: 45–60, 60–75, and 75–90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Main Outcome Measure(s): Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Results: Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise

  1. Analysis: New point-of-care blood glucose monitoring system for the hospital demonstrates satisfactory analytical accuracy using blood from critically ill patients--an important step toward improved blood glucose control in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeffrey I

    2013-09-01

    Patients managed in the intensive care units (ICUs) and general wards of the hospital experience a high incidence of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability, despite significant hospital resources devoted to glucose control. Optimized glucose meters and monitoring systems are required to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin delivery and glucose control in the hospital. Safe insulin dosing requires timely and accurate glucose measurements, especially during dynamic changes in nutrition, insulin sensitivity, and physiological stress. In the current issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Mitsios and coauthors describe the analytical accuracy of the new Accu-Check® Inform II blood glucose (BG) monitoring system commercialized by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. The point-of-care glucose meter achieved the desired degree of accuracy and precision, as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute POCT12-A3 guidelines when evaluated using venous blood from 600 critically ill patients from multiple ICUs at two medical centers. Venous whole blood samples were used to obtain glucose meter results in duplicate. The remaining blood sample was centrifuged to obtain plasma for central hospital laboratory testing using the hexokinase method within 5 min of meter testing. A total of 98.8% of the 1200 Accu-Check Inform II meter's glucose values were within ± 12.5% (± 12 mg/dl) of the mean laboratory glucose value, and 99.8% were within ± 20% (± 20 mg/dl), thus meeting the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Future studies are required to evaluate the clinical performance of the new BG monitoring system in the intended-use patient populations and critical care environments, using arterial, peripheral venous, central venous, and capillary blood samples.

  2. A collaborative biomedical engineering undergraduate work: an automatic system for blood glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Minas, Graca; Soares, Filomena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of an automatic system to regulate blood glucose concentration. A model is developed to simulate the process. The model was based on approximating an electrochemical biosensor, for measuring the blood glucose concentration, to electrical circuits for readout, data processing and control. It was implemented using an electronics simulation software package: S-Edit and T-Spice from Tanner Tools EDA. The work was developed by a group of ten students from the fourth year of the integrated master of Biomedical Engineering course of the University of Minho in a collaborative way.

  3. A history of blood glucose meters and their role in self-monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S F; Foster, J R

    2012-01-01

    Self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) systems have the potential to play an important role in the management of diabetes and in the reduction of risk of serious secondary clinical complications. This review describes the transition from simple urine sugar screening tests to sophisticated meter and reagent strip systems to monitor blood glucose. Significant developments in design and technology over the past four decades are described since the first meter was introduced in 1970. Factors that have influenced this evolution and the challenges to improve analytical performance are discussed. Current issues in the role of SMBG from the clinical, patient and manufacturer perspectives, notably adherence, costs and regulations, are also considered.

  4. [Gestational diabetes mellitus: importance of blood glucose monitoring].

    PubMed

    Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges Boix, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy, and is frequently associated with maternal and perinatal complications. Intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy has been shown to reduce perinatal morbidity. In women with pregestational type 1 or 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia during labour and delivery is an important factor in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia. There are no generally accepted recommendations for women with GDM. Recent studies evaluating patients with GDM show that peripartum glucose control can be achieved in these women without the need for insulin use in the majority of cases. Hyperglycaemia during labour is not related with treatment established during pregnancy but rather with non-compliance of endocrinological follow-up. Factors such as ethnic origin, neonatal hypoxaemia, and large for gestational age seem to play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia.

  5. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  6. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon race in male amateur runners.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Sadowska-Krępa, Ewa; Czuba, Milosz; Kempa, Katarzyna; Kimsa, Elżbieta; Gerasimuk, Dagmara

    2012-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the metabolic responses to a 24 h ultra-endurance race in male runners. Paired venous and capillary blood samples from 14 athletes (mean age 43.0 ± 10.8 years, body weight 64.3 ± 7.2 kg, VO(2max) 57.8 ± 6.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), taken 3 h before the run, after completing the marathon distance (42.195 km), after 12 h, and at the finish of the race, were analyzed for blood morphology, acid-base balance and electrolytes, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and serum enzyme activities. Mean distance covered during the race was 168.5 ± 23.1 km (range 125.2-218.5 km). Prolonged ultra-endurance exercise triggered immune and inflammatory responses, as evidenced by a twofold increase in total leukocyte count with neutrophils and monocytes as main contributors, nearly 30-fold increase in serum IL-6 and over 20-fold rise in hsCRP. A progressive exponential increase in mean creatine kinase activity up to the level 70-fold higher than the respective pre-race value, a several fold rise in serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and a fairly stable serum γ-glutamyl transferase level, were indicative of muscle, but not of liver damage. With duration of exercise, there was a progressive development of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis, and a marked alteration in substrate utilization towards fat oxidation to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. The results of this study may imply that progressive decline in partial CO(2) pressure (hypocapnia) that develops during prolonged exercise may contribute to increased interleukin-6 production.

  7. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  8. Nocturnal blood glucose control in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bolli, G B; Perriello, G; Fanelli, C G; De Feo, P

    1993-12-01

    A major problem in replacing insulin in type I diabetes mellitus is that currently no depot preparation exists that is capable of mimicking the background insulin secretion of the healthy pancreas. Because all of the currently available intermediate- or long-acting insulin preparations have a peaked-action profile, excess insulin action at midnight and insulin waning at dawn occur whenever such an insulin preparation is given at supper time. If the target fasting plasma glucose is the ambitious near-normoglycemia of intensive insulin therapy, intermediate-acting insulin at suppertime easily results in hypoglycemia in the early evening hours and hyperglycemia in the fasting state. The problems of overnight glycemia in type I diabetes are further complicated by the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi phenomenon. The dawn phenomenon is the combination of an initial decrease in insulin requirements between approximately 2400 and approximately 0300, followed by an increase in the insulin needs between approximately 0500 and approximately 0800. The dawn phenomenon is the result of changes in hepatic (and extrahepatic) insulin sensitivity, which are best attributed to nocturnal growth hormone secretion. The dawn phenomenon is a day-to-day reproducible event that occurs in nearly all diabetic patients. Its contribution to fasting hyperglycemia correlates with diabetes duration (inversely) and the HbA1c percentage (directly). Overall, it is estimated that the specific contribution of the dawn phenomenon to fasting hyperglycemia is approximately 2 mM (approximately 35 mg/dl), but it may be much greater because of the warning of the depot-insulin preparation injected the previous evening. The Somogyi phenomenon, strictly speaking, refers to fasting hyperglycemia that occurs after inducement of nocturnal hypoglycemia by regular insulin. Because the present therapeutic regimens of NPH/Lente insulin given at suppertime cause overnight hyperinsulinemia, excessive fasting

  9. Human cervical carcinoma detection and glucose monitoring in blood micro vasculatures with swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2013-08-01

    We report a pilot method, i.e., speckle variance (SV) and structured optical coherence tomography to visualize normal and malignant blood microvasculature in three and two dimensions and to monitor the glucose levels in blood by analyzing the Brownian motion of the red blood cells. The technique was applied on nude live mouse's skin and the obtained images depict the enhanced intravasculature network forum up to the depth of ˜2 mm with axial resolution of ˜8 μm. Microscopic images have also been obtained for both types of blood vessels to observe the tumor spatially. Our SV-OCT methodologies and results give satisfactory techniques in real time imaging and can potentially be applied during therapeutic techniques such as photodynamic therapy as well as to quantify the higher glucose levels injected intravenously to animal by determining the translation diffusion coefficient.

  10. Functional identification of a neurocircuit regulating blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Thomas H.; Nelson, Jarrell T.; Matsen, Miles E.; Dorfman, Mauricio D.; Guyenet, Stephan J.; Damian, Vincent; Allison, Margaret B.; Scarlett, Jarrad M.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Olson, David P.; Myers, Martin G.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Morton, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies implicate the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in glycemic control. Here, we report that selective inhibition of the subset of VMN neurons that express the transcription factor steroidogenic-factor 1 (VMNSF1 neurons) blocks recovery from insulin-induced hypoglycemia whereas, conversely, activation of VMNSF1 neurons causes diabetes-range hyperglycemia. Moreover, this hyperglycemic response is reproduced by selective activation of VMNSF1 fibers projecting to the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (aBNST), but not to other brain areas innervated by VMNSF1 neurons. We also report that neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), a brain area that is also implicated in the response to hypoglycemia, make synaptic connections with the specific subset of glucoregulatory VMNSF1 neurons that project to the aBNST. These results collectively establish a physiological role in glucose homeostasis for VMNSF1 neurons and suggest that these neurons are part of an ascending glucoregulatory LPBN→VMNSF1→aBNST neurocircuit. PMID:27001850

  11. Glycemic index and postprandial blood glucose response to Japanese strawberry jam in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Kurotobi, Tomoka; Fukuhara, Kimiaki; Inage, Hiroko; Kimura, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 30 healthy adults the glycemic index (GI) of five strawberry jams made from various sugar compositions. The jam containing the highest ratio of glucose showed a high GI, while that containing a high ratio of fructose, a jam made from polydextrose, showed a low GI. There was a high correlation (r=0.969, p=0.006) between the GI and the predicted GI calculated from the sugar composition of the jams. Moreover, the influence on postprandial blood glucose response after an intake of only 20 g of jam and one slice of bread with 20 g jam was measured in 8 healthy adults. The blood glucose level after an intake of 20 g of the high GI jam containing the high glucose ratio was higher than that of other jams at 15 min, but there was no significant difference after 30 min. Regardless of whether the GI was low or high, differences in the jams were not observed in the postprandial blood glucose level or the area under the curve after eating either one slice of bread (60 g) or one slice of bread with less than 20 g of jam.

  12. Design and In Vitro Interference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heungjae; Naylon, Jack; Luzio, Steve; Beutler, Jan; Birchall, James; Martin, Chris; Porch, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A design of a microwave noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring sensor and its interference test results are presented. The novelty of the proposed sensor is that it comprises two spatially separated split-ring resonators, where one interacts with the change in glucose level of a sample under test while the other ring is used as a reference. The reference ring has a slightly different resonant frequency and is desensitized to the sample owing to its location, thus allowing changes in temperature to be calibrated out. From an oral glucose tolerance test with two additional commercially available sensors (blood strip and continuous glucose monitor) in parallel, we obtained encouraging performance for our sensor comparable with those of the commercial sensors. The effects of endogenous interferents common to all subjects, i.e., common sugars, vitamins (ascorbic acid), and metabolites (uric acid) have also been investigated by using a large Franz cell assembly. From the interference test, it is shown that the change in sensor response is dominated by changes in glucose level for concentrations relevant to blood, and the effects of interferents are negligible in comparison. PMID:26568639

  13. Clinical evaluation of a novel on-strip calibration method for blood glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Noble, Michael; Rippeth, John; Edington, David; Rayman, Gerry; Brandon-Jones, Sarah; Hollowood, Zoe; Kew, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel technology for improving accuracy of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The technology calibrates each and every test by measuring the response from a predetermined amount of glucose present in the sample chamber of each test strip. SMBG test strips were modified to include a lid coated with a fast dissolving formulation containing glucose. These test strips were characterized for hematocrit (Hct) and temperature induced error response to develop a calibration algorithm. The modified test strips were used in a clinical evaluation involving fingerstick blood samples from 160 subjects. Experiments involving Hct and temperature induced errors show that the technology generates a signal characteristic of the error conditions in any particular test, but independent of glucose concentration, allowing a correction algorithm to be derived. The approach substantially reduced Hct and temperature derived errors. Clinical evaluation using fingerstick blood directly applied to prototype strips showed the error (measured as MARD) was reduced from 11.1 to 5.9% by the on-strip correction approach and the number of outliers reduced by approximately 90%. This technology could improve the accuracy and precision of glucose monitoring systems and so reduce decision errors particularly in clinical situations where hematocrit and temperature may be significant confounders.

  14. On Arrival High Blood Glucose Level is Associated With Detrimental and Fatal Hospitalization Outcomes for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hartopo, Anggoro B.; Setianto, Budi Y.; Gharini, Putrika P.R.; Dinarti, Lucia K.

    2011-01-01

    Background High blood glucose level is frequently encountered in acute coronary syndrome. We investigated the effects of high blood glucose measured on arrival on hospitalization adverse events in acute coronary syndrome. Our study patients were Javanese in ethnicity, which constitute half of population in Indonesia. We hypothesized that elevated blood glucose has detrimental effects on hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. Methods We designed an observasional cohort study and recruited 148 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome. Venous blood was collected on hospital arrival. High blood glucose level was determined as plasma glucose > 140 mg/dL. Adverse hospitalization events were recorded, i.e. mortality, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock and heart rhythm disorders. Echocardiography examination was performed to determine left ventricular function. Results The prevalence of on arrival high blood glucose among Javanese patients with acute coronary syndrome was considerably high (36%). On arrival high blood glucose was associated with acute heart failure (P < 0.001) and shock cardiogenic (P = 0.02). Heart rhythm disorders were higher in high blood glucose patients (P = 0.004). Left ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in high blood glucose patients (P = 0.001) and ejection fraction was lower (P = 0.001). On arrival high blood glucose was independently associated with hospitalization adverse events (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.9, P = 0.03) and hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-38.6, P = 0.03). Conclusions Our study suggests that on arrival high blood glucose among Javanese patients with acute coronary syndrome is considerably high and is associated with detrimental and fatal hospitalization outcomes.

  15. Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

  16. Fentanyl dosage is associated with reduced blood glucose in pediatric patients after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D J; Steward, D J

    1990-05-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 36 pediatric patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (n = 24) or profound hypothermia with circulatory arrest (PHCA) (n = 12), none of whom had received dextrose in the clear CPB pump prime, maintenance iv fluids, or cardioplegia solution. The authors studied whether the doses of fentanyl or methylprednisolone, or rates of dextrose infusion from blood products during CPB or from vasoactive infusions in 5% dextrose in water, were correlated with the blood glucose concentrations at the termination of CPB. Because other investigations have indicated that even moderate hyperglycemia during cerebral hypoxia or ischemia may predispose patients to an increased risk of neurologic deficit, the authors wished to determine whether any of these factors might contribute significantly to the elevation in blood glucose commonly seen in these patients. Multiple regression analysis and ANOVA were performed on these data, and a P value of 0.0125 was considered significant. The dose of methylprednisolone, and rates of infusions of dextrose from blood products in the CPB pump prime or from 5% dextrose in water at the termination of CPB did not correlated significantly with the blood glucose level. The dose of fentanyl administered to patients prior to the end of CPB was significantly correlated with the glucose concentration (r2 = 0.416; P = 0.0001). No patient who received greater than or equal to 50 micrograms/kg of fentanyl had a blood glucose concentration of greater than 200 mg/dl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Validity of bedside blood glucose measurement in critically ill patients with intensive insulin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Shadvar, Kamran; Sanaie, Sarvin; Iranpour, Afshin; Fattahi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: There have been variable results on the practice of tight glycemic control, and studies have demonstrated that point-of-care (POC) glucometers have variable accuracy. Glucometers must be accurate, and many variables can affect blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between blood glucose concentrations obtained from POC glucometers and laboratory results in critically ill patients with intensive insulin therapy. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study which enrolled 300 critically ill patients. Four samples of arterial blood were collected and analyzed at the bedside with the POC glucometer and also in the central laboratory to obtain the blood glucose level. To define the effect of various factors on this relation, we noted the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), PaO2, body temperature, bilirubin, history of drug usage, and sepsis. Results: There were not any significant differences between blood sugar levels using laboratory and glucometer methods of measurements. There was a good and significant correlation between glucose levels between two methods (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Among evaluated factors (body temperature, bilirubin level, blood pressure, Hb level, PaO2, sepsis, and drugs) which added one by one in model, just drugs decreased the correlation more than others (r = 0.78). Conclusions: The results of POC glucometer differ from laboratory glucose concentrations, especially in critically ill patients with unstable hemodynamic status while receiving several drugs. This may raise the concern about using POC devices for tight glycemic control in critically ill patients. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the large variation of accuracy among different glucometer devices. PMID:27994380

  18. Inconsistent blood glucose checking before driving among drivers with type 1 diabetes: Results from the Australian YourSAY: Glucose Monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Trawley, S; Holmes-Truscott, E; Speight, J

    2016-11-01

    In a survey of Australian drivers with type 1 diabetes, three-quarters reported not checking their blood glucose consistently before driving. They reported lack of health professional recommendation of this behaviour, less concern about safety, and preference for consuming fast-acting glucose, which may be less effective for mitigating risk.

  19. Identifying technique errors. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Steel, L G

    1994-02-01

    1. Twenty-two study participants aged 65 and older were observed performing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in their homes 3 to 4 weeks after initial meter instruction to identify elderly patients' technique errors in SMBG. Periodic evaluation of the elders' SMBG is vital for ongoing accurate results. 2. Overall, the elderly patients were able to perform the blood glucose test correctly. However, performing the quality control checks proved more difficult. The three most frequent errors included failure to check control solution expiration dates (86%), not shaking the vials of control solution (82%), and not verifying glucose control solution results (68%). 3. Further studies using larger samples and various populations are needed to further assess and document SMBG by the elderly patient. As the numbers of elders using SMBG increase, so does the need for research to promote the most appropriate and cost-effective education and evaluation of this self-care.

  20. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  1. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  2. Serum immunoreactive relaxin in women during a 24-h period.

    PubMed

    Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T

    1987-03-01

    Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.

  3. Radially oriented nanostrand electrodes to boost glucose sensing in mammalian blood.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naeem; El-Safty, Sherif A; Abdelsalam, Mamdouh E; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Architecture of nanoscale electrochemical sensors for ultra-trace detection of glucose in blood is important in real-life sampling and analysis. To broaden the application of electrochemical sensing of glucose, we fabricated, for the first time, a glucose sensor electrode based on radially oriented NiO nanostrands (NSTs) onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate for monitoring, as well as selective and sensitive sensing of glucose in mammalian blood. The simple, scalable one-pot fabrication of this NST-Ni sensor design enabled control of the pattern of radially oriented NSTs onto 3D porous Ni foam substrate. The radial orientation of NST-Ni electrode onto the interior of the 3D porous substrate with controlled crystal structure size and atomic arrangement along the axis of the strands, intrinsic surface defects, and superior surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, high surface energy, and high density led to highly exposed catalytic active sites. The hierarchical NST-Ni electrode was used to develop a sensitive and selective sensor over a wide range of glucose concentrations among actively competitive ions, chemical species and molecular agents, and multi-cyclic sensing assays. The NST-Ni electrode shows significant glucose sensing performance in terms of unimpeded diffusion pathways, a wide range of concentration detection, and lower limit of detection (0.186 µM) than NiO nanosheet (NS)-Ni foam electrode pattern, indicating the effectiveness of the shape-dependent structural architecture of NST-Ni electrode. In this study, the NST-Ni electrode is fabricated to develop a simple, selective method for detecting glucose in physiological fluids (e.g., mammalian blood).

  4. Novel FIA chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor for urinary and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Maurice V.; Luong, J. H. T.

    1993-05-01

    A chemiluminescence fiber optic biosensor system coupled to FIA was developed to measure glucose in bodily fluids. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on a preactivated nylon membrane and attached to the tip of a fiber optic bundle. This enzyme acts on (beta) -D-glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide which was then reacted with luminol in the presence of ferricyanide to produce a light signal. The sensitivity of the biosensor was determined to be 32 +/- 0.65 nV (mu) M-1 with a minimum detectable level of 5 (mu) M. The addition of a glucose oxidase column with a higher enzyme loading improved the sensitivity by at least 25-fold thus permitting the measurement of the lower glucose levels found in urine. The enzyme membrane could be reused for at least 50 analyses while the glucose oxidase column could be reused for over 500 analyses without losing the original activity. Endogenous ascorbate and urate usually present in urine samples which interfere with the chemiluminescence signal were effectively retained by an upstream ion exchange column. When applied for the determination of urinary and blood glucose levels, the results obtained compared well with those of the widely accepted hexokinase assay.

