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Sample records for 24-h bp pattern

  1. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  2. A pilot study on the effect of telmisartan & ramipril on 24 h blood pressure profile & dipping pattern in type 1 diabetes patients with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, R.; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Kohli, Harbir S.; Walia, Rama; Shanmugasundar, G.; Jayaprakash, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been used to normalize the blood pressure and the dipping pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and nephropathy. However, there are no data on the effect of the dual blockade on the dipping pattern in these subjects. We therefore, carried out this study to evaluate the effect of administrating an ACEI followed by ARB in the optimum doses in T1DM patients with nephropathy on 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile and nocturnal dipping pattern. Methods: An open label interventional pilot study was done during a one year period involving 30 consecutive patients who were treated with telmisartan 80 mg (0800-1000 h) for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg (1200-1400 h) for the next eight weeks. Ambulatory BP, dipping pattern and albumin excretion rate were studied after each phase. Twenty patients were hypertensive and 10 patients had macro- and 20 patients had microalbuminuria. Results: Telmisartan produced a fall in the clinic BP by 4/1.3 mm Hg (P<0.05 and P<0.362, respectively), 2/1.9 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP, 1.4/1.1 mm Hg in the day BP and 3.7/3 mm Hg in the trough BP. Addition of ramipril to telmisartan produced a further reduction of 6.3/5.9 mm Hg in the clinic BP (P<0.001 for both), 4.3/4.2 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively), 5.8/3.9 mm Hg in the day BP (P<0.01 for both), 4.2/2.5 mm Hg in the trough BP, with a reduction of clinic SBP and DBP of 10.3/7.2 mm Hg from the baseline. Telmisartan restored normal systolic dipping pattern in 33.3 per cent of the nondippers (P<0.01) but addition of ramipril was not complimentary. Hyperkalamia (>5.5 mmol/l) was observed only in 2 patients towards the end of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The dual blockade with telmisartan and ramipril had complimentary effect on lowering of the BP, however, similar beneficial effect on the nocturnal dipping

  3. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  4. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  5. Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003–2008123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. Objective: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. Design: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003–2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. Results: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. PMID:23097271

  6. Impact of hypobaric hypoxia in pressurized cabins of simulated long-distance flights on the 24 h patterns of biological variables, fatigue, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Long-distance flights can cause a number of clinical problems in both passengers and crewmembers. Jet lag as well as mild hypoxia resulting from incomplete cabin pressurization could contribute to these problems. The objective of this study was to assess, using a chronobiological approach, the clinical impact of diurnal hypobaric, hypoxic exposure on fatigue and other common symptoms encountered during high-altitude exposure and to measure changes in blood chemistry (i.e., plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, glycemia, and lipids). Fourteen healthy, diurnally active (from 07:00 to 23:00 h) male volunteers, aged 23 to 39 yrs, spent 8.5 h in a hypobaric chamber (08:00 to 16:30 h), at a simulated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m). This was followed by an additional 8.5 h of study four weeks later at a simulated altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Clinical data were collected every 2 h between 08:00 and 18:00 h, and biological variables were assayed every 2 h over two (control and hypoxic-exposure) 24 h cycles. Clinical symptoms were more frequent with the 12,000 ft exposure. Wide interindividual variability was observed in the clinical tolerance to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. The 24 h profiles of most biochemical variables were significantly altered at each altitude, with changes in mean plasma levels and a tendency toward phase delay, except for uric acid, which showed a phase advance. Changes in appetite mainly occurred with the simulated 12,000 ft exposure and may have been associated with changes in the postprandial glycemia profile. Finally, though the observed biochemical changes were significant, their clinical relevance must be clarified in studies involving actual long-distance flights. PMID:18075804

  7. Association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with 24-h aortic ambulatory blood pressure: the SAFAR study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Kollias, G; Argyris, A A; Papaioannou, T G; Tountas, C; Konstantonis, G D; Achimastos, A; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Protogerou, A D

    2015-07-01

    Aortic blood pressure (BP) and 24-h ambulatory BP are both better associated with target organ damage than office brachial BP. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these two techniques would be the optimal methodology to evaluate patients' BP in terms of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) prevention. In 230 participants, office brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated BP monitor and a tonometry-based device, respectively. 24-h ambulatory brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated ambulatory BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Germany). Systematic assessment of patients' LVDD was performed. After adjustment for age, gender, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, septum and lateral E/Ea were significantly associated with office aortic systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) and 24-h brachial and aortic SBP and PP (P ⩽ 0.04), but not with office brachial BP (P ⩾ 0.09). Similarly, 1 standard deviation in SBP was significantly associated with 97.8 ± 20.9, 86.4 ± 22.9, 74.1 ± 23.3 and 51.3 ± 22.6 in septum E/Ea and 68.6 ± 2 0.1, 54.2 ± 21.9, 37.9 ± 22.4 and 23.1 ± 21.4 in lateral E/Ea, for office and 24-h aortic and brachial SBP, respectively. In qualitative analysis, except for office brachial BP, office aortic and 24-h brachial and aortic BPs were all significantly associated with LVDD (P ⩽ 0.03), with the highest odds ratio in 24-h aortic SBP. Furthermore, aortic BP, no matter in the office or 24-h ambulatory setting, showed the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curves (P ⩽ 0.02). In conclusion, 24-h aortic BP is superior to other BPs in the association with LVDD. PMID:25391758

  8. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis. PMID:26909513

  9. A new portable device for recording 24-h indirect blood pressure in hypertensive outpatients.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, O; Kaneko, Y; Yokoi, H; Yukinari, Y

    1985-12-01

    To simplify 24-h blood pressure (BP) recording in hypertensive outpatients, we devised a new portable, automatic BP recorder and studied its accuracy and usefulness. The fully automatic recorder, measuring 5 x 16 x 18 cm with a cuff of usual size, weighs approximately 1 kg and is driven by a rechargeable battery. The cuff is inflated by a compact CO2 cartridge and two microphones are used to detect differentially the Korotkoff sounds in the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) are automatically measured, displayed with the time of measurement, and recorded on a memory card at intervals of 15 min for 24 h. This equipment has high noise immunity and works very quietly. It predicts approximate BP during the period of increasing cuff pressure, and measures BP more quickly than the conventional method (the time required for each measurement was reduced by about half). Afterwards, mean values with standard deviations, trendgrams and histograms of BP and HR over a certain period of time can be displayed and recorded with an accessory analyser. The accuracy of the BP values recorded by this device were compared with those measured by the auscultatory method. The average differences were -0.6 +/- 2.1 (s.d.) mmHg for SBP and 0.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg for DBP (n = 152). The BP values by this method were also compared with those obtained directly from the brachial artery, the differences being -5.8 +/- 5.9/0.3 +/- 6.0 mmHg (n = 85). In 30 ambulatory hypertensive patients, 24-h BP was recorded using this recorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2856737

  10. Health in a 24-h society.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, S M; Arendt, J

    2001-09-22

    With increasing economic and social demands, we are rapidly evolving into a 24-h society. In any urban economy, about 20% of the population are required to work outside the regular 0800-1700 h working day and this figure is likely to increase. Although the increase in shiftwork has led to greater flexibility in work schedules, the ability to provide goods and services throughout the day and night, and possibly greater employment opportunities, the negative effects of shiftwork and chronic sleep loss on health and productivity are now being appreciated. For example, sleepiness surpasses alcohol and drugs as the greatest identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in all modes of transport. Industrial accidents associated with night work are common, perhaps the most famous being Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Bhopal. PMID:11583769

  11. Multiple PAR and E4BP4 bZIP transcription factors in zebrafish: diverse spatial and temporal expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Vatine, Gad; Alon, Shahar; Tovin, Adi; Mracek, Philipp; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are generated by an autonomous circadian oscillator that is synchronized daily with the environment, mainly by light input. The PAR subfamily of transcriptional activators and the related E4BP4 repressor belonging to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family are clock-controlled genes that are suggested to mediate downstream circadian clock processes and to feedback onto the core oscillator. Here, the authors report the characterization of these genes in the zebrafish, an increasingly important model in the field of chronobiology. Five novel PAR and six novel e4bp4 zebrafish homolog genes were identified using bioinformatic tools and their coding sequences were cloned. Based on their evolutionary relationships, these genes were annotated as ztef2, zhlf1 and zhlf2, zdbp1 and zdbp2, and ze4bp4-1 to -6. The spatial and temporal mRNA expression pattern of each of these factors was characterized in zebrafish embryos in the context of a functional circadian clock and regulation by light. Nine of the factors exhibited augmented and rhythmic expression in the pineal gland, a central clock organ in zebrafish. Moreover, these genes were found to be regulated, to variable extents, by the circadian clock and/or by light. Differential expression patterns of multiple paralogs in zebrafish suggest multiple roles for these factors within the vertebrate circadian clock. This study, in the genetically accessible zebrafish model, lays the foundation for further research regarding the involvement and specific roles of PAR and E4BP4 transcription factors in the vertebrate circadian clock mechanism. PMID:20854132

  12. Blood pressure (BP) assessment-from BP level to BP variability.

    PubMed

    Feber, Janusz; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of blood pressure (BP) can be challenging in children, especially in very young individuals, due to their variable body size and lack of cooperation. In the absence of data relating BP with cardiovascular outcomes in children, there is a need to convert absolute BP values (in mmHg) into age-, gender- and height appropriate BP percentiles or Z-scores in order to compare a patient's BP with the BP of healthy children of the same age, but also of children of different ages. Traditionally, the interpretation of BP has been based mainly on the assessment of the BP level obtained by office, home or 24-h BP monitoring. Recent studies suggest that it is not only BP level (i.e. average BP) but also BP variability that is clinically important for the development of target organ damage, including the progression of chronic kidney disease. In this review we describe current methods to evaluate of BP level, outline available methods for BP variability assessment and discuss the clinical consequences of BP variability, including its potential role in the management of hypertension. PMID:26201477

  13. Alteration of CaBP Expression Pattern in the Nucleus Magnocellularis following Unilateral Cochlear Ablation in Adult Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Fu, Xin; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Xinwen; Sun, Yingyu; Zuo, Mingxue

    2013-01-01

    Songbirds have the rare ability of auditory-vocal learning and maintenance. Up to now, the organization and function of the nucleus magnocellularis (NM), the first relay of the avian ascending auditory pathway is largely based on studies in non-vocal learning species, such as chickens and owls. To investigate whether NM exhibits different histochemical properties associated with auditory processing in songbirds, we examined the expression patterns of three calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs), including calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin-D28k (CB), and their relations to auditory inputs in NM in adult zebra finches. We found enriched and co-localized immunostaining of CR, PV and CB in the majority of NM neurons, without neuronal population preference. Furthermore, they were sensitive to adult deafferentation with differential plasticity patterns. After unilateral cochlear removal, CR staining in the ipsilateral NM decreased appreciably at 3 days after surgery, and continued to decline thereafter. PV staining showed down-regulation first at 3 days, but subsequently recovered slightly. CB staining did not significantly decrease until 7 days after surgery. Our findings suggest that the three CaBPs might play distinct roles in association with auditory processing in zebra finches. These results are in contrast to the findings in the NM of chickens where CR is the predominant CaBP and deafferentation had no apparent effect on its expression. Further extended studies in other avian species are required to establish whether the difference in CaBP patterns in NM is functionally related to the different auditory-vocal behaviors. PMID:24244471

  14. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  15. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  16. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  17. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  18. Reversed Dipper Blood-Pressure Pattern Is Closely Related to Severe Renal and Cardiovascular Damage in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xun; Li, Cuicui; Ye, Zengchun; Peng, Hui; Chen, Zhujiang; Lou, Tanqi

    2013-01-01

    Background A non-dipper blood pressure (BP) pattern is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and affects the progression and development of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the reversed dipper BP pattern on target-organ damage in Chinese CKD patients are lacking. Methods A total of 540 CKD patients were enrolled. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), clinical BP, ultrasonographic assessment and other clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to ascertain the relationship between ABPM results and clinical parameters. Results A total of 21.9% CKD patients had a reversed dipper BP pattern, 42% of patients had a non-dipper BP pattern and 36.1% of patients had a dipper BP pattern. Patients with reversed dipper BP pattern had the worst renal function and most severe cardiovascular damages among these CKD patients (p<0.05). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated significantly with the rate of decline of nocturnal BP. A reversed dipper BP pattern was an independent factor affecting kidney damage and left ventricular hypertrophy. Age, lower hemoglobin level, higher 24-h systolic BP from ABPM, and higher serum phosphate levels were independent associated with a reversed dipper BP pattern after multivariate logistic regression analyses. Conclusion The reversed dipper BP pattern is closely related to severe renal damage and cardiovascular injuries in CKD patients, and special attention should be given to these CKD patients. PMID:23393577

  19. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamerow, Madonna M; Mettler, Joni A; English, Kirk L; Casperson, Shanon L; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Layman, Donald K; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    The RDA for protein describes the quantity that should be consumed daily to meet population needs and to prevent deficiency. Protein consumption in many countries exceeds the RDA; however, intake is often skewed toward the evening meal, whereas breakfast is typically carbohydrate rich and low in protein. We examined the effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women (n = 8; age: 36.9 ± 3.1 y; BMI: 25.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). By using a 7-d crossover feeding design with a 30-d washout period, we measured changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner distributed evenly (EVEN; 31.5 ± 1.3, 29.9 ± 1.6, and 32.7 ± 1.6 g protein, respectively) or skewed (SKEW; 10.7 ± 0.8, 16.0 ± 0.5, and 63.4 ± 3.7 g protein, respectively). Over 24-h periods on days 1 and 7, venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained during primed (2.0 μmol/kg) constant infusion [0.06 μmol/(kg⋅min)] of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. The 24-h mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 25% higher in the EVEN (0.075 ± 0.006%/h) vs. the SKEW (0.056 ± 0.006%/h) protein distribution groups (P = 0.003). This pattern was maintained after 7 d of habituation to each diet (EVEN vs. SKEW: 0.077 ± 0.006 vs. 0.056 ± 0.006%/h; P = 0.001). The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal. PMID:24477298

  20. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  1. A boundary for histone acetylation allows distinct expression patterns of the Ad4BP/SF-1 and GCNF loci in adrenal cortex cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Satoru L.; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou . E-mail: moro@nibb.ac.jp

    2005-04-08

    Ad4BP/SF-1 is a nuclear receptor whose expression is restricted to tissues involved in steroid hormone synthesis such as the adrenal cortex and gonads. Recent sequence data analysis has shown that the Ad4BP/SF-1 gene is located only 13 kb downstream of the last exon of the neighboring GCNF gene that is expressed in some neurons and gonadal germ cells. Despite the close proximity of the two genes, regulatory elements from one do not interfere with the transcription of the neighboring gene, resulting in distinct expression patterns of Ad4BP/SF-1 and GCNF. This observation has led to the prediction that an insulator element must exist between the two loci to establish independent transcription units. We performed DNase I hypersensitivity assays on the adrenal cortex cell line, Y-1, to test for the existence of an insulator. Three hypersensitive sites were identified in the region spanning 2.1 kb between the last exon of GCNF and the first exon of Ad4BP/SF-1. The most upstream site contains a binding site for CTCF, a known insulator protein, while the other sites are predicted to associate with the nuclear matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using anti-acetylated histone H3 and H4 antibodies showed a discontinuous pattern of histone H3 and H4 acetylation upstream of these sites. Our data suggest that the chromatin architecture specialized by CTCF and the nuclear matrix contribute to the distinct pattern of transcriptional regulation of these genes.

  2. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  3. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  4. Plant wax δD values record changing Eastern Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns during the 8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Schwab, Valérie F.; Gleixner, Gerd; Pross, Jörg; Mulch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the Holocene, the climate of the Mediterranean region has been strongly influenced by variability in the atmospheric circulation of the high and low latitudes. A prominent example for such Holocene climate perturbations is the '8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event'. Reorganization of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns resulted in variations of temperature and precipitation distribution across the Mediterranean. The effects of changing high- and low-latitude atmospheric circulation on Mediterranean climate in relation to the 8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event are, however, not well understood. Here we present a high-resolution record of stable hydrogen isotope composition of plant-wax n-alkanes (δDwax) across the 8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event from the Tenaghi Philippon peat deposit (NE Greece) in order to characterize patterns of precipitation and changes in atmospheric circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our record reveals pronounced changes in δDwax that correlate closely with previously published palynological data. A long-term decline in δDwax values characterizes the lower part of the section. The 8.2 kyr B.P. climatic event itself is connected to two distinct positive δDwax excursions: a minor shift in δDwax around 8.2 kyr B.P. and a major shift in δDwax between ca. 8.1 and 8.0 kyr B.P.. The upper part of the section shows a progressive trend towards higher δDwax values. We link shifts in δDwax to changes in Mediterranean air mass trajectories supplying precipitation to NE Greece caused by variations in the relative contributions of northerly-derived, D-depleted moisture and southerly-derived, D-enriched moisture. Possible control mechanisms for alternating air mass trajectories include changes in the influence of the Siberian High and differences in the influence of the African and Asian monsoon circulation on anticyclonic conditions in the Mediterranean region as well as regional inflow of moist air masses from the Aegean Sea.

  5. Building the Frequency Profile of the Core Promoter Element Patterns in the Three ChromHMM Promoter States at 200bp Intervals: A Statistical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Heather; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Analysis Working Group converted data from ChIP-seq analyses from the Broad Histone track into 15 corresponding chromatic maps that label sequences with different kinds of histone modifications in promoter regions. Here, we publish a frequency profile of the three ChromHMM promoter states, at 200-bp intervals, with particular reference to the existence of sequence patterns of promoter elements, GC-richness, and transcription starting sites. Through detailed and diligent analysis of promoter regions, researchers will be able to uncover new and significant information about transcription initiation and gene function. PMID:26865847

  6. Nqrs Data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

  7. 24-h activity rhythm and sleep in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Koga, Norie; Hidese, Shinsuke; Nagashima, Anna; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms are key features of depression. Actigraphy, a non-invasive method for monitoring motor activity, can be used to objectively assess circadian rest-activity rhythms and sleep patterns. While recent studies have measured sleep and daytime activity of depressed patients using wrist-worn actigraphy, the actigraphic 24-h rest-activity rhythm in depression has not been well documented. We aimed to examine actigraphically measured sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms in depressed outpatients. Twenty patients with DSM-IV major depressive episode and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Participants completed 7 consecutive days of all-day actigraphic activity monitoring while engaging in usual activities. For sleep parameters, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and sleep fragmentation index were determined. Circadian rhythms were estimated by fitting individual actigraphy data to a cosine curve of a 24-h activity rhythm using the cosinor method, which generated three circadian activity rhythm parameters, i.e., MESOR (rhythm-adjusted mean), amplitude, and acrophase. Subjective sleep was also assessed using a sleep diary and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients showed significantly lower MESOR and more dampened amplitude along with significant sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower MESOR and more fragmented sleep emerged as the significant predictors of depression. Correlations between subjectively and actigraphically measured parameters demonstrated the validity of actigraphic measurements. These results indicate marked disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms of depression. By simultaneously measuring sleep and rest-activity rhythm parameters, actigraphy might serve as an objective diagnostic aid for depression. PMID:26978182

  8. Transient energy deficit induced by exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation in young trained men.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kurihara, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hibi, Masanobu; Oishi, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Koichi; Ogata, Hitomi; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Experimental meals were designed to achieve individual energy balance. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was similar among the trials, but 24-h fat oxidation was 1,142 ± 97, 809 ± 88, and 608 ± 46 kcal/24 h in descending order of its magnitude for AM, AM/PM, and PM, respectively (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour carbohydrate oxidation was 2,558 ± 110, 2,374 ± 114, and 2,062 ± 96 kcal/24 h for PM, AM/PM, and AM, respectively. In spite of energy-balanced condition over 24 h, exercise induced a transient energy deficit, the magnitude of which was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). Similarly, transient carbohydrate deficit after exercise was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.40, P < 0.05). The time of the day when exercise is performed affects 24-h fat oxidation, and the transient energy/carbohydrate deficit after exercise is implied as a factor affecting 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:25554797

  9. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  10. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  11. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  12. Soil evolution dynamics and cultural response: Transformation of habitation patterns in NW Europe (3000-1000 yrs BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico; Bekkema, Marijke

    2014-05-01

    Long-term archaeological data gathering in the southern Netherlands delivers an interesting scale model that may be tested on the Pleistocene sand areas of the Northwest European Plain. On a micro-scale level it has become clear that Bronze Age and Iron Age farmers intensively used the landscape, resulting in relatively dense distribution patterns of settlements all over the sand plateaus. However, this agricultural use of the landscape - related to the 'celtic field' system - led to a process of soil degeneration during which initially brown moder podzols gradually transformed into degenerated humus podzols that could no longer be used as farmland. Measured loam values of over 250 soil samples of 5 case studies in the southern Netherlands, are in general agreement with the described model that the plaggen cover is located on soils containing high loam% and that humus podzolsoils of former heath areas have low loam content. Local spatial as well as vertical variations in loam content of sand layers are warning against single parameter research. Other potential causes for the deviation of the model are: a) impact of fluctuating groundwater, b) grain size and transmissivity of the sediments, c) organic matter content, d) land management and e) palaeo-climate change. Also studies from nearby NW European Pleistocene sand areas will be presented that show deviations and similarities with the shifting habitation model in the past due to soil degradation.

  13. Mechanisms Influencing Circadian Blood Pressure Patterns Among Individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kent, Shia T; Burkholder, Greer A; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Overton, E Turner; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-01

    HIV+ individuals have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms behind this association are poorly understood. While hypertension is a well-established CVD risk factor, clinic-based blood pressure (BP) assessment by itself cannot identify several important BP patterns, including white coat hypertension, masked hypertension, nighttime hypertension, and nighttime BP dipping. These BP patterns can be identified over a 24-h period by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). In this review, we provide an overview of the potential value of conducting ABPM in HIV+ individuals. ABPM phenotypes associated with increased CVD risk include masked hypertension (i.e., elevated out-of-clinic BP despite non-elevated clinic BP), nighttime hypertension, and a non-dipping BP pattern (i.e., a drop in BP of <10 % from daytime to nighttime). These adverse ABPM phenotypes may be highly relevant in the setting of HIV infection, given that increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, high psychosocial burden, high prevalence of sleep disturbance, and autonomic dysfunction have been commonly reported in HIV+ persons. Additionally, although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lower AIDS-related morbidity and CVD risk, the mitochondrial toxicity, oxidative stress, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance associated with long-term ART use potentially lead to adverse ABPM phenotypes. Existing data on ABPM phenotypes in the setting of HIV are limited, but suggest an increased prevalence of a non-dipping BP pattern. In conclusion, identifying ABPM phenotypes may provide crucial information regarding the mechanisms underlying the excess CVD risk in HIV+ individuals. PMID:26429228

  14. Dipper and non-dipper blood pressure 24-hour patterns: circadian rhythm-dependent physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; Smolensky, Michael H; Tiseo, Ruana; Pala, Marco; Manfredini, Roberto; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Neuroendocrine mechanisms are major determinants of the normal 24-h blood pressure (BP) pattern. At the central level, integration of the major driving factors of this temporal variability is mediated by circadian rhythms of monoaminergic systems in conjunction with those of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, plus endothelial systems and specific vasoactive peptides. Humoral secretions are typically episodic, coupled either to sleep and/or the circadian endogenous (suprachiasmatic nucleus) central pacemaker clock, but exhibiting also weekly, monthly, seasonal, and annual periodicities. Sleep induction and arousal are influenced also by many hormones and chemical substances that exhibit 24-h variation, e.g., arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, melatonin, somatotropin, insulin, steroids, serotonin, corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, endogenous opioids, and prostaglandin E2, all with established effects on the cardiovascular system. As a consequence, physical, mental, and pathologic stimuli that activate or inhibit neuroendocrine effectors of biological rhythmicity may also interfere with, or modify, the temporal BP structure. Moreover, immediate adjustment to exogenous components/environment demands by BP rhythms is modulated by the circadian-time-dependent responsiveness of biological oscillators and their neuroendocrine effectors. This knowledge contributes to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of abnormalities of the 24-h BP pattern and level and their correction through circadian rhythm-based chronotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23002916

  15. Short-term blood pressure variability over 24 h and target organ damage in middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Madden, J M; O'Flynn, A M; Dolan, E; Fitzgerald, A P; Kearney, P M

    2015-12-01

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with cardiovascular events; however, the prognostic significance of short-term BPV remains uncertain. As uncertainty also remains as to which measure of variability most accurately describes short-term BPV, this study explores different indices and investigates their relationship with subclinical target organ damage (TOD). We used data from the Mitchelstown Study, a cross-sectional study of Irish adults aged 47-73 years (n=2047). A subsample (1207) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). As measures of short-term BPV, we estimated the s.d., weighted s.d. (wSD), coefficient of variation (CV) and average real variability (ARV). TOD was documented by microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There was no association found between any measure of BPV and LVH in both unadjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression models. Similar analysis found that ARV (24 h, day and night), s.d. (day and night) and wSD were all univariately associated with microalbuminuria and remained associated after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and antihypertensive treatment. However, when the models were further adjusted for the mean BP the association did not persist for all indices. Our findings illustrate choosing the appropriate summary measure, which accurately captures that short-term BPV is difficult. Despite discrepancies in values between the different measures, there was no association between any indexes of variability with TOD measures after adjustment for the mean BP. PMID:25787777

  16. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  17. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  18. Nocturnal Blood Pressure Pattern Affects Left Ventricular Remodeling and Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients with Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Hajime; Imai, Yasuko; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Fujimoto, Hajime; Harada, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of cardiac mortality, regardless of its etiology. Previous studies have shown that high nocturnal blood pressure (BP) affects LV geometry in hypertensive patients. It has been suggested that continuous pressure overload affects the development of LVH, but it is unknown whether persistent pressure influences myocardial fibrosis or whether the etiology of LVH is associated with myocardial fibrosis. Comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique can evaluate both the severity of changes in LV geometry and myocardial fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that the nocturnal non-dipper BP pattern causes LV remodeling and fibrosis in patients with hypertension and LVH. Methods Forty-seven hypertensive patients with LVH evaluated by echocardiography (29 men, age 73.0±10.4 years) were examined by comprehensive CMR and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Results and Conclusions Among the 47 patients, twenty-four had nocturnal non-dipper BP patterns. Patients with nocturnal non-dipper BP patterns had larger LV masses and scar volumes independent of etiologies than those in patients with dipper BP patterns (p = 0.035 and p = 0.015, respectively). There was no significant difference in mean 24-h systolic BP between patients with and without nocturnal dipper BP patterns (p = 0.367). Among hypertensive patients with LVH, the nocturnal non-dipper blood pressure pattern is associated with both LV remodeling and myocardial fibrosis independent of LVH etiology. PMID:23840777

  19. The classification of oesophageal 24 h pH measurements using a Kohonen self-organizing feature map.

    PubMed

    Haylett, K R; Vales, P; McCloy, R F

    2004-06-01

    Analysis of 24 h oesophageal pH studies can be problematic with many patients asymptomatic during the investigation, despite observations of reflux. The aim of this study was to carry out a cluster analysis of ambulatory pH studies to determine any underlying patterns and classes within the data. The results of 900 24 h pH studies were investigated using the Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), a neural network that can be used to identify clusters within multidimensional data. The clinical features were presented to the network and the main classes identified. The SOFM-based analysis showed that patients clinically assessed as having symptomatic reflux during the study could be described by four major classifications. The results also showed that the probability of identifying a correlation between symptoms and reflux during an investigation varies from 0.49 to 0.78 for the classes identified. The developed network may be a useful tool in the classification of pH data. The cluster-based technique may offer an alternative to standard statistical techniques for high-dimensional gastrointestinal data and form the basis of an expert system for the automated analysis of pH data. PMID:15253122

  20. [Effect of diurnal distribution of food intake on 24-h profiles of plasma lipoproteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tauber, H

    1981-02-16

    The lipid infiltration theory of atherogenesis accepted, 24 h lipoprotein profiles may be more relevant than preprandial morning samples. Such profiles were performed in 12 metabolically healthy volunteers during two dietetic regimes identical in total food content but differing in the distribution over the day: form A meant an evening meal of 15% of total caloric intake, form B of 40%. After one week of each form, 24 h lipoprotein profiles differed significantly in the time course of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and in the mean values over 24 h in VLDL and LDL phospholipids and HDL cholesterol. These findings are cautiously interpreted as possible signs of differences in the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, remnants and intermediate lipoproteins. The difference in HDL cholesterol which was higher in form A is discussed in the context of recent epidemiologic evidence. PMID:7194945

  1. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory dysregulation over 24 h following acute heat stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Carrie M; Audet, Gerald N; Charkoudian, Nisha; Leon, Lisa R

    2015-08-15

    The influences of severe heat stroke (HS) on cardiovascular function during recovery are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that HS would elicit a heart rate (HR) increase persisting through 24 h of recovery due to hemodynamic, thermoregulatory, and inflammatory events, necessitating tachycardia to support mean arterial pressure (MAP). Core temperature (Tc), HR, and MAP were measured via radiotelemetry in conscious male Fischer 344 rats (n = 22; 282.4 ± 3.5 g) during exposure to 37°C ambient temperature until a maximum Tc of 42.0°C, and during recovery at 20°C ambient temperature through 24 h. Rats were divided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe groups based on pathophysiology. HS rats exhibited hysteresis relative to Tc with HR higher for a given Tc during recovery compared with heating (P < 0.0001). "Reverse" hysteresis occurred in MAP with pressure during cooling lower than heating per degree Tc (P < 0.0001). Mild HS rats showed tachycardia [P < 0.01 vs. control (Con)] through 8 h of recovery, elevated MAP (P < 0.05 vs. Con) for the initial 5 h of recovery, with sustained hyperthermia (P < 0.05 vs. Con) through 24 h. Moderate HS rats showed significant tachycardia (P < 0.01 vs. Con), normal MAP (P > 0.05 vs. Con), and rebound hyperthermia from 4 to 24 h post-HS (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed tachycardia (P < 0.05 vs. Con), hypotension (P < 0.01 vs. Con), and hypothermia for 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed 14- and 12-fold increase in heart and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, respectively. Hypotension and hypothermia in Severe HS rats was consistent with inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated systemic vasodilation. These findings provide mechanistic insight into hemodynamic and thermoregulatory impairments during 24 h of HS recovery. PMID:26071550

  2. New methods in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: interactive monitoring and detection of posture and movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Prill, Thomas; Fahrenberg, Jochen

    2007-08-01

    Psychophysiological monitoring can be used to assess emotional reactivity in cardiovascular measures. Since blood pressure (BP) variability in daily life is primarily caused by physical activity, metabolic and nonmetabolic effects are confounded. A newly developed method of multiple accelerometry allows for the control of such unwanted variances by continuously detecting posture, general activity, and distinct movement patterns. Contingent on episodes of additional heart rate (AHR), an indicator of emotional reactivity, BP measurements can be triggered and participants prompted to enter their current mood in a handheld PC. To evaluate both new methods for BP research, we performed 24-h ambulatory monitoring with 40 normotensive student participants, an evaluation designed to include standard settings for a controlled comparison (library vs. cinema). Findings indicated that the group at the cinema showed higher values of AHR, but group differences in BP were not observed. On the whole, such multiple accelerometry and interactive monitoring appear to be useful methods in behavior research. PMID:17958150

  3. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  4. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  5. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  6. A "second window of protection" occurs 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1998-06-01

    We and others found that cardioprotection is acquired not only soon after, but also 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in canine and rabbit myocardial infarction models (second window of protection). However, a second window phenomenon against myocardial infarction was dependent on species limitations and has not been observed in porcine hearts. In this study, we examined whether the "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction is observed in the rat heart. In the ischemic preconditioning (IP) group, the left main coronary artery (LCA) of rats was occluded four times for 3 min. each separated by reperfusion for 10 min. After 0, 3, and 24 h, the rats were subjected to a 20-min LCA occlusion followed by 48-h reperfusion. At 0 and 24 h after IP, infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia were significantly reduced compared with corresponding sham-operated groups without preconditioning. After 3 h of IP, there were no differences either in the incidence of VF during ischemia or in infarct size. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) content in ischemic (LCA) region of myocardium significantly increased as compared with that of sham-operated rats 24 h after IP. Treatment with N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, an antioxidant and a hydroxyl radical scavenger, during IP abolished the early-phase (0 h after IP) and late-phase (24 h after IP) cardioprotection and the corresponding late increase in Mn-SOD content. These results indicate that a "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction also exists in rat hearts and the induction of an intrinsic scavenger, Mn-SOD, via free radical production during IP may be important in the second window of protection. PMID:9689592

  7. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  8. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  9. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  10. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  11. Ovine platelet function is unaffected by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the first 24 h.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rylan A; Foley, Samuel; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; McDonald, Charles; Fraser, John F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated platelet dysfunction during short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and secondarily to determine if hyperoxaemia contributes to this dysfunction. Healthy sheep were anaesthetized and maintained on ECMO for either 2 or 24 h, with or without induction of smoke inhalation acute lung injury. A specialized animal-operating theatre was used to conduct the experimentation. Forty-three healthy female sheep were randomized into either a test or a control group. Following anaesthesia, test groups received ECMO ± smoke inhalation acute lung injury (SALI), whereas control groups were maintained with ventilation only ± SALI. Physiological, biochemical and coagulation data were obtained throughout via continuous monitoring and blood sampling. Platelet function was quantified through whole blood impedance aggregometry using Multiplate. Ovine platelet activity induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was unaffected during the first 24 h of ECMO. However, progressive divergence of ADP-induced platelet activity was noted at cessation of the experiment. PaO2 was inversely related to ADP-dependent platelet activity in the ECMO groups--a relationship not identified in the control groups. ADP and collagen-dependent platelet activity are not significantly affected within the first 24 h of ECMO in sheep. However, dysfunction in ADP-dependent platelet activity may have continued to develop if observed beyond 24 h. Hyperoxaemia during ECMO does appear to affect how platelets react to ADP and may contribute to this developing dysfunction. Long-term animal models and investigation in clinical animals are warranted to fully investigate platelet function during ECMO. PMID:26196193

  12. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  13. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear. PMID:26328470

  14. Lactotripeptides effect on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure stress response, pulse wave velocity and cardiac output in patients with high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Gerocarni, Beatrice; Bacchelli, Stefano; Veronesi, Maddalena; Strocchi, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Contrasting data partially support a certain antihypertensive efficacy of lactotripeptides (LTPs) derived from enzymatic treatment of casein hydrolysate. Our aim was to evaluate this effect on a large number of hemodynamic parameters. We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial, which included 52 patients affected by high-normal blood pressure (BP) or first-degree hypertension. We investigated the effect of a 6-week treatment with the LTPs isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline at 3 mg per day, assumed to be functional food, on office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) values, stress-induced BP increase and cardiac output-related parameters. In the LTP-treated subjects, we observed a significant reduction in office systolic BP (SBP; -5±8 mm Hg, P=0.013) and a significant improvement in pulse wave velocity (PWV; -0.66±0.81 m s(-1), P=0.001; an instrumental biomarker of vascular rigidity). No effect on 24-h ABPM parameters and BP reaction to stress was observed from treatment with the combined LTPs. LTPs, but not placebo, were associated with a mild but significant change in the stroke volume (SV), SV index (markers of cardiac flow), the acceleration index (ACI) and velocity index (VI) (markers of cardiac contractility). No effect was observed on parameters related to fluid dynamics or vascular resistance. LTPs positively influenced the office SBP, PWV, SV, SV index, ACI and VI in patients with high-normal BP or first-degree hypertension. PMID:21753776

  15. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  16. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  17. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  18. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies. PMID:26652593

  19. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    PubMed

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. PMID:26718783

  20. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of −0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: −0.40 to −0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  1. Identifying waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in adults using an automated algorithm.