  5. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keita; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabetes, and/or severity of periodontitis were evaluated. Results 68 patients (9.5%) had hyperglycemia (blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Of these patients, 20 (29.4%) did not have a history of diabetes. Blood glucose tended to be higher with greater periodontitis severity. Of the 3 groups, the severe periodontitis group had the highest proportion of patients with hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). Conclusions Patients with dental problems could be screened for diabetes, especially undiagnosed diabetes. General dentists could function as practitioners to screen for diabetes. Trial registration number UMIN-CTR 000014877. PMID:26629348

  6. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  7. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  8. Vitamin C crosses the blood-brain barrier in the oxidized form through the glucose transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Agus, D B; Gambhir, S S; Pardridge, W M; Spielholz, C; Baselga, J; Vera, J C; Golde, D W

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin C concentrations in the brain exceed those in blood by 10-fold. In both tissues, the vitamin is present primarily in the reduced form, ascorbic acid. We identified the chemical form of vitamin C that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the mechanism of this process. Ascorbic acid was not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in our studies. In contrast, the oxidized form of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized ascorbic acid), readily entered the brain and was retained in the brain tissue in the form of ascorbic acid. Transport of dehydroascorbic acid into the brain was inhibited by d-glucose, but not by l-glucose. The facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT1, is expressed on endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, and is responsible for glucose entry into the brain. This study provides evidence showing that GLUT1 also transports dehydroascorbic acid into the brain. The findings define the transport of dehydroascorbic acid by GLUT1 as a mechanism by which the brain acquires vitamin C, and point to the oxidation of ascorbic acid as a potentially important regulatory step in accumulation of the vitamin by the brain. These results have implications for increasing antioxidant potential in the central nervous system. PMID:9389750

  9. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  10. A regional blood flow model for glucose and insulin kinetics during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schneditz, Daniel; Galach, Magda; Thomaseth, Karl; Waniewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and elimination of a bolus of glucose injected during hemodialysis (HD) was examined using a distributed double-pool regional blood flow model. Intracorporeal glucose disposal was assumed as insulin-independent (λ) in the central high-flow compartment comprising blood, brain, and internal organs, including pancreatic insulin secretion (a, C1) and hepatic insulin clearance (α). Insulin-dependent (γ) glucose utilization was allocated to the low-flow system comprising muscle, skin, and bone. This model was compared with a compact single-pool model using the same model parameters except for the distribution volume (V). Six parameters (C1, a, α, λ, γ, and V) were identified from data obtained in seven nondiabetic patients (59-115 kg). The fraction Fd of glucose removed by HD significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with baseline glucose concentration Cg,0 (5.561 ± 0.646 mmol/L; r = 0.535), extracorporeal clearance Kg (0.137 ± 0.024 L/min; r = 0.537), a (0.278 ± 0.095 L/mmol, r = -0.586), and λ (0.099 ± 0.078 L/min, r = -0.587). V was much larger in the double-compartment (17.8 ± 5.1 L) than in the single-compartment model (10.0 ± 3.0 L). The modeled glucose compartment volumes could be of interest for fluid management in HD patients. The use of extracorporeal glucose disposal to detect impaired glucose utilization (a, λ) remains to be validated in diabetic HD patients.

  11. Evaluation of intravascular microdialysis for continuous blood glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Wallin, Mats; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, no hypoglycemia occurred in our earlier studies, prompting further evaluation of the accuracy of intravascular microdialysis in the hypoglycemic range. Thus, this animal study was performed. A porcine model was developed; hypoglycemia was induced using insulin injections. The pigs were monitored with intravascular microdialysis integrated in a triple-lumen central venous catheter. As reference, venous blood gas samples were taken every 5 minutes and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Ethical permission for the animal experiments was obtained from the Stockholm Regional Ethical Committee, reference no N397/09. A total of 213 paired samples were obtained for analysis, and 126 (59.2%) of these were in the hypoglycemic range (<74 mg/dl). Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB and 99% in region A. The ISO standard (ISO15197) was met. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias (mean difference) ± limits of agreement was -0.18 ± 16.2 mg/dl. No influence from glucose infusions was seen. The microdialysis monitoring system was found to be very responsive in rapid changes in blood glucose concentration. This study shows that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia in a porcine experimental model. Furthermore, the system was not influenced by glucose administration and was found to be responsive in rapid blood glucose fluctuations.

  12. Using the first drop of blood for monitoring blood glucose values in critically ill patients: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Sunita; Kaur, Sukhpal; Das, Karobi; Saini, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Using the first drop or second drop of blood while measuring blood glucose (BG) values. Objective: The study was planned to compare the BG values from the first and second drops of blood. Research Settings: The study was conducted at the Main Intensive Care Unit, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Research Design: This study was a comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 2–93 years were enrolled in this study. BG values from the first and second drops of blood were taken and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between two drops was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. A bias of <10 mg/dl was considered clinically acceptable. Linear regression of the mean difference (bias) with the BG readings was performed. Results: One thousand four hundred and seven pairs of BG readings were taken from the enrolled patients. BG values had a bias of 3.9 ± 14.9 mg/dl. Nearly 96.7% of BG readings were within the limits of agreement. The absolute difference between first and second drops of blood was calculated; nearly 75.4% of the readings had fallen between 0 and 10 mg/dl, i.e. clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: There is no compete concordance of values of blood glucose between the first and the second drops of blood; any of the drops can be used for measuring BG values as the difference is not statistically significant. However, if hands are visibly clean and to decrease the blood loss in the critically ill patients where the BG values are measured frequently, using the first drop of blood is advised. PMID:27994381

  13. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration.

  14. Preanalytic and Analytic Accuracy: Toward More Realistic and Meaningful Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Submissions for Regulatory Approval

    PubMed Central

    Cembrowski, George S

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Cembrowski provides an analysis of an article by Harrison and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology in which the authors describe the evaluation of a new device for self-monitoring of blood glucose, the Bayer CONTOUR® blood glucose monitoring system. PMID:21880246

  15. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (< 7 hrs) groups. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups. No significant difference was found in all parameters of body composition and fasting blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Three Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Using ISO 15197

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, José Luis; Wallace, Jane F.; Pardo, Scott; Petruschke, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes management. Inaccurate blood glucose measurements can severely impact patients’ health. This study evaluated the performance of 3 blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS), Contour® Next USB, FreeStyle InsuLinx®, and OneTouch® Verio™ IQ, under routine hospital conditions. Methods: Venous blood samples (N = 236) obtained for routine laboratory procedures were collected at a Spanish hospital, and blood glucose (BG) concentrations were measured with each BGMS and with the available reference (hexokinase) method. Accuracy of the 3 BGMS was compared according to ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria, by mean absolute relative difference (MARD), consensus error grid (CEG) and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses, and an insulin dosing error model. Results: All BGMS met the accuracy limit criteria defined by ISO 15197:2013. While all measurements of the 3 BGMS were within low-risk zones in both error grid analyses, the Contour Next USB showed significantly smaller MARDs between reference values compared to the other 2 BGMS. Insulin dosing errors were lowest for the Contour Next USB than compared to the other systems. Conclusions: All BGMS fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria and CEG criterion. However, taking together all analyses, differences in performance of potential clinical relevance may be observed. Results showed that Contour Next USB had lowest MARD values across the tested glucose range, as compared with the 2 other BGMS. CEG and SEG analyses as well as calculation of the hypothetical bolus insulin dosing error suggest a high accuracy of the Contour Next USB. PMID:26445813

  17. Evaluation of "point of care" devices in the measurement of low blood glucose in neonatal practice

    PubMed Central

    Ho, H; Yeung, W; Young, B

    2004-01-01

    Background: Low blood glucose in newborns is difficult to detect clinically. Hence a reliable "point of care" device (glucometer) for early detection and treatment of low glucose is needed. Objective: To evaluate the performance of five readily available glucometers for the detection of low blood glucose in newborn infants. Method: Glucostix measurements were taken for newborns with risk factors using a Reflolux S (Boehringer) glucometer. If the initial reading was low (< 2.6 mmol/l), further measurements were taken with two other glucometers (phase I, Advantage and Glucotrend (Roche); phase II, Elite XL (Bayer) and Precision (Abbott)), and plasma glucose was measured in the laboratory (Aeroset; Abbott). Results: Over 10 months, 101 specimens were collected from 71 newborns (57 in phase I; 44 in phase II). The Advantage glucometer usually overestimated blood glucose with a mean difference of 1.07 mmol/l (p < 0.01) at all low glucose ranges. The Glucotrend, Precision, and Elite XL glucometers performed better; the mean differences were not significantly different from the laboratory measured value (0.17 mmol/l (p  =  0.37); –0.12 mmol/l (p  =  0.13), and 0.24 mmol/l (p  =  0.13) respectively). For detection of glucose concentrations < 2.6 mmol/l, the Precision glucometer had the highest sensitivity (96.4%) and negative predictive value (90%). For lower glucose concentrations (< 2.0 mmol/l), the Glucotrend glucometer performed even better (sensitivity 92.3%, negative predictive value 96.3%). Conclusion: Point of care devices should have good precision in the low glucose concentration range, sensitivity, and accuracy for early detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia. None of the five glucometers was satisfactory as the sole measuring device. The Glucotrend and Precision glucometers have the greatest sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, confirmation with laboratory measurements of plasma glucose and clinical assessment are still of the utmost

  18. Calibration Experiments Conducted for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensing Through the Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Bockle, Stefan; Suh, Kwang I.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2004-01-01

    There are more than 16 million diabetics in the United States and more than 100 million worldwide. Diabetes can lead to severe complications over time such as blindness, renal and cardiovascular diseases, and peripheral neuropathy in the limbs. Poor blood circulation in diabetics can lead to gangrene and the subsequent amputation of extremities. In addition, this pathology is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The most effective way to manage diabetes is frequent blood glucose monitoring performed by the patients themselves. However, because of pain, inconvenience, and the fear of developing infections from finger-prick blood tests or implants, many patients monitor their blood glucose levels less frequently than is recommended by their physicians. Therefore, a noninvasive, painless, and convenient method to monitor blood glucose would greatly benefit diabetics. Likewise, detecting, preventing, and treating the untoward effects of prolonged space travel (e.g., a human mission to Mars) in real-time requires the development of noninvasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. As a "window to the body," the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and to help develop preventative and therapeutic countermeasures early. The noninvasive feature of these technologies permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling an evaluation of the response to therapy.

  19. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  20. Fully Implantable Arterial Blood Glucose Device for Metabolic Research Applications in Rats for Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Brockway, Robert; Tiesma, Scott; Bogie, Heather; White, Kimberly; Fine, Megan; O’Farrell, Libbey; Michael, Mervyn; Cox, Amy; Coskun, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic continuous glucose monitoring options for animal research have been very limited due to various technical and biological challenges. We provide an evaluation of a novel telemetry device for continuous monitoring of temperature, activity, and plasma glucose levels in the arterial blood of rats for up to 2 months. Methods: In vivo testing in rats including oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs) and ex vivo waterbath testing were performed to evaluate acute and chronic sensor performance. Animal studies were in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals and approved by the corresponding animal care and use committees (Data Sciences International, Eli Lilly). Results: Results demonstrated the ability to record continuous measurements for 75 days or longer. Bench testing demonstrated a high degree of linearity over a range of 20-850 mg/dL with R2 = .998 for linear fit and .999 for second order fit (n = 8 sensors). Evaluation of 6 rats over 28 days with 52 daily and OGTT test strip measurements each resulted in mean error of 3.8% and mean absolute relative difference of 16.6%. Conclusions: This device provides significant advantages in the quality and quantity of data that can be obtained relative to existing alternatives such as intermittent blood sampling. These devices provide the opportunity to expand the understanding of both glucose metabolism and homeostasis and to work toward improved therapies and cures for diabetes. PMID:26021562

  1. Apple leaf extract as a potential candidate for suppressing postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level.

    PubMed

    Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2012-01-01

    While the industrial value of fruits has long been recognized, only recently have the leaves of fruit trees been considered to have immense and mostly-untapped potential. In the present study, the physiological effects of apple leaf extract in mice were investigated. In addition, we sought to elucidate the active principle(s) and examined its potential for application. Apple leaf extract suppressed postprandial elevation of the blood glucose level and increased the residual amount of glucose in the small intestine in glucose-loaded mice compared with those in control mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to an active component that was identified as phloridzin, a known SGLT inhibitor, based on an analysis of its spectral data. With regard to an anti-hyperglycemic effect, extraction with ethanol from leaves of apple tree gave the best results. These effects decreased with heating during the extraction procedure. Since bolus ingestion of the extract did not affect blood glucose levels in normal mice with or without an overnight fast, the inhibitory effects on glucose absorption were not considered to be associated with unspecific gastrointestinal impairment and the extract did not cause hypoglycemia at a normally effective dose. Therefore, the leaf parts of apple tree may be a promising candidate as an industrial resource for maintaining good health in the future.

  2. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  3. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  4. Big brains and blood glucose: common ground for diabetes mellitus in humans and healthy dolphins.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Ridgway, Sam H

    2007-08-01

    Healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia, producing a prolonged glucose tolerance curve and a transient, diabetes mellitus-like state during 6 to 72 h of fasting. To further assess dolphins as comparative models for diabetes in humans, we hypothesized that a suite of hematological and clinical biochemistry changes during the fasting state may mimic those reported in humans with diabetes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of covariance to compare fasting and nonfasting hematologic and serum biochemical data, including 1161 routine blood samples from 52 healthy bottlenose dolphins (age, 1 to 49 y; male and female) collected during 1998 through 2005. Most changes found in dolphins during the fasting state--including significantly increased glucose, platelets, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase; significantly decreased serum uric acid; and shifts toward a metabolic acidodic state (significantly increased blood CO2)--have been previously associated with diabetes mellitus in humans. Therefore, healthy bottlenose dolphins may be the first complete and natural comparative animal model for diabetes mellitus in humans. Similarities between dolphins and humans, including metabolic changes associated with high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets; large brain-to-mass ratios; high central nervous system demands for glucose; and similarly unique blood glucose-carrying capacities should be further assessed to better understand the potential evolutionary paths of diabetes mellitus in these 2 species.

  5. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  6. Indices of Glucose Homeostasis in Cord Blood in Term and Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Afzal; Rukmini, M. S.; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Manjrekar, Poornima A.; Hegde, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, intrauterine malnutrition has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. This study was planned to determine the early alterations in indices of glucose homeostasis (glucose, insulin, and cortisol) in term and preterm newborns and the correlations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels with insulin resistance indices. Methods: A descriptive study comprising 35 term and 35 preterm newborns was carried out from December 2013 to June 2015. Venous cord blood was collected and plasma glucose was analyzed by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method in an auto analyzer. Serum insulin and cortisol levels were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and glucose insulin ratio were calculated to assess insulin resistance. The data on physical and metabolic parameters were analyzed using standard tests for statistical significance. Results: In term newborns, mean glucose and cortisol levels (83.6±17.4 mg/dL and 11.88±5.78 µg/dL, respectively) were significantly higher than those in preterm infants (70.4±15.8 mg/dL and 8.9±4.6 µg/dL, respectively). Insulin and HOMA-IR levels were found higher in preterm newborns (10.8±4.8 µIU/mL and 1.52±0.66, respectively) than in term newborns (7.9±2.7 µIU/mL and 1.19±0.29, respectively). Insulin was found to positively correlate with HOMA-IR, whereas cortisol was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR in both term and preterm newborns. Conclusion: Higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR values in the cord blood of preterm newborns support the theory of intrauterine origin of metabolic diseases. PMID:27087404

  7. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH.

    PubMed

    Harris, James M; Lopez, Gabriel P; Reichert, William M

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enhance glucose sensor performance and stability. Silica-dispersed GOx was deployed on platinized platinum (Pt) wire to form a Clark-type amperometric glucose sensor. Sensors were calibrated using buffered glucose standard solutions, and then tested against glucose spiked human serum and whole blood. All serum and whole blood measurements met the minimum FDA requirement of falling within the "A+B region" of a Clark Error Grid. To our knowledge this is the first report of using silica-dispersed GOx to measure glucose in whole blood. The effect of condensation pH on sensor performance was assessed by dispersing GOx in silica condensed at pH 3, 7 and 12, and then testing the sensor response against glucose calibration standards. The pH 12 silica sensors had statistically faster response time, and higher sensor sensitivity compared to pH 7, pH 3 silica and glutaraldehyde crosslinked sensors. Membranes of the pH 12 silica had statistically higher glucose diffusion coefficient than did the pH 7 and 3 sensors. GOx dispersed in pH 12 silica also had the longest half life. We hypothesize that the gel-like pH 12 silica gels provided reduced barriers to glucose diffusion, and the more aqueous microenvironment provided greater stability for the enzyme.

  9. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  10. [Today data management in self-monitoring of blood glucose for diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Fermon, C

    2003-04-01

    Improving diabetes treatment needs intensive glucose monitoring which is restricting for patients and time-consuming for physicians. Up-to-date tools of data management were developed, following progress in computing technology and home computing. Glucometers with memory and softwares are able to improve data management of self blood glucose monitoring, personalized interactivity with physician. They are very important to develop telemedecine systems in diabetes care. These systems are designed to complement the daily care and intensive management of diabetics through telemonitoring and telecare services.

  11. Blood glucose may condition factor VII levels in diabetic and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Torella, R

    1988-12-01

    Increased factor VII levels have been reported in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects. A direct correlation between fasting plasma glucose and factor VII level was found to exist in both diabetic and normal subjects. Induced-hyperglycaemia was able to increase factor VII levels in both diabetic patients and normal control subjects while, when euglycaemia was achieved in diabetic patients, factor VII values returned to normal range. This study shows that the level of factor VII may be directly conditioned by circulating blood glucose and, therefore, stresses the role of hyperglycaemia in conditioning coagulation abnormalities in diabetes mellitus.

  12. Effect of data pretreatment on the noninvasive blood glucose measurement by diffuse reflectance NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Herbert M.; Marbach, Ralf

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in spectroscopy and chemometrics have brought in-vitro blood glucose analysis into clinical reach. Parallel to these efforts noninvasive experiments by NIR- spectroscopy have also been proposed and carried out. A specially designed and optimized accessory for diffuse reflectance measurements in the spectral range of 9000 - 5000 cm-1 was used. The spectral data and reference concentration values were obtained using oral glucose tolerance tests. Calibration results are provided for log(1/R) and single beam spectra. In addition, the effects of smoothing and the use of derivative filtering were evaluated. The best results were achieved by multivariate PLS-modeling with raw data from single beam reflectance spectra.

  13. Performance of the DIDGET Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Children, Teens, and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Larry C; Parkes, Joan L; Pardo, Scott; Schachner, Holly C; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane; Bailey, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the performance of the DIDGET® blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) in the hands of its intended users: children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. Methods Finger stick capillary blood samples were tested in duplicate by subjects (with parent/guardian assistance, if needed) and health care professionals using the DIDGET BGMS, and results were compared with those obtained using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer. Modified venous blood samples (i.e., glycolyzed or spiked with glucose) were used to analyze meter performance under extreme glucose concentrations. Accuracy was assessed using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines (i.e., 95% of meter results within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values). Results A total of 123 subjects aged 4 to 24 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The DIDGET meter achieved accuracy according to ISO 15197:2003 criteria: >97% of meter results were within ±15 mg/dl or ±20% of reference values. Regression analyses showed a high degree of correlation between meter and YSI results: coefficient of determination (R2) = 98.2% for all samples combined and 97.2% for capillary samples only. Clinical accuracy for combined samples was demonstrated by Parkes consensus error grid analyses; 100% of meter results were in zone A (98.5%) or zone B (1.5%). There was no difference in performance or accuracy across age subsets. Hematocrit values did not affect meter blood glucose results. Conclusion The DIDGET BGMS provided accurate test results across all age ranges in children, teens, and young adults with diabetes. PMID:22027310

  14. Capillary blood sampling from the ear of dogs and cats and use of portable meters to measure glucose concentration.

    PubMed

    Wess, G; Reusch, C

    2000-02-01

    Two new methods for collection of capillary blood from the ear of dogs and cats for the measurement of blood glucose concentration using portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are described. The first method uses a lancing device after pre-warming the ear, while the second employs a vacuum lancing device. Both methods generated blood drops of adequate size, although the latter method was faster and easier to perform. Accuracy of the two PBGMs was evaluated clinically and statistically. Although assessment of statistical accuracy revealed differences between the PBGMs and the reference method, all of the PBGM readings were within clinically acceptable ranges. Measurement of capillary blood glucose concentration is easy to perform, inexpensive and fast. It may be used by owners to determine blood glucose concentrations at home, and could serve as a new tool for monitoring diabetic dogs and cats.

  15. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  16. Blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate during experimental swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, R; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Jensen-Waern, M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyolid A. Blood samples were taken before inoculation, during the incubation period, during clinical signs of dysentery and during recovery. Neither plasma glucose nor lactate concentrations changed during the course of swine dysentery, but the serum concentrations of gluconeogenic non-essential amino acids decreased during dysentery. This was mainly due to decreases in alanine, glutamine, serine and tyrosine. Lysine increased during dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period, and leucine increased during recovery. Glutamine, alanine and tyrosine levels show negative correlations with the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, swine dysentery altered the blood concentrations of amino acids, but not of glucose or lactate.

  17. Influence of hemorrhage on adrenal secretion, blood glucose and serum insulin in the awake pig.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, L C; Curtin, R; Sapira, J D

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an additonal series. Increase in blood glucose and epinephrine secretion rate following hemorrhage were found to be significantly dependent upon the rate of initial hemorrhage. Cortisol secretion was found to rise significantly during and following hemorrhage in both rapidly and slowly bled animals. Serum insulin levels remained at baseline levels during shock, despite the presence of significant hyperglycemia. In unbled animals infused with epinephrine at rates comparable to those measured in shock, elevations in blood glucose were markedly lower, shifting to the right of the dose-response curve during hemorrhage. Simultaneous infusions of cortisol and epinephrine resulted in a dose-response curve which did not differ significantly from that following infusion of epinephrine alone. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1247317

  18. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  19. Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Testing for Diabetes Care in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients with diabetes requires accurate near-patient glucose monitoring systems. In the past decade, point-of-care blood glucose monitoring devices have become the mainstay of near-patient glucose monitoring in hospitals across the world. In this article, we focus on its history, accuracy, clinical use, and cost-effectiveness. Point-of-care devices have evolved from 1.2 kg instruments with no informatics to handheld lightweight portable devices with advanced connectivity features. Their accuracy however remains a subject of debate, and new standards for their approval have now been issued by both the International Organization for Standardization and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. While their cost-effectiveness remains to be proved, their clinical value for managing inpatients with diabetes remains unchallenged. This evidence-based review provides an overall view of its use in the hospital setting. PMID:25355711

  20. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  1. Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Karam, Gholamreza Asadi; Rashidinejad, Hamid Reza; Aghaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Jafar; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Azin, Hosein; Mirzaee, Mohammad Reza; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2008-04-01

    To determine the effects of opium on serum glucose, potassium and sodium in male and female Wistar rat, opium solution (60 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally and the same volume of distilled water was used as control (7 rats in each group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after injection from orbit cavity and the values of serum glucose, sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) were measured. The data were then analyzed by the repeated measure ANOVA based on sex and case-control group. P < 0.05 considered as significant difference. Serum glucose increased significantly at 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after opium solution injection, in female rats compared to a control group. However, the male rats had this rise at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after opium solution injection compared to control group. While serum glucose in male rats was significantly higher than females at 30, 60 and 120 minutes, this value was higher in the female rats at 360 minutes. Therefore, serum glucose alterations following opium injection was significantly different in groups and in the sexes at different times. Sodium (Na(+)) rose at 60, 240 and 360 minutes significantly in all rats compared to control group. However, sodium alteration following opium injection was significantly different only between treated and control groups but sex-independent at all times. Potassium (K(+)) increased significantly at 60, 120, 240 and 360 minutes in male rats, compared to a control group. In female rats K(+) significantly raised at 30, 120, 240 and 360 minutes. Therefore, the alteration of K(+) in male and female rats was found time dependent and sex independent. According to our results, opium increased serum glucose in male and female rats differently, and it interferes with metabolic pathways differently on a gender dependent basis. Opium raised serum Na(+) and K(+), thus it interfere with water regulation and blood pressure via different mechanism.

  2. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  3. Dopamine 2 Receptor Genes Are Associated with Raised Blood Glucose in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Morris, C. Phillip; Noble, Ernest P.; Nyst, Phillip; Heslop, Karen; Young, Ross McD.; Voisey, Joanne; Connor, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes is commonly found in schizophrenia and is an important contributor to mortality and morbidity in this condition. Dopamine has been implicated in the aetiology of both diabetes and schizophrenia. It is possible that both disorders share a common genetic susceptibility. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 2 dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with schizophrenia (C939 T, rs6275 and C957 T, rs6277) along with fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) in 207 antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. All participants met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, and those with other psychiatric disorders were excluded. Analysis of covariance was used to compare fasting glucose results by DRD2 genotypes, after controlling for known confounds. For significant associations, follow-up Bonferroni post hoc tests examined differences in fasting glucose levels between genotypes. Specific comparisons were also made using analysis of variance and chi-square (Fisher’s exact test). Results: The 2 DRD2 risk genotypes were associated with significant increases in blood glucose, after controlling for BMI, age, sex, dosage and type of antipsychotic medication, number of hospitalisations, and negative symptoms (rs6275, F(2, 182) = 5.901, P = 0.003; rs6277 SNP, F(2, 178) = 3.483, P = 0.033). Conclusions: These findings support the involvement of DRD2 not only in schizophrenia but also in elevated levels of blood glucose commonly found in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. Our data support the notion that diabetes may not merely be a comorbid condition but could be fundamentally associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia itself. PMID:27254804

  4. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-07

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  5. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  6. Variations in Postprandial Blood Glucose Responses and Satiety after Intake of Three Types of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Marianne S. H.; Hjellset, Victoria T.; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The magnitude and duration of postprandial blood glucose (PPG) elevations are important risk factors of diabetes and coronary heart diseases. Aim. To study PPG after ingestion of breads with and without pea fibre and rapeseed oil. Methods. After fasting overnight, 10 Pakistani immigrant women participated in three experiments having a crossover design and involving ingestion of various types of bread: regular coarse bread or fibre enriched-bread with two levels of rapeseed oil, all providing 25 g available carbohydrates (CHO). Blood glucose and satiety were determined before the meal and every 15 min over the next 2 hours. Results. Intake of an amount of pea fibre-enriched bread containing 25 g CHO attenuated, the postprandial peak glucose value, the incremental area under the glucose versus time curve during 15 to 75 min, and the glycemic profile, and increased duration of satiety (P < .05), as compared with intake of regular bread with 25 g carbohydrate. Conclusion. Pea fibre-enriched breads can reduce PPG and prolong satiety. PMID:21773021

  7. Diabetes, insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and Sertoli/blood-testis barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Marco G.; Martins, Ana D.; Cavaco, José E.; Socorro, Sílvia; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    Blood testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-barriers controlling the entry of substances into the intratubular fluid. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an epidemic metabolic disease concurrent with falling fertility rates, which provokes severe detrimental BTB alterations. It induces testicular alterations, disrupting the metabolic cooperation between the cellular constituents of BTB, with dramatic consequences on sperm quality and fertility. As Sertoli cells are involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, providing nutritional support for germ cells, any metabolic alteration in these cells derived from DM may be responsible for spermatogenesis disruption, playing a crucial role in fertility/subfertility associated with this pathology. These cells have a glucose sensing machinery that reacts to hormonal fluctuations and several mechanisms to counteract hyper/hypoglycemic events. The role of DM on Sertoli/BTB glucose metabolism dynamics and the metabolic molecular mechanisms through which DM and insulin deregulation alter its functioning, affecting male reproductive potential will be discussed. PMID:24665384

  8. Analysis of "Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems: the North American comparator trial".

    PubMed

    Fournier, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In an article in Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Halldorsdottir and coauthors examined the accuracy of five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) in a study sponsored by the manufacturer of the BGMS CONTOUR NEXT EZ (EZ) and found that this BGMS was the most accurate one. However, their findings must be viewed critically given that one of the BGMSs (ACCU-CHEK Aviva) was not compared against the reference measurement specified by its manufacturer, thus making it likely that it performed suboptimally. Also, the accuracy of the glucose-oxidase-based ONE TOUCH Ultra2 and TRUEtrack BGMS is likely to have been underestimated because of the expected low oxygen level in the glycolysed blood samples used to test the performance of these BGMSs under hypoglycemic conditions. In conclusion, although this study shows that EZ is an accurate BGMS, comparisons between this and other BGMSs should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Relationships of family support, diet therapy practice and blood glucose control in typeII diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Ki-Nam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of family support for diabetic patients and the diet therapy practice of patients themselves, and to analyze the relationship between family support and diet therapy practice and blood glucose control, and thus to prepare basic data for the development of effective education programs to improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. The study subjects were 82 patients with type II diabetes, aged over 20 in the Chungbuk area. The gender distribution of subjects was 52.4% males and 47.6% females, and BMI showed 29.3% overweight and 35.3% obesity. Among the 82 study subjects, the relationship between diet therapy related family support and blood glucose control was examined in 67 subjects who answered practicing diet therapy, and the results showed that the family support score of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of groups with fair or poor control (p<0.001) and the correlation between the two factors was very high (r=0.341, p<0.001). For the relationship between diet therapy practice by patients themselves and blood glucose control, diet therapy practice of a group with excellent blood glucose control was significantly higher than those of other groups (fair or poor control groups) (p<0.001) and the correlation between two factors was very high (r=0.304, p<0.001). For other factors influencing blood glucose control, a group with diabetes education showed significantly better blood glucose control compared to other groups without education (p<0.05). From the above results, diet therapy practice by patients, family support, and the necessity of diabetes education were confirmed to control blood glucose of diabetic patients. In conclusion, development and operation of education program should include not only patients but also their family members.

  10. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  11. Thermal emission spectroscopy as a tool for noninvasive blood glucose measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, Janusz M.

    2004-08-01

    The advanced prototype presented here is based on Thermal Emission Spectroscopy (TES) and promises a new generation of non-invasive human tissue analyte instruments. The method and instrument are based on the discovery that natural mid-infrared emission from the human body, especially from the tympanic membrane, is modulated by the state of the emitting tissue. In a simple experimental arrangement, it was demonstrated that emission from glucose could be detected using room temperature detectors in a filter-based setup. Thermal infrared emission characteristics of different glucose concentrations in human plasma solutions were measured. To our knowledge, this is the first time such measurements are reported. In-vivo measurements demonstrated the reproducibility of the methodology of the non-invasive glucose monitor. The non-invasive measurement was calibrated to the serum glucose concentration using 432-paired measurements and subsequently tested (results of Power Analyses) in a blind fashion with 126-paired measurements from diabetic subjects. Non-invasive glucose results were compared with laboratory reference measurements using Error-in-Variable methods. Clark Error Grid analysis showed that 100% of the measurements fell within zones A and B (90% in zone A and 10% in zone B). The Standard Deviation for all non-invasive measured concentrations is 27 mg/dL, Mean Absolute Relative Error %MARE = 8.6, and the correlation coefficient is r = 0.94. This first independent clinical study of a non-invasive blood glucose prototype has demonstrated glucose measurements with clinically acceptable accuracy without the necessity of individual daily calibration.

  12. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  13. Is there a relationship between admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning and clinical outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Adib, Nooshin; Safaeian, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the admission blood glucose level following acute poisoning, severity of acute poisoning and clinical outcome. Material and methods This prospective study was conducted on 345 deliberate self-poisoning patients. Standard demographic and clinical information; admission blood glucose level; poisoning severity score and outcome were recorded. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus, receipt of pre-sampling intravenous dextrose solution or glucocorticoids, and poisoning with toxic agents which produce hyper- or hypoglycaemia were excluded. Results Mean age of the patients was 27.5 ±8.6 years. Females outnumbered males (57.9%). Oral ingestion of more than one drug (46.7%) and opiates (14.2%) were the main causes of poisoning. Blood glucose values ranged from 50 mg/dl to 396 mg/dl. Hyper- and hypoglycaemia were observed in 23.8% and 13.91% respectively. A total of 24.41% and 22.92% of the patients in hyper- and hypoglycaemic groups had grade 3 and 4 severity score in comparison with 4.18% in the normoglycaemic group. Development of complications and death were 14.64% and 10.42% in patients with hyper- and hypoglycaemia versus 3.73% in patients with normoglycaemia. A significant difference between normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic patients in the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome was observed (P < 0.001). Conclusions Admission blood glucose levels may have a relationship with the severity of poisoning and clinical outcome following acute poisoning. PMID:22291737

  14. Effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Daneshpour, Ezzatossadat; Akha, Ozra; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM. The patients received treatments of a placebo (control group; n = 20) or cabergoline 0.5 mg (cabergoline group; n = 20) using the sequential method, once per week for 3 months, while using previously prescribed glucose-lowering drugs. All tests, such as levels of fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-prandial glucose, complete lipid profile, prolactin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were measured at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results: The fasting blood sugar levels were significantly different between placebo and cabergoline groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.004). The prolactin levels were significantly different from beginning of the treatment to 6 months later (P = 0.001). In the cabergoline group, there was a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels after 3 months (P = 0.003). Overall, 65%and 45% patients in the cabergoline and control groups, respectively, responded to treatment (HbA1C<7%). Conclusion: Cabergoline may be useful as a long-acting antidiabetic agent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27749534

  15. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  16. Blood glucose regulation in diabetics. A flatness based nonlinear control simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocha, Guillermo; Podestá, Melina; Mazzadi, Alejandro; Amorena, Carlos; D'Atellis, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Flat systems are a generalization of linear systems, but the techniques used for controlling flat systems are much different than many of the existing techniques for linear systems. In this paper we present the flatness-based control of blood glucose regulation in human system. A non-near model, he Bergman Minimal Model, is used o represent he dynamics of blood regulation in humans and because of the flatness property, he system variables can be expressed as functions of he at output and heir time derivatives and a control aw developed.

  17. Energetic atomic and ionic oxygen textured optical surfaces for blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  18. Method for Texturing Surfaces of Optical Fiber Sensors Used for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  19. Fraction SX of maitake mushroom favorably influences blood glucose levels and blood pressure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Fu, Jia; Perricone, Nicholas V; Bagchi, Debasis; Kaylor, Mark; Zhuang, Cun

    2012-10-01

    We assessed whether fraction SX derived from maitake mushroom could play a beneficial role in the treatment of a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes by decreasing circulating glucose levels and lowering blood pressure (BP). We injected 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) to produce a laboratory model of type-1 diabetes. SD were divided into four groups of 12 SD. A control group ate straight pulverized rat chow. To three treatment groups, we added into the pulverized rat chow: gliclazide (10 mg/kg), pioglitazone (10-30 mg/kg), or maitake SX (2.5 g/kg). In addition to measuring BW, circulating glucose level, and BP, the following procedures were also carried out: insulin challenge (insulin sensitivity), losartan challenge (renin-angiotensin system activity), Nw-nitro-L arginine-methyl ester hydrochloride (LNAME) challenge (nitric oxide [NO] system activity), and evaluation of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. All treatments compared with control generally decreased circulating glucose levels, but only the maitake SX consistently enhanced measured insulin sensitivity. We found that maitake SX could significantly lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in diabetic SD. In general, only SD receiving maitake SX, not the two drugs, showed decreased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and increased NO system activity compared with control under the conditions examined. Our results suggest that maitake SX may be useful for treating perturbations in glucose-insulin metabolism and elevated BP in type-1 diabetes.

  20. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, Giordano; Losiouk, Eleonora; Del Favero, Simone; Facchinetti, Andrea; Galderisi, Alfonso; Quaglini, Silvana; Magni, Lalo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators. PMID:27886122

  1. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Use of blood glucose (BG) meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4%) and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%). Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines. PMID:25374434

  2. Light Control of Insulin Release and Blood Glucose Using an Injectable Photoactivated Depot

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that blood glucose can be controlled remotely through light stimulated release of insulin from an injected cutaneous depot. Human insulin was tethered to an insoluble but injectable polymer via a linker, which was based on the light cleavable di-methoxy nitrophenyl ethyl (DMNPE) group. This material was injected into the skin of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. We observed insulin being released into the bloodstream after a 2 min trans-cutaneous irradiation of this site by a compact LED light source. Control animals treated with the same material, but in which light was blocked from the site, showed no release of insulin into the bloodstream. We also demonstrate that additional pulses of light from the light source result in additional pulses of insulin being absorbed into circulation. A significant reduction in blood glucose was then observed. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using light to allow for the continuously variable control of insulin release. This in turn has the potential to allow for the tight control of blood glucose without the invasiveness of insulin pumps and cannulas. PMID:27653828

  3. Randomized controlled clinical trial of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT III) in Switzerland and Germany.

    PubMed

    Schachinger, Hartmut; Hegar, Karin; Hermanns, Norbert; Straumann, Madeleine; Keller, Ulrich; Fehm-Wolfsdorf, Gabriele; Berger, Willi; Cox, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Although both diabetes and the efficacy of medical management are international issues, psycho-educational interventions might be culturally bound. Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT) is a psycho-educational program for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. A randomized controlled clinical trial of BGAT's long-term benefits in a non-American setting has been lacking. One hundred and eleven adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from Switzerland and Germany participated. After a 6 months baseline assessment, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 2 months of BGAT (n = 56) or a physician-guided self-help control intervention (n = 55). BGAT improved recognition of low (p = 0.008), high (p = .03), and overall blood glucose (p = 0.001), and reduced frequency of severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.04), without compromising metabolic control. BGAT reduced both the external locus of control (p < 0.02) and fear of hypoglycemia (p < 0.02). BGAT was efficacious in reducing adverse clinical events and achieving clinically desirable goals in a European, as well as American setting.

  4. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. <0.05), which indicated the regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  5. Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Kabir, Yearul

    2017-03-01

    The current study was designed to explore the beneficial properties of chickpeas consumption on suppressing appetite, excessive blood glucose excursions, and energy intake (EI) from a subsequent meal. Two caloric preloaded foods, chickpeas, and white bread were compared to water control, fed to healthy female subjects at equal energy density, volume, and available carbohydrate content in two experiments spanning over 60 and 120 min. Blood glucose was measured by a portable glucometer and satiety by using a visual analogue scale questionnaire at baseline and every 15 up to 60 min in both experiments and then every 30 until 120 min in Experiment 2 after the preloads ingestion. A test meal was served at the end of both experiments to calculate EI and percent energy compensation (%EC). The results suggest a reduction of 29-36% in blood glucose concentration, and 83-98% EC after the chickpeas in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively compared to white bread. The average appetite showed a positive association with EI. We conclude that the consumption of chickpeas is beneficial on glycemic control and may help in body weight management through suppressing appetite and energy intake.

  6. Effects of laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui-Hui, Liu; Guo-Xin, Xiong; Li-Ping, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus, 44 cases of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. All patients in both groups were given a drug treatment. The Hegu, Quchi and Zusanli acupoints of patients in the treatment group were then irradiated daily for 15 d with a 10 MW semiconductor laser. Before and after treatment, patients in both groups underwent a variety of tests and measurements: a two-hour postprandial blood glucose test; a glycosylated hemoglobin test and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BFP) measurements. The data detected after treatment greatly decreased in the treatment group and was significantly different from that in the control group. It is shown that the acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can improve two-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and some physical fitness measurements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Dose-response study of sajabalssuk ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on blood glucose in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or mild type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Shin, Su-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Previously we reported that an ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini lowered blood glucose in db/db mice. Here we report a preliminary study in which the blood glucose-lowering effects of two different doses of sajabalssuk ethanol extract (SBE), containing eupatilin and jaseocidin, were examined in hyperglycemic subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of 100-150 mg/dL. Subjects were randomized into four groups: negative control (2,000 mg of lactose /day), positive control (1,140 mg of pinitol/day), low-dose SBE (2,000 mg of SBE/day), and high-dose SBE (4,000 mg of SBE/day). After 8 weeks of supplementation, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly lowered in low-and high-dose SBE groups compared to the baseline values; high-dose SBE also resulted in significantly lower plasma free fatty acid levels and systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrated that supplementation of 2 g or 4 g of SBE daily can significantly reduce blood glucose in hyperglycemic subjects, although high-dose SBE seemed to be more effective than low-dose SBE for lowering plasma free fatty acid level and systolic blood pressure.

  8. Identification of informative bands in the short-wavelength NIR region for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    PubMed Central

    Uwadaira, Yasuhiro; Ikehata, Akifumi; Momose, Akiko; Miura, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    The “glucose-linked wavelength” in the short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) region, in which the light intensity reflected from the hand palm exhibits a good correlation to the blood glucose value, was investigated. We performed 391 2-h carbohydrate tolerance tests (CTTs) using 34 participants and a glucose-linked wavelength was successfully observed in almost every CTT; however, this wavelength varied between CTTs even for the same person. The large resulting data set revealed the distribution of the informative wavelength. The blood glucose values were efficiently estimated by a simple linear regression with clinically acceptable accuracies. The result suggested the potential for constructing a personalized low-invasive blood glucose sensor using short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy. PMID:27446701

  9. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  10. Chronic glucose infusion causes sustained increases in tubular sodium reabsorption and renal blood flow in dogs.