    PubMed

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Willems, Paul J B; van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Bosma, Hans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-10-01

    As accelerometers are commonly used for 24-h measurements of daily activity, methods for separating waking from sleeping time are necessary for correct estimations of total daily activity levels accumulated during the waking period. Therefore, an algorithm to determine wake and bed times in 24-h accelerometry data was developed and the agreement of this algorithm with self-report was examined. One hundred seventy-seven participants (aged 40-75 years) of The Maastricht Study who completed a diary and who wore the activPAL3™ 24 h/day, on average 6 consecutive days were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and the Bland-Altman method was used to examine associations between the self-reported and algorithm-calculated waking hours. Mean self-reported waking hours was 15.8 h/day, which was significantly correlated with the algorithm-calculated waking hours (15.8 h/day, ICC = 0.79, P = < 0.001). The Bland-Altman plot indicated good agreement in waking hours as the mean difference was 0.02 h (95% limits of agreement (LoA) = -1.1 to 1.2 h). The median of the absolute difference was 15.6 min (Q1-Q3 = 7.6-33.2 min), and 71% of absolute differences was less than 30 min. The newly developed automated algorithm to determine wake and bed times was highly associated with self-reported times, and can therefore be used to identify waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:26837855

  2. Local 24-h hyperglycemia does not affect endothelium-dependent or -independent vasoreactivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Houben, A J; Schaper, N C; de Haan, C H; Huvers, F C; Slaaf, D W; de Leeuw, P W; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, C

    1996-06-01

    Hyperglycemia induces regional hemodynamic changes, as suggested by animal studies. These hemodynamic changes may play an initiating role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute local hyperglycemia for 24 h on basal human forearm muscle and skin blood flow and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasoreactivity. Local hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mM) was induced by infusion of 5% glucose into the brachial artery of the nondominant arm. In control experiments, the same individual amount of glucose was infused intravenously in the dominant arm to correct for possible systemic effects of the infused glucose. Vasoreactivity of the forearm vasculature was evaluated by local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and norepinephrine (NE) into the brachial artery. Regional hemodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 h of local hyperglycemia. Median (with interquartile range) basal forearm (muscle) blood flow (FBF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [infused-to-contralateral arm FBF ratio for glucose 1.32 (1.16-1.64) vs. control 1.54 (1.34-1.69)]. Skin microcirculatory blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [LDF ratio for glucose 1.00 (0.62-1.56) vs control 0.80 (0.58-1.14)]. In addition, the vasoreactivity of both muscle and skin (not shown) vasculature to ACh [percent change in FBF ratio for glucose 167% (81-263) vs. control 148% (94-211)], SNP [for glucose 486% (178-586) vs. control 293% (196-454)], L-NMMA [for glucose -36% (-56 to -22) vs. control -41% (-51 to -24)], and NE [for glucose -48% (-72 to -41) vs. control -66% (-79 to -33)] was also not affected by the local hyperglycemia. Thus, in contrast to animal studies, our results suggest that a moderate-to-severe hyperglycemia does not affect the regulation of basal blood flow or

  3. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  4. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  5. Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  6. Creatinine measurements in 24 h urine by liquid chromatography--tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Watanabe, Takaho; Gee, Shirley J; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-01-23

    A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining urinary creatinine was developed and used to evaluate 24 h urine samples collected during an exposure study. Urine (1 microL) was diluted with methanol and then directly applied to LC-MS/MS. Under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, the transition molecules of creatinine and creatinine- d3 were observed at m/ z 114 > 44 and m/ z 117 > 47, respectively. The retention time of creatinine was 0.59 min. The linear range was 1-2000 ng/mL, with a detection limit in urine of 1 ng/mL. LC-MS/MS and colorimetric end-point methods were significantly associated ( R2 = 0.8785, p < 0.0001). The LC-MS/MS method to determine creatinine in 24 h urine samples had shorter retention times, was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, simple, selective, and used a smaller sample size than other LC-MS/MS or commercial methods. PMID:18092755

  7. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  8. [Assessment of duodenogastric reflux 24h variability in subjects with functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Marek; Chojnacki, Jan; Gil, Jerzy; Piotrowski, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia demonstrate significant variability, among others dependently on the time of the day and on consumed meals. The aim of the study was to find out whether duodenogastric reflux is observed in subjects with nonulcer (NUD) and dysmotor dyspepsia (DD) and whether its intensification changes within 24 h. Investigations comprised 25 subjects with NUD and 25 with DD, aged 19-43 years after exclusion of other diseases and H. pylori infection. The gastric content of bilirubin was registered with Bilitec 2000 Synectics Medical. Duodenogastric reflux episodes were observed in both groups but their intensification and 24h dynamics were differentiated. In subjects with DD total reflux index was significantly higher than in those with NUD (mean=18.0+/-9.5% and mean=6.3+/-4.1%; p<0.05). These differences were particularly visible in after meal (mean=21.2+/-7.9% and mean=10.4+/-6.6%; p<0.01) and night time (mean=8.7+/-3.6% and mean=2.9+/-0.9%; p<0.01). The results of the study indicate that bilimetry may be useful in differentiation of the form of dyspepsia and in selection of rational therapy. PMID:15603369

  9. Preliminary estimation of deoxynivalenol excretion through a 24 h pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-03-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method's accuracy was in a range of 68%-108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  10. New GH16 β-glucanase from Paenibacillus barcinonensis BP-23 releases a complex pattern of mixed-linkage oligomers from barley glucan.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Liliana Alexandra; Valenzuela, Susana Valeria; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, Francisco I Javier

    2016-01-01

    The gene coding for a lichenase from Paenibacillus barcinonensis BP-23, a powerful carbohydrate-degrading strain, was obtained using a genome walking strategy and expressed in Escherichia coli for further characterization. The amino acid sequence deduced from lic16A revealed that the lichenase is a single-domain enzyme belonging to the GH16 family. Purified recombinant Lic16A showed exclusive activity on β-1,3-1,4-glucans, showing a Km of 16.88 mg/mL and a Vmax of 266.09 U/mg using lichenan as a substrate. Lic16A was stable at 55 °C for at least 3 H in moderate pH conditions. Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that the enzyme released a complex mixture of hydrolysis products, which consisted of different length oligosaccharides of intermediate mobility among cellooligomers. The health benefits of β-glucans's consumption and the increased interest for the use of their oligomers as prebiotics add interest to the study of Lic16A for the production of β-glucan-derived oligosaccharides and the evaluation of their biotechnological potential. This is the first report on β-1,3-1,4-glucanase produced by P. barcinonensis. PMID:25603884

  11. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  12. Twice Daily Melatonin Peaks in Siberian but not Syrian Hamsters under 24 h Light:Dark:Light:Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raiewski, Evan E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Glickman, Gena L.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The daily pattern of blood borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the day scotophase of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ~ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset, and duration of nocturnal secretion. PMID:23003567

  13. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  14. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  15. A human calorimeter for the direct and indirect measurement of 24 h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J; Murgatroyd, P R; Cole, T J

    1978-05-01

    1. A calorimeter for the continuous measurement of heat production and heat loss in the human subject, for at least 24 h, is described. The calorimeter operated on the heat-sink principle for direct calorimetry and an open-circuit system for indirect calorimetry. 2. Sensible heat loss was measured using a water-cooled heat exchanger, and the temperature of water entering the heat exchanger was controlled to maintain a mean temperature gradient of zero across the chamber walls. 3. Evaporative heat loss was determined from ingoing and outgoing wet-and-dry bulb temperatures and air flow-rates. 4. Problems associated with the calculation of evapoative heat loss and the estimation of the volume of incoming air in open-circuit systems are considered. 5. The calibration, limits of accuracy, sources of error and experiments with subjects are discussed. PMID:638125

  16. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  17. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  18. Using multilevel path analysis in analyzing 24-h ambulatory physiological recordings applied to medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L; Van Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2010-05-01

    A non-clinical group high on heterogeneous medically unexplained symptoms (MUS; n=97) was compared with healthy controls (n=66) on the within-subject relationships between physiological measures using multilevel path analysis. Momentary experienced somatic complaints, mood (tension and depression), cardiac autonomic activity (inter-beat intervals, pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) and respiration (rate and partial pressure of CO(2) at the end of a normal expiration) were monitored for 24 h using electronic diary and ambulatory devices. Relationships between measures were controlled for diurnal variation and individual means. Only subtle group differences were found in the diurnal rhythm and in the within-subject relationships between physiological measures. For participants high on MUS, within-subject changes in bodily symptoms were related to changes in mood, but only marginally to the physiological measures. Results of the current path analysis confirm the subordinate role of cardiac autonomic and respiratory parameters in MUS. PMID:20030762

  19. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans.

    PubMed

    Wright, K P; Hughes, R J; Kronauer, R E; Dijk, D J; Czeisler, C A

    2001-11-20

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day. PMID:11717461

  20. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  1. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  2. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  3. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  4. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antônio F M; Moresco, James; Yates, John R; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  5. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  6. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  7. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  8. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  9. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability. PMID:22387713

  10. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With...

  11. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  12. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  13. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. PMID:26253560

  14. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  15. Cognitive Efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 Versus 4.6 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Richard S; Ferris, Steven; Velting, Drew M; Meng, Xiangyi

    2016-05-01

    Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) data from the 24-week, randomized, double-blind ACTivities of daily living and cognitION (ACTION) study suggest that patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) benefit from treatment with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to further examine the cognitive efficacy of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on individual SIB items, and SIB domains derived using factor analysis of these items. Change from baseline at Week 24 on 9 new factor-defined domains and individual items was calculated and compared using effect sizes (Cohen's d). Numerically less decline was observed with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h patch on all domains and the majority of individual items. Largest least squares mean treatment differences were observed on "visuospatial reasoning," "object naming," "recognition," "design copying," "social agency," "ideational praxis," and "comprehension" domains. These findings suggest 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch demonstrates broad cognitive efficacy across a range of SIB items and domains in patients with severe AD. PMID:26371345

  16. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  17. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  18. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  19. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  20. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  1. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  2. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  3. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

  4. Nqrs Data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

  5. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time. PMID:27242271

  6. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  7. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  8. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  9. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on 24-h energy expenditure and chronic disease risk factors in men123

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jamie A; Watras, Abigail C; Adams, Alexandra K; Schoeller, Dale A

    2009-01-01

    Background: A high-fat (HF) diet and sedentary lifestyle are implicated in the development of obesity. Controlled feeding studies and measures of short-term resting energy expenditure (REE) have suggested that the type of dietary fat may alter energy expenditure (EE). Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of an HF diet rich in either monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and of exercise on EE and chronic disease risk factors. Design: Eight healthy men [age: 18–45 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22 ± 3] were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 crossover design to 1 of 4 treatments: HF diet (50% of energy) with a high amount of saturated fat (22% of energy) plus exercise (SE) or a sedentary (SS) condition or a diet high in monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) plus exercise (UE) or a sedentary (US) condition. The subjects spent 5 d in a metabolic chamber and cycled at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day during the exercise visits. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were measured to determine 24-h EE. Resting metabolic rate was measured on days 2, 4, and 6. Results: Average 24-h EE was not different with respect to dietary FA composition (3202 ± 146, 3208 ± 151, 2240 ± 82, and 2270 ± 104 for SE, UE, SS, and US, respectively). Total and LDL cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly greater after the SE and SS treatments than after the UE and US treatments. Conclusion: Resting metabolic rate and 24-h EE were not significantly different after short-term exposure to an HF diet rich in monounsaturated FAs or after exposure to a diet rich in saturated FAs in healthy, nonobese men. PMID:19321562

  10. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure. PMID:26310187

  11. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  12. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  13. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  14. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  15. The preparation of BP single crystals by high pressure flux method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Misawa, S.; Gonda, S.

    1984-01-01

    Single crystals of BP, a III-V compound semiconductor, were obtained by the high pressure flux method. Cu3P and Ni12P5 powders were used as the flux, and mixed with BP powder. Two kinds of mixtures were prepared: (1) 1.8g (BP) + 35 G (Cu3P) and (2) 1.7 g (BP) + 25 g (Ni12P5). They were compressed into pellets, heated at 1300 C for 24 h in an induction furnace under a pressure of 1 MPa using Ar-P2 gas, and slowly cooled to room temperature. In case (1), BP single crystals grew along the (III) plane, and in case (2) they grew as an aggregate of crystallites. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the synthetic BP crystals showed peaks near 680 nm (1.82 eV) for case (1), and 500 nm (2.47 eV) for case (2). By using the high pressure flux method conventional sized crystals were obtained in a relatively short time.

  16. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  17. Nintendo® Wii Fit based sleepiness tester detects impairment of postural steadiness due to 24 h of wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Tietäväinen, Aino; Gates, Fred K; Meriläinen, Antti; Mandel, Jeff E; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-12-01

    A field-usable sleepiness tester could reduce sleepiness related accidents. 15 subjects' postural steadiness was measured with a Nintendo(®) Wii Fit balance board every hour for 24 h. Body sway was quantified with complexity index, CI, and the correlation between CI and alertness predicted by a three-process model of sleepiness was calculated. The CI group average was 8.9 ± 1.3 for alert and 7.9 ± 1.4 for sleep deprived subjects (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.94). The Wii Fit board detects the impairment of postural steadiness. This may allow large scale sleepiness testing outside the laboratory setting. PMID:24054980

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  19. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  20. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  1. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  3. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 h after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats Is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtha, Lucy A.; Beard, Daniel J.; Bourke, Julia T.; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-3 h occlusion) was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19–20 months. At 1 h after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 h hypothermia-treatment (32.5°C) or normothermia (37°C). ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 h post-occlusion, and at 24 h post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03). Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 h post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients. PMID:27303291

  4. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required. PMID:26810972

  5. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Eric K.; Caufield, Christina R.; Lowe, Jordan B.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Davis, Brett A.; Thigpen, Lauren K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  6. Two or 24 h of daily contact with sexually active males results in different profiles of LH secretion that both lead to ovulation in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, M; Duarte, G; Flores, J A; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Hernández, H; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to (a) determine whether sexually active males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of anestrous female goats when duration of contact is reduced to an intermittent contact shorter than 4 daily hours and (b) compare the pattern of secretion of LH when anestrous goats are exposed either permanently or intermittently to males. In the first experiment, 4 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed to sexually active males for 24, 4, 2, or 1 h/d during 15 consecutive days, whereas control females remained isolated. More than 89% of females in the groups exposed to the sexually active bucks ovulated, whereas only 5% did so in the control group (P < 0.001). However, the proportion of females ovulating before day 4 was greater in the 2-, 4-, or 24-h contact groups than in the control, whereas it did not differ between the control group and the 1-h contact group (P = 0.02, <0.001, <0.001 and 0.23, respectively). In the second experiment, 3 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed permanently (24 h/d) or intermittently (2 h/d) to bucks during 5 d or remained isolated. We found that pulsatility of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased in the intermittent and permanent contact groups after males were introduced to females (P = 0.05); this pulsatility of LH remained elevated in the permanent-contact group, whereas it decreased in the intermittent-contact group, once the male was removed (P = 0.32 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that 1 or 2 daily hours of contact with sexually active males is sufficient to stimulate ovulatory activity in anovulatory goats; however, ovulation is obtained through a different pattern of secretion of LH. PMID:24906934

  7. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be firmly attached to the chest so the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High-voltage areas Magnets Metal detectors Continue ...

  8. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart medicine It may be used to diagnose: Atrial fibrillation or flutter Multifocal atrial tachycardia Palpitations Paroxysmal supraventricular ... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 62. Read More Arrhythmias Atrial fibrillation or flutter Chest pain Electrocardiogram Fainting Heart attack ...

  9. Patterns of sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure in the African Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Tayo, B O; Luke, A; McKenzie, C A; Kramer, H; Cao, G; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Forrester, T; Adeyemo, A A; Cooper, R S

    2012-05-01

    Habitual levels of dietary sodium and potassium are correlated with age-related increases in blood pressure (BP) and likely have a role in this phenomenon. Although extensive published evidence exists from randomized trials, relatively few large-scale community surveys with multiple 24-h urine collections have been reported. We obtained three 24-h samples from 2704 individuals from Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States to evaluate patterns of intake and within-person relationships with BP. The average (±s.d.) age and weight of the participants across all the three sites were 39.9±8.6 years and 76.1±21.2 kg, respectively, and 55% of the total participants were females. Sodium excretion increased across the East-West gradient (for example, 123.9±54.6, 134.1±48.8, 176.6±71.0 (±s.d.) mmol, Nigeria, Jamaica and US, respectively), whereas potassium was essentially unchanged (for example, 46.3±22.9, 40.7±16.1, 44.7±16.4 (±s.d.) mmol, respectively). In multivariate analyses both sodium (positively) and potassium (negatively) were strongly correlated with BP (P<0.001); quantitatively the association was stronger, and more consistent in each site individually, for potassium. The within-population day-to-day variation was also greater for sodium than for potassium. Among each population group, a significant correlation was observed between sodium and urine volume, supporting the prior finding of sodium as a determinant of fluid intake in free-living individuals. These data confirm the consistency with the possible role of dietary electrolytes as hypertension risk factors, reinforcing the relevance of potassium in these populations. PMID:21593783

  10. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-02-27

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  11. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3−/− mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  12. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  13. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h) leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control), constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling), and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination). In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing leaves and roots of the same

  14. Refined multiscale entropy: application to 24-h Holter recordings of heart period variability in healthy and aortic stenosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Valencia, José Fernando; Porta, Alberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clarià, Francesc; Baranowski, Rafal; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Caminal, Pere

    2009-09-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) was proposed to characterize complexity as a function of the time-scale factor tau. Despite its broad use, this technique suffers from two limitations: 1) the artificial MSE reduction due to the coarse graining procedure and 2) the introduction of spurious MSE oscillations due to the suboptimal procedure for the elimination of the fast temporal scales. We propose a refined MSE (RMSE), and we apply it to simulations and to 24-h Holter recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from healthy and aortic stenosis (AS) groups. The study showed that the refinement relevant to the elimination of the fast temporal scales was more helpful at short scales (spanning the range of short-term HRV oscillations), while that relevant to the procedure of coarse graining was more useful at large scales. In healthy subjects, during daytime, RMSE was smaller at short scales (i.e., tau = 1-2) and larger at longer scales (i.e., tau = 4-20) than during nighttime. In AS population, RMSE was smaller during daytime both at short and long time scales (i.e., tau = 1 -11) than during nighttime. RMSE was larger in healthy group than in AS population during both daytime (i.e., tau = 2 -9) and nighttime (i.e., tau = 2). RMSE overcomes two limitations of MSE and confirms the complementary information that can be derived by observing complexity as a function of the temporal scale. PMID:19457745

  15. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. PMID:24074803

  16. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  17. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  18. BP details new recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-04-22

    BP Chemicals (London) is developing a preprocessing thermal cracker for recycling mixed plastics waste as an add-on to existing petrochemicals or refinery complexes. The company is currently discussing the technology with other plastic producers to {open_quotes}move forward together,{close_quotes} say Serge Huybrechts, branch R&D manager at BP Chemicals at Grangemouth. He says the unit would be able to deliver an intermediate feed of similar composition to chemical naphtha for chemical or refinery processes including steam cracking, catalytic cracking, coking, gasification, and hydrocracking. In comparison, pyrolysis gives a range of products, from light gas to heavy aromatics, that are difficult to integrate into existing equipment.

  19. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  20. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  1. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  2. Dose-finding and 24-h monitoring for efficacy and safety of aerosolized Nacystelyn in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    App, E M; Baran, D; Dab, I; Malfroot, A; Coffiner, M; Vanderbist, F; King, M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the tolerability and activity of a novel mucolytic drug, Nacystelyn (NAL), for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In study 1, involving 10 CF patients, the main objective was to determine the tolerability and potential efficacy of a range of single doses of NAL in comparison to a placebo, in order to establish an optimal dose for further testing. On five consecutive scheduled treatment days, patients inhaled either from two (4 mg) to eight puffs (16 mg) of a single dose of NAL from the range, administered in an open-label fashion, or 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) versus 12 puffs of placebo, administered in a randomized double-blind fashion. Pulmonary function data were unaffected and clinically-adverse effects were limited to wheezing in some patients that inhaled 12 puffs of either placebo or active drug. Subsequent rheological analysis of their sputum showed a dose-dependent decrease in sputum viscoelasticity, accompanied by a decrease in sputum solids content and an increase in chloride and sodium concentrations. In study 2, involving 12 CF patients, the clinical safety and mucolytic activity of a single dose of NAL was monitored over 24 h. On different scheduled treatment days, 7 days apart, patients inhaled a single dose of 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) or 12 puffs of placebo drug in a randomized, double-blind sequence, with sputum samples taken at intervals before and after inhalation. Mucus rigidity decreased following NAL inhalation, with the maximum effect observed at 4 h; the 1-, 2- and 4-h NAL rheology results were significantly different from placebo. No adverse effects were observed. The drug was well tolerated in both studies. Sputum results were predictive of improved clearability by ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. PMID:11866009

  3. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-09-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0.2 ft3 s-1 to more than 20 ft3 s-1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (<2 mg l-1). These results show that infrequent storm events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  4. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  5. The importance of bioimpedance (BIA) analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in the dialysis programme.

    PubMed

    Löcsey, L; Szlanka, B; Ménes, I; Kövér, A; Vitai, E; Malkócs, Z; Keresztes, P; Paragh, G

    1999-01-01

    The authors performed bioimpedance analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in 66 patients (28 males, 38 females) treated in the chronic haemodialysis programme. They investigated the correlations between the body weights before, during and after dialysis, the changes of the water compartments and fat body weight, and the recorded values of blood pressure and ECG alterations. On the basis of the measurements by this non-invasive method it is concluded that, as a result of dialysis and ultrafiltration, the total body weight and total body water are decreasing in a greater extent in men than in women. By gradually decreasing the body weight, the optimal dry weight could be attained, which resulted in the reduction of blood pressure or even normotension. In the course of dialysis the values of bioimpedance and bioreactance increase. The intradialytic hypotensive indispositions were accompanied by a significant reduction of bioreactance (n = 16). The BMI, total body weight and total body water hyperlipidaemic, hypalbuminic patients with treatment-resistant hypertension are considerably larger than those of the patients with normal blood pressure (p<0.01). During Cardio Tens monitoring 53% of the patients proved to be dippers, 47% of whom had ST depression, while in 73% of the non-dippers ischaemic alterations were encountered together with high hyperbaric impact values. The total body weights and total water compartments of patients returning to dialysis with an excess body weight of more than 3.5 kg were significantly larger than of patients who were cooperative and had no oedemas. In the last hour of dialysis and during the following few hours, arrhythmias and ST depressions of the cardiovascularly instable patients appeared more frequently. The total water compartments of these patients are significantly larger than normotensive, normolipaemic patients with appropriate serum albumin concentrations. The importance of the BIA and Cardio Tens monitoring

  6. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  7. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  8. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  9. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the 24-h virological response to PEG-interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, G; Scribano, L; Realdon, S; Marcolongo, M; Mirandola, S; Franceschini, L; Bonisegna, S; Noventa, F; Plebani, M; Martines, D; Alberti, A

    2010-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces response to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), but the mechanisms are still undefined. We examined the relationship between baseline insulin levels, the main component affecting homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessment of IR in non-diabetic patients, and the 'acute' virological response to PEG-IFN measured 24 h after the first injection and taken as correlate of intracellular interferon signalling. In 62 patients treated with PEG-IFN/Ribavirin, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were assessed at baseline, while hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was measured at baseline and 24 h, 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Sustained virological response was examined 24 weeks after therapy discontinuation. Mean baseline insulin was 11.52 +/- 8.51 U/L and mean HOMA-IR was 2.65 +/- 2.01 both being significantly higher with advanced liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C virus-RNA decay observed 24 h after the first injection of PEG-IFN was significantly lower (0.7 +/- 0.8 log) in patients with HOMA > or =3 compared with those with HOMA <3 (1.7 +/- 0.8, P = 0.001). A highly significant (r = -0.42) inverse correlation was observed between baseline insulin levels and the 24-h HCV-RNA decay. The difference in early viral kinetics between patients with HOMA > or =3 or <3 resulted in a significant difference in the percentage of patients achieving rapid (week 4) and sustained virological response. Multivariate analysis, inclusive of patient age, HCV genotype and fibrosis stage, identified baseline insulin levels as the main independent variable affecting the 24-h response to PEG-IFN. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the cellular response to Pegylated-interferon in CHC with IR. Strategies to reduce insulin levels before initiation of treatment should be pursued to improve efficacy of anti-viral treatment. PMID:19878535

  10. Ultra-early microsurgical treatment within 24 h of SAH improves prognosis of poor-grade aneurysm combined with intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUNHUI; ZHU, JUN; HE, JIANQING; WANG, YUHAI; CHEN, LEI; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JINGXU; YANG, LIKUN

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cerebrovascular disease. The conventional treatment for SAH is usually associated with high mortality. The present study aims to assess the prognosis of microsurgical treatment for patients with poor-grade aneurysm (Hunt and Hess grades IV–V) associated with intracerebral hematoma. A total of 18 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with poor-grade aneurysm accompanied with intracerebral hematoma were retrospectively recruited. All patients underwent microsurgical treatment between April 2010 and June 2013 at The 101st Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (Wuxi, China). Among them, 15 cases underwent microsurgery within 24 h of SAH, and 3 cases underwent microsurgery 24 h following SAH. All 18 cases were examined by computed tomography angiography (CTA). The outcome was assessed during a follow-up time of 6–36 months. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, 4 patients experienced a good recovery, 6 were dissatisfied with the outcome, 4 were in vegetative state and 4 succumbed to disease. Poor outcome occurred in patients with an aneurysm diameter >10 mm, exhibited >50 ml volume of intracerebral hematoma or presented cerebral hernia prior to the surgical operation. The outcome of ultra-early surgery (within 24 h of SAH) was improved, compared with that of surgery following 24 h of SAH (P=0.005). Among 7 patients who accepted extraventricular drainage, good outcomes were achieved in 4 of them, whereas dissatisfaction and mortality occurred in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. Therefore, ultra-early microsurgery (within 24 h of SAH) combined with extraventricular drainage may improve the prognosis of patients with poor-grade aneurysm. PMID:27123084

  11. Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Gill, Samantha K; Hankey, Joanne; Wright, Alice; Marczak, Slawomir

    2014-08-14

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be

  12. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan. PMID:27094140

  13. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  14. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data.In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample.The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women.In this nationwide

  15. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  16. Predictors of reported consumption of low-nutrient-density foods in a 24-h recall by 8-16 year old US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an explanatory model to predict the number of low-nutrient-density (LND) foods reported in a 24-h recall by US children and adolescents using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The reported number of LND foods was estimated from 24-h dietary recall data for 8-16 year old respondents (n=4137; 2024 males and 2113 females). The LND foods included--baked and dairy desserts, sweeteners, salty snacks, visible/discretionary fat, and miscellaneous. The predictive ability of socio-demographic, family, weight/dieting related, life-style or food consumption related subject characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. The strongest independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods was the amount of nutrient-dense foods from the five major food groups. In addition, number of eating occasions reported was a significant independent positive predictor, and the weekly frequency of consuming a complete school lunch was a significant independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods. These models explained approximately 55% of the variance in LND food reporting in both males and females. Socio-demographic, family, body weight, or lifestyle characteristics contributed little to predicting the number of LND foods reported in a 24-h recall. PMID:14550315

  17. Sleep Patterns and Behaviour in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Sue M.; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep problems have often been reported in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). How anomalies in 24-h sleep patterns relate to behaviour difficulties in children with different types of ID remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess 24-h sleep and behaviour patterns in children with a variety disorders including…

  18. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  19. Cardiovascular autonomic function analysis using approximate entropy from 24-h heart rate variability and its frequency components in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Shuo; Chen, Hui; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Fangjie

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular autonomic system status of diabetes patients using approximate entropy (ApEn) extracted from 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) and its frequency components. Materials and Methods A total of 29 healthy controls and 63 type 2 diabetes patients were included. Participants’ 24-h HRV signals were recorded, and decomposed and reconstructed into four frequency components: high, low, very low and ultra low. The total 24-h HRV and its four components were divided into 24 1-h segments. ApEn values were extracted and statistically analyzed. Four traditional HRV indices, namely standard deviation of the RR intervals, root mean square of successive differences, coefficient of variance of RR intervals and ratio of low to high power of HRV, were also calculated. Results The low-frequency component contained the most abundant non-linear information, so was potentially most suitable for studying the cardiovascular system status with non-linear methods. ApEn values extracted from low- and high-frequency components of healthy controls were higher than those of diabetes patients. Except for root mean square of successive differences, standard deviation of the RR intervals, low to high power of HRV and coefficient of variance of RR intervals of healthy controls were all higher than those of diabetes patients. Conclusions The results showed that ApEn contained information on disorders of autonomic system function of diabetes patients as traditional HRV indices in time and frequency domains. ApEn and three traditional indices showed accordance to some degree. Non-linear information in subcomponents of HRV was shown, which is potentially more effective for distinguishing healthy individuals and diabetes patients than that extracted from the total HRV. Compared with diabetes patients, the cardiovascular system of healthy controls showed information of higher complexity, and better regulation

  20. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christopher P; McCoy, John G; McKenna, James T; Connolly, Nina P; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2009-10-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea is primarily characterized by hypoxemia due to frequent apneic episodes and fragmentation of sleep due to the brief arousals that terminate the apneic episodes. Though neurobehavioral deficits frequently accompany sleep apnea, the relative roles of hypoxia versus sleep fragmentation are difficult to separate in apneic patients. Here, we assessed cognitive function as measured by water maze in the Fischer/Brown Norway (FBN) rat, comparing 24 h of sleep interruption (SI) to 24 h of intermittent hypoxia (IH), in order to dissociate their relative contributions to cognitive impairment. For SI, automated treadmills were used to induce brief ambulation in rats every 2 min, either prior to, or after, initial water maze acquisition training. IH was simulated by cycling environmental oxygen levels between 6% and 19% every 2 min, again either prior to, or after, acquisition. Twenty-four hours of IH exposure had no significant effect on either acquisition or retention, irrespective of whether IH occurred prior to, or after, acquisition. To replicate previous work, another group of rats, exposed to 3 days of IH (10 h/day) prior to acquisition, had impaired performance during acquisition. A comparison of the 24 h IH and 3 day IH findings suggests that a minimum amount of IH exposure is necessary to produce detectable spatial memory impairments. Although SI before acquisition had no effect on acquisition or later retention of the hidden platform location, SI after acquisition robustly impaired retention, indicating that spatial memory consolidation is more susceptible to the effects of sleep disruption than is the acquisition (learning) of spatial information. PMID:19643093

  1. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H; Bos, Willem Jan W

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night, thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from FAP by waveform filtering (transfer function) and generalized level (bias) correction that reduces the bias for short-term blood pressure records. OBJECTIVE To investigate if this methodology also decreases the extra bias during the night, thereby yielding a better estimate of the nocturnal dip. METHODS Twenty-four-hour FAP and BAP blood pressure recordings were simultaneously obtained in eight healthy normotensive volunteers and 14 patients with hypertension (ages 19-60 years), during standardized scheduled activities. The data were analysed off-line, applying the brachial reconstruction technique (reBAP) consisting of a waveform filter and level correction. Simultaneous beats yielded systolic, diastolic and mean pressures that were averaged per 30 min, per day, per night, per activity, over the 24-h period, and for volunteers and patients separately. RESULTS Over the full 24 h, FAP systolic, diastolic and mean values for the total group differed from BAP by +1 +/- 10, -8 +/- 7 and -10 +/- 8 mmHg (mean +/- SD), respectively. Similarly, reBAPs differed by +1 +/- 11, -2 +/- 7 and -2 +/- 7 mmHg. BAPs dipped by 20 +/- 8, 13 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively, during the night. These dips were overestimated by +8, +4 and +4 mmHg by FAP, but not by reBAP: -1, +1 and +1 mmHg. The volunteer and the patient groups showed slight differences in results, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The generalized reconstruction technique to obtain near-brachial pressure from non-invasive FAP almost completely removed bias over the full 24-h day-night period and improved tracking of diurnal changes for all three blood pressure values. PMID:12359976