    PubMed

    Brands, Michael W; Bell, Tracy D; Rodriquez, Nancy A; Polavarapu, Praveen; Panteleyev, Dmitriy

    2009-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inducing hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in dogs, by infusing glucose chronically intravenously, would increase tubular sodium reabsorption and cause hypertension. Glucose was infused for 6 days (14 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) iv) in five uninephrectomized (UNX) dogs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured 18 h/day using DSI pressure units and Transonic flow probes, respectively. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased significantly on day 1 and remained decreased over the 6 days, coupled with a significant, sustained increase in RBF, averaging approximately 20% above control on day 6. Glomerular filtration rate and plasma renin activity (PRA) also increased. However, although MAP tended to increase, this was not statistically significant. Therefore, the glucose infusion was repeated in six dogs with 70% surgical reduction in kidney mass (RKM) and high salt intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin increased similar to the UNX dogs, and there was significant sodium retention, but MAP still did not increase. Interestingly, the increases in PRA and RBF were prevented in the RKM dogs. The decrease in UNaV, increased RBF, and slightly elevated MAP show that glucose infusion in dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular sodium reabsorption by a mechanism independent of pressure natriuresis. The accompanying increase in PRA, together with the failure of either RBF or PRA to increase in the RKM dogs, suggests the site of tubular reabsorption was before the macula densa. However, the volume retention and peripheral edema suggest that systemic vasodilation offsets any potential renal actions to increase MAP in this experimental model in dogs.

  11. Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wei, Jing; Xue, Rong; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Zi-Zheng; Wang, Shu-Kui; Zhou, Zheng-Xian; Song, Dan-Qing; Wang, Yue-Ming; Pan, Huai-Ning; Kong, Wei-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2010-02-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that berberine (BBR) increases insulin receptor (InsR) expression and improves glucose utility both in vitro and in animal models. Here, we study the InsR-up-regulating and glucose-lowering activities of BBR in humans. Our results showed that BBR increased InsR messenger RNA and protein expression in a variety of human cell lines, including CEM, HCT-116, SW1990, HT1080, 293T, and hepatitis B virus-transfected human liver cells. Accordingly, insulin-stimulated phosphorylations of InsR beta-subunit and Akt were increased after BBR treatment in cultured cells. In the clinical study, BBR significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A(1c), triglyceride, and insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The FBG- and hemoglobin A(1c)-lowering efficacies of BBR were similar to those of metformin and rosiglitazone. In the BBR-treated patients, the percentages of peripheral blood lymphocytes that express InsR were significantly elevated after therapy. Berberine also lowered FBG effectively in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients with T2DM or impaired fasting glucose. Liver function was improved greatly in these patients by showing reduction of liver enzymes. Our results confirmed the activity of BBR on InsR in humans and its relationship with the glucose-lowering effect. Together with our previous report, we strongly suggest BBR as an ideal medicine for T2DM with a mechanism different from metformin and rosiglitazone.

  12. Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting. See related commentary by Soto-Rivera and Agus, http://ccforum.com/content/17

  13. The effect of moderate glycemic energy bar consumption on blood glucose and mood in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ingesting quality carbohydrates has been shown to be essential for dancers. Given that most dance classes take place in the morning, it has been recommended that dancers eat a well-balanced breakfast containing carbohydrates, fats, and protein as a means of fuelling this activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a moderate glycemic index energy (MGI) bar or a fasting condition on dancers' blood glucose levels and perceived pleasure-displeasure response during the first dance class of the day. In a randomized counterbalanced design, 10 female preprofessional dance students took their regular scheduled contemporary dance class, on four separate occasions. On each occasion, they consumed either a commercially prepared carbohydrate (CHO)-dense energy bar (47.3 g CHO) or water (FAST). Plasma glucose responses and pleasure-displeasure affect were measured before and at two time points during the class. Dancers who consumed the MGI bar had significantly greater peak blood glucose levels at all time points than those who fasted (p<0.05). Regarding affective state measures, participants who had breakfast had significantly greater pleasure scores than those who only ingested water(p<0.05). In conclusion, results suggest that CHO with an MGI value positively impacts blood glucose concentrations during a dance class. Further, we conclude that skipping breakfast can have an unfavorable effect on the pleasure-displeasure state of dancers. These findings highlight the impact of breakfast on how one feels, as well as the physiological and metabolic benefits of CHO as an exogenous energy source in dancers.

  14. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  15. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    PubMed

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  16. [GLUCOSE CONTENT FLUCTUATION IN BLOOD OF NEWBORN RATS DEPENDING ON SEASON AND PATTERN OF SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, N N; Selina, E N

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that in newborn rats the glucose level in blood serum changes depending on the pattern of spontaneous periodic motor activity (SPMA). During rest periods, both under dominant decasecond rhythm and under dominant minute rhythm, the glucose level in blood serum is higher than during activity periods. We have also shown that the glucose level in the blood serum rises with age reaching the level of adult animals by day 10. In the present study carried out on 3-10-day-old rats under conditions of free behavior the blood glucose content was investigated in different periods of cycle during different seasons. It is found that in newborn rats of all ages studied (3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old ones) the lowest glucose concentration in the blood is observed in the winter period. In spring its level increases and in summer reaches the maximum different significantly from the winter and spring levels in all age groups except day 5. In autumn the glucose level decreases and approaches the spring values but it is still different from the winter indices. In 5-day-old rats statistically significant differences of glucose levels in different seasons were not observed. The data obtained provide evidence of seasonal fluctuations of the glucose level in blood serum of newborn rats. At the same time during all seasons except spring the dependence of glucose level on the pattern of motor activity persists. In spring these differences are smoothed. Key words: ontogenesis, motor activity, metabolic factors, glucose, seasonal variations.

  17. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required. PMID:27840529

  18. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required. PMID:27516694

  19. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  20. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  1. A comparative study on effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes on blood glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mirazi, Naser; Shoaei, Jamileh; Khazaei, Ardeshir; Hosseini, Abdolkarim

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. Carbon nanotubes have the advantage to cross the plasma membrane without damaging the cells, improving the biological effect of a drug and reducing its side effects. In the present study, the effect of metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes was investigated on blood glucose level in the streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats. Diabetes in the animals was induced with a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; i.p.) and after 3 days the blood glucose was analyzed. Animals showing fasting blood glucose higher than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic rats. The animals were treated with metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes (150 mg/kg; p.o.) daily and every 48-h for 1 week. Changes in animals' serum blood glucose level were evaluated daily during the treatment period. The results of this study showed that metformin reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. Metformin-conjugated nanotubes significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in blood glucose level between metformin and metformin-conjugated nanotubes groups (p > 0.05). However, when both formulations of metformin were administered every 48-h, metformin-conjugated nanotubes reduced glycaemia for a longer time than metformin alone (p < 0.001). This study showed that the metformin-conjugated nanotubes would be able to reduce the blood glucose, prolong drug delivery and efficacy duration in animals which were treated with metformin-conjugated nanotubes compared with metformin alone.

  2. Effect of Helicteres isora bark extract on blood glucose and hepatic enzymes in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G; Rajasekara Pandian, M

    2006-04-01

    The effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract of the bark of Helicteres isora was investigated on blood glucose and plasma antioxidant status in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The study was also undertaken to evaluate the role of hepatic enzymes in experimental diabetes. Oral administration of a bark extract of Helicteres isora (100, 200 mg/kg) in STZ diabetic rats caused a significant increase in body weight, hepatic hexokinase activity and significant decrease in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, serum acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Based on these findings, we suggest that Helicteres isora possesses hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity and is able to ameliorate biochemical damage in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  3. Development and Testing of a Plastic Optical Fiber Grating Biosensor for Detection of Glucose in the Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunianto, M.; Eka, D.; Permata, A. N.; Ariningrum, D.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Marzuki, A.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to detect glucose content in human blood serum using optical fiber grating with LED wavelength corresponding to the absorption of glucose content in blood serum. The testing used a UV-Vis spectrometer and Rays spectrometers, in which in the ray spectrometer it was used optical fiber biosensor using optical fiber grating. The result obtained is the typical peak of glucose absorption in UV-Vis at 581 nm wavelength and rays spectrometer on green LED at 514.2 nm wavelength with linear regression result by 0.97 and 0.94, respectively.

  4. Diagnosing Impaired Glucose Tolerance Using Direct Infusion Mass Spectrometry of Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lokhov, Petr G.; Trifonova, Oxana P.; Maslov, Dmitry L.; Balashova, Elena E.; Archakov, Alexander I.; Shestakova, Ekaterina A.; Shestakova, Marina V.; Dedov, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay. PMID:25202985

  5. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Trifonova, Oxana P; Maslov, Dmitry L; Balashova, Elena E; Archakov, Alexander I; Shestakova, Ekaterina A; Shestakova, Marina V; Dedov, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30) and patients with IGT (n = 20) were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%). The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  6. Facts and artefacts regarding correlation between skin electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollmar, Stig; Nicander, Ingrid; Åberg, Peter; Bolinder, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Earlier observations on possible co-variation between skin EIS and blood glucose prompted us to map and include other factors at play in the predictive model. Skin pH would be one such factor. A cohort of 20 diabetics was investigated, taking around 30 measurements spread over each of two different days 2-21 days apart. Each measurement comprises skin EIT in the frequency range 1kHz to 2.5MHz, skin pH, and immediately evaluated blood samples. There is a co-variation for some, but not all, test persons. The relationship gets stronger on the group level by adding pH-information, but is still poor or non-existent for some test persons. Non-invasive EIS measurements on skin is influenced by skin hydration, blood glucose, skin pH, body location, season, environmental factors, and variables not yet understood. Since impedance related parameters are used to estimate skin hydration, users of such devices should be aware that skin pH may influence as much as the water content of the stratum corneum.

  7. Association between DNA Methylation in Whole Blood and Measures of Glucose Metabolism: KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Molnos, Sophie; Volkova, Nadezda; Schramm, Katharina; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Waldenberger, Melanie; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Illig, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation has been postulated to affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for measures of glucose metabolism in whole blood samples of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 study using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip. We identified a total of 31 CpG sites where methylation level was associated with measures of glucose metabolism after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and estimated white blood cell proportions and correction for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) method (four for fasting glucose, seven for fasting insulin, 25 for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]; B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 0.047). In addition, DNA methylation at cg06500161 (annotated to ABCG1) was associated with all the aforementioned phenotypes and 2-hour glucose (B-H-adjusted p-values between 9.2x10-5 and 3.0x10-3). Methylation status of additional three CpG sites showed an association with fasting insulin only after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (B-H-adjusted p-values = 0.047). Overall, effect strengths were reduced by around 30% after additional adjustment for BMI, suggesting that this variable has an influence on the investigated phenotypes. Furthermore, we found significant associations between methylation status of 21 of the aforementioned CpG sites and 2-hour insulin in a subset of samples with seven significant associations persisting after additional adjustment for BMI. In a subset of 533 participants, methylation of the CpG site cg06500161 (ABCG1) was inversely associated with ABCG1 gene expression (B-H-adjusted p-value = 1.5x10-9). Additionally, we observed an enrichment of the top 1,000 CpG sites for diabetes-related canonical pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. In conclusion, our study indicates that DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits

  8. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    PubMed

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  9. Multicenter Observational Study of the First-Generation Intravenous Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bochicchio, Grant V.; Hipszer, Brian R.; Magee, Michelle F.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Furnary, Anthony P.; Gulino, Angela M.; Higgins, Michael J.; Simpson, Peter C.; Joseph, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of blood glucose (BG) monitoring and insulin delivery are labor intensive and commonly fail to achieve the desired level of BG control. There is great clinical need in the hospital for a user-friendly bedside device that can automatically monitor the concentration of BG safely, accurately, frequently, and reliably. Methods: A 100-patient observation study was conducted at 6 US hospitals to evaluate the first generation of the Intravenous Blood Glucose (IVBG) System (Edwards Lifesciences LLC & Dexcom Inc). Device safety, accuracy, and reliability were assessed. A research nurse sampled blood from a vascular catheter every 4 hours for ≤ 72 hours and BG concentration was measured using the YSI 2300 STAT Plus Analyzer (YSI Life Sciences). The IVBG measurements were compared to YSI measurements to calculate point accuracy. Results: The IVBG systems logged more than 5500 hours of operation in 100 critical care patients without causing infection or inflammation of a vein. A total of 44135 IVBG measurements were performed in 100 patients with 30231 measurements from the subset of 75 patients used for accuracy analysis. In all, 996 IVBG measurements were time-matched with reference YSI measurements. These pairs had a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 11.61 mg/dl, a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.23%, 93% met 15/20% accuracy defined by International Organization for Standardization 15197:2003 standard, and 93.2% were in zone A of the Clarke error grid. The IVBG sensors were exposed to more than 200 different medications with no observable effect on accuracy. Conclusions: The IVBG system is an automated and user-friendly glucose monitoring system that provides accurate and frequent BG measurements with great potential to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin therapy and BG control in the hospital, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26033922

  10. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  11. Patient and healthcare professional satisfaction with a new, high accuracy blood glucose meter with color range indicator and wireless connectivity.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence B; Grady, Mike; Stewart, Lorna; Cameron, Hilary

    2016-07-01

    Accurate self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key component of effective self-management of glycemic control. The OneTouch VerioFlex(™) (OTVF) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated for accuracy in a clinical setting. Patients also used OTVF for a 1-wk trial period and reported their level of satisfaction with meter features. In a separate study, healthcare professionals used an on-line simulator of the BGMS and answered questions about its potential utility to their patients. OTVF was accurate over a wide glucose range and met lay user and system accuracy blood glucose standards described in ISO15197:2013 as well as the accuracy requirements to fulfill US FDA expectations for 510(k) clearance of BGMS. Patients and healthcare professionals felt the features of OTVF, which has the capability to connect wirelessly to mobile devices and interact wirelessly with diabetes management software, could provide significant benefits to them or their patients.

  12. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  13. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  14. Availability of 24-h urine collection method on dietary phosphorus intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Yukie; Suzuki, Akitsu; Noda, Saaya; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary phosphorus intake is necessary to prevent hyperphosphatemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine collection method for estimation of phosphate intake in healthy males. Two experiments, a 1-day and a 5-day loading test, were performed. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed test meals, 24-h urine collection was performed, and blood samples were obtained. In the 5-day loading test, a phosphorus supplement was orally administered on day 3. The association between the phosphorus content of test meals and urinary excretion, anthropometric indices, and blood biomarkers was analyzed to develop a more precise formula for estimating phosphorus intake. In the 1-day loading test, the standard deviation of predictive phosphorus intake, based on multiple linear regression analysis, was less than that for the phosphorus absorption rate. In the 5-day loading test, urinary phosphorus excretion was similar on days 2, 4 and 5, but was significantly higher on day 3 after phosphorus supplementation. Our results indicate that estimation of dietary phosphorus intake with the 24-h urine collection method, using the amount of phosphorus and urea nitrogen excretion, may increase the precision of short-term monitoring. PMID:28366992

  15. Energetic Atomic and Ionic Oxygen Textured Optical Surfaces for Blood Glucose Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and the resulting product thereof comprising a solid light-conducting fiber with a point of attachment and having a textured surface site consisting of a textured distal end prepared by being placed in a vacuum and then subjected to directed hyperthermal beams comprising oxygen ions or atoms. The textured distal end comprises cones or pillars that are spaced upon from each other by less than 1 micron and are extremely suitable to prevent cellular components of blood from entering the valleys between the cones or pillars so as to effectively separate the cellular components in the blood from interfering with optical sensing of the glucose concentration for diabetic patients.

  16. An evaluation of patient performance of and their satisfaction with various rapid blood glucose measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, P K; Clements, R S; Filer, D V; Bell, D S

    1983-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of 50 insulin-dependent diabetic patients in the measurement of their own capillary blood glucose concentrations using Chemstrip bG, Dextrostix-Dextrometer, and Stat Tek systems. With all systems, patient performance was suboptimal when compared with the accuracy of paramedical personnel. The percentage of patient determinations that differed from the laboratory value by more than 20% was 37%, 30%, and 14% for the Chemstrip bG, Dextrostix-Dextrometer, and Stat Tek systems, respectively. Only 39 of the patients (78%) could perform accurately with any system. Youth, lack of a higher education, and lower income status contributed significantly to the patients' inaccuracy with the Chemstrip bG technique, whereas these factors had no effect on patient performance with the reflectance meter techniques. Nearly all of the patients were enthusiastic about the value of home glucose monitoring as a means to assess their glycemic control. However, only 30% of the patients selected for home use a technique at which they were suitably adept. In part, this selection error appeared to be due to the greater cost and inconvenience of the reflectance meter techniques compared with the Chemstrip bG technique. These data indicate that unless proper instruction is provided, home glucose monitoring should only be used by a fraction of insulin-requiring diabetic patients and the choice of a particular system for use by an individual patient should be predicated upon his or her demonstrated proficiency with that system.

  17. Diabetes Technology: Markers, Monitoring, Assessment, and Control of Blood Glucose Fluctuations in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2012-01-01

    People with diabetes face a life-long optimization problem: to maintain strict glycemic control without increasing their risk for hypoglycemia. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, the external regulation of diabetes by engineering means has became a hallmark of this optimization. Diabetes technology has progressed remarkably over the past 50 years—a progress that includes the development of markers for diabetes control, sophisticated monitoring techniques, mathematical models, assessment procedures, and control algorithms. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced in 1999 and has evolved from means for retroactive review of blood glucose profiles to versatile reliable devices, which monitor the course of glucose fluctuations in real time and provide interactive feedback to the patient. Technology integrating CGM with insulin pumps is now available, opening the field for automated closed-loop control, known as the artificial pancreas. Following a number of in-clinic trials, the quest for a wearable ambulatory artificial pancreas is under way, with a first prototype tested in outpatient setting during the past year. This paper discusses key milestones of diabetes technology development, focusing on the progress in the past 10 years and on the artificial pancreas—still not a cure, but arguably the most promising treatment of diabetes to date. PMID:24278682

  18. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17–2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  19. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-02-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ((/sup 123/I)isopropyl-iodoamphetamine(IMP))-glucose utilization ((/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ((/sup 14/C)leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of (/sup 123/I)IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury.

  20. The Effect of Carvedilol on Blood Glucose Levels In Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    R.N., Suresha; V., Ashwini; B., Pragathi; H.L., Kalabharathi; A.M., Satish; V.H., Pushpa; M.K., Jayanthi; P., Snehalatha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carvedilol is a commonly used drug in hypertension, congestive heart failure in diabetics. It has moderate calcium channel blocking property in addition to α1 and non selective β antagonistic activity. Though some studies bring forth the beneficial effects of Carvedilol in cardiovascular comorbidities in diabetes, there is no consensus on its effects on glycaemic levels. Aims: To evaluate the effect of oral Carvedilol administration for 5 days on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Material and Methods: Twelve adult albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 – 200 g were selected from central animal facility and randomly divided into 2 groups – Control [Distilled water (1ml/rat orally)] and Test (0.8mg/kg body weight orally) and the respective drugs were administered over 5 days. Following overnight fasting, on the fifth day 1 hour after the last dose of the respective drug, OGTT was performed. The CBG (Capillary Blood Glucose) levels were measured at 0 min, glucose (2g/kg body weight) dissolved in water was administered to all the rats orally. The blood sample from tail vein (obtained by tail snipping) at 60 and 150 minutes were analysed for CBG levels using a standardized glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Data was presented as Mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, non–parametric tests, percentages and cross tabs were used in the analysis of data within the same group and between different groups when required. Results: Carvedilol group showed higher CBG levels at all time intervals of OGTT as compared to the Control group i.e., 0, 60 and 150 minutes, the highest being (103.8±5.029 )mg/dl at 60 minutes and was statistically significant. Carvedilol group however showed lesser inter–interval variation compared to the Control group at the same time intervals respectively but was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Carvedilol has hyperglycaemic potential when given orally

  1. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status. PMID:27150795

  2. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    PubMed

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  3. Study on the measuring distance for blood glucose infrared spectral measuring by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure and preventing the complications. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. Among various parameters of optical fiber probe used in spectrum measuring, the measurement distance is the key one. The Monte Carlo technique is a flexible method for simulating light propagation in tissue. The simulation is based on the random walks that photons make as they travel through tissue, which are chosen by statistically sampling the probability distributions for step size and angular deflection per scattering event. The traditional method for determine the optimal distance between transmitting fiber and detector is using Monte Carlo simulation to find out the point where most photons come out. But there is a problem. In the epidermal layer there is no artery, vein or capillary vessel. Thus, when photons propagate and interactive with tissue in epidermal layer, no information is given to the photons. A new criterion is proposed to determine the optimal distance, which is named effective path length in this paper. The path length of each photons travelling in dermis is recorded when running Monte-Carlo simulation, which is the effective path length defined above. The sum of effective path length of every photon at each point is calculated. The detector should be place on the point which has most effective path length. Then the optimal measuring distance between transmitting fiber and detector is determined.