  2. Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry1234

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Albu, Jeanine B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has shown a link between short sleep and obesity. Clinical studies suggest a role of increased energy intake in this relation, whereas the contributions of energy expenditure (EE) and substrate utilization are less clearly defined. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep curtailment on 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) by using whole-room indirect calorimetry under fixed-meal conditions. Design: Ten females aged 22–43 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) of 23.4–27.5 completed a randomized, crossover study. Participants were studied under short- (4 h/night) and habitual- (8 h/night) sleep conditions for 3 d, with a 4-wk washout period between visits. Standardized weight-maintenance meals were served at 0800, 1200, and 1900 with a snack at 1600. Measures included EE and RQ during the sleep episode on day 2 and continuously over 23 h on day 3. Results: Short compared with habitual sleep resulted in significantly higher (±SEM) 24-h EE (1914.0 ± 62.4 compared with 1822.1 ± 43.8 kcal; P = 0.012). EE during the scheduled sleep episode (0100–0500 and 2300–0700 in short- and habitual-sleep conditions, respectively) and across the waking episode (0800–2300) were unaffected by sleep restriction. RQ was unaffected by sleep restriction. Conclusions: Short compared with habitual sleep is associated with an increased 24-h EE of ∼92 kcal (∼5%)—lower than the increased energy intake observed in prior sleep-curtailment studies. This finding supports the hypothesis that short sleep may predispose to weight gain as a result of an increase in energy intake that is beyond the modest energy costs associated with prolonged nocturnal wakefulness. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01751581. PMID:24088722

  3. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space: III. Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1987-01-01

    Potatoes are among several crops under consideration for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) being proposed for space colonies. Efficient crop production for such life support systems will require near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. To determine this maximum for potato, cv. Norland plants were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C and harvested at 42, 63, 84, 105, 126 and 148 days from planting. At 42 days, plants were encaged in wire fence cylinders with a cross-sectional area of 0.2 m2. The dry weights (dwt) of tubers and of the entire plants increased under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 572 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h. At a spacing of 0.2 m2 per plant, the 148-day tuber production from plants under continuous light would equate to nearly 40 t ha-1 dry matter (200 t fresh weight), approximately twice that of exceptionally high field yields. Tuber productivity (g m-2 day-1) under the 24-h photoperiod reached a maximum of 29.4 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 126 days, but continued to rise throughout the experiment under the 12-h photoperiod, reaching 19.5 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 14 days, approximately 25 m2 would continuously provide the daily dietary energy requirements for one human. PMID:11539685

  4. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  5. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  6. Preclinical validation of a microarray method for full molecular karyotyping of blastomeres in a 24-h protocol

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D.S.; Gemelos, G.; Baner, J.; Ryan, A.; Cinnioglu, C.; Banjevic, M.; Ross, R.; Alper, M.; Barrett, B.; Frederick, J.; Potter, D.; Behr, B.; Rabinowitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been used in an attempt to determine embryonic aneuploidy. Techniques that use new molecular methods to determine the karyotype of an embryo are expanding the scope of PGS. METHODS We introduce a new method for PGS, termed ‘parental support’, which leverages microarray measurements from parental DNA to ‘clean’ single-cell microarray measurements on embryonic cells and explicitly computes confidence in each copy number call. The method distinguishes mitotic and meiotic copy errors and determines parental source of aneuploidy. RESULTS Validation with 459 single cells of known karyotype indicated that per-cell false-positive and false-negative rates are roughly equivalent to the ‘gold standard’ metaphase karyotype. The majority of the cells were run in parallel with a clinical commercial PGS service. Computed confidences were conservative and roughly concordant with accuracy. To examine ploidy in human embryos, the method was then applied to 26 disaggregated, cryopreserved, cleavage-stage embryos for a total of 134 single blastomeres. Only 23.1% of the embryos were euploid, though 46.2% of embryos were mosaic euploid. Mosaicism affected 57.7% of the embryos. Counts of mitotic and meiotic errors were roughly equivalent. Maternal meiotic trisomy predominated over paternal trisomy, and maternal meiotic trisomies were negatively predictive of mosaic euploid embryos. CONCLUSIONS We have performed a major preclinical validation of a new method for PGS and found that the technology performs approximately as well as a metaphase karyotype. We also directly measured the mechanism of aneuploidy in cleavage-stage human embryos and found high rates and distinct patterns of mitotic and meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:20100701

  7. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  8. Electronic states of BP, BP +, BP -, B 2P 2, B2P2- and B2P2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Oswald, Rainer; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander; Rosmus, Pavel

    2008-05-01

    Using augmented sextuple zeta basis sets and internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions, potential energy, electric dipole and transition moments have been computed for the X 3Π, a 1Σ +, b 1Π and A 3Σ - states of BP, X 2Σ + and A 2Π states of BP - and X 4Σ - and A 4Π states of BP +. From these data spectroscopic constants, radiative transition probabilities and photoelectron spectra of BP - and BP have been evaluated. The non-vanishing spin-orbit coupling elements between the four low lying triplet and singlet states of the neutral BP have also been calculated from MRCI wavefunctions. The treatment of the corresponding perturbations in the manifold of dense rovibrational states in the three lowest states would require a precise knowledge of the electronic excitation energies. Our best singlet-triplet separations (X-a) are calculated to be 2412 cm -1 (MRCI) and 2482 cm -1 (restricted coupled cluster with perturbative triples (RCCSD(T))) with an estimated error bound of about ±200 cm -1. All three states have long radiative lifetimes with cascading among the rovibrational levels of different states. The ionization energy IE e of BP is calculated to be 9.22 eV (MRCI) and 9.48 eV (RCCSD(T)), the electron affinity EA e 2.51 eV (MRCI) and 2.74 eV (RCCSD(T)). The photoelectron spectra of BP and BP - have been obtained from the Franck-Condon factors of the MRCI potentials. For the UV spectroscopy the dipole allowed radiative transition probabilities are given for A 3Σ - ↔ X 3Π, b 1Π ↔ a 1Σ + of BP, A 2Π ↔ X 2Σ + of BP - and A 4Π ↔ X 4Σ - of BP +. The ionization energy IE e of B 2P 2 of 8.71 eV and the electron affinity EA e of 2.34 eV have been calculated by the RCCSD(T)/aVQZ approach. Also the harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the electronic ground states of the ions B2P2+ and B2P2- are given.

  9. BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Katherine; Lee, Kathleen; Kovnir, Kirill

    2016-07-01

    Cubic boron phosphide, BP, is notorious for its difficult synthesis, thus preventing it from being a widely used material in spite of having numerous favorable technological properties. In the current work, three different methods of synthesis are developed and compared: from the high temperature reaction of elements, Sn flux assisted synthesis, and a solid state metathesis reaction. Structural and optical properties of the products synthesized from the three methods were thoroughly characterized. Solid state metathesis is shown to be the cleanest and most efficient method in terms of reaction temperature and time. Synthesis by Sn flux resulted in a novel Sn-doped BP compound. Undoped BP samples exhibit an optical bandgap of ∼2.2 eV while Sn-doped BP exhibits a significantly smaller bandgap of 1.74 eV. All synthesized samples show high stability in concentrated hydrochloric acid, saturated sodium hydroxide solutions, and fresh aqua regia.

  10. α1-adrenergic receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates clock genes and bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression through up-regulation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor IL-3 (Nfil3)/E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4).

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Togari, Akifumi

    2014-06-13

    Several studies have demonstrated that the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) plays an important role in regulating cell growth and function in osteoblasts. However, the physiological role of α1-AR signaling in bone metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, the stimulation of phenylephrine (PHE), a nonspecific α1-AR agonist, increased the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 and led to the rhythmic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. We also showed that Bmp4 mRNA expression peaked in bone near zeitgeber time 8 in a 24-h rhythm. Furthermore, the expression of Nfil3 and Bmp4 displayed a circadian pattern with opposing phases, which suggested that Nfil3 repressed the expression of the Bmp4 gene during a circadian cycle. On a molecular level, both loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that Nfil3/E4BP4 negatively regulated Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Furthermore, the systemic administration of PHE increased the expression of Nfil3 mRNA in bone, whereas it decreased that of Bmp4 mRNA. The expression of Bmp4 mRNA was decreased significantly by exposure to PHE, and this was concomitant with the increase in Nfil3 binding to the D-box-containing Bmp4 promoter region in MC3T3-E1 cells, which indicates that the expression of Nfil3 by α1-AR signaling can bind directly to the Bmp4 promoter and inhibit Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Our results suggest that α1-AR signaling regulates clock genes and Bmp4 expression in osteoblasts. Moreover, α1-AR signaling negatively regulated Bmp4 expression by up-regulating the transcriptional factor Nfil3/E4BP4 in osteoblasts. PMID:24794868

  11. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  12. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  13. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  14. New high proper motion stars with declinations between -5(deg) and -30(deg) , and right ascensions between 13h 30m and 24h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, H.; Costa, E.

    1999-10-01

    Proper motions, positions, finding charts and magnitudes are given for 293 newly discovered stars with proper motions larger than 0.15 arcsec/year. They are located between -5(deg) and -30(deg) in declination, and 13h 30m and 24h in right ascension. Their blue photographic magnitudes range from approximately 13.0 to 18.5. Six stars of the above sample have proper motions larger than 0.4 (0.401 to 0.534) arcsec/year. An estimated precision level between 7 and 13 mas/year was achieved for the proper motions. Table~2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html and figures~2 are available in the on-line edition of the journal at http://www.edpsciences.com

  15. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  16. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes. PMID:26435534

  17. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  18. Mitomycin C with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with biliary tract and periampullar carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Lin, Y C; Jan, Y Y; Liau, C T

    2001-04-01

    We have reported a 33% partial response rate with acceptable toxicity using weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in patients with far advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC). In this study, we added mitomycin (MMC) to 5-FU and LV in an attempt to improve the response rate and survival. From July 1997 to September 1999, 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with pathology-proven far advanced BTC and periampullar cancers were enrolled. The regimen consisted of MMC 10 mg/m(2) every 8 weeks combined with 5-FU 2600 mg/m(2) and LV 150 mg at a schedule of 24-h infusion weekly for 6 weeks followed by a 2 week break. There were 10 males and 15 females with a median age of 57 years (range 40-76). The sites of primary tumor were 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (CC), one perihilar CCs, three distal BTC, three gallbladder cancers (GB) and three periampullar cancers. A total of 148 sessions of chemotherapy were given with a mean of 8 (range 2-18). Nineteen patients were evaluable for response. The response rate was: 26% (five of 19) partial response, 42% (eight of 19) stable disease and 32% (six of 19) progressive disease. All of the patients were evaluable for toxicity. Toxicities more than grade III-IV were thrombocytopenia 16% (four of 25), leukopenia 12% (three of 25) and vomiting 4% (one of 25). There were four treatment-related deaths. The median time to disease progression was 3 months. The median survival was 6 months. A combination of MMC with weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV in patients with BTC did not improve the response rate, but produced more toxicity than weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV alone. PMID:11335790

  19. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  20. Distribution and variability of the 24-h average air exchange rates and interzonal flow rates in 26 Japanese residences in 5 seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Takamine, Koichi; Gamo, Masashi

    2011-07-01

    In this study, to evaluate the distribution of air exchange rates in Japan, daily, seasonal, and inter-residence variabilities were determined as well as the air exchange rate itself. In addition, airflows among multiple zones were also evaluated. For this purpose, the 24 h average air exchange rates and interzonal air flow rates were measured using a passive perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) method with three kinds of tracer gases for 1 week in three rooms of 26 Japanese residences over five seasons: summer and autumn of 2005, and winter, spring, and summer of 2006. During these seasons, the weekly average air exchange rates were found to be 1.6 ± 1.7, 0.58 ± 0.94, 0.61 ± 0.93, 1.2 ± 2.5, and 1.7 ± 1.8 h -1, respectively. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the air exchange rates differed significantly with respect to the seasons, residences, and interaction of seasons and residences ( p < 0.01). In addition, the air exchange rates in both summers and spring were statistically higher than those in autumn and winter (Sheffe test, p < 0.01). According to the ANOVA, the percentage contribution of inter-residence variability, seasonal variability, interaction of seasonal and inter-residence variabilities, and daily variability to the total variability of the 24 h average air exchange rates in the present survey was 51%, 44%, 3.7%, and 1.0%, respectively.

  1. Late preconditioning against myocardial stunning. An endogenous protective mechanism that confers resistance to postischemic dysfunction 24 h after brief ischemia in conscious pigs.

    PubMed

    Sun, J Z; Tang, X L; Knowlton, A A; Park, S W; Qiu, Y; Bolli, R

    1995-01-01

    Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3 of stage I). The recovery of systolic wall thickening (WTh) after the 10th reperfusion was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating that the myocardium had become preconditioned against "stunning." 10 d after stage I, pigs underwent again a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions for two consecutive days (days 1 and 2 of stage II). On day 1 of stage II, the recovery of WTh after the 10th reperfusion was similar to that noted on day 1 of stage I; on day 2 of stage II, however, the recovery of WTh was again markedly improved compared with day 1. Blockade of adenosine receptors with 8-p-sulfophenyl theophylline failed to prevent the development of preconditioning against stunning. Northern blot analysis demonstrated an increase in heat stress protein (HSP) 70 mRNA 2 h after the preconditioning ischemia; at this same time point, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a concentration of HSP70 in the nucleus and an overall increase in staining for HSP70. 24 h after the preconditioning ischemia, Western dot blot analysis demonstrated an increase in HSP70. This study indicates the existence of a new, previously unrecognized cardioprotective phenomenon. The results demonstrate that a brief ischemic stress induces a powerful, long-lasting (at least 48 h) adaptive response that renders the myocardium relatively resistant to stunning 24 h later (late preconditioning against stunning). This adaptive response disappears within 10 d after the last ischemic stress but can be reinduced by another ischemic stress. Unlike early and late preconditioning against infarction, late preconditioning against stunning is not blocked by adenosine receptor antagonists, and therefore appears to involve a mechanism different from that of other forms of preconditioning currently known. The increase in myocardial HSP70 is

  2. Phase II study of weekly vinorelbine and 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin as first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K H; Lu, Y S; Hsu, C H; Lin, J F; Chao, H J; Huang, T C; Chung, C Y; Chang, C S; Yang, C H; Cheng, A L

    2005-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of combining weekly vinorelbine (VNB) with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). Vinorelbine 25 mg m−2 30-min intravenous infusion, and high-dose 5-FU 2600 mg m−2 plus LV 300 mg m−2 24-h intravenous infusion (HDFL regimen) were given on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Between June 1999 and April 2003, 40 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were enrolled with a median age of 49 years (range: 36–68). A total of 25 patients had recurrent ABC, and 15 patients had primary metastatic diseases. The overall response rate for the intent-to-treat group was 70.0% (95% CI: 54–84%) with eight complete responses and 20 partial responses. All 40 patients were evaluated for survival and toxicities. Among a total of 316 cycles of VNB–HDFL given (average: 7.9: range: 4–14 cycles per patient), the main toxicity was Gr3/4 leucopenia and Gr3/4 neutropenia in 57 (18.0%) and 120 (38.0%) cycles, respectively. Gr1/2 infection and Gr1/2 stomatitis were noted in five (1.6%) and 59 (18.7%) cycles, respectively. None of the patients developed Gr3/4 stomatitis or Gr3/4 infection. Gr2/3 and Gr1 hand–foot syndrome was noted in two (5.0%) and 23 (57.5%) patients, respectively. Gr1 sensory neuropathy developed in three patients. The median time to progression was 8.0 months (range: 3–25.5 months), and the median overall survival was 25.0 months with a follow-up of 5.5 to 45+ months. This VNB–HDFL regimen is a highly active yet well-tolerated first-line treatment for ABC. PMID:15770209

  3. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  4. CtBP1 associates metabolic syndrome and breast carcinogenesis targeting multiple miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Paola; Dalton, Guillermo N.; Scalise, Georgina D.; Moiola, Cristian P.; Porretti, Juliana; Massillo, Cintia; Kordon, Edith; Gardner, Kevin; Zalazar, Florencia; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Vazquez, Elba S.; Meiss, Roberto; De Siervi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MeS) has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+/NADH ratio. High fat diet (HFD) increases intracellular NADH. We investigated the effect of CtBP1 hyperactivation by HFD intake on mouse breast carcinogenesis. We generated a MeS-like disease in female mice by chronically feeding animals with HFD. MeS increased postnatal mammary gland development and generated prominent duct patterns with markedly increased CtBP1 and Cyclin D1 expression. CtBP1 induced breast cancer cells proliferation. Serum from animals with MeS enriched the stem-like/progenitor cell population from breast cancer cells. CtBP1 increased breast tumor growth in MeS mice modulating multiple genes and miRNA expression implicated in cell proliferation, progenitor cells phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, mammary development and cell communication in the xenografts. These results define a novel function for CtBP1 in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26933806

  5. CtBP1 associates metabolic syndrome and breast carcinogenesis targeting multiple miRNAs.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Paola; Dalton, Guillermo N; Scalise, Georgina D; Moiola, Cristian P; Porretti, Juliana; Massillo, Cintia; Kordon, Edith; Gardner, Kevin; Zalazar, Florencia; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Vazquez, Elba S; Meiss, Roberto; De Siervi, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MeS) has been identified as a risk factor for breast cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a co-repressor of tumor suppressor genes that is activated by low NAD+/NADH ratio. High fat diet (HFD) increases intracellular NADH. We investigated the effect of CtBP1 hyperactivation by HFD intake on mouse breast carcinogenesis. We generated a MeS-like disease in female mice by chronically feeding animals with HFD. MeS increased postnatal mammary gland development and generated prominent duct patterns with markedly increased CtBP1 and Cyclin D1 expression. CtBP1 induced breast cancer cells proliferation. Serum from animals with MeS enriched the stem-like/progenitor cell population from breast cancer cells. CtBP1 increased breast tumor growth in MeS mice modulating multiple genes and miRNA expression implicated in cell proliferation, progenitor cells phenotype, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, mammary development and cell communication in the xenografts. These results define a novel function for CtBP1 in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:26933806

  6. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  7. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  8. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  9. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  10. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  11. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  12. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  13. Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We studied epigenetics, distribution pattern, kinetics, and diffusion of proteins recruited to spontaneous and γ-radiation-induced DNA lesions. We showed that PML deficiency leads to an increased number of DNA lesions, which was accompanied by changes in histone signature. In PML wt cells, we observed two mobile fractions of 53BP1 protein with distinct diffusion in spontaneous lesions. These protein fractions were not detected in PML-deficient cells, characterized by slow-diffusion of 53BP1. Single particle tracking analysis revealed limited local motion of 53BP1 foci in PML double null cells and local motion 53BP1 foci was even more reduced after γ-irradiation. However, radiation did not change co-localization between 53BP1 nuclear bodies and interchromatin granule-associated zones (IGAZs), nuclear speckles, or chromocenters. This newly observed interaction pattern imply that 53BP1 protein could be a part of not only DNA repair, but also process mediated via components accumulated in IGAZs, nuclear speckles, or paraspeckles. Together, PML deficiency affected local motion of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and changed composition and a number of irradiation-induced foci. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2583-2596, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27526954

  14. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during “peak” hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture “peak” spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600–1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011–2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012–2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km2). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  15. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during "peak" hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture "peak" spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600-1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011-2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012-2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km(2)). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  16. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2. PMID:27214512

  17. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration. PMID:18295446

  18. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  19. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  20. The 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 Microdeletion Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Devin M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 microdeletion can present with developmental and language delay, neurobehavioral disturbances and psychiatric problems. Autism, seizures, schizophrenia and mild dysmorphic features are less commonly seen. The 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 microdeletion involving four genes (i.e., TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2) is emerging as a recognized syndrome with a prevalence ranging from 0.57%–1.27% of patients presenting for microarray analysis which is a two to four fold increase compared with controls. Review of clinical features from about 200 individuals were grouped into five categories and included developmental (73%) and speech (67%) delays; dysmorphic ears (46%) and palatal anomalies (46%); writing (60%) and reading (57%) difficulties, memory problems (60%) and verbal IQ scores ≤75 (50%); general behavioral problems, unspecified (55%) and abnormal brain imaging (43%). Other clinical features noted but not considered as common were seizures/epilepsy (26%), autism spectrum disorder (27%), attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (35%), schizophrenia/paranoid psychosis (20%) and motor delay (42%). Not all individuals with the deletion are clinically affected, yet the collection of findings appear to share biological pathways and presumed genetic mechanisms. Neuropsychiatric and behavior disturbances and mild dysmorphic features are associated with genomic imbalances of the 15q11.2 BP1–BP2 region, including microdeletions, but with an apparent incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. PMID:25689425

  1. Asiago spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16bp ( = AT 2016adq), discovered by All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ), in CGCG 336-041 (Atel #8666) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm). Name | Discovery UT | Obs. Date UT |z | Type | Phase |Notes ASASSN-16bp | 20160209.61 | 20160211.11 |0.034194 | Ia | ~10d | (1) (1) Also known as SN2016adq in CGCG 336-041 (z=0.034194, d=145 Mpc, via NED).

  2. 15q11.2 microdeletion (BP1-BP2) and developmental delay, behaviour issues, epilepsy and congenital heart disease: a series of 52 patients.

    PubMed

    Vanlerberghe, Clémence; Petit, Florence; Malan, Valérie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Bouquillon, Sonia; Boute, Odile; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Delobel, Bruno; Duban, Bénédicte; Vallee, Louis; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Pigeyre, Marie; Lanco-Dosen, Sandrine; Plessis, Ghislaine; Gerard, Marion; Decamp, Matthieu; Mathieu, Michèle; Morin, Gilles; Jedraszak, Guillaume; Bilan, Frédéric; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Fauvert, Delphine; Roume, Joëlle; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Caumes, Roseline; Puechberty, Jacques; Genevieve, David; Sarda, Pierre; Pinson, Lucie; Blanchet, Patricia; Lemeur, Nathalie; Sheth, Frenny; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Andrieux, Joris

    2015-03-01

    Proximal region of chromosome 15 long arm is rich in duplicons that, define five breakpoints (BP) for 15q rearrangements. 15q11.2 microdeletion between BP1 and BP2 has been previously associated with developmental delay and atypical psychological patterns. This region contains four highly-conserved and non-imprinted genes: NIPA1, NIPA2, CYFIP1, TUBGCP5. Our goal was to investigate the phenotypes associated with this microdeletion in a cohort of 52 patients. This copy number variation (CNV) was prevalent in 0.8% patients presenting with developmental delay, psychological pattern issues and/or multiple congenital malformations. This was studied by array-CGH at six different French Genetic laboratories. We collected data from 52 unrelated patients (including 3 foetuses) after excluding patients with an associated genetic alteration (known CNV, aneuploidy or known monogenic disease). Out of 52 patients, mild or moderate developmental delay was observed in 68.3%, 85.4% had speech impairment and 63.4% had psychological issues such as Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Seizures were noted in 18.7% patients and associated congenital heart disease in 17.3%. Parents were analysed for abnormalities in the region in 65.4% families. Amongst these families, 'de novo' microdeletions were observed in 18.8% and 81.2% were inherited from one of the parents. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity were observed amongst the patients. Our results support the hypothesis that 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microdeletion is associated with developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, generalized epilepsy and congenital heart disease. The later feature has been rarely described. Incomplete penetrance and variability of expression demands further assessment and studies. PMID:25596525

  3. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  4. Nephrotoxicity of selectively deuterated and methylated analogues of Tris-BP and Bis-BP in the rat.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1988-03-01

    Selectively deuterated and methylated analogues of the flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris-BP) and its nephrotoxic metabolite bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Bis-BP) were compared to Tris-BP and Bis-BP in inducing acute renal damage in rats. None of the deuterated Tris-BP or Bis-BP analogues significantly altered morphological evidence of nephrotoxicity compared to the protio compounds. On the other hand, some of the selectively methylated analogues were much less nephrotoxic. Although the C1-methyl analogues of both Tris-BP and Bis-BP were as potent nephrotoxicants as Tris-BP and Bis-BP, respectively, neither the C2-methyl nor the C3-methyl analogues were significantly nephrotoxic. Interestingly, whereas the 3,4-dibromobutyl homologue of Tris-BP was not nephrotoxic, the corresponding 3,4-dibromobutyl-Bis homologue was as nephrotoxic as Bis-BP. Additional investigations with treatments that are known to decrease nephrotoxicity caused by several halogenated alkenes, showed that L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid (AT-125) and aminooxyacetic acid were without effects on Tris-BP induced renal damage. Probenecid pretreatment led to a reduction in Tris-BP and Bis-BP tubular necrosis, these effects may be related to inhibition of Bis-BP uptake in the kidney. It appears that the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase pathway is not involved in the generation of nephrotoxic metabolites of Tris-BP. PMID:3375186

  5. A DNA target of 30 bp is sufficient for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, T; Wassenegger, M

    2000-01-01

    In higher plants, RNA-DNA interactions can trigger de novo methylation of genomic sequences via a process that is termed RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-infected tobacco plants, this process can potentially lead to methylation of all C residues at symmetrical and nonsymmetrical sites within chromosomal inserts that consist of multimers of the 359-bp-long PSTVd cDNA. Using PSTVd cDNA subfragments, we found that genomic targets with as few as 30 nt of sequence complementarity to the viroid RNA are detected and methylated. Genomic sequencing analyses of genome-integrated 30- and 60-bp-long PSTVd subfragments demonstrated that de novo cytosine methylation is not limited to the canonical CpG, CpNpG sites. Sixty-base-pair-long PSTVd cDNA constructs appeared to be densely methylated in nearly all tobacco leaf cells. With the 30-bp-long PSTVd-specific construct, the proportion of cells displaying dense transgene methylation was significantly reduced, suggesting that a minimal target size of about 30 bp is necessary for RdDM. The methylation patterns observed for two different 60-bp constructs further suggested that the sequence identity of the target may influence the methylation mechanism. Finally, a link between viroid pathogenicity and PSTVd RNA-directed methylation of host sequences is proposed. PMID:10668798

  6. Association between 24h Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Decline or Death in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and eGFR More than 30 ml/min/1.73m2

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Takanobu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Katsuno, Takayuki; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding the association between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with kidney outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus is currently scarce. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study in which 1230 patients with diabetes who had undergone a 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion test were analyzed. Patients with incomplete urine collection were excluded based on 24h urinary creatinine excretion. Outcomes were the composite of a 30% decline in eGFR or death. Multivariate cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and outcomes. Results With a mean follow up period of 5.47 years, 130 patients reached the outcomes (30% decline in eGFR: 124, death: 6). Mean (SD) eGFR and 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion at baseline were 78.6 (19.5) ml/min/1.73m2, 4.50 (1.64) g/day, and 2.14 (0.77) g/day. Compared with sodium excretion < 3.0 g/day, no significant change in risk of outcomes was observed with increased increments of 1.0 g/day. Compared with potassium excretion of < 1.5 g/day, 2.0–2.5 g/day, and 2.5–3.0 g/day were significantly associated with a lower risk of outcomes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49 and 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.84 and 0.22 to 0.87). Conclusions 24h urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with a risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death in patients with diabetes. However, an increased risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death was significantly associated with 24h urinary potassium excretion < 1.5 g/day than with 2.0–2.5 g/day and 2.5–3.0 g/day. PMID:27136292

  7. Calculation of the structural and NMR properties of the tridecameric AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polycation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2001-09-01

    The aluminum tridecameric polyoxocation, AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ is a major component in partially hydrolyzed Al +3(aq) solutions and has been extensively studied experimentally, mainly using NMR techniques. I have calculated the equilbrium geometry of this cation using the Hartree-Fock method and a polarized double-zeta effective core potential basis set, obtaining bond distances which agree well with X-ray crystallographic studies of selenate and sulfate salts of the polycation (Al[4]: 4 × 1.85 Å calc, 4 × 1.84 Å exp: Al[6]: 4 × 1.85, 2 × 2.05 Å calc, 2 × 1.84, 2 × 1.88, 1.91, 2.04 Å exp [where the numbers in brackets indicate the coordination numbers]). I have also calculated electric field gradients and NMR shielding constants at all the atoms using the standard 6-31G∗ basis set and Hartree-Fock and hybrid Hartree-Fock-density functional (B3LYP) techniques. Using the Hartree-Fock method, the central four-coordinate Al is calculated to be deshielded by ˜56 ppm, and the six-coordinate Al atoms by ˜16 ppm, vs. the Al(OH 2) 6+3 reference, compared to experimental shifts of 63 and 12 ppm, respectively. The central Al[4] is thus shielded by ˜20 ppm with respect to the tetrahedral monomer Al(OH) 4-1. Al-NMR shifts obtained from the B3LYP calculations are very similar. The calculated O-NMR shifts, vs. free gas-phase H 2O, are 17 ppm for the η-OH 2 groups, 30 ppm for the μ-OH and μOH' groups, and 55 ppm for the μ 4-O group, which match well with the experimentally assigned shifts of 20, 30, and 55 ppm, respectively (vs. liquid H 2O). The B3LYP method yields O shifts, which are systematically about 40 to 50% larger. It is not clear whether the discrepancies in the calculated O shifts vs. liquid water are a result of deficiencies in the model (neglect of the aqueous environment) or in the method (lack of correlation in the Hartree-Fock method). Studies on the Al 2(OH) 2(OH 2) 8+4 cation with small numbers of explicit waters hydrogen-bonded to it

  8. Near interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in "gate-controlled-diode" configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (VG > |20 V|) through the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (Ntrap ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-2).

  9. A Case of Type 2 Diabetes with a Change from a Non-Dipper to a Dipper Blood Pressure Pattern by Dapagliflozin.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroko; Okada, Yosuke; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-06-01

    Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), is a novel glucose-lowering agent that has pleiotropic actions on blood pressure and lipids. Its glucose-lowering effect is not mediated by insulin. We report a type 2 diabetic patient whose blood pressure pattern improved from non-dipper to dipper after treatment with dapagliflozin. The 60-year-old man was treated with 5 mg/day dapagliflozin, and the effect of treatment on his blood pressure (BP) was evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and at 8 and 14 days after the start of treatment. The 24-h systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure decreased from 131/87 to 127/83 mmHg at day 14, with a particular decrease in nocturnal blood pressure from 123/84 to 116/75 mmHg (nocturnal blood pressure dip increased from 9.6% to 12.8%), changing from a non-dipper to a dipper blood pressure pattern. Dapagliflozin might potentially improve not only the average blood pressure, but also nighttime blood pressure from non-dipper to dipper in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:27302728

  10. Association of a Chromosomal Rearrangement Event with Mouse Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy and Alterations in Csrp2bp, Dzank1, and Ovol2 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Anna L.; Moran, Susan A.; Glover, Edward A.; Drinkwater, Norman R.; Swearingen, Rebecca E.; Teixeira, Leandro B.; Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously described a mouse model of human posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) and localized the causative mutation to a 6.2 Mbp region of chromosome 2, termed Ppcd1. We now show that the gene rearrangement linked to mouse Ppcd1 is a 3.9 Mbp chromosomal inversion flanked by 81 Kbp and 542 bp deletions. This recombination event leads to deletion of Csrp2bp Exons 8 through 11, Dzank1 Exons 20 and 21, and the pseudogene Znf133. In addition, we identified translocation of novel downstream sequences to positions adjacent to Csrp2bp Exon 7 and Dzank1 Exon 20. Twelve novel fusion transcripts involving Csrp2bp or Dzank1 linked to downstream sequences have been identified. Eight are expressed at detectable levels in PPCD1 but not wildtype eyes. Upregulation of two Csrp2bp fusion transcripts, as well as upregulation of the adjacent gene, Ovol2, was observed. Absence of the PPCD1 phenotype in animals haploinsufficient for Csrp2bp or both Csrp2bp and Dzank1 rules out haploinsufficiency of these genes as a cause of mouse PPCD1. Complementation experiments confirm that PPCD1 embryonic lethality is due to disruption of Csrp2bp expression. The ocular expression pattern of Csrp2bp is consistent with a role for this protein in corneal development and pathogenesis of PPCD1. PMID:27310661

  11. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C; Burback, Brian L; Graves, Steven W; Psurny, Edward; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications. PMID:25888169

  12. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B.; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C.; Burback, Brian L.; Graves, Steven W.; Psurny, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications. PMID:25888169

  13. Investigation of crystal structure and associated electronic structure of Sr 6BP 5O 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, Helmut; Laubach, Sonja; Schmidt, P. C.; McSweeney, R.; Knapp, M.; Mishra, K. C.

    2006-04-01

    Strontium borophosphate phosphate (Sr 6BP 5O 20, SrBP), activated by divalent europium ions is a bluish-green phosphor emitting in a broad band with the emission peak near 480 nm. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of SrBP determined from an analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern of a prismatic single crystal (size 60 μm×50 μm×40 μm). This crystal was chosen from undoped phosphor powder samples prepared for this purpose by solid-state reaction. SrBP is observed to crystallize in a body-centered tetragonal lattice with the lattice parameters a=9.7895(7) Å and c=19.032(3) Å, the associated space group being I4¯c2 (space group 120). Using the structural data from this study, we have also calculated its electronic structure using the augmented spherical wave method and the local density approximation (LDA). We show the ordering of the electronic states by the density of states (DOS) and the partial DOS plots. The LDA gives a direct optical band gap at the Γ point of about 5 eV. The significance of the crystal structure and associated electronic structure is discussed with respect to maintenance of this phosphor in Hg-discharge lamps.