  4. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  5. Accuracy in Blood Glucose Measurement: What Will a Tightening of Requirements Yield?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Lodwig, Volker; Freckmann, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all persons with diabetes—at least those using antidiabetic drug therapy—use one of a plethora of meters commercially available for self-monitoring of blood glucose. The accuracy of blood glucose (BG) measurement using these meters has been presumed to be adequate; that is, the accuracy of these devices was not usually questioned until recently. Health authorities in the United States (Food and Drug Administration) and in other countries are currently endeavoring to tighten the requirements for the accuracy of these meters above the level that is currently stated in the standard ISO 15197. At first glance, this does not appear to be a problem and is hardly worth further consideration, but a closer look reveals a considerable range of critical aspects that will be discussed in this commentary. In summary, one could say that as a result of modern production methods and ongoing technical advances, the demands placed on the quality of measurement results obtained with BG meters can be increased to a certain degree. One should also take into consideration that the system accuracy (which covers many more aspects as the analytical accuracy) required to make correct therapeutical decisions certainly varies for different types of therapy. At the end, in addition to analytical accuracy, thorough and systematic training of patients and regular refresher training is important to minimize errors. Only under such circumstances will patients make appropriate therapeutic interventions to optimize and maintain metabolic control. PMID:22538158

  6. The sex of the foetus affects maternal blood glucose concentrations in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Derraik, José G B; Jiang, Yannan; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gusso, Silmara; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-12-26

    There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5.4 vs 4.9 mmol/l; p = .046). At 36 weeks of gestation, differences were more marked, with blood glucose concentrations 15% higher in mothers carrying females (5.7 vs 5.0 mmol/l; p = .004). In addition, mothers carrying girls had higher concentrations of hs-CRP across pregnancy (5.0 vs 3.6 mg/l; p = .029). Our findings provide further evidence that the sex of the foetus appears to influence maternal metabolism.

  7. Bedside monitoring of subcutaneous interstitial glucose in type 1 diabetic subjects using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry with optimal correlation to blood glucose concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.; Mader, J. K.; Ellmerer, M.

    2007-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been successfully employed in multi-component assays for the study of various biomedical samples. Two areas have found particular interest, i.e. in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and point-of-care applications. With regard to the latter field, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an important topic for improving glycemic control in critically ill patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation, similar to the situation faced for diabetic patients. For such application, a continuously operated mid-infrared spectroscopic system in combination with a subcutaneously implanted microdialysis probe and coupled by micro-fluidics has been developed. Using the dialysis process, the interstitial fluid matrix can be significantly simplified, since high molecular mass compounds such as proteins are separated. However, the micro-dialysis recovery rate is variable over time, so that a simultaneous determination of this parameter was implemented using the losses of an acetate marker from the perfusate across the dialysis membrane. Clinical measurements were carried out on type 1 diabetic subjects, with experiments lasting up to 28 hours. The concentrations of glucose, acetate and other components in the dialysates from interstitial body fluids were investigated. Two different multivariate calibration strategies, i.e. partial least squares (PLS) and classical least squares (CLS) regressions were applied. The results led to excellent correlation of the subcutaneous interstitial concentrations with those of laboratory blood glucose readings. Clarke-Error-Grid evaluations were employed for assessing the clinical applicability of the method.

  8. A PI-fuzzy logic controller for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, M

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript investigates different fuzzy logic controllers for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. While fuzzy logic control is still intuitive and at a very early stage, it has already been implemented in many industrial plants and reported results are very promising. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) scheme was recently proposed for maintaining blood glucose level in diabetics within acceptable limits, and was shown to be more effective with better transient characteristics than conventional techniques. In fact, FLC is based on human expertise and on desired output characteristics, and hence does not require precise mathematical models. This observation makes fuzzy rule-based technique very suitable for biomedical systems where models are, in general, either very complicated or over-simplistic. Another attractive feature of fuzzy techniques is their insensitivity to system parameter variations, as numerical values of physiological parameters are often not precise and usually vary from patient to another. PI and PID controllers are very popular and are efficiently used in many industrial plants. Fuzzy PI and PID controllers behave in a similar fashion to those classical controllers with the obvious advantage that the controller parameters are time dependant on the range of the control variables and consequently, result in a better performance. In this manuscript, a fuzzy PI controller is designed using a simplified design scheme and then subjected to simulations of the two common diabetes disturbances--sudden glucose meal and system parameter variations. The performance of the proposed fuzzy PI controller is compared to that of the conventional PID and optimal techniques and is shown to be superior. Moreover, the proposed fuzzy PI controller is shown to be more effective than the previously proposed FLC, especially with respect to the overshoot and settling time.

  9. Accuracy of devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose: A stochastic error model.

    PubMed

    Vettoretti, M; Facchinetti, A; Sparacino, G; Cobelli, C

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices are portable systems that allow measuring glucose concentration in a small drop of blood obtained via finger-prick. SMBG measurements are key in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, e.g. for tuning insulin dosing. A reliable model of SMBG accuracy would be important in several applications, e.g. in in silico design and optimization of insulin therapy. In the literature, the most used model to describe SMBG error is the Gaussian distribution, which however is simplistic to properly account for the observed variability. Here, a methodology to derive a stochastic model of SMBG accuracy is presented. The method consists in dividing the glucose range into zones in which absolute/relative error presents constant standard deviation (SD) and, then, fitting by maximum-likelihood a skew-normal distribution model to absolute/relative error distribution in each zone. The method was tested on a database of SMBG measurements collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (Lifescan Inc., Milpitas, CA). In particular, two zones were identified: zone 1 (BG≤75 mg/dl) with constant-SD absolute error and zone 2 (BG>75mg/dl) with constant-SD relative error. Mean and SD of the identified skew-normal distributions are, respectively, 2.03 and 6.51 in zone 1, 4.78% and 10.09% in zone 2. Visual predictive check validation showed that the derived two-zone model accurately reproduces SMBG measurement error distribution, performing significantly better than the single-zone Gaussian model used previously in the literature. This stochastic model allows a more realistic SMBG scenario for in silico design and optimization of T1D insulin therapy.

  10. Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Pal, Kunal; Rousseau, Dérick

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ingestion of flaxseed gum on blood glucose and cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Flaxseed gum was incorporated in wheat flour chapattis. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were fed a daily diet for 3 months, along with six wheat flour chapattis containing flaxseed gum (5 g), as per the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association. The control group (60 individuals) consumed an identical diet but the chapattis were without gum. The blood biochemistry profiles monitored before starting the study and at monthly intervals showed fasting blood sugar in the experimental group decreased from 154 ± 8 mg/dl to 136 ± 7 mg/dl (P=0.03) while the total cholesterol reduced from 182 ± 11 mg/dl to 163 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.03). Results showed a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 110 ± 8 mg/dl to 92 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.02). The study demonstrated the efficacy of flax gum in the blood biochemistry profiles of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Long-term effects of daily postprandial physical activity on blood glucose: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Håvard; Grindaker, Eirik; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2017-01-03

    Previous studies have shown that a bout of moderate or light postprandial physical activity effectively blunts the postprandial increase in blood glucose. The objective of this study was to test whether regular light postprandial physical activity can improve glycemia in persons with hyperglycemia or with a high risk of hyperglycemia. We randomized 56 participants to an intervention or a control group. They were diagnosed as hyperglycemic, not using antidiabetics, or were categorized as high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes. The intervention group was instructed to undertake a minimum 30 min of daily light physical activity, starting a maximum of 30 min after a meal in addition to their usual physical activity for 12 weeks. The control group maintained their usual lifestyle. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-test. Forty participants completed the study and are included in the results. The self-reported increase in daily physical activity from before to within the study period was higher in the intervention group compared with control (41 ± 25 vs. 2 ± 16 min, p < 0.001). Activity diaries and accelerometer recordings supported this observation. The activity in the intervention group started earlier after the last meal compared with control (30 ± 13 vs. 100 ± 57 min, p = 0.001). There were no within- or between-group differences in any glycemic variable from pre- to post-test. In conclusion, the present study does not seem to support the notion that regular light postprandial physical activity improves blood glucose in the long term in persons with hyperglycemia or with high risk of hyperglycemia.

  12. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-10-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  14. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  15. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  16. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  18. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  19. Detecting Drug Interactions From Adverse-Event Reports: Interaction Between Paroxetine and Pravastatin Increases Blood Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Tatonetti, NP; Denny, JC; Murphy, SN; Fernald, GH; Krishnan, G; Castro, V; Yue, P; Tsau, PS; Kohane, I; Roden, DM; Altman, RB

    2011-01-01

    The lipid-lowering agent pravastatin and the antidepressant paroxetine are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Unexpected interactions between them could have important public health implications. We mined the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) for side-effect profiles involving glucose homeostasis and found a surprisingly strong signal for comedication with pravastatin and paroxetine. We retrospectively evaluated changes in blood glucose in 104 patients with diabetes and 135 without diabetes who had received comedication with these two drugs, using data in electronic medical record (EMR) systems of three geographically distinct sites. We assessed the mean random blood glucose levels before and after treatment with the drugs. We found that pravastatin and paroxetine, when administered together, had a synergistic effect on blood glucose. The average increase was 19 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l) overall, and in those with diabetes it was 48 mg/dl (2.7 mmol/l). In contrast, neither drug administered singly was associated with such changes in glucose levels. An increase in glucose levels is not a general effect of combined therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and statins. PMID:21613990

  20. Consensus Report of the Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Bergenstal, Richard; Blonde, Lawrence; Boren, Suzanne Austin; Church, Timothy S.; Gaffaney, Jenifer; Jovanovič, Lois; Kendall, David M.; Kollman, Craig; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Leippert, Claudia; DDG, Diabetesberaterin; Owens, David R.; Polonsky, William H.; Reach, Gérard; Renard, Eric; Riddell, Michael C.; Rubin, Richard R.; Schnell, Oliver; Siminiero, Linda M.; Vigersky, Robert A.; Wilson, Darrell M.; Wollitzer, Alison Okada

    2008-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board, a group of nine academic clinicians and scientists from the United States and Europe, convened in San Francisco, California, on June 11–12, 2008, to discuss the appropriate uses of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the measures necessary to accurately assess the potential benefit of this practice in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thirteen consultants from the United States, Europe, and Canada from academia, practice, and government also participated and contributed based on their fields of expertise. These experts represent a range of disciplines that include adult endocrinology, pediatric endocrinology, health education, mathematics, statistics, psychology, nutrition, exercise physiology, and nursing. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Management, Inc. Among the participants, there was consensus that: protocols assessing the performance of SMBG in noninsulin treated T2DM must provide the SMBG intervention subjects with blood glucose (BG) goals and instructions on how to respond to BG data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs);intervention subjects in clinical trials of SMBG-driven interventions must aggressively titrate their therapeutic responses or lifestyle changes in response to hyperglycemia;control subjects in clinical trials of SMBG must be isolated from SMBG-driven interventions and not be contaminated by physician experience with study subjects receiving a SMBG intervention;the best endpoints to measure in a clinical trial of SMBG in T2DM include delta Hemoglobin A1c levels, hyperglycemic events, hypoglycemic events, time to titrate noninsulin therapy to a maximum necessary dosage, and quality of life indices;either individual randomization or cluster randomization may be appropriate methods for separating control subjects from SMBG intervention subjects, provided that precautions are taken to avoid bias and that the

  1. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  2. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, Ayse; Ozsoy-Saçan, Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated both morphologically and biochemically whether parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which is used as a folk remedy to decrease blood glucose, has any antidiabetic effect on pancreatic B cells of rats. Parsley extract was given to male diabetic rats. In the diabetic group given parsley extract, it was detected that the number of secretory granules and cells in islets and other morphologic changes were not different from the control diabetic group, while the blood glucose levels in the diabetic group given the plant extract were reduced in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, a decrease was observed in the weight of the control diabetic group and the diabetic group given the plant extract. It is suggested that the plant therapy can provide blood glucose homeostasis and cannot regenerate B cells of the endocrine pancreas.

  3. Non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level by time-resolved transmission spectroscopy: A feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Nanguang

    2012-03-01

    An optical spectroscopic method is investigated theoretically for in vivo measurement of blood glucose concentration. This method is based on dynamic dual wavelength (610 nm and 810 nm) time-resolved measurements under a condition of artificial blood flow kinetics in a human finger. The influence of glucose concentration on absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the whole blood is simulated using the T-matrix method. The scattering centers, RBC aggregation, under the artificial — kinetics condition are modeled as spheroid. The modified parametric slopes were derived from the Laplace transformed data of the time-resolved transmittance. The results show that an appropriate selection of the Laplace parameter can lead to enhanced sensitivity for glucose measurement.

  4. Blood glucose determination in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats after administration of local anesthetics containing vasoconstrictors.

    PubMed

    Esmerino, L A; Ranali, J; Rodrigues, A L

    1998-01-01

    Normal and alloxan-diabetic rats were injected submucously in the posterior region of the upper jaw with bupivacaine (1.28 mg/kg) containing adrenaline (0.0012 mg/kg), or lignocaine (5.14 mg/kg) containing noradrenaline (0.005 mg/kg). Blood glucose was determined at zero (before administration), 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after the administration of the anesthetics. Statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test, P < 0.05) showed significant differences between treatments at 1 hour in normal rats. Bupivacaine with adrenaline induced a significantly greater blood glucose level than lignocaine with noradrenaline. The effect was significant but of short duration. In alloxan-diabetic rats, anesthetics containing adrenaline or noradrenaline did not induce increased blood glucose levels.

  5. [The titration of double bonds in fatty acids of blood plasma in patients in testing of glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Sazhina, N N; Evteeva, N M; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Tkhagalizhokova, E M

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with per oral glucose tolerance test applied to 20 patients with arterial hypertension. The blood plasma was analyzed to detect content of individual fatty acids, double bounds, glucose, insulin and metabolites of fatty acids. In patients with different resistance to insulin content of non-etherized fatty acids decreased approximatively up to 3 times. Without insulin resistance secretion of insulin in 2 hours after glucose load increased up to 3 times and content of individual fatty acids decreases in greater extent. Under insulin resistance secretion of insulin increases up to 8 times and decreasing of content of fatty acids is less expressed. The decrease in blood plasma of content of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and double bounds reflects effectiveness of effect of insulin--blockade of hydrolysis of triglycerides in subcutaneous adipocytes. The concentration of insulin positively correlates with initial content of palmitic fatty acid in the pool of lipids of blood plasma.

  6. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c.

    PubMed

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Tchekneva, Elena E; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Harris, Raymond C; Kern, Timothy S; Wasserman, David H; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

  7. A retrospective review of the roles of multifunctional glucose-6-phosphatase in blood glucose homeostasis: Genesis of the tuning/retuning hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nordlie, Robert C.; Foster, James D.

    2010-01-01

    In a scientific career spanning from 1955–2000, my research focused on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Grounded in basic enzymology, and initially pursuing the steady-state rate behavior of isolated preparations of these critically important gluconeogenic enzymes, our key findings were confirmed and extended by in situ enzyme rate experiments exploiting isolated liver perfusions. These efforts culminated in the discovery of the liver cytosolic isozyme of carboxykinase, known today as (GTP)PEPCK-C (EC4.1.1.32) and also revealed a biosynthetic function and multicomponent nature of glucose-6-phosphatase (EC3.1.3.9). Discovery that glucose-6-phosphatase possessed an intrinsically biosynthetic activity, now known as carbamyl-P:glucose phosphotransferase– along with a deeper consideration of the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity as well as the action of liver glucokinase resulted in the evolution of Tuning/Retuning Hypothesis for blood glucose homeostasis in health and disease. This THEN & NOW review shares with the reader the joy and exhilaration of major scientific discovery and also contrasts the methodologies and approaches on which I relied with those currently in use. PMID:20603134

  8. Loss of melatonin signalling and its impact on circadian rhythms in mouse organs regulating blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Gross, Elena; Labucay, Karin; Wolgast, Sabine; Peschke, Elmar

    2009-03-15

    The transmission of circadian rhythms is mediated by specific promoter sequences binding a particular circadian clock factor. The pineal hormone melatonin acts via G-protein-coupled receptors to synchronise these clock-generated circadian rhythms. The study was aimed to elucidate the possible role of melatonin as a zeitgeber for peripheral clocks in pancreas and liver. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided evidence of the simultaneous expression of the melatonin receptors MT(1) and MT(2) in mouse pancreas, liver and hypothalamus. Melatonin receptor knockout mice were analysed with respect to the clock gene- or clock-output transcripts PER1, DBP and RevErbalpha in pancreas and liver, and both the occurrence of phase shifts and amplitude changes were detected. Circadian PER1 protein expression was found to be retained in melatonin receptor double knockout mice with an increased amplitude as measured by semiquantitative Western blot analysis. Moreover, an impact of melatonin receptor deficiency on insulin transcripts, and altered regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis were monitored in the knockout animals. Insulin secretion from isolated islets of melatonin receptor MT(1), MT(2) or MT(1) and MT(2) double melatonin receptor-knockout animals was found to be increased relative to the wild type. These data support the idea that melatonin synchronises the functions of the major organs involved in blood glucose regulation and negatively acts on the insulin secretion.

  9. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  10. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation.

  11. Development of robust calibration models using support vector machines for spectroscopic monitoring of blood glucose

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Ishan; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Sample-to-sample variability has proven to be a major challenge in achieving calibration transfer in quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy. Multiple morphological and optical parameters, such as tissue absorption and scattering, physiological glucose dynamics and skin heterogeneity, vary significantly in a human population introducing non-analyte specific features into the calibration model. In this paper, we show that fluctuations of such parameters in human subjects introduce curved (non-linear) effects in the relationship between the concentrations of the analyte of interest and the mixture Raman spectra. To account for these curved effects, we propose the use of support vector machines (SVM) as a non-linear regression method over conventional linear regression techniques such as partial least squares (PLS). Using transcutaneous blood glucose detection as an example, we demonstrate that application of SVM enables a significant improvement (at least 30%) in cross-validation accuracy over PLS when measurements from multiple human volunteers are employed in the calibration set. Furthermore, using physical tissue models with randomized analyte concentrations and varying turbidities, we show that the fluctuations in turbidity alone causes curved effects which can only be adequately modeled using non-linear regression techniques. The enhanced levels of accuracy obtained with the SVM based calibration models opens up avenues for prospective prediction in humans and thus for clinical translation of the technology. PMID:21050004

  12. Reducing risk of closed loop control of blood glucose in artificial pancreas using fractional calculus.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Mahboobeh; Bogdan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the US are among the highest in the world. Chronic diseases such as diabetes significantly contribute to these extensive costs. Despite technological advances to improve sensing and actuation devices, we still lack a coherent theory that facilitates the design and optimization of efficient and robust medical cyber-physical systems for managing chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for capturing the complex dynamics of blood glucose time series (e.g., time dependent and fractal behavior) observed in real world measurements via fractional calculus concepts. Building upon our time dependent fractal model, we propose a novel model predictive controller for an artificial pancreas that regulates insulin injection. We verify the accuracy of our controller by comparing it to conventional non-fractal models using real world measurements and show how the nonlinear optimal controller based on fractal calculus concepts is superior to non-fractal controllers in terms of average risk index and prediction accuracy.

  13. Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Y. T.; Kuang, Y. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Gu, P. C.; Wei, H. J.; Chen, K.

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to noninvasively monitor the blood glucose concentration (BGC) in healthy subjects with good accuracy and acceptable specificity. Based on this, the paper further considered the possibility of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients. The OCT signal slope (OCTSS) changed with variation of BGC. The correlation coefficient R between BGC and OCTSS in diabetic patients was 0.91; while the correlation coefficient R in healthy volunteers was 0.78. Thus, a better linear dependence of OCTSS on BGC in diabetic patients was presented in the experiment. The results showed that the capability and accuracy of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC of diabetic patients, and the noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients may be better than the monitoring in the healthy subjects.

  14. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications.

  15. Glutathion peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in bovine blood and liver.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud Rushdi; Niishimori, Kazuhiro; Goryo, Masanobu; Okada, Keiji; Yasuda, Jun

    2004-10-01

    A total of 46 cattle, including 25 as control, 16 with glycogen degeneration and 5 with severe fatty degeneration were studied. Whole blood and liver tissue specimens were used to measure glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities. The present study determined the value of these parameters in diagnosing glycogen and fatty degeneration in cattle from the point of the status of antioxidation and lipid peroxidation. The results showed a significant decrease in hepatic GSH-Px activity and a significant increase in hepatic G6PD activity in cases of fatty degeneration. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in erythrocytic and hepatic GSH-Px and G6PD activities in cases of glycogen degeneration. The results indicated lipoperoxidation process in the liver tissues increased in cases of fatty degeneration. Therefore, supplying animals suffering from fatty liver with sufficient quantities of nutrient antioxidants may be valuable when treatment is considered.