  14. Cell type-specific regulation of von Willebrand factor expression by the E4BP4 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Hough, Christine; Cuthbert, Carla D; Notley, Colleen; Brown, Christine; Hegadorn, Carol; Berber, Ergul; Lillicrap, David

    2005-02-15

    Mechanisms of tissue-restricted patterns of von Willebrand factor (VWF) expression involve activators and repressors that limit expression to endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. The relative transcriptional activity of the proximal VWF promoter was assessed in VWF-producing and -nonproducing cells, and promoter activity was highest in endothelial cells followed by megakaryocytes. Only basal VWF promoter activity was seen in nonendothelial cells. Here we identify a negative response element located at nucleotides (nts) +96/+105 and demonstrate, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, that in vivo this sequence interacts with the E4BP4 transcriptional repressor. Differences in size and relative abundance of nuclear E4BP4 were observed. In HepG2 cells, low levels of larger forms of E4BP4 are present that directly interact with the negative response element. In VWF-expressing cells, high levels of smaller forms predominate with no evidence of direct DNA binding. However, in endothelial cells, mutation of the VWF E4BP4 binding motif not only restores but also further elevates VWF promoter activity, suggesting that E4BP4 may be part of a coordinated binding complex. These observations implicate this binding motif in repressing both activated and basal levels of VWF transcription by different cell type-specific mechanisms, and support the hypothesis that E4BP4 sequesters negative regulators of transcription, thereby enhancing activated gene expression. PMID:15498853

  15. Hybrid detectors improved time-lapse confocal microscopy of PML and 53BP1 nuclear body colocalization in DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Foltánková, Veronika; Matula, Pavel; Sorokin, Dmitry; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2013-04-01

    We used hybrid detectors (HyDs) to monitor the trajectories and interactions of promyelocytic leukemia (GFP-PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) and mCherry-53BP1-positive DNA lesions. 53BP1 protein accumulates in NBs that occur spontaneously in the genome or in γ-irradiation-induced foci. When we induced local DNA damage by ultraviolet irradiation, we also observed accumulation of 53BP1 proteins into discrete bodies, instead of the expected dispersed pattern. In comparison with photomultiplier tubes, which are used for standard analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy, HyDs significantly eliminated photobleaching of GFP and mCherry fluorochromes during image acquisition. The low laser intensities used for HyD-based confocal analysis enabled us to observe NBs for the longer time periods, necessary for studies of the trajectories and interactions of PML and 53BP1 NBs. To further characterize protein interactions, we used resonance scanning and a novel bioinformatics approach to register and analyze the movements of individual PML and 53BP1 NBs. The combination of improved HyD-based confocal microscopy with a tailored bioinformatics approach enabled us to reveal damage-specific properties of PML and 53BP1 NBs. PMID:23410959

  16. Trailer siting issues: BP Texas City.

    PubMed

    Kaszniak, Mark; Holmstrom, Donald

    2008-11-15

    On 23 March, 2005, a series of explosions and fires occurred at the BP Texas City refinery during the startup of an isomerization (ISOM) process unit. Fifteen workers were killed and about 180 others were injured. All of the fatalities were contract workers; the deaths and most of the serious injuries occurred in and around temporary office trailers that had been sited near a blowdown drum and stack open to the atmosphere as part of ongoing turnaround activities in an adjacent unit. Due to problems that developed during the ISOM startup, flammable hydrocarbon liquid overfilled the blowdown drum and stack which resulted in a geyser-like release out the top into the atmosphere. The flammable hydrocarbons fell to the ground releasing vapors that were likely ignited from a nearby idling diesel pickup truck. A total of 44 trailers were damaged by the blast pressure wave that propagated through the refinery when the vapor cloud exploded. Thirteen trailers were totally destroyed and workers were injured in trailers as far as 479ft away from the release. The focus of this paper will be on trailer siting issues, including: need for work/office trailers within process units, adequacy of risk analysis methods in API RP 752, and minimum safe distance requirements PMID:18294765

  17. Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, M.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.B.; Ager, T.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Cwynar, L.C.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hu, F.-S.; Jolly, D.; Lozhkin, A.V.; MacDonald, G.M.; Mock, C.J.; Ritchie, J.C.; Sher, A.V.; Spear, R.W.; Williams, J.W.; Yu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective biomization method developed by Prentice et al. (1996) for Europe was extended using modern pollen samples from Beringia and then applied to fossil pollen data to reconstruct palaeovegetation patterns at 6000 and 18,000 14C yr BP. The predicted modern distribution of tundra, taiga and cool conifer forests in Alaska and north-western Canada generally corresponds well to actual vegetation patterns, although sites in regions characterized today by a mosaic of forest and tundra vegetation tend to be preferentially assigned to tundra. Siberian larch forests are delimited less well, probably due to the extreme under-representation of Larix in pollen spectra. The biome distribution across Beringia at 6000 14C yr BP was broadly similar to today, with little change in the northern forest limit, except for a possible northward-advance in the Mackenzie delta region. The western forest limit in Alaska was probably east of its modern position. At 18,000 14C yr BP the whole of Beringia was covered by tundra. However, the importance of the various plant functional types varied from site to site, supporting the idea that the vegetation cover was a mosaic of different tundra types.

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of CRD-BP by c-myc

    PubMed Central

    Noubissi, Felicite K.; Nikiforov, Mikhail A.; Colburn, Nancy; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.

    2010-01-01

    The coding region determinant binding protein, CRD-BP, is a multifunctional RNA binding protein involved in different processes such as mRNA turnover, translation control, and localization. It is mostly expressed in fetal and neonatal tissues, where it regulates many transcripts essential for normal embryonic development. CRD-BP is scarce or absent in normal adult tissues but reactivated and/or overexpressed in various neoplastic and preneoplastic tumors and in most cell lines. Its expression has been associated with the most aggressive form of some cancers. CRD-BP is an important regulator of different genes including a variety of oncogenes or proto-oncogenes (c-myc, β-TrCP1, GLI1, etc.). Regulation of CRD-BP expression is critical for proper control of its targets as its overexpression may play an important role in abnormal cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis. Molecular bases of the regulatory mechanisms governing CRD-BP expression are still not completely elucidated. In this article, we have identified c-myc as a novel transcriptional regulator of CRD-BP. We show that c-myc binds to CRD-BP promoter and induces its transcription. This induction of CRD-BP expression contributes to the role of c-myc in the regulation of translation, increase in cell size, and acceleration of cell cycle progression via a mechanism involving upregulation of β-TrCP1 levels and activities and accelerated degradation of PDCD4. PMID:21779431

  19. [Uterine expression of adenovirus E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4) during the embryo implantation period in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huanh, Zhe Ping; Yang, Zeng Ming; Shen, Wei Xiong; Tso, Jia Ke; Shen, Qing Xiang

    2006-04-01

    Adenovirus E4 promoter-binding protein 4 (E4BP4), a mammalian basic leucine zipper (bZIP) nuclear transcription factor, was identified to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. Previous research data showed that the expression of E4BP4 gene was up-regulated at the implantation sites on day 5 pregnancy of mouse. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of E4BP4 gene in uterus during pre-implantation period, and at the implantation sites and inter-implantation sites during the implantation process, through the Northern blot, in situ hybridization, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. It was found that, (1) during the pre-implantation period, the expression of E4BP4 gene was gradually increased; (2) its expression was sharply up-regulated at the implantation sites compared with that at the inter-implantation sites during the embryo implantation process; (3) the uterine expression of E4BP4 gene was not embryo-dependent, but observed in artificially induced decidulization of pseudopregnant mouse; (4) both E4BP4 mRNA and E4BP4 protein were localized in stromal cells and decidual cells around the uterine lumen. These results indicated that E4BP4 may play a critical role in embryo implantation process by promoting stromal cell proliferation and inhibiting decidual cell apoptosis. PMID:16944583

  20. Yarn Quality Prediction Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Guo; Xiong, Jing-Wei; Xun, Lan

    Aiming at the key quality indexes xbt in spinning processing is caused by many complex and interactions factors. A xbt prediction model is put forward based on the PSO-BP neural network, which adjusts weights of BP neural network using particle swarm optimization (PSO) rather than the traditional gradient descent method, is used to improve the convergence speed of neural network and the ability of getting the global optimal solution. As the object of a large number of field detection data in a spinning workshop, the results show that, compared with the traditional BP algorithm and GA-BP algorithm, the PSO-BP neural network can obvious improve yarn quality prediction model precision and stability.

  1. Nqrs Data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

  2. Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid immunoglobulin G shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180/collagen XVII into keratinocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Akiko; Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Hiroyasu, Sho; Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Kitajima, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2016-06-01

    Anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease that targets the C terminus of BP180/collagen XVII. Currently, the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP is not well understood. We reported previously that immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP) can induce internalization of BP180 via a macropinocytic pathway, which depletes BP180 and weakens epidermal cell-matrix integrity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the pathomechanism of BP180-MMP. Immunohistochemistry of biopsy specimens from two patients with BP180-MMP revealed that one patient had BP180 internalization, but the other did not. In live-cell imaging using IgG from patients with BP180-MMP on several keratinocyte cell lines, IgG from only three out of the seven patients was associated with BP180 internalization into the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that IgG from patients with BP180-MMP shows heterogeneity of internalization of BP180. This variability in BP180 internalization in patients with BP or BP180-MMP may lead to differences in clinical presentation. PMID:26658728

  3. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7 days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV. PMID:26212492

  4. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults. PMID:25743698

  5. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day. PMID:25930989

  6. Captopril at 50 mg as well as at 100 mg once a day reduces blood pressure for up to 24 h: a double-blind randomized crossover study in mild to moderate hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, A; Circo, A; Raciti, S; Gulizia, M; Cardillo, R; Miceli, S; Botta, G

    1988-12-01

    The extent and the duration of the antihypertensive effect of captopril, given once a day at a dose of 50 mg, compared with placebo and with the 100 mg once daily dose was studied in 30 mild or moderate uncomplicated essential hypertensives (mean +/- s.e.m. age 52.0 +/- 1.5 years), who responded (mean blood pressure decrease greater than 10%) to a single oral dose (12.5 mg) of captopril. According to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, they were given 50 mg captopril four times a day, 100 mg captopril four times a day or matched placebo for 1 month. At the end of each treatment period blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 min from 3 h before to 2 h after the last dose. Although the heart rate did not change, mean blood pressure after the 50- and 100-mg doses of captopril was consistently significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) lower than after placebo. The hypotensive effect peaked at the second hour and was still significant 24 h after dosing without any significant differences between the 50- and the 100-mg doses. These findings indicate that captopril, given chronically once a day at a dose of 50 mg to mild to moderate hypertensive responders, exerts its hypotensive effect up to 24 h and that doubling the dose does not increase either the extent or the duration of its action. PMID:3071596

  7. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  8. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (D...

  9. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (DQS...

  10. Circadian variation in stroke onset: identical temporal pattern in ischemic and hemorrhagic events.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Roberto; Boari, Benedetta; Smolensky, Michael H; Salmi, Raffaella; la Cecilia, Olga; Maria Malagoni, Anna; Haus, Erhard; Manfredini, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    Stroke is the culmination of a heterogeneous group of cerebrovascular diseases that is manifested as ischemia or hemorrhage of one or more blood vessels of the brain. The occurrence of many acute cardiovascular events--such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, critical limb ischemia, and aortic aneurysm rupture--exhibits prominent 24 h patterning, with a major morning peak and secondary early evening peak. The incidence of stroke exhibits the same 24 h pattern. Although ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are different entities and are characterized by different pathophysiological mechanisms, they share an identical double-peak 24 h pattern. A constellation of endogenous circadian rhythms and exogenous cyclic factors are involved. The staging of the circadian rhythms in vascular tone, coagulative balance, and blood pressure plus temporal patterns in posture, physical activity, emotional stress, and medication effects play central and/or triggering roles. Features of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, in terms of their chronic and acute effects on cerebral vessels, and of coagulation are especially important. Clinical medicine has been most concerned with the prevention of stroke in the morning, when population-based studies show it is of greatest risk during the 24 h; however, improved protection of at-risk patients against stroke in the early evening, the second most vulnerable time of cerebrovascular accidents, has received relatively little attention thus far. PMID:16076646

  11. Analysis of rumen motility patterns using a wireless telemetry system to characterize bovine reticuloruminal contractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize rumen motility patterns of cattle fed once daily. Eight ruminally-cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 321 ± 11 kg) were fed alfalfa cubes once daily at 1.5 × NEm top-dressed with a TM-salt pre-mix. Three 24-h collection periods were conducted and each com...

  12. Expression and organization of BP74, a cyclic AMP-regulated gene expressed during Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkinson, S B; Pollenz, R S; Drummond, I; Chisholm, R L

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized a cDNA and the corresponding gene for a cyclic AMP-inducible gene expressed during Dictyostelium development. This gene, BP74, was found to be first expressed about the time of aggregate formation, approximately 6 h after starvation. Accumulation of BP74 mRNA did not occur in Dictyostelium cells that had been starved in fast-shaken suspension cultures but was induced in similar cultures to which cyclic AMP pulses had been added. The BP74 cDNA and gene were characterized by DNA sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping. When the BP74 promoter region was fused with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and reintroduced into Dictyostelium cells, the transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene displayed the same developmentally regulated pattern of expression as did the endogenous BP74 gene, suggesting that all of the cis-acting elements required for regulated expression were carried by a 2-kilobase cloned genomic fragment. On the basis of sequence analysis, the gene appeared to encode a protein containing a 20-residue hydrophobic sequence at the amino-terminal end and 26 copies of a 20-amino-acid repeat. Images PMID:2555685

  13. Methanococcus vannielii selenium-binding protein (SeBP): Chemical reactivity of recombinant SeBP produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Patteson, Kemberly G.; Trivedi, Neel; Stadtman, Thressa C.

    2005-01-01

    A selenium-binding protein (SeBP) from Methanococcus vannielii was recently identified, and its gene was isolated and overexpressed in Escherichia coli [Self, W. T., Pierce, R. & Stadtman, T. C. (2004) IUBMB Life 56, 501–507]. SeBP and recombinant SeBP (rSeBP) migrated as ≈42-kDa species on native gels and as ≈33-kDa species on SDS gels. rSeBP consists of identical 8.8-kDa subunits, each containing a single cysteine residue. rSeBP isolated in the absence of reducing agents contained oxidized cysteine (89%) and very little bound selenium (0.05 eq or less per subunit). Complete reduction of the oxidized cysteine residues in rSeBP with Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine required addition of a denaturant, such as 1 M guanidine-hydrochloride. With selenite as the selenium source and the isolated reduced protein as sole reductant, binding of one selenium per tetramer under anaerobic conditions required four cysteine thiol groups, one on each subunit. In the corresponding reaction, with reduced glutathione (GSH), equimolar amounts of selenodiglutathione (GSSeSG) and glutathione disulfide are formed from selenite and 4 GSH. At GSH-to-selenite ratios >4:1, conversion of GSSeSG to a perselenide derivative, GSSe–, occurs. However, with the reduced rSeBP as sole electron donor in the reaction with selenite, further conversion of the R-SSeS-R product apparently did not occur. Prior alkylation of the cysteine thiol groups in reduced rSeBP prevented selenite reduction and selenium binding under comparable conditions. PMID:16103372

  14. Evaluation of the Specificity of BP3385 for Bordetella pertussis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BP3385 has been proposed as a diagnostic PCR target for discriminating between Bordetella pertussis and other Bordetella species that also infect humans. Our results demonstrate this gene is also present in some strains of Bordetella hinzii and Bordetella bronchiseptica....

  15. Bp'S Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline: the new corporate colonialism.

    PubMed

    Marriott, James; Muttitt, Greg

    2006-01-01

    An international campaign was waged questioning the benefits of BP's Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in an effort to avoid a "zone of sacrifice" there. This article is an offshoot of that effort and explains the contemporary struggle over the pipeline project. The authors describe the project's background and evaluate the actual and potential impacts of the project in which they consider eight areas. They also assess BP's capacity to confront resistance to the pipeline. PMID:16867890

  16. Black Phosphorus (BP) Nanodots for Potential Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Park, So Young; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Hyeran; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Kyuseok; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hee-Sik; An, Ha Rim; Jeong, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-13

    Recently, the appeal of 2D black phosphorus (BP) has been rising due to its unique optical and electronic properties with a tunable band gap (≈0.3-1.5 eV). While numerous research efforts have recently been devoted to nano- and optoelectronic applications of BP, no attention has been paid to promising medical applications. In this article, the preparation of BP-nanodots of a few nm to <20 nm with an average diameter of ≈10 nm and height of ≈8.7 nm is reported by a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method. Stable formation of nontoxic phosphates and phosphonates from BP crystals with exposure in water or air is observed. As for the BP-nanodot crystals' stability (ionization and persistence of fluorescent intensity) in aqueous solution, after 10 d, ≈80% at 1.5 mg mL(-1) are degraded (i.e., ionized) in phosphate buffered saline. They showed no or little cytotoxic cell-viability effects in vitro involving blue- and green-fluorescence cell imaging. Thus, BP-nanodots can be considered a promising agent for drug delivery or cellular tracking systems. PMID:26584654

  17. Prevalence of the 4977-bp and 4408-bp mitochondrial DNA deletions in mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Chen, Gui-Lan; Lan, Huan; Mao, Liang; Zeng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are found in many diseased tissues and lead to impairment of mitochondrial functions. In this study, we found wide presence of the common 4977-bp and a novel 4408-bp deletion in the mtDNA of mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer. These two deletions were also detected in samples from healthy individuals. The content of mtDNA with the 4977-bp deletion was significantly lower in healthy controls than cancer-associated samples, and there was no significant difference for the 4408-bp deletion between the two groups. These results suggest that mtDNA in blood vessels around cancer cells may be strongly affected by oxidative stress and tend to accumulate more large-scale variations. PMID:26332461

  18. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  19. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  20. Surface photovoltage and Auger electron spectromicroscopy studies of HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC and HfO2/Al2O3/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanowska, A.; Miczek, M.; Ucka, R.; Matys, M.; Adamowicz, B.; Żywicki, J.; Taube, A.; Korwin-Mikke, K.; Gierałtowska, S.; Sochacki, M.

    2012-08-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of the interface region in the structures obtained by the passivation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC layers with bilayers consisting of a 5 nm-thick SiO2 or Al2O3 buffer film and high-κ HfO2 layer were investigated. The main aim was to estimate the influence of the passivation approach on the interface effective charge density (Qeff) from the surface photovoltage (SPV) method and, in addition to determine the in-depth element distribution in the interface region from the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with Ar+ ion profiling. The structure HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC exhibited slightly superior electronic properties in terms of Qeff (in the range of -1011 q cm-2).

  1. Estimation of the respiratory tract burden resulting from a prolonged inhalation exposure to aerosols of DU, based on the U in a 24-h urine sample taken years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Valdés, M

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented to estimate the respiratory tract burden from a prolonged inhalation exposure to particulate matter of depleted uranium, in cases where the rate of deposition is an unknown function. The precise range of possible values is identified. The calculations are based on the amount of depleted uranium measured in a single 24-h urine sample. In order to present an example, a simplified pharmacokinetical model is introduced. The results presented in this article are valid for any pharmacokinetical model represented by homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients and non-zero initial values, and that clearly includes the International Commission on Radiological Protection model. In fact, they are applicable to any monitorable quantity measured over a short period of time, a monitorable quantity with a kinetic that can be described using a structurally similar system of differential equations to one describing these pharmacokinetical models. PMID:24682012

  2. Patterns of Broken Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, R. W.; Park, G. B.; Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Spectroscopy - it is all about patterns. Some patterns look so indescribably complicated that, unlike pornography, you do not know one when you see one. It is tempting to say that, at high vibrational excitation, interactions among normal mode basis states are so strong and widespread that all patterns are obliterated. But this is not true. When normal mode frequencies are in near integer multiple ratios, polyads emerge. A polyad is a robust pattern often comprising many vibrational eigenstates. Each such pattern might span many hundreds of cm^{-1}, and it is inevitable that several unrelated polyad patterns overlap. When polyads overlap, it might seem impossible to disentangle them. However, the key to disentanglement is that polyads come in families in which successive generations are related by harmonic oscillator matrix element selection and scaling rules. Families of polyads are described by families of scaling-based effective Hamiltonian matrices, {H}^{{eff}}. No matter how complex and overlapped, the polyad {H}^{{eff}} serves as a magic decoder for picking out the polyad pattern. Sometimes the polyad patterns are systematically broken (a meta-pattern), owing to proximity to an isomerization barrier, as occurs in highly excited bending levels of the S_{1} state of HCCH, which encode the trans-cis minimum energy isomerization path. Quantum Chemists often dismiss {H}^{{eff}} models, precisely because they are models that do not express the full dimensionality of the complete Hamiltonian. But an {H}^{{eff}} explains rather than describes. Shunning {H}^{{eff}}s is like throwing out the baby with the bath water. Don't do it!

  3. Mechanisms Directing the Nuclear Localization of the CtBP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verger, Alexis; Quinlan, Kate G. R.; Crofts, Linda A.; Spanò, Stefania; Corda, Daniela; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Crossley, Merlin

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) family includes four proteins (CtBP1 [CtBP1-L], CtBP3/BARS [CtBP1-S], CtBP2, and RIBEYE) which are implicated both in transcriptional repression and in intracellular trafficking. However, the precise mechanisms by which different CtBP proteins are targeted to different subcellular regions remains unknown. Here, we report that the nuclear import of the various CtBP proteins and splice isoforms is differentially regulated. We show that CtBP2 contains a unique nuclear localization signal (NLS) located within its N-terminal region, which contributes to its nuclear accumulation. Using heterokaryon assays, we show that CtBP2 is capable of shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell. Moreover, CtBP2 can heterodimerize with CtBP1-L and CtBP1-S and direct them to the nucleus. This effect strongly depends on the CtBP2 NLS. PXDLS motif-containing transcription factors, such as BKLF, that bind CtBP proteins can also direct them to the nucleus. We also report the identification of a splice isoform of CtBP2, CtBP2-S, that lacks the N-terminal NLS and localizes to the cytoplasm. Finally, we show that mutation of the CtBP NADH binding site impairs the ability of the proteins to dimerize and to associate with BKLF. This reduces the nuclear accumulation of CtBP1. Our results suggest a model in which the nuclear localization of CtBP proteins is influenced by the CtBP2 NLS, by binding to PXDLS motif partner proteins, and through the effect of NADH on CtBP dimerization. PMID:16782877

  4. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  5. 24-hour pattern in lag time of response by firemen to calls for urgent medical aid.

    PubMed

    Brousse, Eric; Forget, Coralie; Riedel, Marc; Marlot, Michel; Mechkouri, Mohamed; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the group 24-h pattern of lag time (LT) in response by regular and volunteer firemen (RFM and VFM) to calls for medical help (CFMH), specifically calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). LT, duration in min between a CFMH and departure of service vehicle equipped with a semiautomated defibrillator and generally staffed with four well-trained and ready-to-go FM, represents the integrated duration of several processes, each with separate reaction and decision-making times. The exact time of each CFHM (in min, h, day, month, yr) was recorded electronically, and the exact departure time from the station of the responding FM vehicle was recorded by an on-duty FM. Overall, CFMH made up 53 ± 9% (SEM) of all emergencies calls for aid. To standardize the study methods, the reported findings are based on 568 CFMH specifically regarding OHCA that occurred during the 4-yr study span (January 2005 to December 2008). CFMH exhibited a 24-h pattern with a major peak at 10:00 h (mean ± SEM: n = 9.5 ± 1.6) and major trough at 01:00 h (n = 1.3 ± 0.3; t test, p < .001). From year to year and season to season, a 24-h pattern was detected in the total of CFMH/h with two peaks (∼10:00 and ∼17:00 h) and two troughs (∼01:00 and ∼15:00 h) (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p < .01; Cosinor, p < .05 to < .003), with neither season- nor year-related differences (χ(2), p > .05). In CFMH/h pooled time series, ANOVA-detected differences between the hourly means (p < .01), and Cosinor analysis validated a 24-h rhythm (p < .002). In raw data, the longest LT, indicative of poorest performance, occurred at 05:00 h (8.8 ± 0.7 min) and the trough of LT, indicative of best performance, at 16:00 h (4.3 ± 0.8 min (t test, p < .02). 24-h patterning in LT was validated both by ANOVA of hourly means (p < .0006) and Cosinor analysis (p < .05), with longest LT ∼05:00 h and shortest LT ∼16.00 h for data of the

  6. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  7. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The following is a summation of information and discussion between Doug Stoeser of the USGS and Doug Rickman of NASA in February and March, 2010 pertaining to the BP-1 simulant. The analytical results and the bulk of the text are from communications from Dr. Stoeser. The BP-1 simulant is made from Black Point Basalt Flow, San Francisco Volcanic Field, northern Arizona. There is an aggregate (road metal) quarry on the northern margin of the flow towards the west end that was used as a Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) analog test site. Silty material from this site was also used in laboratory tests and found to have geotechnical properties similar to the LHT-2M and Chenobi regolith simulants and is being proposed as a possible simulant for geotechnical use. It currently has the designation of BP-1 (Black Point 1). Figure

  8. Endothelin-1 and the kidney – beyond BP

    PubMed Central

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Kluth, David C

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery over 20 years ago endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Its role in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well established and is an area of ongoing intense research. There are now available a number of ET receptor antagonists many of which have been used in trials with CKD patients and shown to reduce BP and proteinuria. However, ET-1 has a number of BP-independent effects. Importantly, and in relation to the kidney, ET-1 has clear roles to play in cell proliferation, podocyte dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis, and arguably, these actions of ET-1 may be more significant in the progression of CKD than its prohypertensive actions. This review will focus on the potential role of ET-1 in renal disease with an emphasis on its BP-independent actions. PMID:22670597

  9. Preliminary Geological Findings on the BP-1 Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, D. B.; Rickman, D. L.; Wilson, S.

    2010-01-01

    A waste material from an aggregate producing quarry has been used to make an inexpensive lunar simulant called BP-1. The feedstock is the Black Point lava flow in northern Arizona. Although this is part of the San Francisco volcanic field, which is also the source of the JSC-1 series feedstock, BP-1 and JSC-1 are distinct. Chemically, the Black Point flow is an amygdaloidal nepheline-bearing basalt. The amygdules are filled with secondary minerals containing opaline silica, calcium carbonate, and ferric iron minerals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) detected approximately 3% quartz, which is in line with tests done by the Kennedy Space Center Industrial Hygiene Office. Users of this material should use appropriate protective equipment. XRD also showed the presence of significant halite and some bassanite. Both are interpreted to be evaporative residues due to recycling of wash water at the quarry. The size distribution of BP-1 may be superior to some other simulants for some applications.

  10. BP-Broker use-cases in the UncertWeb framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncella, Roberto; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Schulz, Michael; Stasch, Christoph; Proß, Benjamin; Jones, Richard; Santoro, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    The UncertWeb framework is a distributed, Web-based Information and Communication Technology (ICT) system to support scientific data modeling in presence of uncertainty. We designed and prototyped a core component of the UncertWeb framework: the Business Process Broker. The BP-Broker implements several functionalities, such as: discovery of available processes/BPs, preprocessing of a BP into its executable form (EBP), publication of EBPs and their execution through a workflow-engine. According to the Composition-as-a-Service (CaaS) approach, the BP-Broker supports discovery and chaining of modeling resources (and processing resources in general), providing the necessary interoperability services for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing, and executing scientific workflows. The UncertWeb project targeted several scenarios, which were used to evaluate and test the BP-Broker. The scenarios cover the following environmental application domains: biodiversity and habitat change, land use and policy modeling, local air quality forecasting, and individual activity in the environment. This work reports on the study of a number of use-cases, by means of the BP-Broker, namely: - eHabitat use-case: implements a Monte Carlo simulation performed on a deterministic ecological model; an extended use-case supports inter-comparison of model outputs; - FERA use-case: is composed of a set of models for predicting land-use and crop yield response to climatic and economic change; - NILU use-case: is composed of a Probabilistic Air Quality Forecasting model for predicting concentrations of air pollutants; - Albatross use-case: includes two model services for simulating activity-travel patterns of individuals in time and space; - Overlay use-case: integrates the NILU scenario with the Albatross scenario to calculate the exposure to air pollutants of individuals. Our aim was to prove the feasibility of describing composite modeling processes with a high-level, abstract

  11. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  12. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  13. BP chief scientist nominated for senior energy role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Obama administration has nominated BP's chief scientist Ellen Williams to be director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), which was created in 2007 to fund "high-risk, high-reward" research into novel energy technologies that are too early for investment by the private sector.

  14. Contrasting low-dimensional magnetism in the 3D metal-organic frameworks [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (pyz = pyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Jamie; Schlueter, John; Goddard, Paul; Singleton, John; McDonald, Ross; Ayala-Valenzuela, Oscar; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O (1) and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (2) form tetragonal frameworks that consist of 2D [Cu(pyz)2]^2+ square lattices that are linked in 3D by bridging VF6^2- (1) or HF2^- (2) anions. Magnetic susceptibility data shows apparent paramagnetism, although not simple Curie-Weiss behavior, in 1. For 2, a broad maximum in χ(T) at 12.5 K and a sharp kink at 4.3 K indicate short- (SRO) and long-range (LRO) magnetic ordering, respectively. Additional experimental data for 1 (e.g., heat capacity and μ^+SR) however, indicate that a LRO state occurs below 3.6 K whereas pulsed-field magnetization data suggest a superposition of AFM Cu^2+ layers and fluctuating V^4+ moments. The structural and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 will be described as well as possible new directions.

  15. Estimation and interpretation of fermentation in the gut: coupling results from a 24 h batch in vitro system with fecal measurements from a human intervention feeding study using fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber.

    PubMed

    Koecher, Katie J; Noack, Jackie A; Timm, Derek A; Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2014-02-12

    Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF). The in vitro fermentation of the fiber blend resulted in a delayed pH decrease and gas and SCFA production compared to the FOS and inulin. Human samples had higher SCFA on FB compared to FF (p = 0.029). BCFA were not different between formulas. By using a blend of fibers, we observed a slower fermentation in vitro but still increased fecal SCFA when fed to human subjects. PMID:24446899

  16. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk.

    PubMed

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12-12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  18. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk

    PubMed Central

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M. Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12–12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  19. Small Molecule, NSC95397, Inhibits the CtBP1-Protein Partner Interaction and CtBP1-Mediated Transcriptional Repression.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Melanie A; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Krueger, Aaron B; King, Rebecca; Griner, Lesley Mathews; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J; Zhang, Qinghong; Ferrer, Marc; Zhao, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional corepressor that suppresses multiple proapoptotic and epithelial genes. CtBP is overexpressed in many human cancers, and its overexpression increases stem cell-like features, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer cell survival. Knockdown of CtBP also increases apoptosis independent of p53 in cell culture. Therefore, targeting CtBP with small molecules that disrupt its interaction with transcription factor partners may be an effective cancer therapy. To elicit its corepressing effect, CtBP binds to a conserved peptide motif in each transcription factor partner. We developed an AlphaScreen high-throughput screening assay to monitor the interaction between CtBP and E1A (which mimics the interaction between CtBP and its transcriptional partners). We screened the LOPAC library of 1280 bioactive compounds and identified NSC95397, which inhibits the CtBP-E1A interaction (IC50 = 2.9 µM). The inhibitory activity of NSC95397 was confirmed using two secondary assays and a counterscreen. NSC95397 also behaved as a weak substrate of CtBP dehydrogenase activity and did not inhibit another dehydrogenase, lactase dehydrogenase. Finally, NSC95397 was able to disrupt CtBP-mediated transcriptional repression of a target gene. These studies present a new possibility for the development of a therapeutic agent targeting tumors through disrupting the CtBP transcriptional complex. PMID:25477201

  20. Evaluation of ELISA testing for BP180 and BP230 as a diagnostic modality for bullous pemphigoid: a clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jesse J; Kittridge, Ashley L; Debanne, Sara M; Korman, Neil J

    2016-05-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a common autoimmune blistering disorder of the elderly. Several diagnostic modalities are available, including clinical impression, histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of pathogenic antibodies. In this study, we aim to examine the utility of the newest test, ELISA, in comparison to the constellation of other tests. We describe our clinical experience in which 170 patients diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid had multiple tests performed. BP180 alone showed a sensitivity of 54 % and specificity of 94 %. The positive predictive value (PPV) is 95 % while the negative predictive value (NPV) is 52 %. BP230 alone yielded a sensitivity of 48 % and specificity of 94 %. The PPV is 94 % and the NPV is 49 %. Using both tests in combination yielded a sensitivity of 66 % and specificity of 89 %. The PPV of at least one of two tests returning positive is 92 % while the NPV of dual negative tests is 58 %. Use of ELISAs for suspected cases of BP are an inadequate standalone test, and are only helpful in making the diagnosis should they return positive. However, they would appear to miss about one-third of cases. PMID:26895534

  1. Atomic interactions of neonicotinoid agonists with AChBP: Molecular recognition of the distinctive electronegative pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, Todd T.; Harel, Michal; Hibbs, Ryan E.; Radi, Zoran; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E.; Taylor, Palmer

    2008-07-28

    Acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) from mollusks are suitable structural and functional surrogates of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when combined with transmembrane spans of the nicotinic receptor. These proteins assemble as a pentamer with identical ACh binding sites at the subunit interfaces and show ligand specificities resembling those of the nicotinic receptor for agonists and antagonists. A subset of ligands, termed the neonicotinoids, exhibit specificity for insect nicotinic receptors and selective toxicity as insecticides. AChBPs are of neither mammalian nor insect origin and exhibit a distinctive pattern of selectivity for the neonicotinoid ligands. We define here the binding orientation and determinants of differential molecular recognition for the neonicotinoids and classical nicotinoids by estimates of kinetic and equilibrium binding parameters and crystallographic analysis. Neonicotinoid complex formation is rapid and accompanied by quenching of the AChBP tryptophan fluorescence. Comparisons of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiacloprid in the binding site from Aplysia californica AChBP at 2.48 and 1.94 {angstrom} in resolution reveal a single conformation of the bound ligands with four of the five sites occupied in the pentameric crystal structure. The neonicotinoid electronegative pharmacophore is nestled in an inverted direction compared with the nicotinoid cationic functionality at the subunit interfacial binding pocket. Characteristic of several agonists, loop C largely envelops the ligand, positioning aromatic side chains to interact optimally with conjugated and hydrophobic regions of the neonicotinoid. This template defines the association of interacting amino acids and their energetic contributions to the distinctive interactions of neonicotinoids.

  2. Gate tunable WSe2-BP van der Waals heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ting Ting; Zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jianyong; Yu, Hua; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Guole; Wen, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-02-01

    Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such `type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a `type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence band offset and a small conduction band offset at the WSe2/BP interface. In the optoelectrical measurements, we found the amplitude and even the polarity of photocurrent could be modulated by electrostatic gating. Our study could further enhance the understanding of designing devices based on these `type tunable' van der Waals heterojunctions. Moreover, the properties of the WSe2/BP interface were also experimentally identified through the electrical and optoelectrical measurements in our study.Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such `type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a `type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence

  3. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  4. Calibration of the radiocarbon time scale at 37ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, J.R.; Deino, A.L.; Orsi, G.

    1995-12-01

    Results from radiocarbon and U-Th measurements on corals have provided a radiocarbon calibration beyond the range covered by tree ring series, but the uncertainties in the measurements beyond 20ka BP are very large. We have obtained new calibration data from radiocarbon dates on material associated with the catastrophic Campanian Ignimbrite eruption from the Phlegrean Fields near Naples. The eruption has been well dated by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar to 37ka BP. Radiocarbon measurements were carried out on charcoal from a carbonized branch exposed within the ignimbrite tuff on the wall of an active quarry. The sample was split and analyzed at both the Naples and Lawrence Livermore AMS facilities. The offset between the Ar-Ar data and the radiocarbon results (recalculated using the true 5730-year half life for {sup 14}C) is consistent with predictions from paleomagnetic data and carbon cycle modeling.

  5. Spectropolarimetry of the classical T Tauri star BP Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high resolution (R ~ 60,000) optical echelle spectra of several solar-like stars as tests of the code and to measure the mean longitudinal magnetic field on the surface of these stars. Null results or weak fields are detected on the solar-like stars as is expected, demonstrating the functionality of the LSD code. We then apply our LSD code to 6 nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum field of 330 +/- 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 A˚, Ca II 8498 A˚ and 8542 A˚) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints.

  6. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  7. Magnetospheric accretion on the T Tauri star BP Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Jardine, M. M.; Gregory, S. G.; Petit, P.; Paletou, F.; Bouvier, J.; Dougados, C.; Ménard, F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Harries, T. J.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Unruh, Y.; Morin, J.; Marsden, S. C.; Manset, N.; Aurière, M.; Catala, C.; Alecian, E.

    2008-05-01

    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS and NARVAL spectropolarimeters, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the classical T Tauri star (cTTS) BP Tau. Circular polarization signatures in photospheric lines and in narrow emission lines tracing magnetospheric accretion are monitored throughout most of the rotation cycle of BP Tau at two different epochs in 2006. We observe that rotational modulation dominates the temporal variations of both unpolarized and circularly polarized spectral proxies tracing the photosphere and the footpoints of accretion funnels. From the complete data sets at each epoch, we reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topology and the location of accretion spots at the surface of BP Tau using tomographic imaging. We find that the field of BP Tau involves a 1.2 kG dipole and 1.6 kG octupole, both slightly tilted with respect to the rotation axis. Accretion spots coincide with the two main magnetic poles at high latitudes and overlap with dark photospheric spots; they cover about 2 per cent of the stellar surface. The strong mainly axisymmetric poloidal field of BP Tau is very reminiscent of magnetic topologies of fully convective dwarfs. It suggests that magnetic fields of fully convective cTTSs such as BP Tau are likely not fossil remants, but rather result from vigorous dynamo action operating within the bulk of their convective zones. Preliminary modelling suggests that the magnetosphere of BP Tau extends to distances of at least 4R* to ensure that accretion spots are located at high latitudes, and is not blown open close to the surface by a putative stellar wind. It apparently succeeds in coupling to the accretion disc as far out as the corotation radius, and could possibly explain the slow rotation of BP Tau. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l

  8. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  9. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  10. Gate tunable WSe2-BP van der Waals heterojunction devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ting Ting; zhang, Jing; Xiang, Jianyong; Yu, Hua; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Guole; Wen, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2016-02-14

    Due to the weak screening effect, the concentration and type of charge carriers in 2D semiconductor heterostructures can be effectively tuned by electrostatic gating, enabling us to realize different types of heterojunctions in a single device. Such 'type tunable' properties are useful for designing novel electrical or optoelectrical devices. Here, we demonstrate a 'type tunable' heterojunction device construct with two pieces of ambipolar 2D semiconductors: WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). This heterojunction could be tuned to either the p-p junction or n-n junction by gate modulation. The p-p junction shows a large current rectification ratio while the n-n junction shows a negligible current rectification ratio, indicating a large valence band offset and a small conduction band offset at the WSe2/BP interface. In the optoelectrical measurements, we found the amplitude and even the polarity of photocurrent could be modulated by electrostatic gating. Our study could further enhance the understanding of designing devices based on these 'type tunable' van der Waals heterojunctions. Moreover, the properties of the WSe2/BP interface were also experimentally identified through the electrical and optoelectrical measurements in our study. PMID:26810387

  11. Forensic recovery of transient eruption parameters for the 2360 BP fall deposit, Mount Meager, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Porritt, Lucy; Russell, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    The 2360 BP eruption of Mount Meager, Canada featured an explosive subplinian onset resulting in dacitic fallout tephra and associated pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, followed by the effusion of dacite lava and the deposition of a thick sequence of block and ash flow deposits. Fall deposits are distributed to the NE of the vent onto a rugged, deeply incised landscape. The central axis of deposition is ~ 063° Az; the lateral margins of the fall deposit are massive to unbedded whereas deposits underlying the plume axis feature complex bedding relationships. We present componentry and granulometry data for eight outcroppings of the fall deposit (four on plume axis and four off plume axis). Vertical cross-sections, based on surface outcrops and drill core logs from local commercial drilling programs, are used to relate the accessory lithics to their source depth in the underlying subvolcanic basement. These combined datasets inform on the dynamics of this explosive phase of the eruption including variations in column height, eruption intensity, atmospheric conditions, and depth to fragmentation front. The lateral variations within the fall strata reflect the effects of the prevailing atmospheric conditions on the form and dispersal pattern of the subplinian plume. Vertical variations in granulometry and componentry of the fall deposits are used to track temporal changes in eruption intensity and column height and the transient influence of the jetstream on the dispersal pattern of the plume. Lastly, vertical variations in lithic componentry, combined with our knowledge of the subsurface geology, are used to quantitatively track the deepening of the fragmentation front. Our computed results show that the fragmentation front migrated from ~ 640 m to ~ 1160 m below the vent over the course of the 2360 BP Mount Meager eruption.

  12. Nanohole and dot patterning processes on quartz substrate by R–θ electron beam lithography and nanoimprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Kazutake; Suzuki, Kouta; Iyama, Hiromasa; Kishimoto, Shuji; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Fine hole and dot patterns with bit pitches (bp’s) of less than 40 nm were fabricated in the circular band area of a quartz substrate by R–θ electron beam lithography (EBL), reactive ion etching (RIE), and nanoimprinting. These patterning processes were studied to obtain minimum pitch sizes of hole and dot patterns without pattern collapse. The patterning on the circular band was aimed to apply these patterning processes to future high-density bit-patterned media (BPM) for hard disk drive (HDD) and permanent memory for the long life archiving of digital data. In hole patterning, a minimum-22-nm-bp and 8.2-nm-diameter pattern (1.3 Tbit/in.2) was obtained on a quartz substrate by optimizing the R–θ EBL and RIE processes. Dot patterns were replicated on another quartz substrate by nanoimprinting using a hole-patterned quartz substrate as a master mold followed by RIE. In dot patterning, a minimum-30-nm-bp and 18.5-nm-diameter pattern (0.7 Tbit/in.2) was obtained by introducing new descum conditions. It was observed that the minimum bp of successful patterning increased as the fabrication process proceeded, i.e., from 20 nm bp in the first EBL process to 30 nm bp in the last quartz dot patterning process. From the measured diameters of the patterns, it was revealed that pattern collapse was apt to occur when the value of average diameter plus 3 sigma of diameter was close to the bp. It was suggested that multiple fabrication processes caused the degradation of pattern quality; therefore, hole patterning is more suitable than dot patterning for future applications owing to the lower quality degradation by its simple fabrication process.

  13. A 22,000 14C year BP sediment and pollen record of climate change from Laguna Miscanti (23°S), northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, M.; van Leeuwen, J. F. N.; van der Knaap, W. O.; Geyh, M. A.; Ammann, B.; Tanner, W.; Messerli, B.; Núñez, L. A.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Veit, H.

    2001-02-01

    Lake sediments and pollen, spores and algae from the high-elevation endorheic Laguna Miscanti (22°45'S, 67°45'W, 4140 m a.s.l., 13.5 km 2 water surface, 10 m deep) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile provide information about abrupt and high amplitude changes in effective moisture. Although the lack of terrestrial organic macrofossils and the presence of a significant 14C reservoir effect make radiocarbon dating of lake sediments very difficult, we propose the following palaeoenvironmental history. An initial shallow freshwater lake (ca. 22,000 14C years BP) disappeared during the extremely dry conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 18,000 14C years BP). That section is devoid of pollen. The late-glacial lake transgression started around 12,000 14C years BP, peaked in two phases between ca. 11,000 and <9000 14C years BP, and terminated around 8000 14C years BP. Effective moisture increased more than three times compared to modern conditions (˜200 mm precipitation), and a relatively dense terrestrial vegetation was established. Very shallow hypersaline lacustrine conditions prevailed during the mid-Holocene until ca. 3600 14C years BP. However, numerous drying and wetting cycles suggest frequent changes in moisture, maybe even individual storms during the mid-Holocene. After several humid spells, modern conditions were reached at ca. 3000 14C years BP. Comparison between limnogeological data and pollen of terrestrial plants suggest century-scale response lags. Relatively constant concentrations of long-distance transported pollen from lowlands east of the Andes suggest similar atmospheric circulation patterns (mainly tropical summer rainfall) throughout the entire period of time. These findings compare favorably with other regional paleoenvironmental data.

  14. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  15. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M.; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  16. RanBP2 Modulates Cox11 and Hexokinase I Activities and Haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 Causes Deficits in Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guruju, Mallikarjuna; Oswald, John; Raz, Dorit; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A; Lu, Xinrong; Bock, Cheryl B; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2006-01-01

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s) of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI) via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2−/− are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2+/− mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies. PMID:17069463

  17. Association of Diurnal Blood Pressure Pattern with Risk for Hospitalization or Death in Men with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaekyu; Kline, Sharoen; Moore, Mariellen; Gong, Yan; Bhanderi, Viralkumar; Schmalfuss, Carsten M.; Johnson, Julie A.; Schofield, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Background An altered diurnal blood pressure (BP) pattern has been linked to risk of developing heart failure (HF). We tested whether an altered diurnal BP pattern is associated with adverse outcomes (hospitalization due to HF exacerbation or death) in HF patients. Methods and Results One hundred eighteen HF patients were enrolled from a tertiary care HF clinic and followed for death or heart failure hospitalization for up to 4 years. 24-hour ambulatory BP was monitored. Forty patients (34%) had normal BP dipping pattern (night-day ambulatory BP ratio < 0.9), 44 (37%) had a non-dipping pattern (0.9 ≤ night-day ambulatory BP ratio < 1.0) and 34 (29%) had a reverse dipping BP pattern (night-day ambulatory BP ratio ≥ 1.0). A total of 39 patients had an adverse outcome. Adverse outcome rates were the lowest in dippers and the highest in reverse dippers (Log rank p=0.052). Predictors of adverse outcomes, selected based on log likelihood contrast, were NYHA functional class (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-3.44), anemia (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.23-5.08) and dipping status (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.50). Conclusions In addition to other traditional predictors, blood pressure dipping status may be an important prognostic factor in HF. PMID:17923358

  18. Dietary intake of radiocesium in adult residents in Fukushima prefecture and neighboring regions after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident: 24-h food-duplicate survey in December 2011.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Tsukidate, Ayako; Asai, Fumikazu; Koizumi, Akio

    2013-03-19

    Since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima in March 2011, the Japanese government has conducted screening and removal of contaminated foods from the market that exceed provisional regulation limits for radionuclides. This study aimed to provide an urgent estimate of the dietary exposure of adult residents recruited from three areas in Japan to cesium 134 ((134)Cs), cesium 137 ((137)Cs), and, for comparison, natural potassium 40 ((40)K) on December 4, 2011. Fifty-three sets of 24-h food-duplicate samples were collected in Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring regions. The (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (40)K levels in the samples were measured using a germanium detector. Items in the food-duplicate samples were recorded and analyzed for radiocesium intake. Radiocesium was detected in 25 of 26 samples from Fukushima. The median dietary intake of radiocesium was 4.0 Bq/day (range <0.26-17 Bq/day). The estimated annual dose from radiocesium was calculated assuming that the daily intake of radiocesium was constant throughout the year. The median estimated dose level was 23 μSv/year (range <2.6-99 μSv/year). The estimated dose level of radiocesium was significantly higher in Fukushima than in the Kanto region and western Japan. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the intake of fruits and mushrooms produced in Fukushima were significant factors for the dietary intake of (137)Cs in the 26 participants from Fukushima. The average radioactivity (±SD) of locally produced persimmons and apples (n = 16) were 23 ± 28 and 30 ± 35 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively. The preliminary estimated dietary dose levels among Fukushima residents were much lower than the maximum permissible dose 1 mSv/year, based on new Japanese standard limits for radiocesium in foods (100 Bq/kg for general foods). In future studies, the exposure estimates should be refined by probability sampling to eliminate biases. PMID:23259847

  19. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  20. Estimating smoothness term for BP stereo matching with sparse disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Junxue; Li, Zhanming

    2011-06-01

    The belief propagation stereo matching algorithm has high computational cost and varied parameters. To address these problems and perform stereo matching in practical applications, we implement BP algorithm on cuda and propose an approach to estimate parameters of smoothness term in the energy function automatically. We use Harris corner detector and Pyramidal KLT feature tracker algorithm to extract a sparse disparity map. The rate of increase in the discontinuity cost can be compute out approximately. Experiments demonstrate that our approach is feasible and the approximate parameters of discontinuity cost can be computed out quickly.

  1. Expression and Localization of CaBP Ca2+ Binding Proteins in the Mouse Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Scholl, Elizabeth S; Pan, Ning; Fritzsch, Bernd; Haeseleer, Françoise; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    CaBPs are a family of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins that are structurally similar to calmodulin. CaBPs can interact with, and yet differentially modulate, effectors that are regulated by calmodulin, such as Cav1 voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Immunolabeling studies suggest that multiple CaBP family members (CaBP1, 2, 4, and 5) are expressed in the cochlea. To gain insights into the respective auditory functions of these CaBPs, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of CaBPs in the mouse cochlea. By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we show that CaBP1 and CaBP2 are the major CaBPs expressed in mouse cochlea both before and after hearing onset. Of the three alternatively spliced variants of CaBP1 (caldendrin, CaBP1-L, and CaBP1-S) and CaBP2 (CaBP2-alt, CaBP2-L, CaBP2-S), caldendrin and CaBP2-alt are the most abundant. By in situ hybridization, probes recognizing caldendrin strongly label the spiral ganglion, while probes designed to recognize all three isoforms of CaBP1 weakly label both the inner and outer hair cells as well as the spiral ganglion. Within the spiral ganglion, caldendrin/CaBP1 labeling is associated with cells resembling satellite glial cells. CaBP2-alt is strongly expressed in inner hair cells both before and after hearing onset. Probes designed to recognize all three variants of CaBP2 strongly label inner hair cells before hearing onset and outer hair cells after the onset of hearing. Thus, CaBP1 and CaBP2 may have overlapping roles in regulating Ca2+ signaling in the hair cells, and CaBP1 may have an additional function in the spiral ganglion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of CaBP family members in the auditory periphery. PMID:26809054

  2. Expression and Localization of CaBP Ca2+ Binding Proteins in the Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ning; Fritzsch, Bernd; Haeseleer, Françoise; Lee, Amy

    2016-01-01

    CaBPs are a family of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins that are structurally similar to calmodulin. CaBPs can interact with, and yet differentially modulate, effectors that are regulated by calmodulin, such as Cav1 voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Immunolabeling studies suggest that multiple CaBP family members (CaBP1, 2, 4, and 5) are expressed in the cochlea. To gain insights into the respective auditory functions of these CaBPs, we characterized the expression and cellular localization of CaBPs in the mouse cochlea. By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we show that CaBP1 and CaBP2 are the major CaBPs expressed in mouse cochlea both before and after hearing onset. Of the three alternatively spliced variants of CaBP1 (caldendrin, CaBP1-L, and CaBP1-S) and CaBP2 (CaBP2-alt, CaBP2-L, CaBP2-S), caldendrin and CaBP2-alt are the most abundant. By in situ hybridization, probes recognizing caldendrin strongly label the spiral ganglion, while probes designed to recognize all three isoforms of CaBP1 weakly label both the inner and outer hair cells as well as the spiral ganglion. Within the spiral ganglion, caldendrin/CaBP1 labeling is associated with cells resembling satellite glial cells. CaBP2-alt is strongly expressed in inner hair cells both before and after hearing onset. Probes designed to recognize all three variants of CaBP2 strongly label inner hair cells before hearing onset and outer hair cells after the onset of hearing. Thus, CaBP1 and CaBP2 may have overlapping roles in regulating Ca2+ signaling in the hair cells, and CaBP1 may have an additional function in the spiral ganglion. Our findings provide a framework for understanding the role of CaBP family members in the auditory periphery. PMID:26809054

  3. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  4. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    PubMed

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  5. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome and a non-dipping blood pressure pattern in young women

    PubMed Central

    Kargili, Ayse; Karakurt, Feridun; Kasapoglu, Benan; Derbent, Aysel; Koca, Cemile; Selcoki, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and increased cardiovascular disease risk is still a controversial issue. In light of data documenting some common pathways or common end-points, the present study was undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between sleep blood pressure pattern disturbances and polycystic ovarian syndrome in young women. METHOD The daytime and nighttime ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) were determined for each subject, according to the actual waking and sleeping times recorded in their individual diaries, in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS The study group comprised 168 women (mean age: 25.7±5.5) diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome, while the control group included 52 age- and BMI-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 26.1±5.4). When nocturnal BP declines very little or not at all, with the BP falling less than 10% during sleep compared with waking values, this pattern is classified as a non-dipping BP pattern. However, the non-dipping pattern of BP changes was significantly more common in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients compared to the control group (p<0.01). The prevalence of a non-dipping BP pattern was 43.4% (73 patients) in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients and 3.9% (2 patients) in the control group. CONCLUSION Our cross-sectional study revealed that a non-dipping BP pattern is highly prevalent in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, even if they are young and non-obese. PMID:20535365

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates CtBP1 and down-regulates its activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Youn; Kang, Byung-Hee; Lee, Soon-Min; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► AMPK phosphorylates CtBP1 on serine 158. ► AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 causes the ubiquitination and nuclear export of CtBP1. ► AMPK downregulates the CtBP1-mediated repression of Bax transcription. -- Abstract: CtBP is a transcriptional repressor which plays a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. It was reported that glucose withdrawal causes induction of Bax due to the dissociation of CtBP from the Bax promoter. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of CtBP still remains unclear. In this study, we found that an activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates CtBP1 on Ser-158 upon metabolic stresses. Moreover, AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CtBP1 (S158) attenuates the repressive function of CtBP1. We also confirmed that triggering activation of AMPK by various factors resulted in an increase of Bax gene expression. These findings provide connections of AMPK with CtBP1-mediated regulation of Bax expression for cell death under metabolic stresses.

  7. Phosphorylation and Rapid Relocalization of 53BP1 to Nuclear Foci upon DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lindsay; Henderson, Catherine; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2001-01-01

    53BP1 is a human BRCT protein that was originally identified as a p53-interacting protein by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screen. Although the carboxyl-terminal BRCT domain shows similarity to Crb2, a DNA damage checkpoint protein in fission yeast, there is no evidence so far that implicates 53BP1 in the checkpoint. We have identified a Xenopus homologue of 53BP1 (XL53BP1). XL53BP1 is associated with chromatin and, in some cells, localized to a few large foci under normal conditions. Gamma-ray irradiation induces increased numbers of the nuclear foci in a dose-dependent manner. The damage-induced 53BP1 foci appear rapidly (in 30 min) after irradiation, and de novo protein synthesis is not required for this response. In human cells, 53BP1 foci colocalize with Mrel1 foci at later stages of the postirradiation period. XL53BP1 is hyperphosphorylated after X-ray irradiation, and inhibitors of ATM-related kinases delay the relocalization and reduce the phosphorylation of XL53BP1 in response to X-irradiation. In AT cells, which lack ATM kinase, the irradiation-induced responses of 53BP1 are similarly affected. These results suggest a role for 53BP1 in the DNA damage response and/or checkpoint control which may involve signaling of damage to p53. PMID:11238909

  8. IGF2BP3 modulates the interaction of invasion-associated transcripts with RISC

    PubMed Central

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J.; Uren, Philip J.; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M.; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C.; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D.; Toloue, Masoud M.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Penalva, Luiz O.F.; Sanford, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy. But its role(s) in pathogenesis remain enigmatic. Here, we interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches we identify 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and miRNA binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. PMID:27210763

  9. IGF2BP3 Modulates the Interaction of Invasion-Associated Transcripts with RISC.

    PubMed

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J; Uren, Philip J; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D; Toloue, Masoud M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Penalva, Luiz O F; Sanford, Jeremy R

    2016-05-31

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. PMID:27210763

  10. Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 is Associated with Poor Survival in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Kathryn E.; Warycha, Melanie; Davies, Michael A.; Rodrik, Vanessa; Zhou, Xi K.; Yee, Herman; Polsky, David; Pavlick, Anna C.; Rosen, Neal; Bhardwaj, Nina; Mills, Gordon; Osman, Iman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Both the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK signal transduction pathways mediate 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, releasing 4E-BP1 from the mRNA cap and permitting translation initiation. Given the prevalence of PTEN and B-RAF mutations in melanoma, we first examined translation initiation, as measured by phosphorylated 4E-BP1, in metastatic melanoma tissues and cell lines. We then tested the association between amounts of total and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and patient survival. Experimental Design Seven human metastatic melanoma cells lines and 72 metastatic melanoma patients with accessible metastatic tumor tissues and extended follow up information were studied. Expression of 4E-BP1 transcript, total 4E-BP1 protein, and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 were examined. The relationship between 4E-BP1 transcript and protein expression was assessed in a subset of patient tumors (n=41). The association between total and phospho-4E-BP1 levels and survival was examined in the larger cohort of patients (n=72). Results 4E-BP1 was hyperphosphorylated in 4/7 melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF and PTEN mutations as compared to untransformed melanocytes or RAS/RAF/PTEN wild type melanoma cells. 4E-BP1 transcript correlated with 4E-BP1 total protein levels as measured by the semi-quantitative reverse phase protein array (p=0.012). High levels of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 were associated with worse overall and post-recurrence survival (p=0.02, 0.0003 respectively). Conclusion Our data demonstrate that translation initiation is a common event in human metastatic melanoma and correlates with worse prognosis. Therefore, effective inhibition of the pathways responsible for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation should be considered to improve the treatment outcome of metastatic melanoma patients. PMID:19336517

  11. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF THE CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR BP TAU

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2013-10-20

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  12. Spectropolarimetry of the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2013-10-01

    We implement a least-squares deconvolution (LSD) code to study magnetic fields on cool stars. We first apply our code to high-resolution optical echelle spectra of 53 Cam (a magnetic Ap star) and three well-studied cool stars (Arcturus, 61 Cyg A, and ξ Boo A) as well as the Sun (by observing the asteroid Vesta) as tests of the code and the instrumentation. Our analysis is based on several hundred photospheric lines spanning the wavelength range 5000 Å to 9000 Å. We then apply our LSD code to six nights of data on the Classical T Tauri Star BP Tau. A maximum longitudinal field of 370 ± 80 G is detected from the photospheric lines on BP Tau. A 1.8 kG dipole tilted at 129° with respect to the rotation axis and a 1.4 kG octupole tilted at 104° with respect to the rotation axis, both with a filling factor of 0.25, best fit our LSD Stokes V profiles. Measurements of several emission lines (He I 5876 Å, Ca II 8498 Å, and 8542 Å) show the presence of strong magnetic fields in the line formation regions of these lines, which are believed to be the base of the accretion footpoints. The field strength measured from these lines shows night-to-night variability consistent with rotation of the star.

  13. A heterozygous 21-bp deletion in CAPN3 causes dominantly inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Vissing, John; Barresi, Rita; Witting, Nanna; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Gammelgaard, Lise; Bindoff, Laurence A; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hudson, Judith; Wahl, Christoph M; Arnardottir, Snjolaug; Dahlbom, Kathe; Jonsrud, Christoffer; Duno, Morten

    2016-08-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A is the most common limb girdle muscular dystrophy form worldwide. Although strict recessive inheritance is assumed, patients carrying a single mutation in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3) are reported. Such findings are commonly attributed to incomplete mutation screening. In this investigation, we report 37 individuals (age range: 21-85 years, 21 females and 16 males) from 10 families in whom only one mutation in CAPN3 could be identified; a 21-bp, in-frame deletion (c.643_663del21). This mutation co-segregated with evidence of muscle disease and autosomal dominant transmission in several generations. Evidence of muscle disease was indicated by muscle pain, muscle weakness and wasting, significant fat replacement of muscles on imaging, myopathic changes on muscle biopsy and loss of calpain 3 protein on western blotting. Thirty-one of 34 patients had elevated creatine kinase or myoglobin. Muscle weakness was generally milder than observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, but affected the same muscle groups (proximal leg, lumbar paraspinal and medial gastrocnemius muscles). In some cases, the weakness was severely disabling. The 21-bp deletion did not affect mRNA maturation. Calpain 3 expression in muscle, assessed by western blot, was below 15% of normal levels in the nine mutation carriers in whom this could be tested. Haplotype analysis in four families from three different countries suggests that the 21-bp deletion is a founder mutation. This study provides strong evidence that heterozygosity for the c.643_663del21 deletion in CAPN3 results in a dominantly inherited muscle disease. The normal expression of mutated mRNA and the severe loss of calpain 3 on western blotting, suggest a dominant negative effect with a loss-of-function mechanism affecting the calpain 3 homodimer. This renders patients deficient in calpain 3 as in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, albeit in a milder form in most cases. Based on findings

  14. Differential kinetic patterns for Shiga toxin production by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    de Mena, M F; Tous, M; Miliwebsky, E; Chillemi, G; Rivas, M

    1997-01-01

    We studied the differential kinetic patterns for Shiga toxin (Stx) production (i.e. Stx1, Stx2 and Stx2c) in different reference Escherichia coli strains and in those isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) patients. These results were correlated with those obtained by specific cytotoxic activity assays on Vero cells and hybridization tests with DNA probes for Stx1 and Stx2. Strains cultured in Penassay broth were sampled at 1.5; 3; 5; 9 and 24 hours to determine bacterial growth and its association with cell-bound and free cytotoxicity. Stx1 showed an intracellular/extracellular concentration ratio (ic/ec) between 32 and 200 times after 3 h-growth. At 24 h both Stx1 concentrations were equal or, in some strains, the ec resulted 2-fold higher that the ic. The ic-Stx1 was equal or just 2-fold higher that ec after 3 h-growth. However, at 24 h the released toxin level was 16 to 32 times higher that cell-bound toxin. The ec-Stx2c increased logarithmically, with maximal yields at 5 h, remaining constant up to 24 h. At that time ic-toxin was 2-fold higher than the released one. When the same experiments were performed on strains isolated from HUS patients they showed that the kinetic patterns obtained corresponded to Stx2. These results were confirmed by hybridization assays. In this study we have shown that Stx1 production decreases dramatically during stationary phase while Stx2 is detected at high level at that time. This could explain the higher frequency of association of Stx2-producing E. coli strains and HUS in some countries, including Argentina. PMID:9472138

  15. Silencing of CtBP1 suppresses the migration in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Shen, Yifen; Tao, Xuelei; Xu, Jian; Lu, Junjie; Liu, Chao; Xu, Zhiwei; Tang, Qing; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Xiubing

    2016-06-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), up-regulated in various types of human cancers, has been functionally associated with proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and EMT in vitro studies. However, the functional significance of CtBP1 in the pathophysiology of glioma remains unknown. In the present study, we showed the expression of CtBP1 was markedly higher in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CtBP1 mainly localized in the nucleus of glioma cells. Statistical analysis suggested the upregulation of CtBP1 was considerably correlated with the WHO grade (P < 0.05) and those patients with high CtBP1 levels exhibited shorter survival time (P < 0.01). Silencing CtBP1 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, knockdown of CtBP1 increases E-cadherin expression and decreases vimentin expression. These data uncovered that CtBP1 protein is a valuable marker of glioma pathogenic process and that CtBP1 can serve as a novel prognostic marker for glioma therapy. PMID:27160109

  16. E4BP4 is a cardiac survival factor and essential for embryonic heart development.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi-Jiun; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Ding-Yu; Lin, James A; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tung, Kwong-Chung

    2010-07-01

    The bZIP transcription factor E4BP4, has been demonstrated to be a survival factor in pro-B lymphocytes. GATA factors play important roles in transducing the IL-3 survival signal and transactivating the downstream survival gene, E4BP4. In heart, GATA sites are essential for proper transcription of several cardiac genes, and GATA-4 is a mediator of cardiomyocyte survival. However, the role E4BP4 plays in heart is still poorly understood. In this study, Dot-blot hybridization assays using Dig-labeled RNA probes revealed that the E4BP4 gene was expressed in cardiac tissue from several species including, monkey, dog, rabbit, and human. Western blot analysis showed that the E4BP4 protein was consistently present in all of these four species. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that the E4BP4 protein was overexpressed in diseased heart tissue in comparison with normal heart tissue. In addition, the overexpression of E4BP4 in vitro activated cell survival signaling pathway of cardiomyocytes. At last, siRNA-mediated knock down of E4BP4 in zebrafish resulted in malformed looping of the embryonic heart tube and decreased heart beating. Based on these results, we conclude that E4BP4 plays as a survival factor in heart and E4BP4 is essential for proper embryonic heart development. PMID:20186462

  17. An Analysis of the Rapidly Rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    HD 133880 is a rapidly rotating chemically peculiar B-type (Bp) star (nu sin i approx = 103km/s) and is host to one of the strongest magnetic fields of any Ap/Bp star. A member of the Upper Centaurus Lupus association, it is a star with a well-determined age of 16 Myr. 12 new spectra, four of which are polarimetric, obtained from the FEROS, ESPaDOnS and HARPS instruments, provide sufficient material from which to re-evaluate the magnetic field and obtain a first approximation to the atmospheric abundance distributions of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti. Cr, Fe, Ni, Pr and Nd. An abundance analysis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesizes spectral line profiles for stars with permeating magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was characterized by a colinear multipole expansion from the observed variations of the longitudinal and surface fields with rotational phase. Both magnetic hemispheres are clearly visible during the stellar rotation, and thus a three-ring abundance distribution model encompassing both magnetic poles and magnetic equator with equal spans in colatitude was adopted. Using the new magnetic field measurements and optical photometry together with previously published data, we refine the period of HD 133880 to P = 0.877 476 +/- 0.000009 d. Our simple axisymmetric magnetic field model is based on a predominantly quadrupolar component that roughly describes the field variations. Using spectrum synthesis, we derived mean abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe and Pr. All elements; except Mg, are overabundant compared to the Son. Mg appears to be approximately uniform over the stellar surface, while all other elements are more abundant in the negative magnetic hemisphere than in the positive magnetic hemisphere. In contrast to most Ap/Bp stars which show an underabundance in 0, in HD 133880 this element is clearly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratio. In studying the Ha and Paschen lines in the optical spectra, we could not

  18. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin. We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect. PMID:26817862

  19. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongpeng; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Yilin; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Zhao, Xiulan; Xie, Keqin

    2016-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenousantioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or without melatonin, and then sacrificed on 27th day after 1-BP administration. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability of the experimental animals, and NeuN staining was performed to assess neuron loss in hippocampus. We found that rats treated with 1-BP spent more time and swam longer distance before landing on the hidden platform with a comparable swimming speed, which was markedly mitigated by the pretreatment with melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 1-BP-induced notable decrease in neuron population in hippocampus by promoting apoptosis, and melatonin pretreatment attenuated those changes in brain. The GSH/GSSG ratio was proportionately decreased and heme oxygenase 1 was increased in the rats exposed to 1-BP (Figure 6), and administration of melatonin restored them. Meanwhile, MDA, the level of lipid peroxidation product, was significantly increased upon exposed to 1-BP, which was significantly attenuated by melatonin pretreatment, indicating that administration of 1-BP could interfere with redox homeostasis of brain in rat, and such 1-BP-induced biomedical changes were reversed by treatment with melatonin.We conclude that treatment with melatonin attenuates 1-BP-induced CNS toxicity through its ROS scavenging effect. PMID:26817862

  20. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  1. A photometric and spectrographic study of BP Pegasi

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.; Mcnamara, D.H.; Joner, M.D. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1989-11-01

    Photometric (uvby beta) and spectrographic observations of the dwarf Cepheid BP Peg are discussed. The observations are used to derive a reddening value of E(b-y) = 0.067 m. An effective temperature of 7470 K, a mean surface gravity, log g = 3.85, and a Fe/H abundance ratio of - 0.08 are obtained. Pulsation theory and stellar model sequences yield M(bol) = 1.4 m, mass = 1.85 solar masses, and age = 1.3 X 10 to the 9th yrs. Also, the radial-velocity data show a mean radial velocity of - 30 km/s and a total velocity range of 36 km/s. 14 refs.