  16. Infusion of fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens increases blood glucose concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, C; Rijnsburger, M; Eggels, L; van Megen, K M; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A; Serlie, M J; la Fleur, S E

    2017-01-10

    The brain is well known to regulate blood glucose, and the hypothalamus and hindbrain, in particular, have been studied extensively to understand the underlying mechanisms. Nuclei in these regions respond to alterations in blood glucose concentrations and can alter glucose liver output or glucose tissue uptake to maintain blood glucose concentrations within strict boundaries. Interestingly, several cortico-limbic regions also respond to alterations in glucose concentrations and have been shown to project to hypothalamic nuclei and glucoregulatory organs. For instance, electrical stimulation of the shell of the nucleus accumbens (sNAc) results in increased circulating concentrations of glucose and glucagon and activation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Whether this is caused by the simultaneous increase in serotonin release in the sNAc remains to be determined. To study the effect of sNAc serotonin on systemic glucose metabolism, we implanted bilateral microdialysis probes in the sNAc of male Wistar rats and infused fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or vehicle after which blood glucose, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucoregulatory hormones were measured. Fluoxetine in the sNAc for 1h significantly increased blood glucose concentrations without an effect on glucoregulatory hormones. This increase was accompanied by a higher EGP in the fluoxetine infused rats compared to the controls. These data provide further evidence for a role of sNAc-serotonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism.

  17. Effect of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) on Nocturnal Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Catalogna, Merav; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Sagi, Roi; Abu-Hamad, Ramzia; Nevo, Uri; Efrati, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Background Regulation of hepatic glucose production has been a target for antidiabetic drug development, due to its major contribution to glucose homeostasis. Previous pre-clinical study demonstrated that peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) may stimulate glucose utilization and improve hepatic insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and the glucose-lowering effect of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Twelve patients with T2DM were recruited for an open label, interventional, randomized trial. Eleven patients underwent, in a crossover design, an active, and a no-intervention control periods, separated with a two-week washout phase. During the active period, the patients received a daily lower extremity PES treatment (1.33Hz/16Hz burst mode), for 14 days. Study endpoints included changes in glucose levels, number of hypoglycemic episodes, and other potential side effects. Endpoints were analyzed based on continuous glucose meter readings, and laboratory evaluation. Results We found that during the active period, the most significant effect was on nocturnal glucose control (P < 0.0004), as well as on pre-meal mean glucose levels (P < 0.02). The mean daily glucose levels were also decreased although it did not reach clinical significance (P = 0.07). A reduction in serum cortisol (P < 0.01) but not in insulin was also detected after 2 weeks of treatment. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions These results indicate that repeated PES treatment, even for a very short duration, can improve blood glucose control, possibly by suppressing hepatic glucose production. This effect may be mediated via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02727790 PMID:27997608

  18. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  19. Association of morning fasting blood glucose variability with insulin antibodies and clinical factors in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Chihiro; Tashima-Horie, Kanako; Fukushima, Sayaka; Saito, Satoko; Tanaka, Sayoko; Haruki, Takenori; Ogino, Jun; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Hashimoto, Naotake

    2016-07-30

    The fasting blood glucose concentration in type 1 diabetes may vary without being much affected by diet and exercise. This study aimed to identify association of morning fasting blood glucose concentration variability with insulin antibodies and clinical factors. The subjects in this study were 54 patients with type 1 diabetes who had high variation of fasting blood glucose. The insulin antibody level was measured, and correlations of glycemic variability with antibody levels, binding rates, and other clinical factors were investigated. The standard deviation (SD) of the 30-day morning self-monitored fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG SD) was evaluated as an index of glycemic variability. The mean glucose level was 159.8±42.1 mg/dL and the FBG SD was 47.5±22.0 mg/dL. Glycemic variability (FBG SD) was positively correlated with insulin antibody level, but not with insulin antibody binding rate, and had a negative correlation with C-peptide immunoreactivity/plasma glucose (CPR/PG) and positive correlations with diabetes duration, basal insulin dose and bolus insulin dose. Glycemic variability was not correlated with BMI, HbA1c or age. In multiple regression analysis of glycemic variability, CPR/PG was the only significant related factor. The results showed that glycemic variability was mainly influenced by endogenous insulin secretion capacity and was high in patients with high insulin antibody levels. In some patients with a high insulin antibody titer, the antibody may have an effect on the variability of the fasting glucose concentration in type 1 diabetes.

  20. Effect of local corticosteroid injection of the hand and wrist on blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Louis W; Glickel, Steven Z; Barron, O Alton; Harrison, Richard; Marshall, Astrid; Purcelli-Lafer, Marissa

    2012-12-01

    Locally administered corticosteroids are a common therapy in many hand and wrist disorders. Corticosteroids pose a theoretical risk to patients with diabetes mellitus by potentially raising blood glucose to hyperglycemic levels. Although oral corticosteroids are known to have an effect on blood glucose control, limited data exist on extra-articular administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the systemic impact of extra-articularly administered corticosteroids in the hand and wrist on serum glucose concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus.Twenty-three patients with diabetes mellitus received a 1-mL triamcinolone acetonide injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis, trigger finger, flexor carpi ulnaris tendonitis, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients recorded their daily morning blood glucose levels for 1 week before injection and for 4 weeks after injection. Average blood glucose levels increased slightly from baseline after injection, reaching statistical significance 1, 5, and 6 days after injection, but were not clinically significant (average increase, 14.2, 9.7, and 32.7 mg/dL, respectively). Isolated increases more than 2 times the standard deviation of preinjection values occurred at least once in the majority of patients. The frequency of hyperglycemic episodes increased after injection, but the proportions of patients with at least 1 hyperglycemic episode before and after injection were not significantly different.These results suggest that local corticosteroid injections are a clinically safe treatment option for inflammatory processes of the hand and wrist in patients with diabetes mellitus. On average, patients experienced slight increases in blood glucose after receiving an injection. Most experienced isolated increases substantially beyond baseline and isolated hyperglycemic effects, but these did not pose an apparent clinical risk.

  1. Relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Chang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zou, X; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Lv, L; Liang, B

    2013-12-01

    The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a squirrel-like lower primate or a close relative of primates, commonly used as an animal model in biomedical research. Despite more than three decades of usage in research, the clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age among tree shrews remain unclear. Based on an investigation of 992 tree shrews (454 males and 538 females) aged between 4 months and 4 years old, we found that male tree shrews have significantly higher body weight and fasting blood glucose concentration than female tree shrews (p < 0.001). The concentration of fasting blood glucose slightly increased with body weight in males (r = 0.152, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, in females, the body weight, concentration of fasting blood glucose and waist circumference positively increased with age (p < 0.001). Additionally, 17 tree shrews with Lee index [body weight (g)*0.33*1000/body length (cm)] above 290 had significantly higher body weight, waist circumference and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) than non-obese tree shrews with a Lee index score below 290 (p < 0.001). Interestingly, 6 of 992 tree shrews (three males and three females, 2-4 years old) displayed impaired plasma triglycerides, HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein and oral glucose tolerance test, suggestive of the early symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study provides the first clear relationships between body weight, fasting blood glucose concentration, sex and age in tree shrews, further improving our understanding of this relationship in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the similarity of tree shrews to humans and non-human primates, this finding supports their potential use as an animal model in the research of MetS.

  2. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  3. In a sweet mood? Effects of experimental modulation of blood glucose levels on mood-induction during fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kohn, N; Toygar, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Durst, A; Laoutidis, Z G; Karges, W; Schneider, F; Habel, U

    2015-06-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human brain. Previous literature has shown that varying blood glucose levels may have a strong impact on behaviour, subjective mood, and the intensity of the BOLD signal measured in fMRI. Therefore, blood glucose levels varying even within the normal range may interact with cognitive and emotional processing as well as BOLD signal. Here, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study on 20 healthy women, we show that overnight fasting, compared to an elevated glucose condition, influences brain activation and the affective state during mood induction. Results indicate that our brain may compensate for low glucose levels during fasting by stronger recruitment of the brain areas relevant to the task at hand. Additionally, we systematically tested the effect of prior cognitive effort on behavioural and neural patterns and found that elevated activation is only associated with maintained performance as long as no prior cognitively challenging task is administered. Prior cognitive effort leads to deteriorated performance and a further increase in emotion-associated brain activation in the pregenual anterior and posterior cingulate, the superior frontal gyrus, and the pre-SMA. These results are in line with the strength model of self-regulation. Our results corroborate the strength model of self-regulation and extend it to affect regulation processes. Additionally, our observations suggest that experimentally controlling for fasting state or glucose levels may be beneficial, especially when studying processes that involve self-regulation.

  4. Reliable long-term continuous blood glucose monitoring for patients in critical care using microdialysis and infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. Michael; Damm, Uwe; Kondepati, Venkata R.

    2006-02-01

    For clinical research, in-vivo blood glucose monitoring is an ongoing important topic to improve glycemic control in patients with non-adequate blood glucose regulation. Critically ill patients received much interest, since the intensive insulin therapy treatment, as established for diabetics, reduces mortality significantly. Despite the existence of commercially available, mainly amperometric biosensors, continued interest is in infrared spectroscopic techniques for reagent-free glucose monitoring. For stable long-term operation, avoiding also sensor recalibration, a bed-side device coupled to a micro-dialysis probe was developed for quasi-continuous glucose monitoring. Multivariate calibration is required for glucose concentration prediction due to the complex composition of dialysates from interstitial body fluid. Measurements were carried out with different test persons, each experiment lasting for more than 8 hours. Owing to low dialysis recovery rates, glucose concentrations in the dialysates were between 0.83 and 4.44 mM. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) obtained with Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration and different cross-validation strategies were mainly between 0.13 and 0.18 mM based on either full interval data or specially selected spectral variables.

  5. Effects of enalapril, losartan, and verapamil on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, T; Erlich, Y; Rosenmann, E; Cohen, A

    1997-06-01

    We undertook the present study to examine the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, the angiotensin II antagonist losartan, and calcium antagonist verapamil on systolic pressure and spontaneous blood glucose levels in rats from the Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive strain. Genetic hypertension and diabetes developed in this strain after crossbreeding of Cohen diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The new rat strain was fed their usual copper-poor sucrose diet, which is essential for the development of this model, and for 4 weeks received either enalapril, losartan, or verapamil. Systolic pressure was reduced significantly compared with controls in all treated groups. Chronic treatment with enalapril or verapamil, but not with losartan, succeeded in lowering spontaneous blood glucose, indicating improved diabetic control. Data suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by enalapril, but not angiotensin II antagonism by losartan, can improve glucose metabolism in addition to its hypotensive effect in a genetic diabetic hypertensive rat strain. This confirms that the drop in glucose with converting enzyme inhibition is highly dependent on bradykinin accumulation. Data further suggest that calcium channel blockade by verapamil can also improve glucose metabolism. The question remains whether the reduction in glucose by verapamil was a result of inhibition of glucogenesis.

  6. [Advances of the mechanism study on berberine in the control of blood glucose and lipid as well as metabolism disorders].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ning; Li, Cai-Na; Huan, Yi; Shen, Zhu-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from some Chinese medicinal herbs such as Coptidis rhizoma, has been used for the treatment of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal infections as an antibacterial drug in Chinese medicine. In recent years, it was reported to have beneficial effects on the metabolism disorders states of diabetes. The mechanisms involve many aspects of the diabetes, including regulating the blood cholesterol and triglyceride, lowering blood glucose, ameliorating the insulin resistant state and influencing the function of the pancreatic beta cell.

  7. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  8. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  9. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  10. High glucose induces the expression of osteopontin in blood vessels in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjia; Ni, Leng; Liu, Xinnong; Wang, Zhanqi; Liu, Changwei

    2016-11-11

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in mineral metabolism and the inflammatory response while diabetes mellitus is associated with severe and extensive vascular calcification. Therefore, we speculated that OPN could be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of blood vessels exposed to high glucose. To identify the relationship between high glucose and OPN, we used high glucose medium to stimulate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro and diabetic rats for in vivo analyses. As assessed by flow cytometry and western blots, SMC and VEC apoptosis levels increased with high glucose. Potassium and calcium uptake by cells were also increased with high glucose. These findings demonstrated the relationship between mineral metabolism and high glucose. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that OPN increased in vitro with high glucose stimulation. The inflammatory factor ICAM1 and the inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Thr495) were also upregulated by high glucose. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 and the activating phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser1177) were downregulated. Similar to the change of OPN, phosphorylated P38 was increased with high glucose. SB203580, an inhibitor of P38 phosphorylation, downregulated the expression of OPN and related inflammatory factors. Additionally, OPN was increased in the aortas and plasma of diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high glucose can induce the expression of OPN, which may be a key factor in the calcification and dysfunction of the vascular wall in diabetes.

  11. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, glucose and blood gases in male goats during anaesthesia with pentobarbitone sodium.

    PubMed

    Sanhouri, A A; Jones, R S; Dobson, H

    1990-01-01

    Fasting for 24 h had no statistically significant effect on cortisol, glucose or testosterone concentrations. A dose of pentobarbitone sodium which induced light anaesthesia resulted in an immediate decrease in cortisol values from 5.0-11.1 ng/ml to 2.2-3.6 ng/ml until waking-this latter event was accompanied by an excessive release of cortisol (up to 16.6 ng/ml). In two out of three goats testosterone concentrations decreased from 4.0-9.0 ng/ml to less than 0.5 ng/ml after pentobarbitone; low values were maintained for 4.5-6 hours. Glucose concentrations were unaffected. Precise doses of pentobarbitone (20 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) resulted in similar cortisol profiles as above but with higher concentrations achieved upon waking from the higher dose of pentobarbitone. On two out of nine occasions increased PCO2 values were recorded concurrently with increased cortisol concentrations during the period of anaesthesia, suggesting that a sufficiently strong stressful stimulus can break through the pentobarbitone blockade.

  12. A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes mellitus–syndrome X complex

    PubMed Central

    Koeslag, Johan H; Saunders, Peter T; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose concentrations are unaffected by exercise despite very high rates of glucose flux. The plasma ionised calcium levels are even more tightly controlled after meals and during lactation. This implies ‘integral control’. However, pairs of integral counterregulatory controllers (e.g. insulin and glucagon, or calcitonin and parathyroid hormone) cannot operate on the same controlled variable, unless there is some form of mutual inhibition. Flip-flop functional coupling between pancreatic α- and β-cells via gap junctions may provide such a mechanism. Secretion of a common inhibitory chromogranin by the parathyroids and the thyroidal C-cells provides another. Here we describe how the insulin:glucagon flip-flop controller can be complemented by growth hormone, despite both being integral controllers. Homeostatic conflict is prevented by somatostatin-28 secretion from both the hypothalamus and the pancreatic islets. Our synthesis of the information pertaining to the glucose homeostat that has accumulated in the literature predicts that disruption of the flip-flop mechanism by the accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes mellitus will lead to hyperglucagonaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and impaired insulin responsiveness to elevated blood glucose levels. It explains syndrome X (or metabolic syndrome) as incipient type 2 diabetes in which the glucose control system, while impaired, can still maintain blood glucose at the desired level. It also explains why it is characterised by high plasma insulin levels and low plasma growth hormone levels, despite normoglycaemia, and how this leads to central obesity, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease in both syndrome X and type 2 diabetes. PMID:12717005

  13. [The net analyte preprocessing combined with radial basis partial least squares regression applied in noninvasive measurement of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Bo; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2014-02-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of quantitative analysis model in the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, this paper, by combining net analyte preprocessing (NAP) algorithm and radial basis functions partial least squares (RBFPLS) regression, builds a nonlinear model building method which is suitable for glucose measurement of human, named as NAP-RBFPLS. First, NAP is used to pre-process the near-infrared spectroscopy of blood glucose, in order to effectively extract the information which only relates to glucose signal from the original near-infrared spectra, so that it could effectively weaken the occasional correlation problems of the glucose changes and the interference factors which are caused by the absorption of water, albumin, hemoglobin, fat and other components of the blood in human body, the change of temperature of human body, the drift of measuring instruments, the changes of measuring environment, and the changes of measuring conditions; and then a nonlinear quantitative analysis model is built with the near-infrared spectroscopy data after NAP, in order to solve the nonlinear relationship between glucose concentrations and near-infrared spectroscopy which is caused by body strong scattering. In this paper, the new method is compared with other three quantitative analysis models building on partial least squares (PLS), net analyte preprocessing partial least squares (NAP-PLS) and RBFPLS respectively. At last, the experimental results show that the nonlinear calibration model, developed by combining NAP algorithm and RBFPLS regression, which was put forward in this paper, greatly improves the prediction accuracy of prediction sets, and what has been proved in this paper is that the nonlinear model building method will produce practical applications for the research of non-invasive detection techniques on human glucose concentrations.

  14. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  15. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women. PMID:27774458

  16. Behavioral Self-Regulation in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Negative Affectivity and Blood Glucose Symptom Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Deborah J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents who were more internally focused were more able to discern which symptoms actually covaried with blood glucose (BG) fluctuations; those with higher trait anxiety tended to misattribute non-diabetes-related symptoms to BG levels. Interactions suggested those who both attend to internal physical sensations and experience-heightened…

  17. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  18. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Solnica, Bogdan

    2009-09-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients.

  19. Laboratory assessment of three new monitors of blood glucose: Accu-Chek II, Glucometer II, and Glucoscan 2000.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K E; Rawal, N; Henderson, A R

    1986-12-01

    We describe a laboratory assessment of three new monitors of blood glucose concentrations: the Boehringer "Accu-Chek II" (B), the Ames "Glucometer II" (A), and the Lifescan "Glucoscan 2000" (L). Inherent imprecision (CV) of each monitor was less than 2%. Maximum difference between individual monitors of the same type was less than or equal to 0.5 mmol/L. The volume of blood applied to the test strips is not critical, but duration of blood incubation or color development should be precise. Two types of test strips retained sufficient color 48 h after development to allow checking of the original measurement, and would be suitable as quality-control "spot" checks. Correlation coefficients for results for whole-blood glucose vs those for serum glucose (measured with the Beckman ASTRA-8) were: 0.992 (B), 0.967 (A), and 0.988 (L). Bias plots of these data showed positive bias for A (0.45 mmol/L) and L (0.17 mmol/L) in relation to serum-glucose measurements, but a negative bias of 0.32 mmol/L for B. Calibration solutions are not interchangeable. Although these versions of the monitors are probably not analytically superior to earlier models, they are easier to use.

  20. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Mita, Naoji; Kawahito, Shinji; Soga, Tomohiro; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kitahata, Hiroshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19). After the induction of anesthesia, a 20-G intravenous catheter was inserted into the peripheral forearm vein of patients in the programmed insulin group and connected to an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55). The target range for glucose concentrations was set to 100-150 mg/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentrations of preoperative, postoperative 24 and 48 h were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.79 mg/dL in the programmed insulin group, and 0.81, 0.95, and 1.03 mg/dL in the manual insulin group, respectively. Elevations in serum creatinine concentrations postoperative 48 h were significantly suppressed in the programmed insulin group. The STG-55 closed-loop system was effective for maintaining strict blood glucose control during hepatectomy with minimal variability in blood glucose concentrations and for suppressing elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative AKI.

  1. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  2. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  3. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil functionand gene expression in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory respons...

  4. Accuracy of roche accu-chek inform whole blood capillary, arterial, and venous glucose values in patients receiving intensive intravenous insulin therapy after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Gandhi, Gunjan Y; Nuttall, Gregory A; Bryant, Sandra C; Schaff, Hartzell V; McMahon, M Molly; Santrach, Paula J

    2007-06-01

    Intravenous insulin protocols are increasingly common in the intensive care unit to maintain normoglycemia. Little is known about the accuracy of point-of-care glucometers for measuring glucose in this patient population or the impact of sample source (capillary, arterial, or venous whole blood) on the accuracy of glucometer results. We compared capillary, arterial, and venous whole blood glucose values with laboratory plasma glucose values in 20 patients after cardiac surgery. All 4 samples (capillary, arterial, and venous whole blood and laboratory plasma glucose) were analyzed hourly for the first 5 hours during intravenous insulin therapy in the intensive care unit. There were no significant differences between median capillary whole blood (149 mg/dL [8.3 mmol/L]) and laboratory plasma (151 mg/dL [8.4 mmol/L]) glucose levels. The median arterial (161 mg/dL [8.9 mmol/L]) and venous (162 mg/dL [9.0 mmol/L]) whole blood glucose levels were significantly higher than the median laboratory plasma glucose level. Capillary whole blood glucose levels correlate most closely with laboratory plasma glucose levels in patients receiving intensive intravenous insulin therapy after cardiac surgery.

  5. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays.