  2. BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    BP West Coast Products, LLC (BP or the Applicant) proposes to construct and operate a nominal 720-megawatt (MW), natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility next to the existing BP Cherry Point Refinery in Whatcom County, Washington. The Applicant also owns and operates the refinery, but the cogeneration facility and the refinery would be operated as separate business units. The cogeneration facility and its ancillary infrastructure would provide steam and 85 MW of electricity to meet the operating needs of the refinery and 635 MW of electrical power for local and regional consumption. The proposed cogeneration facility would be located between Ferndale and Blaine in northwestern Whatcom County, Washington. The Canadian border is approximately 8 miles north of the proposed project site. The Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) has jurisdiction over the evaluation of major energy facilities including the proposed project. As such, EFSEC will recommend approval or denial of the proposed cogeneration facility to the governor of Washington after an environmental review. On June 3, 2002, the Applicant filed an Application for Site Certification (ASC No. 2002-01) with EFSEC in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 463-42. On April 22, 2003, the Applicant submitted an amended ASC that included, among other things, a change from air to water cooling. With the submission of the ASC and in accordance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) (WAC 463-47), EFSEC is evaluating the siting of the proposed project and conducting an environmental review with this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Because the proposed project requires federal agency approvals and permits, this EIS is intended to meet the requirements under both SEPA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also will use this EIS as part of their

  3. Foam patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: specific detection of parasites by PCR in infected humans and vectors using a set of primers (BP1/BP2) targeted to a nuclear DNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Silber, A M; Búa, J; Porcel, B M; Segura, E L; Ruiz, A M

    1997-03-01

    In the present work we evaluate Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection by PCR using the nuclear oligonucleotides BP1/BP2 as primers. These primers are targeted to the 5' and 3' ends of the coding region for the flagellar protein F29. An amplification product of BP1/BP2 is a DNA band 692 bp long. Titration assays were performed to evaluate the minimum amount of parasite DNA that can be detected by this assay, resulting in 10 fg (equivalent to about 1/20 of the genome). The assay was also performed using T. cruzi DNA from different strains, clones, and human-derived isolates obtaining, in all cases, amplification products. No DNA amplification was observed when the PCR was performed using DNA from Leishmania braziliensis, but when T. rangeli DNA was used, a 615-bp-long fragment was amplified. Under appropriate gel conditions T. cruzi and T. rangeli DNA amplicons could be differentiated. When both conventional xenodiagnosis and PCR detection of parasite DNA in the feces of insect vectors fed with blood from infected patients were compared, 10 of 20 samples were positive by both techniques. However, 2 other samples with positive serology were also positive by PCR. When PCR was performed on blood samples from infected and uninfected individuals, 62 of 65 serologically positive human samples amplified the BP1/BP2 692-bp T. cruzi DNA fragment (sensitivity >95%). The 3 negative samples were positive when Southern blot hybridization was performed using the radiolabeled PCR amplification product as probe (sensitivity 100%). PMID:9085919

  5. Lamin A/C-dependent interaction with 53BP1 promotes cellular responses to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Lamins A/C have been implicated in DNA damage response pathways. We show that the DNA repair protein 53BP1 is a lamin A/C binding protein. In undamaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDF), 53BP1 is a nucleoskeleton protein. 53BP1 binds to lamins A/C via its Tudor domain, and this is abrogated by DNA damage. Lamins A/C regulate 53BP1 levels and consequently lamin A/C-null HDF display a 53BP1 null-like phenotype. Our data favour a model in which lamins A/C maintain a nucleoplasmic pool of 53BP1 in order to facilitate its rapid recruitment to sites of DNA damage and could explain why an absence of lamin A/C accelerates aging. PMID:25645366

  6. About the {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes}-specific 9-bp deletion of mtDNA...

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Santolamazza, P.

    1995-08-01

    The 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys} genes is due to the lack of one of two adjacent copies of a 9-bp sequence usually present in human mtDNA. This mutation is very common in Asians and populations of Asian ancestry (e.g., Polynesians and Amerinds) and often has been considered and ethnic-specific polymorphism for these populations. We now report the detection of the COII-tRNA{sup Lys} 9-bp deletion in an individual of Italian descent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the 9-bp deletion has been observed in Europeans. 19 refs.

  7. The relationship between prenatal exposure to BP-3 and Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Huo, Weiwei; Cai, Peng; Chen, Minjian; Li, Hongxing; Tang, Junwei; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Dongmei; Tang, Weibing; Xia, Yankai

    2016-02-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is neonatal intestinal abnormality which derived from the faliure of enteric neural crest cells migration to hindgut during embryogenesis from 5 to 12 weeks. Currenly, the knowledge of environmental factors contributing to HSCR is still scarce. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is one of the most widely used UV filters, and has weak estrogen and strong anti-androgenic effects. In order to examine the effect of maternal BP-3 exposure on development of offspring and explore the potential mechanism, we conducted case and control study and in vitro study. In this work, BP-3 concertrations in maternal urine was detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Besides, we investigated the cytotoxicity and receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) expression in cells exposed to BP-3. The results showed that maternal BP-3 exposure was associated with offspring's HSCR in the population as well as inhibited migration of 293T and SH-SY5Y cells. What's more, we discovered dose-response relationship between RET expression and BP-3 exposure dose, and miR-218 and some other genes involved in SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway were also related to BP-3 exposure. Therefore, we deduced that BP-3 influenced cell migration via SLIT2/ROBO1-miR-218-RET/PLAG1 pathway. Our study firstly revealed the relationship between maternal BP-3 exposure and HSCR as well as its potential mechanism. PMID:26454118

  8. The last 7500 cal yr B.P. of westerly rainfall in Central Chile inferred from a high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Aculeo (34°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Villagrán, Carolina; Jenny, Bettina

    2003-11-01

    We report multiproxy analyses of a sediment core obtained from Laguna Aculeo that spans the past 7500 years. Laguna Aculeo (33°50'S, 70°55'W) is one of the few natural inland lakes located in the Mediterranean zone of Central Chile, near the northern margin of the influence of the southern westerlies. The record shows elevated pollen counts of halophytes and seasonally drying of the lake basin prior to 5700 cal yr B.P., indicating severe aridity and warmer-than-present conditions. This was followed by the establishment of a fresh-water lake, along with an increase in arboreal and herbaceous plant diversity between 5700 and 3200 cal yr B.P. An intensification of this trend started at 3200 cal yr B.P., along with the abrupt decrease of halophytes until 100 cal yr B.P. Within this humid period, pollen accumulation rates show large-amplitude fluctuations, coeval with numerous turbidite layers, suggesting a highly variable and torrential rainfall pattern. This intense and variable precipitation regime is probably associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We suggest that the modern Mediterranean climate of Central Chile was established at ˜3200 cal yr B.P. Paleovegetation and paleolimnological changes starting at 100 cal yr B.P. correlate with documented human activity surrounding the lake.

  9. An analysis of the rapidly rotating Bp star HD 133880

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Grunhut, J.; Shultz, M.; Wade, G.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bohlender, D.; Lim, J.; Wong, K.; Drake, S.; Linsky, J.

    2012-06-01

    HD 133880 is a rapidly rotating chemically peculiar B-type (Bp) star (v sin i≃ 103 km s-1) and is host to one of the strongest magnetic fields of any Ap/Bp star. A member of the Upper Centaurus Lupus association, it is a star with a well-determined age of 16 Myr. 12 new spectra, four of which are polarimetric, obtained from the FEROS, ESPaDOnS and HARPS instruments, provide sufficient material from which to re-evaluate the magnetic field and obtain a first approximation to the atmospheric abundance distributions of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pr and Nd. An abundance analysis was carried out using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesizes spectral line profiles for stars with permeating magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was characterized by a colinear multipole expansion from the observed variations of the longitudinal and surface fields with rotational phase. Both magnetic hemispheres are clearly visible during the stellar rotation, and thus a three-ring abundance distribution model encompassing both magnetic poles and magnetic equator with equal spans in colatitude was adopted. Using the new magnetic field measurements and optical photometry together with previously published data, we refine the period of HD 133880 to P= 0.877 476 ± 0.000 009 d. Our simple axisymmetric magnetic field model is based on a predominantly quadrupolar component that roughly describes the field variations. Using spectrum synthesis, we derived mean abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe and Pr. All elements, except Mg, are overabundant compared to the Sun. Mg appears to be approximately uniform over the stellar surface, while all other elements are more abundant in the negative magnetic hemisphere than in the positive magnetic hemisphere. In contrast to most Ap/Bp stars which show an underabundance in O, in HD 133880 this element is clearly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratio. In studying the Hα and Paschen lines in the optical spectra, we could not unambiguously

  10. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  11. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  12. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  13. Dietary patterns and their associations with childhood obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiguo; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Zhang, Ji; Jiang, Hongru; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Bing

    2015-06-28

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children. PMID:25944159

  14. Design and characterization of novel antimicrobial peptides, R-BP100 and RW-BP100, with activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Torcato, Inês M; Huang, Yen-Hua; Franquelim, Henri G; Gaspar, Diana; Craik, David J; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Troeira Henriques, Sónia

    2013-03-01

    BP100 is a short cationic antimicrobial peptide with a mechanism of action dependent on peptide-lipid interactions and microbial surface charge neutralization. Although active against Gram-negative bacteria, BP100 is inactive against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study we report two newly designed BP100 analogues, RW-BP100 and R-BP100 that have the Tyr residue replaced with a Trp and/or the Lys residues replaced with an Arg. The new analogues in addition to being active against Gram-negative bacteria, possess activity against all tested Gram-positive bacteria. Mechanistic studies using atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence methodologies reveal that the antibacterial efficiency follows the affinity for bacterial membrane. The studies suggest that the activity of BP100 and its analogues against Gram-negative bacteria is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions with the lipopolysaccharide layer and is followed by binding to and disruption of the inner membrane, whereas activity against Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to electrostatic attraction to the exposed lipoteichoic acids, requires an ability to more deeply insert in the membrane environment, which is favoured with Arg residues and is facilitated in the presence of a Trp residue. Knowledge on the mechanism of action of these antimicrobial peptides provides information that assists in the design of antimicrobials with higher efficacy and broader spectra of action, but also on the design of peptides with higher specificity if required. PMID:23246973

  15. An S receptor kinase gene in self-compatible Brassica napus has a 1-bp deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Goring, D R; Glavin, T L; Schafer, U; Rothstein, S J

    1993-01-01

    S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK) cDNAs were isolated from an S allele present in a number of self-compatible Brassica napus lines. This A10 allele did not segregate with self-incompatibility in crosses involving other self-incompatible B. napus lines. The SLG-A10 cDNA was found to contain an intact open reading frame and was predicted to encode an SLG protein with sequence similarities to those previously associated with phenotypically strong self-incompatibility reactions. SLG-A10 transcripts were detected in the developing stigma at steady state levels even higher than those detected for SLG alleles linked with self-incompatibility. Analysis of the corresponding SRK-A10 cDNA showed that it was very similar to other S locus receptor kinase genes and was expressed predominantly in the stigma. However, a 1-bp deletion was detected in the SRK gene toward the 3' end of the SLG homology domain. This deletion would lead to premature termination of translation and the production of a truncated SRK protein. The A10 allele was determined to represent a B. oleracea S allele based on its segregation pattern with the B. oleracea S24 allele when both these alleles were present in the same B. napus background. These results suggest that a functional SRK gene is required for Brassica self-incompatibility. PMID:8518554

  16. Lyapunov Exponent Criterion in the CR3BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, Billy; Eberle, Jason; Cuntz, Manfred; Musielak, Zdzislaw

    2010-10-01

    Our specific focus is to describe the motion of an extra solar planet in a binary star system. We aim to accomplish this by using the methods of chaos theory as an alternate method to our previously established Hodograph method in the circular restricted 3-body problem (CR3BP). Previously Eberle et al. (2010) has shown that a parameter space exists depending only on the mass ratio μ and distance ratio ρo which allowed them to identify regions of stability. Our method will validate the previous results while also providing more information relating to the presence of resonances and their effects on orbital stability. We extend the previous studies by increasing the simulation time, applying the method of Lyapunov exponents, calculating the time series spectrum of the orbit, and determining the Lyapunov dimension. The obtained results demonstrate when a system becomes unstable by orbital energy criterion and the method of Lyapunov exponents provides a quantitative classification scale to characterize the instability. By applying the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) to the parameter space, we determine a region of stability with MLE values larger than the surrounding region. The time series spectra and the Lyapunov Dimension methods are used to illustrate the reasons behind the stability plateau which eludes to the resonance phenomena.

  17. The BP oil spill and the bounty of Plaquemines Parish.

    PubMed

    Fertel, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The source of 25 to 30 percent of America's seafood, the Mississippi River Delta's cornucopian world is now uncertain. And yet, even if shrimp, oysters, and finfish are unaffected by the BP Oil Spill - a big if - one can already reflect on the passing of the culture once built upon gathering them. For almost three centuries, levees made life possible along the riverbanks and in the wetlands beyond. Those same levees also ensured the wetlands would eventually melt away into the Gulf. Cutting off the silt left behind during annual river inundations subjected the fragile land to erosion. Sulfur, natural gas, and oil production companies dug twenty thousand miles of canals to gain more direct routes to their fields and to pump out their mineral wealth. This caused salt-water intrusion that killed off plant life and caused more erosion. The world that sustained my Plaquemines ancestors was less subject to collapse following disasters not only because the ecosystem before the wetlands' ongoing loss was then more vibrant, complex, and robust; but also because their lives, especially their culinary lives, were more vibrant, complex, and robust. Life was hard, but when it came to putting food on the table, life followed the seasons. PMID:21591308

  18. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is a key disturbing agent in a wide range of ecosystems: boreal biome (Pitkanen, 2000), Mediterranean area (Colombaroli et al., 2008) as well as temperate European mountain zones (Tinner et al., 1999). During the Holocene, climate may control fire regime by both ignition and fire spread-favouring conditions (i.e. composition, structure and moisture of biomass) whereas man may change charcoal accumulation patterns through type and intensity of agro-pastoral activities. In western and Mediterranean Europe, single sites charcoal analysis recorded the anthropogenic forcing over fire regime broadly between the mid and the late-Holocene. Turner et al (2008) showed that climate and fire had been disconnected since 1700 cal. BP in Turkey. In central Swiss, Mean Fire Interval decreased by two times 2000 years ago due to increasing human impact (Stahli et al., 2006). In Italy, climate and man have had a combined influence on fire-hazard since ca 4000 cal. BP (Vannière et al., 2008). In the Pyrenees Mountains, the linkage between agro-pastoral practices and fire could be dated back to ca 4000-3000 cal. BP with a clear succession of a clearance phase (high fire frequency) followed by a quite linear trend throughout Middle Ages and Modern times corresponding to a change in fire use (Vanniere et al., 2001; Galop et al., 2002, Rius et al., in press). The quantification of fire regimes parameters such as frequency with robust methodological tools (Inferred Fire Frequency, Mean Fire Interval) is needed to understand and characterise such shifts. Here we present two sequences from the Lourdes basin (col d'Ech peat bog) and from the occidental Pyrenees (Gabarn peat bog), which cover the last 9000 years with high temporal resolution. The main goals of this study were to (1) assess control factors of fire regime throughout the lateglacial and Holocene (climate and/or man) on the local scale, (2) evidence the local/regional significance of these control factors , (3) discuss the

  19. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  20. Role of Transcriptional Corepressor CtBP1 in Prostate Cancer Progression12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Asangani, Irfan A; Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni VSK; Ateeq, Bushra; Lonigro, Robert J; Cao, Qi; Mani, Ram-Shankar; Camacho, Daniel F; McGregor, Natalie; Schumann, Taibriana EW; Jing, Xiaojun; Menawat, Radhika; Tomlins, Scott A; Zheng, Heng; Otte, Arie P; Mehra, Rohit; Siddiqui, Javed; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Nyati, Mukesh K; Pienta, Kenneth J; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Rubin, Mark A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional repressors and corepressors play a critical role in cellular homeostasis and are frequently altered in cancer. C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a transcriptional corepressor that regulates the expression of tumor suppressors and genes involved in cell death, is known to play a role in multiple cancers. In this study, we observed the overexpression and mislocalization of CtBP1 in metastatic prostate cancer and demonstrated the functional significance of CtBP1 in prostate cancer progression. Transient and stable knockdown of CtBP1 in prostate cancer cells inhibited their proliferation and invasion. Expression profiling studies of prostate cancer cell lines revealed that multiple tumor suppressor genes are repressed by CtBP1. Furthermore, our studies indicate a role for CtBP1 in conferring radiation resistance to prostate cancer cell lines. In vivo studies using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, xenograft studies, and murine metastasis models suggested a role for CtBP1 in prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that dysregulated expression of CtBP1 plays an important role in prostate cancer progression and may serve as a viable therapeutic target. PMID:23097625

  1. 76 FR 69712 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e... (DOE) issued Order No. EA-315, which authorized BP Energy to transmit electric energy from the...

  2. 76 FR 69713 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e... Order No. EA-314, which authorized BP Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  3. TopBP1 deficiency impairs V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kyu Lee, Sung; Jeon, Yoon; Kim, Yehyun; Lee, Changjin; Ho Jeon, Sung; Shim, Jaegal; Kim, In-Hoo; Hong, Seokmann; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ho; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2014-01-01

    TopBP1 was initially identified as a topoisomerase II-β-binding protein and it plays roles in DNA replication and repair. We found that TopBP1 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid tissues and is essential for early lymphocyte development. Specific abrogation of TopBP1 expression resulted in transitional blocks during early lymphocyte development. These defects were, in major part, due to aberrant V(D)J rearrangements in pro-B cells, double-negative and double-positive thymocytes. We also show that TopBP1 was located at sites of V(D)J rearrangement. In TopBP1-deficient cells, γ-H2AX foci were found to be increased. In addition, greater amount of γ-H2AX product was precipitated from the regions where TopBP1 was localized than from controls, indicating that TopBP1 deficiency results in inefficient DNA double-strand break repair. The developmental defects were rescued by introducing functional TCR αβ transgenes. Our data demonstrate a novel role for TopBP1 as a crucial factor in V(D)J rearrangement during the development of B, T and iNKT cells. PMID:24442639

  4. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  5. 53BP1 foci as a marker of tumor cell radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Markova, E; Vasilyev, S; Belyaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Predicting tumor radiosensitivity has yet to be routinely integrated into radiotherapy. We analyzed the possibility to assess radiosensitivity of tumor cells based on endogenous and radiation-induced 53BP1 foci which are molecular markers of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). In eleven tumor cell lines of different origin, radiosensitivity was assessed by surviving cell fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2). 53BP1 foci were measured at 4 and 12 h post-irradiation by confocal laser microscopy and dedicated software. The correlation of 53BP1 foci and their post-irradiation kinetics with SF2 was assessed using Spearman rank test. The SF2 correlated with both excess of radiation-induced 53BP1 foci per cell at 4 h after irradiation and decay in number of 53BP1 foci from 4 to 12 h post-irradiation. The fraction of cells with multiple endogenous 53BP1 foci also correlated with SF2 of tumor cells. We conclude that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells can be predicted by kinetics of formation and decay of 53BP1 foci after irradiation. For the first time we report that the fraction of cells with multiple endogenous 53BP1 foci can be used as a marker of tumor cell radiosensitivity. PMID:26278144

  6. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shiren; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Lili; Chen, Yu; Han, Shuang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming . E-mail: fandaim@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-05-18

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to {beta}-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing {beta}-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells.

  7. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  8. 75 FR 37783 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... spill and develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  9. 75 FR 47584 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. The... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department of... meeting for the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling...

  10. 75 FR 39518 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., 2010, of the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, (75 FR... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling; Correction AGENCY: Office...: Christopher A. Smith, (202) 586-0716. Corrections In the Federal Register of June 30, 2010, in FR Doc....

  11. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers November 1, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp....

  12. Overexpression of Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 Predicts for Tumor Recurrence and Reduced Survival in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Postoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Benavente, Sergio; Verges, Ramona; Hermosilla, Eduardo; Fumanal, Victor; Casanova, Nathalie; Garcia, Angel; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; Giralt, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of the 4E-BP1 activation state and related upstream/downstream signaling proteins on the clinical outcome of patients with intermediate- or high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy and to determine the optimal treatment of early-stage cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 64 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma surgical specimens for each protein of the panel (p4E-BP1, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, pAkt, vascular endothelial growth factor, KDR, Bcl-2, TP53, receptor for activated C-kinase 1). The expression patterns were related to the clinical data. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was added if high-risk features were present. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: Of the 64 patients, 13 received concomitant chemotherapy. p4E-BP1 overexpression in moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma correlated significantly with disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 4.39; p = .009) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.88; p = .005). Vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor KDR, had positive immunoreactivity in all tumor samples. No correlation with clinical outcome was found for the remaining proteins evaluated. Conclusion: In this study, moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma with low p4E-BP1 expression was highly curable with the current postoperative treatments. For tumors with p4E-BP1 overexpression, new investigational strategies are needed.

  13. E4BP4: an unexpected player in the immune response.

    PubMed

    Male, Victoria; Nisoli, Ilaria; Gascoyne, Duncan M; Brady, Hugh J M

    2012-02-01

    Until recently, the basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 (also known as NFIL3) was of little interest to immunologists, being best known for its role in regulating circadian rhythm in chick pineal gland. However, characterisation of E4bp4(-/-) mice, independently generated in four different laboratories, has revealed roles for E4BP4 in diverse haematopoietic lineages. E4BP4 is essential for the development of NK cells and CD8α(+) conventional dendritic cells, and is also involved in macrophage activation, polarisation of CD4(+) T cell responses and B cell class switching to IgE. Here, we discuss the role of E4BP4 as a regulator of the immune response and highlight future questions for the field. PMID:22075207

  14. Development of the HT-BP neural network system for the identification of a well-test interpretation model

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, W.; Yoo, I.; Ra, S.; Park, H.

    1996-08-01

    The back propagation (BP) neural network approach has been the subject of recent focus because it can identify models for incomplete or distorted data without performing data preparation procedures. However, this approach uses only partial sets of data to reduce computing time and memory, and it may miss the points representing characteristics of the curve shape. Therefore, the resulted model may not be correct, forcing one to use sequential neural nets to find the correct model. The authors present the Hough Transform (HT) method combined with the BP neural network to improve this problem. With the aid of an HT, one can extract one simple pattern, including noisy and extraneous points, from the full-set data. A number of exercises also have been conducted for the published well-test data with the artificial intelligence neutral network identification system (ANNIS) they developed. The results show that ANNIS is quite reliable, especially for the incomplete or distorted data. They also demonstrate that the modified Levenberg-Marquart interpretation model, also developed in this work, successfully estimates reservoir parameters.

  15. Novel 6-bp deletion in MEF2A linked to premature coronary artery disease in a large Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    XU, DONG-LING; TIAN, HONG-LIANG; CAI, WEI-LI; ZHENG, JIE; GAO, MIN; ZHANG, MING-XIANG; ZHENG, ZHAO-TONG; LU, QING-HUA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the genetic defect responsible for familial coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction (CAD/MI), which exhibited an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, in an extended Chinese Han pedigree containing 34 members. Using exome and Sanger sequencing, a novel 6-base pair (bp) 'CAGCCG' deletion in exon 11 of the myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) gene was identified, which cosegregated with CAD/MI cases in this family. This 6-bp deletion was not detected in 311 sporadic cases of premature CAD/MI or in 323 unrelated healthy controls. Determination of a genetic risk profile has a key role in understanding the pathogenesis of CAD and MI. Among the reported risk conferring genes and their variants, mutations in MEF2A have been reported to segregate with CAD/MI in Caucasian families. Causative missense mutations have also been detected in sporadic CAD/MI cases. However, this suggested genetic linkage is controversial, since it could not be confirmed by ensuing studies. The discovery of a novel MEF2A mutation in a Chinese family with premature CAD/MI suggests that MEF2A may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of premature CAD/MI. To better understand this association, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required. PMID:27221044

  16. Novel Association Between the Reverse-Dipper Pattern of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Metabolic Syndrome in Men But Not in Women.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin; Yan, Hang; Sun, Lu; Yan, Xin; Peng, Liyuan; Wang, Yuhuan; Wang, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between nocturnal variations in blood pressure (BP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in different gender.This cross-sectional study involved 509 hypertensive patients (254 males and 255 females, 45 to 75 years old) from September 2013 to March 2014. BP values were acquired from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). The dipper pattern of BP was defined as 10% to 20% reduction of the mean systolic BP (SBP) values at night compared with the daytime values. The diagnosis of MetS was made according to NCEP ATP-III definition. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between ABPM results and MetS.In our study, MetS were observed in 29.1% of male and 18.4% of female participants. The prevalence of MetS was higher in the patients with reverse-dipper pattern than in others. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the reverse-dipper pattern of BP (odds ratio 2.298; P = 0.006) and 24-SBP (odds ratio 1.063; P = 0.021) were independently correlated with MetS in males. However, there was no association between MetS and BP reverse dipping in females.Our cross-sectional study showed that the reverse-dipper pattern of BP is associated with MetS in male, while the underlying mechanism deserves further investigation. PMID:26632731

  17. The adaptor 3BP2 is required for KIT receptor expression and human mast cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Picado, César; Sayós, Joan; Rivera, Juan; Martín, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    3BP2 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that acts as a positive regulator in mast cell FcεRI-dependent signaling. The KIT receptor whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for mast cell development, proliferation and survival as well as for optimal IgE-dependent signal. Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with several diseases including mastocytosis. In the present work, we found that 3BP2 silencing impairs KIT signaling pathways, thus affecting PI3K and MAP kinase pathways in human mast cells from HMC-1, LAD2 (human mast cell lines) and CD34+-derived mast cells. Unexpectedly, silencing of 3BP2 reduces KIT expression in normal human mast cells as well as in HMC-1 cells where KIT is mutated, thus increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity. 3BP2 silencing reduces KIT transcription expression levels. Interestingly, 3BP2 silencing decreased MITF expression, a transcription factor involved in KIT expression. Reconstitution of 3BP2 in knockdown cells leads to reversal of KIT expression as well as survival phenotype. Accordingly MITF reconstitution enhances KIT expression levels in 3BP2 silenced cells. Moreover, downregulation of KIT expression by miRNA221 overexpression or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib also reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression. Furthermore, KIT tyrosine activity inhibition reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression, demonstrating again a tight and reciprocal relationship between these molecules. Taken together, our results show that 3BP2 regulates human mast cell survival and participates in KIT-mediated signal transduction by directly controlling KIT receptor expression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and deregulated KIT disorders. PMID:25810396

  18. RanBP9 at the intersection between cofilin and Aβ pathologies: rescue of neurodegenerative changes by RanBP9 reduction

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J A; Boggess, T; Uhlar, C; Wang, X; Khan, H; Cappos, G; Joly-Amado, A; De Narvaez, E; Majid, S; Minamide, L S; Bamburg, J R; Morgan, D; Weeber, E; Kang, D E

    2015-01-01

    Molecular pathways underlying the neurotoxicity and production of amyloid β protein (Aβ) represent potentially promising therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently found that overexpression of the scaffolding protein RanBP9 increases Aβ production in cell lines and in transgenic mice while promoting cofilin activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin–actin pathology require the activation/dephosphorylation of cofilin by Slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1) and cysteine oxidation of cofilin. In this study, we found that endogenous RanBP9 positively regulates SSH1 levels and mediates Aβ-induced translocation of cofilin to mitochondria and induction of cofilin–actin pathology in cultured cells, primary neurons, and in vivo. Endogenous level of RanBP9 was also required for Aβ-induced collapse of growth cones in immature neurons (days in vitro 9 (DIV9)) and depletion of synaptic proteins in mature neurons (DIV21). In vivo, amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice exhibited 3.5-fold increased RanBP9 levels, and RanBP9 reduction protected against cofilin–actin pathology, synaptic damage, gliosis, and Aβ accumulation associated with APP/PS1 mice. Brains slices derived from APP/PS1 mice showed significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), and RanBP9 reduction significantly enhanced paired pulse facilitation and LTP, as well as partially rescued contextual memory deficits associated with APP/PS1 mice. Therefore, these results underscore the critical importance of endogenous RanBP9 not only in Aβ accumulation but also in mediating the neurotoxic actions of Aβ at the level of synaptic plasticity, mitochondria, and cofilin–actin pathology via control of the SSH1-cofilin pathway in vivo. PMID:25741591

  19. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks. PMID:24088795

  20. Oncofetal protein IGF2BP3 facilitates the activity of proto-oncogene protein eIF4E through the destabilization of EIF4E-BP2 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, R; Imamachi, N; Suzuki, Y; Yoshida, H; Tochigi, N; Oonishi, T; Suzuki, Y; Akimitsu, N

    2016-07-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have important roles in tumorigenesis. Although IGF2BP3, an evolutionally conserved RBP, has been reported as a useful diagnostic marker for various cancers and has been considered a regulator of tumorigenesis, little is known of the function of IGF2BP3 because of lack of information regarding IGF2BP3 target mRNAs. Here, we report the identification of IGF2BP3 target mRNAs and IGF2BP3 function in cancer proliferation. We identified mRNAs with altered expression in IGF2BP3-depleted cells by massive sequencing analysis and IGF2BP3-binding RNAs by immunoprecipitation of IGF2BP3 followed by massive sequencing analysis, resulting in the identification of 110 candidates that are negatively regulated by IGF2BP3. We found that IGF2BP3 destabilized EIF4E-BP2 and MEIS3 mRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed the interaction between IGF2BP3 and ribonucleases such as XRN2 and exosome component. The retarded proliferation of IGF2BP3-depleted cells was partially rescued by the depletion of EIF4E-BP2, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), an activator of translation and a well-known proto-oncogene. Consistent with this observation, IGF2BP3 depletion reduced phosphorylated eIF4E, the active form, and translational efficiency of eIF4E target transcripts. Reduction of phosphorylated eIF4E by IGF2BP3 depletion was rescued by EIF4E-BP2 depletion. At last, we found an inverse correlation between the expression level of IGF2BP3 and EIF4E-BP2 in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Together, these results suggest that IGF2BP3 promotes eIF4E-mediated translational activation through the reduction of EIF4E-BP2 via mRNA degradation, leading to enhanced cell proliferation. This is the first report demonstrating that IGF2BP3 is an RNA-destabilizing factor. Notably, here we provide the first evidence for the functional linkage between two previously well-known cancer biomarkers, IGF2BP3 and eIF4E. PMID:26522719

  1. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  2. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation regulates p27Kip1 stability in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ying-Lin; Li, Ya-Jun; Wang, Jing-Bo; Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Feng, Shan-Shan; Hu, Jian-Guo; Zhai, Hui-Hong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) nuclear translocation in promoting the proliferation of gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS: The effect of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation on cell cycle was investigated by cell cycle analysis. Western blot analysis was used to assess the change in expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proteasome-mediated degradation of p27Kip1. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis was performed to examine the binding of CacyBP/SIP with Skp1. A CacyBP/SIP truncation mutant which lacked the Skp1 binding site was constructed and fused to a fluorescent protein. Subsequently, the effect on Skp1 binding with the fusion protein was examined by co-IP, while localization of fluorescent fusion protein observed by confocal laser microscopy, and change in p27Kip1 protein expression assessed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation induced by gastrin promoted progression of GC cells from G1 phase. However, while CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation was inhibited using siRNA to suppress CacyBP/SIP expression, cell cycle was clearly inhibited. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation significantly decreased the level of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, increased Cyclin E protein expression whereas the levels of Skp1, Skp2, and CDK2 were not affected. Upon inhibition of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation, there were no changes in protein levels of p27Kip1 and Cyclin E, while p27Kip1 decrease could be prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, CacyBP/SIP was found to bind to Skp1 by immunoprecipitation, an event that was abolished by mutant CacyBP/SIP, which also failed to stimulate p27Kip1 degradation, even though the mutant could still translocate into the nucleus. CONCLUSION: CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation contributes to the proliferation of GC cells, and CacyBP/SIP exerts this effect, at least in part, by stimulating ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27

  3. Characterization of a cancer cell line that expresses a splicing variant form of 53BP1: Separation of checkpoint and repair functions in 53BP1

    SciTech Connect

    Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi Matsui, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Kurihara, Takayuki; Date, Takayasu

    2008-11-21

    53BP1 plays important roles in checkpoint signaling and repair for DNA double-strand breaks. We found that a colon cancer cell line, SW48, expressed a splicing variant form of 53BP1, which lacks the residues corresponding to exons 10 and 11. Activation of ATM and phosphorylation of ATM and ATR targets occurred in SW48 cells in response to X-irradiation, and these X-ray-induced responses were not enhanced by expression of full-length 53BP1 in SW48 cells, indicating that this splicing variant fully activates the major checkpoint signaling in SW48 cells. In contrast, the expression of full-length 53BP1 in SW48 cells promoted the repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage, evidenced by faster disappearance of X-ray-induced {gamma}-H2AX foci, a marker for DNA damage, and less residual chromosomal aberrations after X-irradiation. We conclude that the two major roles of 53BP1, the checkpoint signaling and repair for DNA damage, can be functionally separated.

  4. Importance of surface modification of a micro-contact stamp for pattern fidelity of soluble organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hea-Lim; Lee, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Se-Um; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2015-08-01

    We described the effect of the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on the fidelity of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) patterns produced from a TIPS-PEN/polymer blend by selective contact evaporation (SCE). During the SCE process, the TIPS-PEN in contact with the nanoporous PDMS was absorbed into the PDMS stamp, leaving out the TIPS-PEN patterns, complementary to the PDMS patterns, in the non-contact regions. For the case of the untreated, hydrophobic PDMS surface, the TIPS-PEN patterns developed initially were shrunken and eventually disappeared after 24 h due to the steady absorption of the TIPS-PEN in time. In contrast, for the UVO-treated case, the TIPS-PEN patterns were found to maintain the initial shapes over the period of 24 h since the absorption of the TIPS-PEN was limited by the hydrophilic nature of the UVO-treated PDMS. The modified PDMS surface by the UVO for 30 min yielded the highest fidelity of the TIPS-PEN patterns in both height and width. The patterned TIPS-PEN layer by the SCE was implemented into an organic field-effect transistor to demonstrate the viability of the SCE combined with the UVO treatment for solution-processed organic electronic devices.

  5. Subepidermal Blistering Induced by Human Autoantibodies to BP180 Requires Innate Immune Players in a Humanized Bullous Pemphigoid Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Sui, Wen; Zhao, Minglang; Li, Zhuowei; Li, Ning; Thresher, Randy; Giudice, George J.; Fairley, Janet A.; Sitaru, Cassian; Zillikens, Detlef; Ning, Gang; Marinkovich, Peter; Diaz, Luis A.

    2008-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a cutaneous autoimmune inflammatory disease associated with subepidermal blistering and autoantibodies against BP180, a transmembrane collagen and major component of the hemidesmosome. Numerous inflammatory cells infiltrate the upper dermis in BP. IgG autoantibodies in BP fix complement and target multiple BP180 epitopes that are highly clustered within a non-collagen linker domain, termed NC16A. Anti-BP180 antibodies induce BP in mice. In this study, we generated a humanized mouse strain, in which the murine BP180NC14A is replaced with the homologous human BP180NC16A epitope cluster region. We show that the humanized NC16A (NC16A+/+) mice injected with anti-BP180NC16A autoantibodies develop BP-like subepidermal blisters. The F(ab′)2 fragments of pathogenic IgG fail to activate complement cascade and are no longer pathogenic. The NC16A+/+ mice pretreated with mast cell activation blocker or depleting of complement or neutrophils become resistant to BP. These findings suggest that the humoral response in BP critically depends on innate immune system players. PMID:18922680

  6. Human Biogeography and Climate Change in Siberia and Arctic North America in the Fourth and Fifth Millennia BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, W. R.; Jordan, R. H.

    1990-04-01

    This paper explores the relation between the geographic shifts in prehistoric hunting populations and changes in climate between 4500 and 3000 before present (BP) within the polar regions from the Yenisei River in Siberia to Greenland. We have chosen this time period because major human geographic changes occurred over much of northeastern Asia and northern North America, and because these changes appear to be linked, at least in part, to a palaeoclimatic fluctuations. The cultures under consideration have been termed the Early and Middle Neolithic (Syalakh and Bel'kachi) in Siberia and the Arctic Small Tool Tradition (with such local variants as Denbigh, Independence I, Pre-Dorset, and Sarqaq) in North America. Despite these terminological differences, these groups shared such a close similarity in their technology and adaptive patterns that they must have once shared a direct historical relation.

  7. Establishing a Dynamic Self-Adaptation Learning Algorithm of the BP Neural Network and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Suying; Zhu, Pengfei; Wu, Min

    2015-12-01

    In order to avoid the inherent deficiencies of the traditional BP neural network, such as slow convergence speed, that easily leading to local minima, poor generalization ability and difficulty in determining the network structure, the dynamic self-adaptive learning algorithm of the BP neural network is put forward to improve the function of the BP neural network. The new algorithm combines the merit of principal component analysis, particle swarm optimization, correlation analysis and self-adaptive model, hence can effectively solve the problems of selecting structural parameters, initial connection weights and thresholds and learning rates of the BP neural network. This new algorithm not only reduces the human intervention, optimizes the topological structures of BP neural networks and improves the network generalization ability, but also accelerates the convergence speed of a network, avoids trapping into local minima, and enhances network adaptation ability and prediction ability. The dynamic self-adaptive learning algorithm of the BP neural network is used to forecast the total retail sale of consumer goods of Sichuan Province, China. Empirical results indicate that the new algorithm is superior to the traditional BP network algorithm in predicting accuracy and time consumption, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  8. YB-1 regulates stress granule formation and tumor progression by translationally activating G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Leprivier, Gabriel; Cheng, Hongwei; Hajee, Shamil; Grunewald, Thomas G.P.; Zhang, Fan; Ng, Tony; Delattre, Olivier; Evdokimova, Valentina; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Under cell stress, global protein synthesis is inhibited to preserve energy. One mechanism is to sequester and silence mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as stress granules (SGs), which contain translationally silent mRNAs, preinitiation factors, and RNA-binding proteins. Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) localizes to SGs, but its role in SG biology is unknown. We now report that YB-1 directly binds to and translationally activates the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of G3BP1 mRNAs, thereby controlling the availability of the G3BP1 SG nucleator for SG assembly. YB-1 inactivation in human sarcoma cells dramatically reduces G3BP1 and SG formation in vitro. YB-1 and G3BP1 expression are highly correlated in human sarcomas, and elevated G3BP1 expression correlates with poor survival. Finally, G3BP1 down-regulation in sarcoma xenografts prevents in vivo SG formation and tumor invasion, and completely blocks lung metastasis in mouse models. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for YB-1 in SG formation through translational activation of G3BP1, and highlight novel functions for SGs in tumor progression. PMID:25800057

  9. Cell cycle-dependent inhibition of 53BP1 signaling by BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Li, Nan; Li, Yujing; Wang, Jiadong; Gao, Min; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage response mediator protein 53BP1 is a key regulator of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. 53BP1 protects DNA broken ends from resection by recruiting two downstream factors, RIF1 (RAP1-interacting factor 1) and PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein), to double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-mediated 53BP1 phosphorylation, and competes with BRCA1-mediated homologous recombination (HR) repair in G1 phase. In contrast, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1-direct NHEJ repair in S/G2 phases. We and others have found that BRCA1 prevents the translocation of RIF1 to DSBs in S/G2 phases; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that efficient ATM-dependent 53BP1 phosphorylation is restricted to the G1 phase of the cell cycle, as a consequence RIF1 and PTIP accumulation at DSB sites only occur in G1 phase. Mechanistically, both BRCT and RING domains of BRCA1 are required for the inhibition of 53BP1 phosphorylation in S and G2 phases. Thus, our findings reveal how BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 signaling to ensure that HR repair is the dominant repair pathway in S/G2 phases.

  10. CENP-C facilitates the recruitment of M18BP1 to centromeric chromatin.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Silvia; Deng, Wen; Hahn, Matthias; Sadic, Dennis; Fröhlich, Jonathan; Nuber, Alexander; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Schotta, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Centromeres are important structural constituents of chromosomes that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis by providing defined sites for kinetochore attachment. In higher eukaryotes, centromeres have no specific DNA sequence and thus, they are rather determined through epigenetic mechanisms. A fundamental process in centromere establishment is the incorporation of the histone variant CENP-A into centromeric chromatin, which provides a binding platform for the other centromeric proteins. The Mis18 complex, and, in particular, its member M18BP1 was shown to be essential for both incorporation and maintenance of CENP-A. Here we show that M18BP1 displays a cell cycle-regulated association with centromeric chromatin in mouse embryonic stem cells. M18BP1 is highly enriched at centromeric regions from late anaphase through to G1 phase. An interaction screen against 16 core centromeric proteins revealed a novel interaction of M18BP1 with CENP-C. We mapped the interaction domain in M18BP1 to a central region containing a conserved SANT domain and in CENP-C to the C-terminus. Knock-down of CENP-C leads to reduced M18BP1 association and lower CENP-A levels at centromeres, suggesting that CENP-C works as an important factor for centromeric M18BP1 recruitment and thus for maintaining centromeric CENP-A. PMID:22540025

  11. CENP-C facilitates the recruitment of M18BP1 to centromeric chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Silvia; Deng, Wen; Hahn, Matthias; Sadic, Dennis; Fröhlich, Jonathan; Nuber, Alexander; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Schotta, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Centromeres are important structural constituents of chromosomes that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis by providing defined sites for kinetochore attachment. In higher eukaryotes, centromeres have no specific DNA sequence and thus, they are rather determined through epigenetic mechanisms. A fundamental process in centromere establishment is the incorporation of the histone variant CENP-A into centromeric chromatin, which provides a binding platform for the other centromeric proteins. The Mis18 complex, and, in particular, its member M18BP1 was shown to be essential for both incorporation and maintenance of CENP-A.   Here we show that M18BP1 displays a cell cycle-regulated association with centromeric chromatin in mouse embryonic stem cells. M18BP1 is highly enriched at centromeric regions from late anaphase through to G1 phase. An interaction screen against 16 core centromeric proteins revealed a novel interaction of M18BP1 with CENP-C. We mapped the interaction domain in M18BP1 to a central region containing a conserved SANT domain and in CENP-C to the C-terminus. Knock-down of CENP-C leads to reduced M18BP1 association and lower CENP-A levels at centromeres, suggesting that CENP-C works as an important factor for centromeric M18BP1 recruitment and thus for maintaining centromeric CENP-A. PMID:22540025

  12. Divergent homologs of the predicted small RNA BpCand697 in Burkholderia spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiri, Nadzirah; Mohd-Padil, Hirzahida; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA) gene candidate, BpCand697 was previously reported to be unique to Burkholderia spp. and is encoded at 3' non-coding region of a putative AraC family transcription regulator gene. This study demonstrates the conservation of BpCand697 sequence across 32 Burkholderia spp. including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis and Burkholderia sp. by integrating both sequence homology and secondary structural analyses of BpCand697 within the dataset. The divergent sequence of BpCand697 was also used as a discriminatory power in clustering the dataset according to the potential virulence of Burkholderia spp., showing that B. thailandensis was clearly secluded from the virulent cluster of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. Finally, the differential co-transcript expression of BpCand697 and its flanking gene, bpsl2391 was detected in Burkholderia pseudomallei D286 after grown under two different culture conditions using nutrient-rich and minimal media. It is hypothesized that the differential expression of BpCand697-bpsl2391 co-transcript between the two standard prepared media might correlate with nutrient availability in the culture media, suggesting that the physical co-localization of BpCand697 in B. pseudomallei D286 might be directly or indirectly involved with the transcript regulation of bpsl2391 under the selected in vitro culture conditions.

  13. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication.

    PubMed

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M; Androphy, Elliot J

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. PMID:25666521

  14. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  15. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  16. E4BP4 overexpression: a protective mechanism in CD4+ T cells from SLE patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Qian; Liang, Gongping; Wang, Litao; Luo, Shuangyan; Tang, Qian; Zhao, Hongjun; Su, Yuwen; Yung, Susan; Chan, Tak Mao; Lu, Qianjin

    2013-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease characterized by various immunological abnormalities, including dysregulated activation of T and B lymphocytes, which trigger autoantibody production and immune-complex deposition. E4BP4, also known as NFIL3, has emerged as a major transcription factor that regulates the development and function of immune cells in a number of lineages. E4BP4 has been shown to regulate cytokines expression, and its synthesis is in turn controlled by various cytokines. To date, the roles of E4BP4 in immune dysregulation and autoimmune disorders are unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that E4BP4 expression is increased in CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in patients treated with glucocorticoid (GC). Increased expression of E4BP4 inhibited the activation and self-reactivity of T cells stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. In contrast, the self-reactivity was enhanced in CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients following E4BP4 gene silencing and the production of autoantibody was increased in autologous B cells. We further demonstrated that E4BP4 directly regulated CD40L expression by binding to the promoter region and altering histone acetylation and methylation of the CD40L loci. Taken together, our data provide evidence that E4BP4 can inhibit CD40L expression through epigenetic modifications in the promoter region of CD40L, thus negatively regulating self-reactivity of SLE CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that overexpression of E4BP4 initiates a protective mechanism in SLE CD4(+) T cells, which may be a promising target in the therapy for SLE. PMID:23340290

  17. Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan

    2016-01-01

    PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.

  18. Two Isoforms of the RNA Binding Protein, Coding Region Determinant-binding Protein (CRD-BP/IGF2BP1), Are Expressed in Breast Epithelium and Support Clonogenic Growth of Breast Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fakhraldeen, Saja A.; Clark, Rod J.; Roopra, Avtar; Chin, Emily N.; Huang, Wei; Castorino, John; Wisinski, Kari B.; Kim, TaeWon; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.; Alexander, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    CRD-BP/IGF2BP1 has been characterized as an “oncofetal” RNA binding protein typically highly expressed in embryonic tissues, suppressed in normal adult tissues, but induced in many tumor types. In this study, we show that adult breast tissues express ubiquitous but low levels of CRD-BP protein and mRNA. Although CRD-BP mRNA expression is induced in breast tumor cells, levels remain ∼1000-fold lower than in embryonic tissues. Despite low expression levels, CRD-BP is required for clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells. We reveal that because the most common protein isoform in normal adult breast and breast tumors has an N-terminal deletion (lacking two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains) and is therefore missing antibody epitopes, CRD-BP expression has been under-reported by previous studies. We show that a CRD-BP mutant mouse strain retains expression of the shorter transcript (ΔN-CRD-BP), which originates in intron 2, suggesting that the impact of complete ablation of this gene in mice is not yet known. Either the full-length CRD-BP or the N-terminally truncated version can rescue the clonogenicity of CRD-BP knockdown breast cancer cells, suggesting that clonogenic function is served by either CRD-BP isoform. In summary, although CRD-BP expression levels are low in breast cancer cells, this protein is necessary for clonogenic activity. PMID:25861986

  19. Clinical and Immunological Studies of 332 Japanese Patients Tentatively Diagnosed as Anti-BP180-type Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Novel BP180 C-terminal Domain Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Atsushi; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-08-23

    Diagnosis of anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is frustrated by the difficulty of detecting BP180 reactivity. A total of 721 patients with suspected MMP, selected from a cohort of 4,698 patients with autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), were included in this study. Of these, 332 patients were tentatively diagnosed as BP180-MMP if they showed IgG/IgA reactivity with the epidermal side of 1M NaCl-split-skin and/or positive reactivity with BP180 in at least one of our antigen detection methods. Clinically, a predominance of female patients was found. Oral mucosal and cutaneous lesions were found in 85.5% and 41.0% of patients, respectively, and frequent treatments were systemic steroids, tetracycline/minocycline and diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Various immunological methods, including a newly developed BP180 C-terminal domain enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed frequent reactivity with BP180 C-terminal and NC16a domains. Some patients reacted with BP180 and other antigens, indicating that BP180-MMP tends to concur with other AIBDs. This large study of patients with suspected BP180-MMP indicates the difficulty of diagnosis of BP180-MMP and the diagnostic usefulness of BP180 C-terminal domain ELISA. PMID:26984589

  20. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5000 years B.P. onset of El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Sandweiss, D.H.; Richardson, J.B. III; Rollins, H.B.

    1996-09-13

    For the tropical west coast of South America, where El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is most pronounced, archaeological and associated paleontological deposits in northern Peru revealed a major climate change at about 5000 years before the present (yr B.P.). The data implied the presence of stable, warm tropical water as far south as 10{degrees}S during the early mid-Holocene (about 8000 to 5000 yr B.P.). These data suggest that ENSO did not occur for some millennia preceding 5000 yr B.P., when global and regional climate was warmer than today. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Genetic and morphological features of human iPSC-derived neurons with chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletions

    PubMed Central

    Das, DK; Tapias, V; D’Aiuto, L; Chowdari, KV; Francis, L; Zhi, Y; Ghosh, Bhattacharjee A; Surti, U; Tischfield, J; Sheldon, M; Moore, JC; Fish, K; Nimgaonkar, V

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number variation on chromosome 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) causes deletion of CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5; it also affects brain structure and elevates risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendritic spine abnormalities. In rodents, altered cyfip1 expression changes dendritic spine morphology, motivating analyses of human neuronal cells derived from iPSCs (iPSC-neurons). Methods iPSCs were generated from a mother and her offspring, both carrying the 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion, and a non-deletion control. Gene expression in the deletion region was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR assays. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and iPSC-neurons were characterized using immunocytochemistry. Results CYFIP1, NIPA1, NIPA2 and TUBGCP5 gene expression was lower in iPSCs, NPCs and iPSC-neurons from the mother and her offspring in relation to control cells. CYFIP1 and PSD95 protein levels were lower in iPSC-neurons derived from the CNV bearing individuals using Western blot analysis. At 10 weeks post-differentiation, iPSC-neurons appeared to show dendritic spines and qualitative analysis suggested that dendritic morphology was altered in 15q11.2 deletion subjects compared with control cells. Conclusions The 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) deletion is associated with reduced expression of four genes in iPSC-derived neuronal cells; it may also be associated altered iPSC-neuron dendritic morphology. PMID:26528485

  2. Optimizing blood pressure control in hypertension: the need to use ABPM.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Lehmann, Marina V; Schmidt, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent, treatable cause of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Patients with hypertension and one or more comorbidities increasingly form a significant part of the primary care practitioner's caseload. The emphasis on intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has softened, encouraging any degree of BP lowering, since any fall in BP is beneficial for reducing CV risk. Consistency of BP control during long-term therapy (i.e. low visit-to-visit variability) and decreasing BP variability over 24-h may be as, if not more, important than degree of BP lowering per se. Fluctuations in BP between visits as well as within a 24-h period have been associated with increased CV risk. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is a crucial element of the clinician's armamentarium not only for assessing the "true" BP load and fluctuations under real-life conditions but for identification of various abnormal BP patterns that may require attention, including white- coat hypertension, masked hypertension, non-dipping and the morning BP surge. ABPM provides accurate assessment of treatment effectiveness over 24-h and may lead to better tailoring of therapy. This article reviews the benefits of ABPM and discusses the importance of selecting long-acting antihypertensive agents for optimizing BP control. PMID:23035939

  3. Assessment of the Optimal Stimulus Pattern to Achieve Rapid Dorsal Hippocampal Kindling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Fatemeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although hippocampus is the most famous brain area involved in temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal kindling (HK) develops very slowly. Hence, rapid kindling is usually preferred to the traditional kindling and it is widely used. In this article we aimed at finding the optimal stimulus pattern, which yields the fastest HK rate. Methods: Stimulus patterns with different duration (2, 3, 5 and 10 s) and inter-train interval (ITI) (5, 10 and 30 min) as well as number of trains in 24 h (8 and 12) were exerted to rats’ dorsal hippocampus. The stimuli were continued until appearance of 3 consecutive generalized seizures or maximum 7 days stimulations. Results: While the protocol with train duration of 10 s and ITI of 30 min caused the fastest kindling rate and the most growth of afterdischarges, the protocol with train duration of 5 s and ITI of 5 min was the most time-consuming protocol among protocols tested. Discussion: Rapid HK develops with a time course of days compared to weeks in traditional kindling. Train duration and inter-train interval are key factors for rapid HK. Among the patterns, 12 trains/24h of 50Hz monophasic square wave with 10 s duration and 30 min interval between trains, is the best stimulus pattern for eliciting rapid dorsal HK. PMID:27307955

  4. Synthesis and properties of A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Anderson; Cunha, Lumena; Vieira, Andiara C.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials were synthesized. {yields} Chemical synthesis produced different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree. {yields} Structural investigation by Raman scattering revealed a complex band structure. {yields} A strong correlation between band structure and ionic radius was determined. -- Abstract: Double layered hydroxide materials of composition A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) were synthesized by chemical precipitation at 60 {sup o}C. Different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree were observed depending upon the chemical environment or the combination between divalent and trivalent cations. The results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanostructured layered samples were obtained with interplanar spacing compatible with previous literature. Raman scattering was employed to investigate the complex band structure observed, particularly the lattice vibrations at lower frequencies, which is intimately correlated to the cationic radius of both divalent and trivalent ions. The results showed that strongly coordinated water and chloride ions besides highly structured hydroxide layers have a direct influence on the stability of the hydrotalcites. It was observed that transition and decomposition temperatures varied largely for different chemical compositions.

  5. Statistical universal branching ratios for cosmic ray dissociation, photodissociation, and dissociative recombination of the Cn = 2-10, Cn = 2-4H and C3H2 neutral and cationic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Béroff, K.; Pino, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Désequelles, P.; Martinet, G.; Nguyen-Thi, V. O.; Carpentier, Y.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Fragmentation-branching ratios of electronically excited molecular species are of first importance for the modeling of gas phase interstellar chemistry. Despite experimental and theoretical efforts that have been done during the last two decades there is still a strong lack of detailed information on those quantities for many molecules such as Cn, CnH or C3H2. Aims: Our aim is to provide astrochemical databases with more realistic branching ratios for Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules that are electronically excited either by dissociative recombination, photodissociation, or cosmic ray processes, when no detailed calculations or measurements exist in literature. Methods: High velocity collision in an inverse kinematics scheme was used to measure the complete fragmentation pattern of electronically excited Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules. Branching ratios of dissociation where deduced from those experiments. The full set of branching ratios was used as a new input in chemical models and branching ratio modification effects observed in astrochemical networks that describe the dense cold Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 and the photon dominated Horse Head region. Results: The comparison between the branching ratios obtained in this work and other types of experiments showed a good agreement. It was interpreted as the signature of a statistical behavior of the fragmentation. The branching ratios we obtained lead to an increase of the C3 production together with a larger dispersion of the daughter fragments. The introduction of these new values in the photon dominated region model of the Horse Head nebula increases the abundance of C3 and C3H, but reduces the abundances of the larger Cn and hydrocarbons at a visual extinction AV smaller than 4. Conclusions: We recommend astrochemists to use these new branching ratios. The data published here have been added to the online database KIDA (KInetic Database for Astrochemistry

  6. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  7. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  8. Cosmic airburst debris, climate anomalies and societal reactions at 4.2kyr BP: from North Syria to Adelie Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coqueugniot, E.; Courty, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The linkages established between dust spikes, unprecedented drought and societal disruption at 4.2 kyr BP have yet failed elucidating the marked increase in aerosol. The volcanic dust component or the erratic spatial pattern are among other puzzling anomalies for a global climate event. We examine here the 4.2 kyr BP debris records from high quality sedimentary archives across the two hemispheres: (1) at Tell Dja'de (Syria), a carbonaceous surface sealed by a EB III/IV Bronze age cemetery; (2) at Tell Ahmar (Syria), the nearly intact collapsed wood frame of the Akkad palace sandwiched between the last 3rd millennium BC plastered floors and massive destruction layers of the monumental buildings; (3) debris accumulation from human processed slags in late Akkaddian contexts at Tell Leilan, Tell Chuera, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak (North Syria) and in an EB III/IV one at Umbaschi (South Syria); (4) a tsunami layer at Banda Aceh (Sumatra); (5) deep sea cores from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, the Indian and Austral oceans. Using an in situ multi-analytical protocol, we focus on the carbonaceous polymorphs and the composite elements that we formerly defined to tracing hypervelocity cosmic airbursts. A meticulous control of their spatial pattern and structural characteristics at meso to nano-scales has helped to distinguishing the intact debris fall of airburst origin from their human processed-byproducts. The later trace the occurrence in the debris airbursts of highly valuable resources, i.e. fossil combustible with singular properties, that have been exploited since the prehistoric time. Evidence for an oceanic impact at 4.2 kyr BP in the Austral ocean are provided by the 3 m record in the Adelie land high resolution marine core (MD03-2601) showing sudden discharge of ice rafted fine debris with impact features. Their fresh fingerprints in the high to low latitude records from the southern hemisphere indicate massive dispersion of impact debris by air and surface

  9. Wasted (wst) mice have 3-bp deletion in the PCNA promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1997-08-01

    Mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive wasted mutation (wst/wst) have abnormalities in T-lymphocytes and in the anterior motor neuron cells of the spinal cord, leading to sensitivity to ionizing radiation, hind limb paralysis, and immunodeficiency. This defect results in a failure to gain weight by 20 days and death at 28 days of age. Previous results from the authors` group have shown that (1) wasted mice have little if any detectable PCNA protein or mRNA in thymus, but levels in liver, brain, and other tissues are similar to those in controls; and (2) the coding region for PCNA is the same in wasted mice and in control littermates. These observations gave rise to the present study, in which the PCNA promoter was sequenced for wst/wst mice, control littermates ({center_dot}wst/+) and BCF{sub 1} (or BALB/c x C57BL/6) F{sub 1} controls. Sequence analysis revealed only one difference between wst/wst and BALB/c x C57BL/6 F{sub 1} littermates: a 3-bp deletion in the 5 foot upstream region of the PCNA gene of wasted mice that was observed on only one allele or no alleles of normal littermates. The mutated sites in PCNA promoter from two litters plus two additional wst/wst and two known wst/+ animals were screened with 8G and 11G probes, and each confirmed this pattern. The short term DNA segment encompassing the deletion was shown in gel shift experiments to bind a nuclear protein(s) present in a broad variety of cells including thymus and spleen nuclear extract from wst/wst and control mice. The mutated oligomer that was homozygous only in wst/wst mice was not able to bind the same nuclear protein(s).

  10. WS-BP: An efficient wolf search based back-propagation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawi, Nazri Mohd; Rehman, M. Z.; Khan, Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Wolf Search (WS) is a heuristic based optimization algorithm. Inspired by the preying and survival capabilities of the wolves, this algorithm is highly capable to search large spaces in the candidate solutions. This paper investigates the use of WS algorithm in combination with back-propagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm to overcome the local minima problem and to improve convergence in gradient descent. The performance of the proposed Wolf Search based Back-Propagation (WS-BP) algorithm is compared with Artificial Bee Colony Back-Propagation (ABC-BP), Bat Based Back-Propagation (Bat-BP), and conventional BPNN algorithms. Specifically, OR and XOR datasets are used for training the network. The simulation results show that the WS-BP algorithm effectively avoids the local minima and converge to global minima.

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of BP75, a novel bromodomain-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Cuppen, E; van Ham, M; Pepers, B; Wieringa, B; Hendriks, W

    1999-10-15

    We here describe the identification and characterization of a novel bromodomain-containing protein, the bromodomain protein of 75 kDa (BP75). Initially, we identified BP75 in a two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with the first PDZ (acronym for post-synaptic density protein PSD-95, Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor DlgA and the tight junction protein ZO-1) domain in protein tyrosine phosphatase-BAS-like (PTP-BL). We found that BP75 is expressed ubiquitously and show that both BP75 and a PTP-BL deletion mutant consisting of the first PDZ domain are located mainly in the nucleus, although cytoplasmic localization is also evident. Full-length PTP-BL, on the contrary, is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, although some basal nuclear staining is observed. The described molecular interaction may reflect a mechanism of coupling submembraneous signalling events and nuclear events. PMID:10526152

  12. Prediction of BP reactivity to talking using hybrid soft computing approaches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmanik; Arora, Ajat Shatru; Jain, Vijender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, optimal precision in measurement of BP is appropriate in clinical and research studies. In this work, anthropometric characteristics including age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and arm circumference (AC) were used as independent predictor variables for the prediction of BP reactivity to talking. Principal component analysis (PCA) was fused with artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to remove the multicollinearity effect among anthropometric predictor variables. The statistical tests in terms of coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) revealed that PCA based LS-SVM (PCA-LS-SVM) model produced a more efficient prediction of BP reactivity as compared to other models. This assessment presents the importance and advantages posed by PCA fused prediction models for prediction of biological variables. PMID:25328536

  13. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER AND POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER AND POWER SUBSTATIONS - Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower, Adjacent to AMTRAK railroad tracks in block bounded by Howard Street, Jones Falls Expressway, Maryland Avenue & Falls Road, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. Prediction of BP Reactivity to Talking Using Hybrid Soft Computing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ajat Shatru; Jain, Vijender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, optimal precision in measurement of BP is appropriate in clinical and research studies. In this work, anthropometric characteristics including age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and arm circumference (AC) were used as independent predictor variables for the prediction of BP reactivity to talking. Principal component analysis (PCA) was fused with artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to remove the multicollinearity effect among anthropometric predictor variables. The statistical tests in terms of coefficient of determination (R 2), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) revealed that PCA based LS-SVM (PCA-LS-SVM) model produced a more efficient prediction of BP reactivity as compared to other models. This assessment presents the importance and advantages posed by PCA fused prediction models for prediction of biological variables. PMID:25328536

  15. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  16. Environmental Conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: before and after the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides a summary of ecological condition and sediment chemistry data for northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries that were exposed to oil and oil-related contaminants from the BP Oil Spill.

  17. Role of the CacyBP/SIP protein in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, HUIHONG; MENG, JUAN; JIN, HAIFENG; LI, YUANFEI; WANG, JINBO

    2015-01-01

    Various reports indicate that calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) is an important protein in tumorigenesis, but whether CacyBP/SIP promotes or suppresses cancer may depend on the cell type. In order to investigate whether CacyBP/SIP is significant in gastric cancerous tumorigenesis, the present study used immunohistochemistry to analyze 181 gastric cancer tissue samples, as well as 181 healthy tissue samples from the same gastric cancer patients. The immunohistochemical results were compared against patient data and pathological analysis of the tissue slices, including gender, age, degree of tumor differentiation and tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage. In addition, the level of CacyBP/SIP expression was detected in three frozen tissue samples of gastric adenocarcinoma using western blot analysis. Of the 181 cases analyzed in the present study, 80 cases were identified as non-metastatic gastric cancer and 101 cases were identified as gastric cancer that had metastasized to the lymph nodes. Tissue biopsies from the two sets of patients were examined using immunohistochemistry to identify the level of CacyBP/SIP expression in metastatic and primary gastric cancer tissues. Statistical analyses were performed on all data. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in 31% (56/181) of gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 7% (12/181) of adjacent non-cancerous gastric tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of CacyBP/SIP were higher in cancerous tissue compared with the adjacent non-cancerous gastric tissue using western blotting. No association was identified between CacyBP/SIP expression and patient age (P=0.975), gender (P=0.185), degree of tumor differentiation (P=0.076) or TNM stage (P=0.979). Among the 101 patients with metastatic gastric cancer, CacyBP/SIP was expressed at primary sites in 31% (31/101) of cases and at metastatic sites in 26% (26/101) of cases (P=0.434). However, among the

  18. A Role for Anti-BP180 Autoantibodies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffe, Jill S.; Seshadri, Sudarshan; Hamill, Kevin J.; Huang, Julia He; Carter, Roderick; Suh, Lydia; Hulse, Kathryn; Norton, James; Conley, David B.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Kern, Robert C.; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Tan, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives CRS is accompanied by evidence of a vigorous adaptive immune response, and emerging studies demonstrate that some nasal polyps manifest a polyclonal autoantibody response. We previously found that antibodies against BP180, a component of the hemidesmosome complex and the dominant epitope in autoimmune bullous pemphigoid, were found at elevated levels in nasal polyp tissue. Given the critical role of hemidesmosomes in maintaining epithelial integrity, we sought to investigate the distribution of BP180 in nasal tissue and evaluate for evidence of systemic autoimmunity against this antigen in CRS. Study Design Case-control experimental study Methods The expression and distribution of BP180 in cultured nasal epithelial cells and normal nasal tissue were confirmed using real-time PCR, Western immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Sera were collected from three groups: control, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP. A commercially available ELISA was utilized to compare anti-BP180 autoantibody levels in sera. Results BP180 is expressed in nasal epithelium, but is not confined to the basement membrane as it is in human skin. In cultured nasal epithelial cells, confocal immunofluoresence showed a punctate distribution of BP180 along the basal surface, consistent with its distribution in epithelial keratinocytes. There are significantly higher levels of circulating nonpathologic anti-BP180 autoantibodies in CRS patients compared with normal controls (p<0.05). Conclusions BP180 is more widely expressed in nasal epithelium versus skin, although it appears to play a similar role in formation of hemidesmosomes along the basement membrane. Further investigations are ongoing to characterize the pathogenicity of the anti-epithelial antibody response in CRS. PMID:24167818

  19. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  20. A novel E4BP4 element drives circadian expression of mPeriod2.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tomoya; Onishi, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Period2 (Per2) is an essential component of the mammalian clock mechanism and robust circadian expression of Per2 is essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythms. Although recent studies have shown that the circadian E2 enhancer (a non-canonical E-box) accounts for most of the circadian transcriptional drive of mPer2, little is known about the other cis-elements of mPer2 oscillatory transcription. Here, we examined the contribution of E4BP4 to Per2 mRNA oscillation in the cell-autonomous clock. Knockdown experiments of E4BP4 in both Northern blots and real-time luciferase assays suggested that endogenous E4BP4 negatively regulates Per2 mRNA oscillation. Sequence analysis revealed two putative E4BP4-binding sites (termed A-site and B-site) on mammalian Per2 promoter regions. Luciferase assays with mutant constructs showed that a novel E4BP4-binding site (B-site) is responsible for E4BP4-mediated transcriptional repression of Per2. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in vivo showed that the peak of E4BP4 binding to the B-site on the Per2 promoter almost matched the trough of Per2 mRNA expression. Importantly, real-time luciferase assays showed that the B-site in addition to the E2 enhancer is required for robust circadian expression of Per2 in the cell-autonomous clock. These findings indicated that E4BP4 is required for the negative regulation of mammalian circadian clocks. PMID:17182630

  1. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  2. Occurrence of 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) biodegradation in an aquatic sample caused by the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza and isolation of a 4-t-BP-utilizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuka; Toyama, Tadashi; Yu, Ning; Wang, Xuan; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-04-01

    Although 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) is a serious aquatic pollutant, its biodegradation in aquatic environments has not been well documented. In this study, 4-t-BP was obviously and repeatedly removed from water from four different environments in the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza, giant duckweed, but 4-t-BP persisted in the environmental waters in the absence of S. polyrrhiza. Also, 4-t-BP was not removed from autoclaved pond water with sterilized S. polyrrhiza. These results suggest that the 4-t-BP removal from the environmental waters was caused by biodegradation stimulated by the presence of S. polyrrhiza rather than by uptake by the plant. Moreover, Sphingobium fuliginis OMI capable of utilizing 4-t-BP as a sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the S. polyrrhiza rhizosphere. Strain OMI degraded 4-t-BP via a meta-cleavage pathway, and also degraded a broad range of alkylphenols with linear or branched alkyl side chains containing two to nine carbon atoms. Root exudates of S. polyrrhiza stimulated 4-t-BP degradation and cell growth of strain OMI. Thus, the stimulating effects of S. polyrrhiza root exudates on 4-t-BP-degrading bacteria might have contributed to 4-t-BP removal in the environmental waters with S. polyrrhiza. These results demonstrate that the S. polyrrhiza-bacteria association may be applicable to the removal of highly persistent 4-t-BP from wastewaters or polluted aquatic environments. PMID:22777343

  3. Effects of BP-14, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Lorenzo; Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Puppin, Cinzia; Russo, Diego; Kryštof, Vladimir; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive human malignancy characterized by a marked degree of invasiveness, absense of features of thyroid differentiation and resistance to current medical treatment. It is well known that ATCs are characterized by deregulation of genes related to cell cycle regulation, i.e., cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). Therefore, in the present study, the effect of a novel exogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, BP-14, was investigated in three human ATC cell lines. The ATC-derived cell lines FRO, SW1736 and 8505C were treated with BP-14 alone or in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. In all ATC cell lines, treatment with BP-14 decreased cell viability and, in two of them, BP-14 modified expression of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, our data indicate that BP-14 is a potential new compound effective against ATC. Combined treatment with BP-14 and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had a strong synergistic effect on cell viability in all three cell lines, suggesting that the combined used of CDK and mTOR inhibitors may be a useful strategy for ATC treatment. PMID:26884249

  4. Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3.