  6. Development and Validation of a Rapid 13C6-Glucose Isotope Dilution UPLC-MRM Mass Spectrometry Method for Use in Determining System Accuracy and Performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Risë K.; Angelides, Kimon; Engler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is currently considerable discussion about the accuracy of blood glucose concentrations determined by personal blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS). To date, the FDA has allowed new BGMS to demonstrate accuracy in reference to other glucose measurement systems that use the same or similar enzymatic-based methods to determine glucose concentration. These types of reference measurement procedures are only comparative in nature and are subject to the same potential sources of error in measurement and system perturbations as the device under evaluation. It would be ideal to have a completely orthogonal primary method that could serve as a true standard reference measurement procedure for establishing the accuracy of new BGMS. Methods: An isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MRM) assay was developed using 13C6-glucose as a stable isotope analogue to specifically measure glucose concentration in human plasma, and validated for use against NIST standard reference materials, and against fresh isolates of whole blood and plasma into which exogenous glucose had been spiked. Assay performance was quantified to NIST-traceable dry weight measures for both glucose and 13C6-glucose. Results: The newly developed assay method was shown to be rapid, highly specific, sensitive, accurate, and precise for measuring plasma glucose levels. The assay displayed sufficient dynamic range and linearity to measure across the range of both normal and diabetic blood glucose levels. Assay performance was measured to within the same uncertainty levels (<1%) as the NIST definitive method for glucose measurement in human serum. Conclusions: The newly developed ID UPLC-MRM assay can serve as a validated reference measurement procedure to which new BGMS can be assessed for glucose measurement performance. PMID:25986627

  7. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  8. Investigation on how to choose measurement sites for non-invasive near-infrared blood glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Min, Xiaolin; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    With the changing of human diet and the future of an aging society, the number of diabetic patients is growing rapidly and steadily. The major therapeutic method to that disease is monitoring the blood glucose concentration frequently to adjust the dose of the drugs and insulin. In order to avoid the painful finger prick, we choose the ear lobe as a measurement site with finger as a reference. Firstly, we compare the blood glucose concentration results of ear lobe and finger during an oral glucose tolerance test, the results showed a good correlation of the two sites. Secondly, the three-layered skin structure of finger and ear lobe has been studied by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. The result shows that the thickness of each layer at ear lobe is thinner. Finally, the difference between reflectance spectra of finger and ear lobe is compared due to the diverse skin thickness. The results still show a higher absorbance value for ear lobe. In conclusion, the ear lobe is an ideal measurement site for noninvasive blood glucose sensing.

  9. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    PubMed

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes.

  10. Do currently available blood glucose monitors meet regulatory standards? 1-day public meeting in Arlington, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Reyes, Juliet S

    2013-07-01

    Blood glucose monitors (BGMs) are approved by regulatory agencies based on their performance during strict testing conducted by their manufacturers. However, after approval, there is uncertainty whether BGMs maintain the accuracy levels that were achieved in the initial data. The availability of inaccurate BGM systems pose a public health problem because their readings serve as a basis for treatment decisions that can be incorrect. Several articles have concluded that BGMs in the marketplace may not consistently provide accurate results in accordance with the regulatory standards that led to approval. To address this growing concern, Diabetes Technology Society organized and conducted a 1-day public meeting on May 21, 2013, in Arlington, VA, presided by its president, David Klonoff, M.D., FACP, Fellow AIMBE, to determine whether BGMs on the market meet regulatory standards. The meeting consisted of four sessions in which Food and Drug Administration diabetes experts as well as leading academic clinicians and clinical chemists participated: (1) How is BGM performance determined? (2) Do approved BGMs perform according to International Organization for Standardization standards? (3) How do approved BGMs perform when used by patients and health care professionals? (4) What could be the consequence of poor BGM performance?

  11. Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Association with Blood Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19684117

  12. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  13. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues.

  14. Integrated self-monitoring of blood glucose system: handling step analysis.

    PubMed

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Ruhland, Katharina; Baumstark, Annette; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) implicates a number of handling steps with the meter and the lancing device. Numerous user errors can occur during SMBG, and each step adds to the complexity of use. This report compares the required steps to perform SMBG of one fully integrated (the second generation of the Accu-Chek® Mobile), three partly integrated (Accu-Chek Compact Plus, Ascensia® Breeze®2, and Accu-Chek Aviva), and six conventional (Bayer Contour®, Bayer Contour USB, BGStar™, FreeStyle Lite®, OneTouch® Ultra® 2, and OneTouch Verio™Pro) systems. The results show that the fully integrated system reduces the number of steps to perform SMBG. The mean decrease is approximately 70% compared with the other systems. We assume that a reduction of handling steps also reduces the risk of potential user errors and improves the user-friendliness of the system.

  15. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  16. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wan-Li; Li, Xuan-She; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Zhang, Rui-Juan

    2007-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds have previously been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects on type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and experimental diabetic animals. The Trigonella foenum-graecum extract has now been investigated for its effects on general properties, blood glucose and blood lipid, and hemorheological parameters in experimental diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administrated by oral intragastric intubation separately with low dose (0.44 g/kg.d), middle dose (0.87 g/kg.d), high dose (1.74 g/kg.d) of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, and Metformin HCl (0.175 g/kg.d) for 6 weeks. Compared with diabetic group, rats treated with Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had an increase in body weight and a decrease in kidney /body weight ratio (p<0.05). Compared with diabetic group, rats treated Trigonella foenum-graecum extract had lower blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholestrol and higher higher-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity of high shear rate (200 s-1) and low shear rate (40 s-1), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, whole blood reduction viscosity and platelet conglutination were significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with high and middle doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract, but not in those treated with low dose of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. It may be concluded that Trigonella foenum-graecum extract can lower kidney /body weight ratio, blood glucose, blood lipid levels and improve hemorheological properties in experimental diabetic rats following repeated treatment for 6 weeks.

  17. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  18. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  19. Correlation between Salivary Glucose and Blood Glucose and the Implications of Salivary Factors on the Oral Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Kavitha A.; Puttabudhi, Jaishankar H.; Raju, Shashidara

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate and assess any correlation between random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) and unstimulated whole salivary glucose (UWSG), as well as to estimate various salivary parameters, such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and the influence of these factors on the oral health status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals suffering from type 2 DM and 40 healthy individuals in the age group of 30–60 years were included in the study. RCBG was estimated using glucometer and UWSG was estimated using photocolorimeter. Salivary parameters such as flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity were assessed using GC® Saliva kit. Oral health status was recorded using the Russell's periodontal index (RPI) and the Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RCBG levels and UWSG. Type 2 diabetics had low mean salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. Type 2 diabetics had higher mean values for RPI. Conclusion: Among the salivary factors studied, salivary glucose significantly influenced the periodontal status in Type 2 diabetics. PMID:28316946

  20. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m(-2); mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (-6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: -33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: -25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (-37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (-8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (-9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese

  1. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in

  2. Point-of-care blood glucose testing for diabetes care in hospitalized patients: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rajesh; Rayman, Gerry

    2014-11-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients with diabetes requires accurate near-patient glucose monitoring systems. In the past decade, point-of-care blood glucose monitoring devices have become the mainstay of near-patient glucose monitoring in hospitals across the world. In this article, we focus on its history, accuracy, clinical use, and cost-effectiveness. Point-of-care devices have evolved from 1.2 kg instruments with no informatics to handheld lightweight portable devices with advanced connectivity features. Their accuracy however remains a subject of debate, and new standards for their approval have now been issued by both the International Organization for Standardization and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. While their cost-effectiveness remains to be proved, their clinical value for managing inpatients with diabetes remains unchallenged. This evidence-based review provides an overall view of its use in the hospital setting.

  3. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  4. Capsaicin Reduces Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Levels and Glycogen Content Better than Capsiate in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ma, Xiaohan; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiong

    2017-03-22

    Chili peppers exhibit antiobesity, anticancer, antidiabetic, and pain- and itch-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue, is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups. The two treatment groups were treated orally with 6 mg/kg bw capsaicin and capsiate daily for 28 days. Treatment with capsaicin and capsiate increased body weight, increased glycogen content, and inhibited intestinal absorption of sugar in T1D rats. Particularly, insulin levels were increased from 14.9 ± 0.76 mIU/L (model group) to 22.4 ± 1.39 mIU/L (capsaicin group), but the capsiate group (16.7 ± 0.79 mIU/L) was increased by only 12.2%. Analysis of the related genes suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor was activated by capsaicin. Liver X receptor and pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1 controlled the glycometabolism balance by regulating the expression levels of glucose kinase, glucose transport protein 2 (GLUT2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, leading to reduced blood glucose levels in T1D rats. Meanwhile, the hypoglycemic effect was enhanced by the down-regulated expression of sodium glucose cotransporter 1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 in the intestine. The results showed that the spicy characteristics of capsaicin might be the root of its ability to decrease blood glucose.

  5. Acute Treatment With XMetA Activates Hepatic Insulin Receptors and Lowers Blood Glucose in Normal Mice.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, Daniel H; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Goldfine, Ira D; Roell, Marina K; Adams, Sean H

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that monoclonal antibodies may become therapeutics for metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We have previously characterized an allosteric monoclonal antibody to the human insulin receptor (IR), XMetA, that activated metabolic signaling leading to enhanced glucose transport in cultured cells, and chronically reduced fasting blood glucose levels in mouse models of diabetes mellitus. Under acute dosing conditions, the large size of an IR-binding antibody like XMetA (∼ 150 kDa) could lead to a more rapid access into liver, an insulin sensitive tissue with well-fenestrated capillaries, when compared to other insulin sensitive tissues with non-fenestrated capillaries, such as muscle and adipose. Thus, in the present study we administered XMetA (10 mg/kg) and insulin (0.5 U/kg) via IV injection, and for 90 min compared their effects on blood glucose lowering and IR activation in three of the major insulin-sensitive tissues of the normal fasted mouse: liver, adipose, and muscle. Like insulin, XMetA lowered blood glucose levels, although the effect was less rapid. Insulin activated IR autophosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation in liver, fat, and muscle. In contrast, IR activation by XMetA was primarily observed in the liver. Both insulin and XMetA lowered β-hydroxybutyrate levels in plasma; however, only insulin reduced both non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol concentrations. These data indicate that, in normal mice, acute glucose regulation by XMetA is largely mediated by its action on the liver.

  6. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  7. Effect of acute anemia on endurance capacity, glucose and lactate kinetics, and the relative distribution of blood flow in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms investigated include lactate and glucose kinetics and alterations in the relative distribution of blood flow during submaximal exercise. Acute plasma transfusions were performed to lower the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Vo{sub 2max} decreased 18% in both sedentary and endurance trained animals. The sedentary anemic animals suffered a 78% decrease in distance when run to exhaustion whereas the trained anemic animals suffered only a 39% decrease in endurance distance, compared to the respective controls. Continuous infusions of (6-{sup 3}H)glucose and (U-{sup 14}C)lactate were performed. At rest there were no differences in the glucose of lactate turnover rates between anemic and control animals. There was an increase in the rates of glucose turnover in anemic animals compared to control animals, as well as elevated lactate turnover rates during exercise compared to control animals. Acute anemia resulted in an increase in sympathetic stimulation during exercise. Furthermore, epinephrine levels were significantly correlated to rate of lactate turnover.

  8. Effect of Food Thickener on the Inhibitory Effect of Mitiglinide Tablets on Post-prandial Elevation of Blood Glucose Levels.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kudo, Kenzo; Kohda, Yukinao

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of food thickener on the pharmacodynamics of mitiglinide (MGN), a drug belonging to a class of rapid-acting insulin secretagogues. First, MGN tablets were coated by immersion in a xanthan gum-based food-thickening agent. This treatment was shown to delay disintegration rates of MGN tablets in vitro. The pharmacodynamics of MGN after ingestion of a single oral dose of an MGN tablet, with or without food thickener immersion, were then examined in an open-label crossover study comprising 5 healthy participants. It was observed that after administration of 75 g of oral glucose, the area under the blood glucose concentration-time curve was larger for treatment with MGN tablets that had been immersed in the food thickener than for nonimmersed tablets. The maximum blood glucose level was also higher in treatments with MGN tablets that had been immersed in food thickener. The extended time of higher glucose levels associated with thickener-immersed MGN tablets given to human volunteers may be associated with the reduced disintegration rates of immersed MGN tablets as observed in the in vitro experiment. Overall, our study suggests that commercially available food thickeners influence the pharmacodynamics of MGN and that their use should therefore be carefully assessed and monitored in certain clinical situations.

  9. Bats: Body mass index, forearm mass index, blood glucose levels and SLC2A2 genes for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wenjie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Bats have an unusually large volume of endocrine tissue, with a large population of beta cells, and an elevated sensitivity to glucose and insulin. This makes them excellent animal models for studying diabetes mellitus. We evaluated bats as models for diabetes in terms of lifestyle and genetic factors. For lifestyle factors, we generated data sets of 149 body mass index (BMI) and 860 forearm mass index (FMI) measurements for different species of bats. Both showed negative inter-species correlations with blood glucose levels in sixteen bats examined. The negative inter-species correlations may reflect adaptation of a small insectivorous ancestor to a larger frugivore. We identified an 11 bp deletion in the proximal promoter of SLC2A2 that we predicted would disrupt binding sites for the transcription repressor ZNF354C. In frugivorous bats this could explain the relatively high expression of this gene, resulting in a better capacity to absorb glucose and decrease blood glucose levels. PMID:27439361

  10. Analysis of “Accuracy Evaluation of Five Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems: The North American Comparator Trial”

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    In an article in Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Halldorsdottir and coauthors examined the accuracy of five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) in a study sponsored by the manufacturer of the BGMS CONTOUR NEXT EZ (EZ) and found that this BGMS was the most accurate one. However, their findings must be viewed critically given that one of the BGMSs (ACCU-CHEK Aviva) was not compared against the reference measurement specified by its manufacturer, thus making it likely that it performed suboptimally. Also, the accuracy of the glucose-oxidase-based ONE TOUCH Ultra2 and TRUEtrack BGMS is likely to have been underestimated because of the expected low oxygen level in the glycolysed blood samples used to test the performance of these BGMSs under hypoglycemic conditions. In conclusion, although this study shows that EZ is an accurate BGMS, comparisons between this and other BGMSs should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24124958

  11. Analysis of the comparison of lancing devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose regarding lancing pain.

    PubMed

    Lekarcyk, Joyce; Ghiloni, Suzanne

    2009-09-01

    Reducing barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) remains an ongoing goal. One major reported barrier is lancing pain. This analysis was written in response to the article by Kocher and associates in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology in which 157 patients with diabetes experienced in the use of SMBG compared high market share blood glucose monitoring systems and lancing devices. Upon review of their findings, we found that their conclusions-Accu-check systems and lancing devices were preferred-were valid within the limitations of the study. However, we noted some factors that would warrant further study and possibly change the outcome. Information from this and other studies on the topic will be useful as a reference for patients and providers in working towards removing barriers to SMBG.

  12. Cerebral Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism Measured With Positron Emission Tomography Are Decreased in Human Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Larissa W.; Huisman, Marc C.; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Hoetjes, Nikie J.; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical systemic microvascular dysfunction exists in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that microangiopathy, resulting from long-standing systemic hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, may be generalized to the brain, resulting in changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in these patients. We performed dynamic [15O]H2O and [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose brain positron emission tomography scans to measure CBF and cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu), respectively, in 30 type 1 diabetic patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls after an overnight fast. Regions of interest were automatically delineated on coregistered magnetic resonance images and full kinetic analysis was performed. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were higher in patients versus controls. Total gray matter CBF was 9%, whereas CMRglu was 21% lower in type 1 diabetic subjects versus control subjects. We conclude that at real-life fasting glucose and insulin levels, type 1 diabetes is associated with decreased resting cerebral glucose metabolism, which is only partially explained by the decreased CBF. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than generalized microangiopathy account for the altered CMRglu observed in well-controlled type 1 diabetes. PMID:23530004

  13. Carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid nanocomposites sensing platform for NADH oxidation and oxygen, glucose detection in blood.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Wen, Dan; Yin, Jianyuan; Deng, Liu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-03-15

    An excellent electrochemical sensing platform has been designed by combining the huge specific surface area of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the remarkable conductivity of ionic liquid (IL). IL can easily untangle CNTs bundles and disperse CNTs by itself under grinding condition due to the π-π interaction between CNTs and IL. The resulting nanocomposites showed an augmentation on the voltammetric and amperometric behaviors of electrocatalytic activity toward O(2) and NADH. Therefore, such an efficient platform was developed to fabricate mediator-free oxygen sensor and glucose biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). O(2) could be determined in the range of zero to one hundred percent of O(2) content with the detection limit of 126 μg L(-1) (S/N=3). The glucose biosensor which was constructed by entrapping GDH into chitosan on the nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode surface, exhibited good electrocatalytic oxidation toward glucose with a detection limit of 9 μM in the linear range of 0.02-1mM. We also applied the as-prepared sensors to detect oxygen and glucose in real blood samples and acquired satisfied results.

  14. Quantitative determination of glucose in blood plasma and in fruit juices by combined WATR-CPMG 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Choy, W Y; Lam, S L; Au-Yeung, S C; Tsang, L; Cockram, C S

    1992-11-01

    The quantitative analysis of pure glucose solution < or = 225 mM (< or = 40.8 mg/mL) in 90/10 H2O/D2O was successfully completed in dilute aqueous solution by the WATR-CPMG method whereby the T2 of the water resonance is manipulated by the WATR method followed by elimination of the water peak by the CPMG pulse sequence. The method was applied to the quantitative analysis of total glucose in blood plasma from human subjects undergoing the oral glucose tolerance test in the teaching hospital, and the results were compared to those obtained using a standard glucose oxidase method in a hospital chemical pathology laboratory. The accuracy of the results obtained using the WATR-CPMG method were generally within 5% of the glucose oxidase method. The coefficient of variation was determined to be better than 4% using plasma samples of diabetic subjects. Application to the quantitative analysis of orange and guava juice was also successfully demonstrated.

  15. Identification of individualised empirical models of carbohydrate and insulin effects on T1DM blood glucose dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescon, Marzia; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; Maran, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    One of the main limiting factors in improving glucose control for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects is the lack of a precise description of meal and insulin intake effects on blood glucose. Knowing the magnitude and duration of such effects would be useful not only for patients and physicians, but also for the development of a controller targeting glycaemia regulation. Therefore, in this paper we focus on estimating low-complexity yet physiologically sound and individualised multi-input single-output (MISO) models of the glucose metabolism in T1DM able to reflect the basic dynamical features of the glucose-insulin metabolic system in response to a meal intake or an insulin injection. The models are continuous-time second-order transfer functions relating the amount of carbohydrate of a meal and the insulin units of the accordingly administered dose (inputs) to plasma glucose evolution (output) and consist of few parameters clinically relevant to be estimated. The estimation strategy is continuous-time data-driven system identification and exploits a database in which meals and insulin boluses are separated in time, allowing the unique identification of the model parameters.

  16. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16–18, 2015, Republic of Malta

    PubMed Central

    Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:26496678

  17. 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), May 8–10, 2014, Helsinki, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mlinac, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 7th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2014 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures. PMID:25211215

  18. Impacts of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Chu, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of small AVMs (<3 cm) on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and on the glucose metabolism (rCGlcM) by [F-18]-FDG PET. Seven AVM patients (pts) were studied. All AVMs were confirmed by cerebral angiography and CT/MR scans. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and [F-18]-PDG PET images were interpreted visually to detect the changes of rCBF and rCGlcM. All pts except one brain stem AVM had defects in the regions of nidi on HMPAO and FDG images. FDG PET disclosed low rCGlcM in surrounding areas of AVMs in 6 pts, while HMPAO SPECT detected only 4 cases. One AVM had increased rCBF surrounding the nidus despite of decreased rCGlcM in the same region. Five pts had abnormal rCGlcM over ipsilateral remote cortex but only one had corresponding abnormal rCBF. Contralateral cortical hypofunction was noted in 3 pts by FDG PET but none by HMPAO SPECT. Cross cerebellar diaschisis was found in 2 AVMs by FDG PET and only one by HMPAO SPECT. All regions with abnormal HMPAO uptake did not look as discernibly as seen on the FDG PET scan. CT/MR scans detected the nidi of AVMs of all pts and old hemorrhage in one pt. In conclusion, either HMPAO SPECT or FDG PET is sensitive to detect the functional abnormalities in the region of nidus of small AVM and the surrounding brain tissue. FDG PET is better than HMPAO SPECT to detect functional changes in the remote cortex and diaschisis.

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: use, frequency drivers, and cost in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    Although test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent around 50% of diabetes treatment cost in Argentina, little is known about their current use and relationship with different types of treatment. We therefore aimed to estimate the current use of test strips and identify the major use drivers and the percentage they represent of total prescription costs in 2 entities of the social security system (SSS) of Argentina. Observational retrospective study measuring test strip prescriptions delivered by pharmacies from the province of Buenos Aires (8115 records collected during 3 months provided by the Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) of affiliates with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from 2 large entities of the SSS system. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG was 97.5 ± 70.1. This number varied according to treatment: monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. Test strips represented a higher percentage of the total prescription cost in people under OAD monotherapy (84.6%) and lower in those with insulin analogs (46.9%). In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG and its impact on the total prescription cost depends on the kind of such treatment. Since it has been shown that patients' education and prescription audit can optimize test strip use and treatment outcomes, implementation of such strategies could appropriately support, optimize, and reduce ineffective test strip use in people with T2DM.

  20. The impact of early hypoglycemia and blood glucose variability on outcome in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Jacka, Michael J; Egi, Moritoki; Hart, Graeme K; George, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In critical illness, the association of hypoglycemia, blood glucose (BG) variability and outcome are not well understood. We describe the incidence, clinical factors and outcomes associated with an early hypoglycemia and BG variability in critically ill patients. Methods Retrospective interrogation of prospectively collected data from the Australia New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database on 66184 adult admissions to 24 intensive care units (ICUs) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005. Primary exposure was hypoglycemia (BG < 4.5 mmol/L) and BG variability (BG < 4.5 and ≥ 12.0 mmol/L) within 24 hours of admission. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results The cumulative incidence of hypoglycemia and BG variability were 13.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 13.5 to 14.0; n = 9122) and 2.9% (95%CI = 2.8 to 3.0, n = 1913), respectively. Several clinical factors were associated with both hypoglycemia and BG variability including: co-morbid disease (P < 0.001), non-elective admissions (P < 0.001), higher illness severity (P < 0.001), and primary septic diagnosis (P < 0.001). Hypoglycemia was associated with greater odds of adjusted ICU (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.31 to 1.54) and hospital death (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.46). Hypoglycemia severity was associated with 'dose-response' increases in mortality. BG variability was associated with greater odds of adjusted ICU (1.5, 95% CI = 1.4 to 1.6) and hospital (1.4, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.5) mortality, when compared with either hypoglycemia only or neither. Conclusions In critically ill patients, both early hypoglycemia and early variability in BG are relatively common, and independently portend an increased risk for mortality. PMID:19534781

  1. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  2. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    KASUYA, NORIAKI; OHTA, SHOICHIRO; TAKANAMI, YOSHIKAZU; KAWAI, YUKARI; INOUE, YUTAKA; MURATA, ISAMU; KANAMOTO, IKUO

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25780409

  3. Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Mathern, Jocelyn R; Raatz, Susan K; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-11-01

    Eighteen healthy obese subjects participated in a single blind, randomized, crossover study of three test breakfasts, containing 0 g (control), 4 g or 8 g of isolated fenugreek fiber. Subjects recorded ratings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption using visual analog scales (VAS) every 30 min for 3.5 h. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses were measured. Energy intake from an ad libitum lunch buffet and for the remainder of the day was assessed. The 8 g dose of fenugreek fiber significantly increased mean ratings of satiety and fullness, and reduced ratings of hunger and prospective food consumption (P < 0.05). Palatability was significantly reduced with increasing doses of fenugreek fiber (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose among treatments. An increase in insulin AUC was found with 8 g fenugreek fiber. Energy intake at an ad libitum lunch buffet was significantly lower for 8 g than 4 g fenugreek fiber, but not significantly different from control, although there was a trend towards a lower intake (p = 0.11). No differences were observed for energy intake for the remainder of the day. Fenugreek fiber (8 g) significantly increased satiety and reduced energy intake at lunch, suggesting it may have short-term beneficial effects in obese subjects. Satiety results were not related to postprandial blood glucose.

  4. Development of a high-sensitivity and portable cell using Helmholtz resonance for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, K; Okada, K; Kobayashi, R; Ishihara, Y

    2016-08-01

    We describe the possibility of high-sensitivity noninvasive blood glucose measurement based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The demand for noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement has increased due to the explosive increase in diabetic patients. We have developed a noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement based on PAS. The conventional method uses a straight-type resonant cell. However, the cell volume is large, which results in a low detection sensitivity and difficult portability. In this paper, a small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell is proposed to improve detection sensitivity and portability by reducing the cell dead volume. First, the acoustic property of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was evaluated by performing an experiment using a silicone rubber. As a result, the detection sensitivity of the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell was approximately two times larger than that of the conventional straight-type resonant cell. In addition, the inside volume was approximately 30 times smaller. Second, the detection limits of glucose concentration were estimated by performing an experiment using glucose solutions. The experimental results showed that a glucose concentration of approximately 1% was detected by the small-sized Helmholtz-type resonant cell. Although these results on the sensitivity of blood glucose-level measurement are currently insufficient, they suggest that miniaturization of a resonance cell is effective in the application of noninvasive blood glucose-level measurement.

  5. Glucose concentration in the blood of intact and alloxan-treated mice after pretreatment with commercial preparations of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Aleksandar; Gavrilovic, Maja; Jakovljevic, Vida; Sabo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The study was concerned with the effect of mice pretreatment with two commercial products of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the blood glucose concentration. One group of mice was pretreated four days with 200 mg/kg of Stevita (Stevita Co, INC, Arlington Texas) (stevia) and the other with 20 mg/kg of Clear Steviosides liquid (Stevita Co, INC, Herbal supplement, Brazil) (stevioside), whereas the animals of control group received at the same time physiological solution. Blood glucose concentration was measured before pretreatment and four days after that. The changes in glucose level were provoked by glucose-tolerance test (500 mg/kg, p.o.) and subcutaneous injection of adrenaline (0.2 mg/kg). The same procedure of measuring blood glucose was applied on the mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (two doses of 100 mg/kg with a 24-hour interval). Blood glucose levels in mice pretreated with stevia and stevioside were lower compared with control (7.82:6.82:8.01). Also, a smaller increase in this parameter compared to control was registered with pretreated mice in the glucose-tolerance test, pretreatment with stevioside being again more effective (8.68:6.36:5.82). Pretreatment with stevioside caused no significant increase in blood glucose concentration after administering adrenaline, which was not the case with the animals pretreated with stevia and control. Pretreatment with stevia, and to a greater extent with stevioside, protected test animals from the toxic action of alloxan compared with controls.

  6. Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Rajdl, Daniel; Mudrová, Vlasta; Hunter, Douglas; Senft, VáClav

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chromium (Cr)- enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and blood markers of oxidative stress in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (median duration: 3.0 yr). Thirty-six subjects (9 men, 27 women; mean age: 61.3 yr; mean body mass index: 34.33 kg/m2) were supplemented with 400 microg Cr/d as Cr-enriched yeast (n = 19) or placebo (n = 17) for 12 wk in a randomized, double-blind study. The most interesting results were obtained by comparison of the change in the placebo group to the change in the Cr group. The Cr group showed a significantly greater increase in serum Cr compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Supplementation with Cr-enriched yeast was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Blood markers of oxidative stress glutathione peroxidase activity and levels of reduced glutathione were essentially unchanged in the Cr group after 12 wk, but decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Serum HbA1c and glycated protein (fructosamine) were essentially unchanged in the Cr group, whereas HbA1c tended to increase in the placebo group (from 6.94% to 7.11%). Fasting serum insulin decreased in both groups, with a greater tendency in the Cr group (-16.5% vs -9.5%). These data suggest that supplementation of well-controlled type 2 diabetics with Cr-enriched yeast is safe and can result in improvements in blood glucose variables and oxidative stress.

  7. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  8. D-chiro-inositol-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract lowers the blood glucose level in KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Shan, Fang; Bian, Junsheng; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu; Ren, Guixing

    2008-11-12

    D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is an active compound in tartary buckwheat [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaench] with an insulin-like bioactivity. The present study was performed to (i) prepare DCI-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract (TBBE), (ii) evaluate its acute toxicity in mice, and (iii) examine its blood glucose lowering activity in diabetic mice. It was found that steaming buckwheat bran in an autoclave at 1.6 MPa and 120 degrees C for 60 min could significantly enrich the DCI level in TBBE from 0.03 to 0.22% and further to 22% after passage of the TBBE through activated carbon and ion exchange resins. An acute toxicity test demonstrated that the LD 50 of TBBE was >20 g/kg of body weight in mice, suggesting that TBBE was in general nontoxic and safe in mice. Male KK-A(y) mice (type 2 diabetic) and C57BL/6 mice (the control) were used to investigate the antidiabetic activity of TBBE. In KK-A(y) mice, the blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly higher than those in the C57BL/6 mice. In addition, KK-A(y) mice showed an obvious decrease in insulin immunoreactivity in the pancreas. The present study clearly demonstrated that oral administration of DCI-enriched TBBE could lower plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon, triglyceride, and BUN, improve glucose tolerance, and enhance insulin immunoreactivity in KK-A(y) mice.

  9. Consensus Report: The Current Role of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C; Blonde, Lawrence; Cembrowski, George; Chacra, Antonio Roberto; Charpentier, Guillaume; Colagiuri, Stephen; Dailey, George; Gabbay, Robert A; Heinemann, Lutz; Kerr, David; Nicolucci, Antonio; Polonsky, William; Schnell, Oliver; Vigersky, Robert; Yale, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Clinical Research—Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board convened a meeting in San Francisco, CA, July 20–21, 2011, to discuss the current practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin-treated (NIT) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twelve physician panel members from academia, practice, and government attended this meeting. These experts came from the United States, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. In addition, three consultants from Australia, Germany, and the United States contributed to the group’s final report. This coalition was organized by Diabetes Technology Society. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was studied from eight perspectives related to patients with NIT T2DM: (1) epidemiological studies; (2) randomized controlled trials (RCT)s and meta-analyses; (3) targets, timing, and frequency of SMBG use; (4) incidence and role of SMBG in preventing hypoglycemia with single-drug regimens and combination regimens consisting of antihyperglycemic agents other than secretagogues and insulin; (5) comparison of SMBG with continuous glucose monitoring; (6) technological capabilities and limitations of SMBG; (7) barriers to appropriate use of SMBG; and (8) methods and end points for appropriate future clinical trials. The panel emphasized recent studies, which reflect the current approach for applying this intervention. Among the participants there was consensus that: SMBG is an established practice for patients with NIT T2DM, and to be most effective, it should be performed in a structured format where information obtained from this measurement is used to guide treatment; New, high-quality efficacy data from RCTs have demonstrated efficacy of SMBG in NIT T2DM in trials reported since 2008; Both patients and health care professionals require education on how to respond to the data for SMBG to be effective; and Additional well-defined studies are needed to assess the benefits and

  10. 24h Urinary Protein Levels and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios Could Probably Forecast the Pathological Classification of HSPN

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Zhang, Ting; Shen, Hong-qiang; Chen, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of laboratory tests in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) classification, and determine accurate classification factors. This prospective study included 694 HSPN patients who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). Renal specimens were scored according to International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) classification. Meanwhile, blood samples were immediately collected for laboratory examination. The associations between laboratory parameters and HSPN classification were assessed. Significant differences in levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, immunoglobulins, T-lymphocyte subsets, complement, and coagulation markers were obtained between HSPN patients and healthy children. Interestingly, 24h urinary protein (24h-UPRO) levels and urine protein/urine creatinine ratios could determine HPSN grade IIb, IIIa, and IIIb incidences, with areas under ROC curve of 0.767 and 0.731, respectively. At 24h-UPRO >580.35mg/L, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 70.0%, respectively. These values became 53.0% and 82.3%, respectively, with 24h-UPRO exceeding 1006.25mg/L. At urine protein/urine creatinine > 0.97, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 65.5% and 67.2%, respectively, values that became 57.4% and 80.0%, respectively, at ratios exceeding 1.2. Cell and humoral immunity, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the pathogenesis of HSPN, and type I hypersensitivity may be the disease trigger of HSPN. 24h-UPRO levels and urine protein/creatinine ratios could probably forecast the pathological classification of HSPN. PMID:25996387

  11. High tissue glucose alters intersomitic blood vessels in zebrafish via methylglyoxal targeting the VEGF receptor signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Jörgens, Kristina; Stoll, Sandra J; Pohl, Jennifer; Fleming, Thomas H; Sticht, Carsten; Nawroth, Peter P; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Kroll, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia causes micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose concentrations lead to increased formation of the highly reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MG), yet the early consequences of MG for development of vascular complications in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish were used as a model organism to analyze early vascular effects and mechanisms of MG in vivo. High tissue glucose increased MG concentrations in tg(fli:EGFP) zebrafish embryos and rapidly induced several additional malformed and uncoordinated blood vessel structures that originated out of existing intersomitic blood vessels (ISVs). However, larger blood vessels, including the dorsal aorta and common cardinal vein, were not affected. Expression silencing of MG-degrading enzyme glyoxalase (glo) 1 elevated MG concentrations and induced a similar vascular hyperbranching phenotype in zebrafish. MG enhanced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 and its downstream target Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). Pharmacological inhibitors for VEGF receptor 2 and Akt/PKB as well as MG scavenger aminoguanidine and glo1 activation prevented MG-induced hyperbranching of ISVs. Taken together, MG acts on smaller blood vessels in zebrafish via the VEGF receptor signaling cascade, thereby describing a new mechanism that can explain vascular complications under hyperglycemia and elevated MG concentrations.

  12. Basal blood glucose concentration in free-living striped mice is influenced by food availability, ambient temperature and social tactic.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Pillay, Neville; Kondratyeva, Anna; Yuen, Chi-Hang; Schoepf, Ivana; Krackow, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Vertebrates obtain most of their energy through food, which they store mainly as body fat or glycogen, with glucose being the main energy source circulating in the blood. Basal blood glucose concentration (bBGC) is expected to remain in a narrow homeostatic range. We studied the extent to which bBGC in free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) is influenced by ecological factors with a bearing on energy regulation, i.e. food availability, abiotic environmental variation and social tactic. Striped mice typically form extended family groups that huddle together at night, reducing energetic costs of thermoregulation, but solitary individuals also occur in the population. We analysed 2827 blood samples from 1008 individuals of seven different social categories that experienced considerable variation in food supply and abiotic condition. Blood samples were taken from mice in the morning after the overnight fast and before foraging. bBGC increased significantly with food plant abundance and decreased significantly with minimum daily ambient temperature. Solitary striped mice had significantly higher bBGC than group-living striped mice. Our results suggest that adaptive responses of bBGC occur and we found large natural variation, indicating that bBGC spans a far greater homeostatic range than previously thought.

  13. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  14. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible.

  15. Effects of melatonin on streptozotocin-induced retina neuronal apoptosis in high blood glucose rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Maonian; Tang, Weiqiang

    2013-03-01

    One of the main pathological symptoms of early diabetic retinal neuropathy is retina neuronal apoptosis. In the present work we investigated the effects of indoleamine hormone melatonin, a powerful free radical scavenger, on streptozotocin-induced retina neuronal cell apoptosis in high blood glucose rat. After melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg/day), tunel detection was used to monitor the apoptosis rate of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer; reversed quantitative PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of retinal caspase-3, Mn superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and Cu-Zn SOD; and the activities of total SOD (T-SOD) and sub-type SOD was detected using xanthine oxidase enzymatic detection. Our data showed that melatonin treatment leads to a decrease of retinal cell apoptosis and the apoptotic index was (1.67 ± 0.54) % and (7.73 ± 0.95) % at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The relative quantitative (RQ) value for caspase-3 mRNA expression was (6.996 ± 1.192) and (7.267 ± 1.178) in melatonin group, which are much lower than the values of diabetic group (12.566 ± 2.272 and (14.297 ± 2.110) at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) under the same condition. mRNA expression of Mn SOD and Cu-Zn SOD as well as their activities all decreased in the diabetic group compared with the control group. While melatonin treatment induced the expression of Mn SOD mRNA and a continual increase of Mn SOD activity as well as the activity and mRNA expression of Cu-Zn SOD at 12 weeks. Therefore, our results demonstrate that melatonin treatment prevented the decrease in mRNA expression of SOD and the increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression induced by diabetes thus exerts a beneficial effect on retina neuronal apoptosis.

  16. Effects of 9-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acids on blood glucose homeostasis in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Zou, Enmin; Bonvillain, Ryan

    2003-11-01

    9-cis-Retinoic acid (9CRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are known to be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in vertebrates by inducing insulin release and expression of glucose transporter proteins. In view of the fact that both 9CRA and ATRA are endogenous to the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, that a retinoid X receptor exists in this fiddler crab and that activities of insulin-like and insulin-like growth factor-like peptides have been reported for crustaceans, we investigated whether 9CRA and ATRA also play a role in glucose homeostasis in U. pugilator. Neither 9CRA nor ATRA was found to produce hypoglycemic effects at a dose of 10 microg/g live mass. However, 9CRA, but not ATRA, induced hyperglycemia. Such 9CRA-induced hyperglycemia was apparently mediated by the eyestalk hormone CHH since injection of 9CRA into eyestalk-ablated crabs did not result in hyperglycemia. ATRA was found to have an inhibitory effect on the recovery of blood glucose concentration following ATRA administration. Discussion on the possible mechanisms for the actions of 9CRA and ATRA was presented.

  17. No evidence for genotoxic effects from 24 h exposure of human leukocytes to 1.9 GHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V; Gajda, G B; Lavallée, B F; Marro, L; Lemay, E; Thansandote, A

    2003-05-01

    The current study extends our previous investigations of 2-h radiofrequency (RF)-field exposures on genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures by examining the effect of 24-h continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed-wave (PW) 1.9 GHz RF-field exposures on both primary DNA damage and micronucleus induction in human leukocyte cultures. Mean specific absorption rates (SARs) ranged from 0 to 10 W/kg, and the temperature within the cultures was maintained at 37.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C for the duration of the 24-h exposure period. No significant differences in primary DNA damage were observed between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures when processed immediately after the exposure period by the alkaline comet assay. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of micronuclei, incidence of micronucleated binucleated cells, frequency of binucleated cells, or proliferation index between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures. In conclusion, the current study found no evidence of 1.9 GHz RF-field-induced genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures after a 24-h exposure period.

  18. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  19. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (p<0.01-0.0001). Fatal diabetic ketoacidosis cases had evidently high glucose levels at each site; whereas in the non-diabetic group, blood glucose level was higher in fatal alcohol abuse, saltwater drowning, electrocution, cerebrovascular disease and sudden cardiac death due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition.

  20. Longitudinal 3-week tracking of blood glucose concentration from thermo-optical response measurements on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-jen; Kantor, Stan; Hanna, Charles; Shain, Eric; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2006-08-01

    We designed a dual-sensor instrument for measuring optical signals from the arms of human volunteers. The instrument had two temperature-controlled localized reflectance optical probes. Each probe had one illumination fiber and four detection fibers at different source-detector distances. The two probes were maintained at 30 °C. Thirty seconds after contact with the skin one was heated and the other was cooled at the same rate. The effect of heating and cooling on the signal was measured and correlated with blood glucose concentration. The measurements were performed 3 to 5 times a day for each volunteer over the span of three weeks. The data points from the first two weeks were used to establish a calibration model for each volunteer, which was used to predict glucose values from the third week optical data. Successftil calibration was possible for two of the three volunteers.

  1. Effects of Tephrosia purpurea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Santha, K; Manoharan, S

    2008-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpASet" at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that "TpASet" has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from "TpASet".

  2. Comparison of capillary Accu-Chek blood glucose values to laboratory values.

    PubMed

    Dacus, J; Schulz, K; Averill, A; Sibai, B

    1989-07-01

    With 2 to 4% of the obstetric population demonstrating glucose intolerance, many authorities advocate the routine screening of all pregnant women. Some have questioned the cost effectiveness of such an approach and have chosen to screen only those with high-risk factors, overlooking a large percentage of gestational diabetics. The purpose of this report was to determine if Accu-Chek glucometer values are sufficiently accurate to substitute for laboratory values in our medical complex. Capillary Accu-Chek glucose values and laboratory values were compared in 140 patients. Values ranged from a low of 43 to a high of 380. The mean +/- SD glucose values were 142 +/- 73 mg/dl and 142 +/- 80 mg/dl, respectively. These values are not significantly different. Using a cutoff of 140 mg/dl as abnormal, the sensitivity of the capillary Accu-Chek was 100% and the specificity was 95% compared with the venous method. A simple linear regression indicated that there was a strong correlation between the capillary Accu-Chek glucose values and the laboratory glucose values (r = 0.95, p less than or equal to 0.0001). The slope was not different from 1 (p = 0.3135), and the intercept was not different from 0 (p = 0.4943), illustrating that there was an equality in the values and that one value may be substituted for the other.

  3. African plant foods rich in non-starch polysaccharides reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Onyechi, U A; Judd, P A; Ellis, P R

    1998-11-01

    The effects of two vegetable flours, prepared from the African plants Detarium senegalense Gmelin, a legume, and Cissus rotundifolia, a shrub, on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations in human subjects, were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that these flours contained significant amounts of NSP. The detarium in particular was found to be a rich source of water-soluble NSP (SNSP). The flours were incorporated into two types of br