    PubMed

    Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1-3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316

  5. Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3

    PubMed Central

    Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D.; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1–3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316

  6. Asian-specific mitochondrial genome polymorphism (9-bp deletion) in Hungarian patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Pentelenyi, Klara; Remenyi, Viktoria; Gal, Aniko; Milley, Gyorgy Mate; Csosz, Aranka; Mende, Balazs Gusztav; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2016-05-01

    A 9-bp deletion of the mtDNA is known as an anthropological marker of people with East-Asian origin. This 9-bp mtDNA deletion was analyzed in 1073 Hungarians with suspected mitochondrial disease and in 468 healthy control individuals. Fourteen cases with the 9-bp deletion were found in the cohort of mitochondrial patients, and one individual from 468 controls. In six cases the 9-bp deletion was present together with pathogenic major deletions in the mitochondrial genome. In one patient we found a frame shift mutation in the D-loop region, and in another family a pathogenic m.8322 A > G mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene. Although the 9-bp deletion is common in the populations of the Pacific region and Asia, it is present in the Hungarian population as well. This 9-bp deletion may induce instability of the mtDNA and may provoke the introduction of other pathogenic mutations. PMID:25242187

  7. 53BP1 fosters fidelity of homology-directed DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Fena; Somyajit, Kumar; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt; Lukas, Jiri; Lukas, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals is coordinated by the ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of 53BP1 at DSB-flanking chromatin. Owing to its ability to limit DNA-end processing, 53BP1 is thought to promote nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and to suppress homology-directed repair (HDR). Here, we show that silencing 53BP1 or exhausting its capacity to bind damaged chromatin changes limited DSB resection to hyper-resection and results in a switch from error-free gene conversion by RAD51 to mutagenic single-strand annealing by RAD52. Thus, rather than suppressing HDR, 53BP1 fosters its fidelity. These findings illuminate causes and consequences of synthetic viability acquired through 53BP1 silencing in cells lacking the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. We show that such cells survive DSB assaults at the cost of increasing reliance on RAD52-mediated HDR, which may fuel genome instability. However, our findings suggest that when challenged by DSBs, BRCA1- and 53BP1-deficient cells may become hypersensitive to, and be eliminated by, RAD52 inhibition. PMID:27348077

  8. Structural plasticity of methyllysine recognition by the tandem Tudor domain of 53BP1

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Qiong; Cui, Gaofeng; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Rothbart, Scott B.; Hayashi, Ryo; Musselman, Catherine A.; Singh, Namit; Appella, Ettore; Strahl, Brian D.; Mer, Georges; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY p53 is dynamically regulated through various posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which differentially modulate its function and stability. The dimethylated marks p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 are associated with p53 activation or stabilization and both are recognized by the tandem Tudor domain (TTD) of 53BP1, a p53 co-factor. Here we detail the molecular mechanisms for the recognition of p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 by 53BP1. The solution structures of TTD in complex with the p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 peptides show a remarkable plasticity of 53BP1 in accommodating these diverse dimethyllysine-containing sequences. We demonstrate that dimeric TTDs are capable of interacting with the two PTMs on a single p53K370me2K382me2 peptide, greatly strengthening the 53BP1-p53 interaction. Analysis of binding affinities of TTD toward methylated p53 and histones reveals strong preference of 53BP1 for p53K382me2, H4K20me2, and H3K36me2 and suggests a possible role of multivalent contacts of 53BP1 in p53 targeting to and accumulation at the sites of DNA damage. PMID:25579814

  9. The negative transcription factor E4BP4 is associated with circadian clock protein PERIOD2.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tomoya; Onishi, Yoshiaki; Ishida, Norio

    2007-03-23

    The bZIP transcription factor E4BP4, is a mammalian homologue of vrille that functions as a key negative component of the circadian clock. We have shown that the E4BP4-binding site (B-site) is required in addition to a non-canonical E-box (E2 enhancer) for robust circadian Period2 (Per2) expression in the cell-autonomous clock. While the E2 enhancer and the B-site are closely situated, correlations between each component bound to the E2 enhancer and the B-site remain obscure. Here, we show that E4BP4 interacts with PER2, which represses transcriptional activity via the E-box enhancer. Interaction with PER2 required the carboxyl-terminal region that contains the repression domain of E4BP4. We also found that E4BP4 interacts with CRYPTOCHROME2 (CRY2), a key negative regulator in the mammalian circadian clock. These results suggest that E4BP4 is a component of the negative regulator complex of mammalian circadian clocks. PMID:17274955

  10. Regulation of B cell differentiation by the ubiquitin-binding protein TAX1BP1

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Nobuko; Suzuki, Midori; Ikebe, Emi; Nagashima, Shun; Inatome, Ryoko; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Matsushita, Masayuki; Kondo, Eisaku; Iha, Hidekatsu; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1) is a ubiquitin-binding protein that restricts nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and facilitates the termination of aberrant inflammation. However, its roles in B-cell activation and differentiation are poorly understood. To evaluate the function of TAX1BP1 in B cells, we established TAX1BP1-deficient DT40 B cells that are hyper-responsive to CD40-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation signaling, exhibit prolonged and exaggerated ERK phosphorylation and show enhanced B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1; a transcription factor inducing plasma cell differentiation) expression that is ERK-dependent. Furthermore, TAX1BP1-deficient cells exhibit significantly decreased surface IgM expression and increased IgM secretion. Moreover, TAX1BP1-deficient mice display reduced germinal center formation and antigen-specific antibody production. These findings show that TAX1BP1 restricts ERK activation and Blimp-1 expression and regulates germinal center formation. PMID:27515252

  11. The effects of PEP-1-FK506BP on dry eye disease in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Sung Ho; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Ji Eun; Cha, Hyun Ju; Youn, Jong Kyu; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Park, Jong Hoon; Park, Eun Young; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-01-01

    As FK506 binding proteins (FK506BPs) are known to play an important role in the regulation of a variety of biological processes related to cell survival, this study was designed to examined the protective effects of FK506 binding protein 12 (FK506BP) on low humidity air flow induced dry eye in a rat model using transduced PEP-1-FK506BP. After the topical application of PEP-1-FK506BP, tear volumes were markedly increased and significant prevention of cornea damage was observed compared with dry eye rats. Further, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that PEP-1-FK506BP markedly prevented damage to the cornea, the bulbar conjunctiva, and the palpebral conjunctiva epithelial lining compared with dry eye rats. In addition, caspase-3 and PARP expression levels were found to be decreased. These results demonstrated that topical application of PEP-1-FK506BP significantly ameliorates dry eye injury in an animal model. Thus, we suggest that PEP-1-FK506BP can be developed as a new ophthalmic drop to treat dry eye diseases. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(3): 153-158] PMID:24998262

  12. Modeling the 1100 bp paleotsunami in Puget Sound, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Mofjeld, Harold O.; González, Frank I.; Moore, Andrew L.

    2002-10-01

    Recent paleoseismic and geologic studies indicate that a tsunami occurred 1100 years ago in Puget Sound. This study aims to reproduce and validate the model tsunami, using a finite difference model based on nonlinear shallow water theory and abathymetry/topography computational grid that takes into account the 1-meter rise in sea level that has occurred in the region during the past 1100 years. Estimates of tsunami height, the extent of inundation, and the current velocity pattern are provided at the northern head of Cultus Bay, Whidbey Island, where paleotsunami sand deposits have been found. The model demonstrates that a tsunami generated when the background water level was at mean high water or above could have surged across the then-existing coastal marsh, penetrated the full length of the shallow bay, and deposited the observed sand layers.

  13. G3BP-Caprin1-USP10 complexes mediate stress granule condensation and associate with 40S subunits.

    PubMed

    Kedersha, Nancy; Panas, Marc D; Achorn, Christopher A; Lyons, Shawn; Tisdale, Sarah; Hickman, Tyler; Thomas, Marshall; Lieberman, Judy; McInerney, Gerald M; Ivanov, Pavel; Anderson, Paul

    2016-03-28

    Mammalian stress granules (SGs) contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes that are assembled into discrete granules by specific RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP. We now show that cells lacking both G3BP1 and G3BP2 cannot form SGs in response to eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation or eIF4A inhibition, but are still SG-competent when challenged with severe heat or osmotic stress. Rescue experiments using G3BP1 mutants show that phosphomimetic G3BP1-S149E fails to rescue SG formation, whereas G3BP1-F33W, a mutant unable to bind G3BP partner proteins Caprin1 or USP10, rescues SG formation. Caprin1/USP10 binding to G3BP is mutually exclusive: Caprin binding promotes, but USP10 binding inhibits, SG formation. G3BP interacts with 40S ribosomal subunits through its RGG motif, which is also required for G3BP-mediated SG formation. We propose that G3BP mediates the condensation of SGs by shifting between two different states that are controlled by the phosphorylation of S149 and by binding to Caprin1 or USP10. PMID:27022092

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel calcyclin binding protein (CacyBP) gene from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Wenjing; Sun, Rujiang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-08-01

    Calcyclin binding protein (CacyBP), a homolog of Sgt1, was shown to interact with some S100 proteins, Skp1, tubulin, actin and ERK1/2 kinases. Studies have also shown that CacyBP is a neuronal protein in mammals. Limited information is available regarding the properties and functions of CacyBP in insects. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel CacyBP gene, named AccCacyBP, from honeybee (Apis cerana cerana). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that AccCacyBP was highly conserved and closely related to the CacyBP of other insects. Promoter analysis revealed a number of putative tissue, development and stress-related transcription factor-binding sites. RT-qPCR demonstrated that AccCacyBP was expressed at all of the stages of development, especially in the brains of honeybees. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analysis showed the presence of AccCacyBP in the brain. The transcript levels of AccCacyBP in the brains of honeybees were developmentally induced and upregulated by exposure to oxidative stresses, including UV-light, acetamiprid and HgCl(2). This study demonstrates that the CacyBP gene in honeybees may be a neuronal protein involved in the developmental regulation and the stress-response of the brain of honeybees. PMID:22539186

  15. Non-monotonic mobility vs. length dependence observed in electrophoretic separation of 25 bp DNA ladder in Pluronic gels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Seungyong; van Winkle, David

    2009-03-01

    We electrophoresed a double-stranded DNA ladder first in an agarose gel, then in gels of Pluronic F-127 at room temperature. The DNA ladder consisted of 19 discrete fragments ranging in length from 25 to 450 bp at 25 bp increments plus 500 bp. The DNA fragments were first separated in agarose gel and stacked normally with 25 bp having the highest mobility. A single lane of the separated DNA ladder in the agarose gel was inserted at the edge of a Pluronic gel slab. The DNA was electrophoresed from the agarose into the Pluronic gels perpendicular to the original separation axis. Mobilities of DNA fragments increased from 25 bp to 175 bp and then decreased from 175 bp to 500 bp. The 25 bp and 500 bp bands of the ladder had approximately the same mobility in several different Pluronic gel concentrations. Both were slower than most bands in between. The highest mobility fragments with length of 175 bp have 59.5 nm contour length which is about 3.5 times the diameter of a micelle (17 nm). This result suggests a crossover from chromatographic separation to electrophoretic separation for these short DNAs. This research is supported by the state of Florida (Martech) and Research Corporation.

  16. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  17. Programmable Laser-Assisted Surface Microfabrication on a Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-Coated Glass Chip with Self-Changing Cell Adhesivity for Heterotypic Cell Patterning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Chen; Lin, Meng-Wei; Yen, Meng-Hua; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Wu, June-Tai; Young, Tai-Horng; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-10-14

    Organs are composed of heterotypic cells with patterned architecture that enables intercellular interaction to perform specific functions. In tissue engineering, the ability to pattern heterotypic cells into desired arrangement will allow us to model complex tissues in vitro and to create tissue equivalents for regeneration. This study was aimed at developing a method for fast heterotypic cell patterning with controllable topological manipulation on a glass chip. We found that poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated glass showed a biphasic change in adhesivity to cells in vitro: low adhesivity in the first 24 h and higher adhesivity at later hours due to increased serum protein adsorption. Combining programmable CO2 laser ablation to remove poly(vinyl alcohol) and glass, we were able to create arrays of adhesive microwells of adjustable patterns. We tested whether controllable patterns of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction could be created. When skin dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts were seeded respectively 24 h apart, we were able to pattern these two cells into aggregates of dermal papilla cells in arrays of microwells in a background of fibroblasts sheet. Seeded later, keratinocytes attached to these mesenchymal cells. Keratinocytes contacting dermal papilla cells started to differentiate toward a hair follicle fate, demonstrating patternable epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. This method allows fast adjustable heterotypic cell patterning and surface topology control and can be applied to the investigation of heterotypic cellular interaction and creation of tissue equivalent in vitro. PMID:26393271

  18. Effect of micro-patterning on bacterial adhesion on polyethylene terephthalate surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyun; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial adhesion on surfaces commonly used in medicine and food industry could lead to infections and illnesses. Topographically patterned surfaces recently have shown to be a promising alternative to chemical antibacterial methods, which might release cytotoxin and promote antibiotic resistance. In this study, we fabricated micro-patterned polyethylene terephthalate surfaces, and quantitatively explored the amount and localization of Escherichia coli MG1655 cells attached on a series of defined topographies. The adhesion was conducted in static conditions and under a weak flow, in both physiological buffer and nutritious solutions. The results showed that in the presence of weak shear force, live bacteria could still maintain sensing ability in nutritious culture, but not in buffer solution. The finely textured surface, which could inhibit bacterial adhesion in the early stage of attachment, reversed its effect to enhance the adhesion after 24 h incubation, indicating that microbial cells seemed to be able to sense the disadvantageous condition and eventually overcome it. In terms of adhesion localization, bacteria exhibited preferential adhesion onto the edges of topographic features. The patterned substrates that have the most even (homogeneous) bacterial localization on topographic features retained the least attachment after 24 h exposure. PMID:25515774

  19. Agriculture, Settlement, and Abrupt Climate Change: The 4.2ka BP event in Northern Mesopotamia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvet, L.

    2003-12-01

    attendant villages. The survey records an 80% decline in settled hectares from the previous period. The only agricultural villages that remained occupied during this crisis were either concentrated along perennial wadis or located in areas with ample groundwater. Otherwise, the survey recorded the presence of a few temporary sites, probably camps belonging to semi-nomadic pastoralists, a lifestyle which may have begun in response to this event. The precipitation regime stabilized at approximately 1900 BC, allowing for a massive resettlement of the area. This resettlement did not, however, lead to a resumption of third millennium agricultural practices; instead, these villages embraced a flexible economic regime, which emphasized a reliance on pastoral as well as agricultural products, and as such, was well-adapted to the more marginal conditions of the early second millennium BC. This paper, therefore, attempts to quantify the effects of the 4.2 ka BP abrupt climate change event on ancient agricultural systems, settlement patterns, and societies through archaeological survey in northern Mesopotamia.

  20. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  1. STM/STS observation of polyoxoanions on HOPG surfaces: the wheel-shaped [Cu20Cl(OH)24(H2O)12(P8W48O184)]25- and the ball-shaped [{Sn(CH3)2(H2O)}24{Sn(CH3)2}12(A-PW9O34)12]36-.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad S; Dremov, Viacheslav; Müller, Paul; Postnikov, Andrei V; Mal, Sib Sankar; Hussain, Firasat; Kortz, Ulrich

    2006-04-01

    A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) techniques have been performed on the wheel-shaped [Cu20Cl(OH)24(H2O)12(P8W48O184)]25- and the ball-shaped [{Sn(CH3)2(H2O)}24{Sn(CH3)2}12(A-PW9O34)12]36- deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces. Small, regular molecule clusters, as well as separated single molecules, were observed. The size of the molecules is in agreement with the data determined by X-ray crystallography. In STS measurements, we found a rather large contrast at the expected location of the Cu metal centers in our molecules, i.e., the location of the individual Cu ions in their organic matrix is directly addressable by STS. PMID:16562942

  2. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  3. The temporal pattern of vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila grimshawi

    SciTech Connect

    Kambysellis, M.P.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Craddock, E.M. )

    1989-09-01

    The temporal pattern of protein production and, in particular, vitellogenin protein synthesis during the sexual maturation of Drosophila grimshawi females has been studied in vivo by briefly feeding the flies with 35S-methionine and 3H-amino acids. The overall level of incorporation was very low in young flies; it then progressively increased to reach a maximum with the onset of sexual maturity at 13-15 days. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses revealed three classes of proteins: those synthesized throughout the age spectrum, which constitute the majority of protein species; proteins synthesized primarily or only in young flies; and proteins synthesized only by the older flies. In this Drosophila species, the three vitellogenins (V1, V2, and V3) appeared to be synthesized in a two-phase pattern. In the first phase, small quantities of V1 and V2 were detected immunologically in the fat body and hemolymph of newly emerged and 1 day-old flies. These proteins did not accumulate in the hemolymph or the ovaries, apparently being unstable proteins. The second phase commenced in early vitellogenesis (7-9 days of age) with synthesis in the fat body of small quantities of V1 and V2, followed by V3 proteins. These proteins were secreted and accumulated in the hemolymph and 24 h later were found in the ovaries. Their quantities increased rapidly and a steady state of synthesis, release into the hemolymph, and uptake by the ovaries was reached by days 13-15. We have estimated that during the steady state of vitellogenin synthesis, a fly can synthesize in 24 h at least 152 micrograms of vitellogenins, which is more than 2% of its body weight, at an average rate of about 6.3 micrograms vitellogenins/h. About 2 micrograms of this are synthesized in the fat body, and about 4 micrograms in the ovaries.

  4. Global temperature patterns 6000 years ago. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb III, T.

    1980-11-01

    Climatic patterns of the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 years B.P.) may be helpful in predicting some of the climatic changes during future climatic periods that are warmer than today. Research progress is reported on work done during the year to assemble data from pollen, marine plankton, and lake-levels required for producing northern hemisphere climatic maps for the mid-Holocene. (ACR)

  5. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  6. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. PMID:26773016

  7. Stable semiconductor black phosphorus (BP)@titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Kim, Yooseok; Park, So Young; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials have emerged as new fields. Due to the zero-band-gap nature of graphene and the low photocatalytic performance of MoS2, more advanced semiconducting 2D materials have been prompted. As a result, semiconductor black phosphorus (BP) is a derived cutting-edge post-graphene contender for nanoelectrical application, because of its direct-band-gap nature. For the first time, we report on robust BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts offering enhanced photocatalytic performance under light irradiation in environmental and biomedical fields, with negligible affected on temperature and pH conditions, as compared with MoS2@TiO2 prepared by the identical synthesis method. Remarkably, in contrast to pure few layered BP, which, due to its intrinsic sensitivity to oxygen and humidity was readily dissolved after just several uses, the BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts showed a ~92% photocatalytic activity after 15 runs. Thus, metal-oxide-stabilized BP photocatalysts can be practically applied as a promising alternative to graphene and MoS2. PMID:25732720

  8. A BP neural network model for sea state recognition using laser altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chun-bo; Jia, Xiao-dong; Li, Sheng; Wang, Zhen

    2009-07-01

    A BP neural network method for the recognition of sea state in laser altimeter is presented in this paper. Sea wave is the typical stochastic disturbance factor of laser altimeter effecting on low-altitude defense penetration of the intelligent antiship missiles, the recognition of sea state is studied in order to satisfy the practical needs of flying over the ocean. The BP neural network fed with the feature vector of laser range-measurement presents the analysis of features and outputs the estimation result of sea state. The two most distinguishing features are the mean and the variance of the sea echo, which are extracted from the distance characteristics of sea echo using general theory of statistics. The use of a feedforward network trained with the back-propagation algorithm is also investigated. The BP neural network is trained using sample data set to the neural network, and then the BP neural network trained is tested to recognize the sea state waiting for the classification. The network output shows the recognition accuracy of the model can up to 88%, and the results of tests show that the BP neural network model for the recognition of sea state is feasible and effective.

  9. Targeting TopBP1 at a convergent point of multiple oncogenic pathways for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Pinki; Lin, Gregory E.; Liu, Kang; Song, Yongcheng; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    The progression of many solid tumors is driven by de-regulation of multiple common pathways, particularly Rb, PI (3) K/Akt and p53. Prior studies identified TopBP1as a key mediator for the oncogenic gain-of-function activities of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer. In Akt-hyperactive cancer, TopBP1 forms oligomers and represses E2F1-dependent apoptosis. Here we perform a molecular docking screening and identify a lead compound, calcein, capable of blocking TopBP1 oligomerization and p53 binding, resulting in re-activation of E2F1-dependent apoptosis and blockade of mutp53 gain-of-function. Calcein AM, the cell permeable derivative of calcein, shows significant anti-tumor activity in a wide-spectrum of cultured cancer cells harboring high TopBP1 levels. These biochemical findings are recapitulated in breast cancer xenograft models. Thus, our study provides proof-of-concept evidence for targeting TopBP1, a convergent point of multiple pathways, as a cancer therapy. PMID:25400145

  10. Northern East Pacific Rise: Evolution from 25 m.y. B.P. to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammerickx, Jacqueline; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-08-01

    The northeast Pacific topography and magnetic lineations (25 m.y. B.P. to the Present) record the traces of three major spreading reorganizations. Only one spreading center is observed today, but there is evidence for several ephemeral episodes of twin spreading accompanying the evolution from an extensive Pacific-Guadalupe plate boundary to a much shortened Pacific-Cocos and Pacific-Rivera plate boundary. The 25 m.y. B.P. plate reorganization culminated with the formation of the Guadalupe plate, bound by the Murray fracture zone to the north and the Cocos-Nazca spreading ridge to the south. Between 25 and 12.5 m.y. B.P. spreading continued while the plate retained the same general outline. The 12.5-11 m.y. B.P. reorganization resulted in the creation of a much shortened Pacific-Cocos plate boundary located in its early stages over the Mathematician seamounts and a much reduced Cocos-plate. The last reorganizaton (6.5-3.5 m.y. B.P.) resulted in the abandonment of the Mathematician spreading ridge as a Pacific-Cocos plate boundary in favor of the East Pacific Rise.

  11. Stable semiconductor black phosphorus (BP)@titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid photocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Uk Lee, Hyun; Lee, Soon Chang; Won, Jonghan; Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Saehae; Kim, Yooseok; Park, So Young; Kim, Hee-Sik; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials have emerged as new fields. Due to the zero-band-gap nature of graphene and the low photocatalytic performance of MoS2, more advanced semiconducting 2D materials have been prompted. As a result, semiconductor black phosphorus (BP) is a derived cutting-edge post-graphene contender for nanoelectrical application, because of its direct-band-gap nature. For the first time, we report on robust BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts offering enhanced photocatalytic performance under light irradiation in environmental and biomedical fields, with negligible affected on temperature and pH conditions, as compared with MoS2@TiO2 prepared by the identical synthesis method. Remarkably, in contrast to pure few layered BP, which, due to its intrinsic sensitivity to oxygen and humidity was readily dissolved after just several uses, the BP@TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts showed a ~92% photocatalytic activity after 15 runs. Thus, metal-oxide-stabilized BP photocatalysts can be practically applied as a promising alternative to graphene and MoS2. PMID:25732720

  12. HIV-1 Vpr increases HCV replication through VprBP in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yanling; Huang, Fang; Yuan, Ting; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-09-01

    Coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs at a high frequency, in which HIV shows a promotion of HCV-derived liver diseases. However, the mechanism of how this occurs is not well understood. Our previous work has demonstrated that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr enhances HCV RNA replication in cell culture. Because Vpr performs most of its functions through host protein VprBP (DCAF1), the role of VprBP in the regulation of HCV by Vpr was investigated in this study. We found that the Vpr mutant Q65R, which is deficient in VprBP binding, could not enhance HCV replication. Furthermore, Vpr-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was severely diminished in VprBP knockdown cells. In addition, an inhibitor of Cullin RING E3 ligases, MLN4924, impaired the function of Vpr during HCV replication. Together, these results suggest that Vpr promotes HCV replication in a VprBP-dependent manner, and that the activity of Cullin RING E3 ligases is essential to this process. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HIV-1 Vpr makes the cellular environment more suitable for HCV replication, which might relate with the host ubiquitination system. PMID:27460548

  13. 53BP1 deficiency combined with telomere dysfunction activates ATR-dependent DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Paula; Flores, Juana M; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-04-16

    TRF1 protects mammalian telomeres from fusion and fragility. Depletion of TRF1 leads to telomere fusions as well as accumulation of γ-H2AX foci and activation of both the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR)-mediated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage response (DDR) pathways. 53BP1, which is also present at dysfunctional telomeres, is a target of ATM that accumulates at DNA double-strand breaks and favors nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair over ATM-dependent resection and homology-directed repair (homologous recombination [HR]). To address the role of 53BP1 at dysfunctional telomeres, we generated mice lacking TRF1 and 53BP1. 53BP1 deficiency significantly rescued telomere fusions in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking TRF1, but they showed evidence of a switch from the NHEJ- to HR-mediated repair of uncapped telomeres. Concomitantly, double-mutant MEFs showed evidence of hyperactivation of the ATR-dependent DDR. In intact mice, combined 53BP1/TRF1 deficiency in stratified epithelia resulted in earlier onset of DNA damage and increased CHK1 phosphorylation during embryonic development, leading to aggravation of skin phenotypes. PMID:22508511

  14. HP1BP3 expression determines maternal behavior and offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, B P; Arad, S; Neuner, S M; Netser, S; Wagner, S; Kaczorowski, C C; Rosen, C J; Gal, M; Soreq, H; Orly, J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal care is an indispensable behavioral component necessary for survival and reproductive success in mammals, and postpartum maternal behavior is mediated by an incompletely understood complex interplay of signals including effects of epigenetic regulation. We approached this issue using our recently established mice with targeted deletion of heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3), which we found to be a novel epigenetic repressor with critical roles in postnatal growth. Here, we report a dramatic reduction in the survival of pups born to Hp1bp3(-/-) deficient mouse dams, which could be rescued by co-fostering with wild-type dams. Hp1bp3(-/-) females failed to retrieve both their own pups and foster pups in a pup retrieval test, and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior in the open-field and elevated-plus-maze tests. In contrast, Hp1bp3(-/-) females showed no deficits in behaviors often associated with impaired maternal care, including social behavior, depression, motor coordination and olfactory capability; and maintained unchanged anxiety-associated hallmarks such as cholinergic status and brain miRNA profiles. Collectively, our results suggest a novel role for HP1BP3 in regulating maternal and anxiety-related behavior in mice and call for exploring ways to manipulate this epigenetic process. PMID:27470444

  15. Diel Patterns of Colaspis brunnea and Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-12-01

    A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making. PMID:26314034

  16. Regulation of PMP22 mRNA by G3BP1 affects cell proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Results Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2–3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. Conclusions This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, perhaps via a regulatory effect on PMP22 expression. PMID:24321297

  17. CacyBP/SIP inhibits Doxourbicin-induced apoptosis of glioma cells due to activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan; Zhan, Wenjian; Cao, Tong; Tang, Tianjin; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Zhichao; Fu, Chunling; Qian, Fengyuan; Yu, Rutong; Shi, Hengliang

    2016-03-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein or Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) was previously reported to promote the proliferation of glioma cells. However, the effect of CacyBP/SIP on apoptosis of glioma is poorly understood. Here, our study shows that CacyBP/SIP plays a role in inhibiting doxorubicin (DOX) induced apoptosis of glioma cells U251 and U87. Overexpression of CacyBP/SIP obviously suppressed the DOX-induced cell apoptosis. On the contrary, silencing of CacyBP/SIP significantly promoted it. Further investigation indicated that inhibition of apoptosis by CacyBP/SIP was relevant to its nuclear translocation in response to the DOX treatment. Importantly, we found that the level of p-ERK1/2 in nuclei was related to the nuclear accumulation of CacyBP/SIP. Finally, the role of CacyBP/SIP was confirmed in vivo in a mouse model with the cell line stably silencing CacyBP/SIP. Taken together, our results suggest that CacyBP/SIP plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis of glioma cells which might be mediated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which will provide some guidance for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26825673

  18. An Ethylene-responsive Factor BpERF11 Negatively Modulates Salt and Osmotic Tolerance in Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Guiyan; Mu, Dan; Li, Hongyan; Zang, Dandan; Xu, Hongyun; Zou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) play important roles in the abiotic stress; however, only a few ERF genes from woody plants have been functionally characterized. In the present study, an ERF gene from Betula platyphylla (birch), BpERF11, was functionally characterized in response to abiotic stress. BpERF11 is a nuclear protein, which could specifically bind to GCC boxes and DRE motifs. BpERF11-overexpressing and BpERF11 RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown plants were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. BpERF11 negatively regulates resistance to salt and severe osmotic stress, and the transgenic birch plants overexpressing BpERF11 shows increased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. BpERF11 inhibits the expression of an AtMYB61 homologous gene, resulting in increased stomatal aperture, which elevated the transpiration rate. Furthermore, BpERF11 downregulates the expression of P5CS, SOD and POD genes, but upregulates the expression of PRODH and P5CDH, which results in reduced proline levels and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. BpERF11 also significantly inhibits the expression of LEA and dehydrin genes that involve in abiotic stress tolerance. Therefore, BpERF11 serves as a transcription factor that negatively regulates salt and severe osmotic tolerance by modulating various physiological processes. PMID:26980058

  19. An Ethylene-responsive Factor BpERF11 Negatively Modulates Salt and Osmotic Tolerance in Betula platyphylla

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Guiyan; Mu, Dan; Li, Hongyan; Zang, Dandan; Xu, Hongyun; Zou, Xuezhong; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) play important roles in the abiotic stress; however, only a few ERF genes from woody plants have been functionally characterized. In the present study, an ERF gene from Betula platyphylla (birch), BpERF11, was functionally characterized in response to abiotic stress. BpERF11 is a nuclear protein, which could specifically bind to GCC boxes and DRE motifs. BpERF11-overexpressing and BpERF11 RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown plants were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. BpERF11 negatively regulates resistance to salt and severe osmotic stress, and the transgenic birch plants overexpressing BpERF11 shows increased electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. BpERF11 inhibits the expression of an AtMYB61 homologous gene, resulting in increased stomatal aperture, which elevated the transpiration rate. Furthermore, BpERF11 downregulates the expression of P5CS, SOD and POD genes, but upregulates the expression of PRODH and P5CDH, which results in reduced proline levels and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. BpERF11 also significantly inhibits the expression of LEA and dehydrin genes that involve in abiotic stress tolerance. Therefore, BpERF11 serves as a transcription factor that negatively regulates salt and severe osmotic tolerance by modulating various physiological processes. PMID:26980058

  20. Survey of the bp/tee genes from clinical group A streptococcus isolates in New Zealand - implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Steemson, John D; Moreland, Nicole J; Williamson, Deborah; Morgan, Julie; Carter, Philip E; Proft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for a wide range of diseases ranging from superficial infections, such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to life-threatening diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome and acute rheumatic fever (ARF). GAS pili are hair-like extensions protruding from the cell surface and consist of highly immunogenic structural proteins: the backbone pilin (BP) and one or two accessory pilins (AP1 and AP2). The protease-resistant BP builds the pilus shaft and has been recognized as the T-antigen, which forms the basis of a major serological typing scheme that is often used as a supplement to M typing. A previous sequence analysis of the bp gene (tee gene) in 39 GAS isolates revealed 15 different bp/tee types. In this study, we sequenced the bp/tee gene from 100 GAS isolates obtained from patients with pharyngitis, ARF or invasive disease in New Zealand. We found 20 new bp/tee alleles and four new bp/tee types/subtypes. No association between bp/tee type and clinical outcome was observed. We confirmed earlier reports that the emm type and tee type are associated strongly, but we also found exceptions, where multiple tee types could be found in certain M/emm type strains, such as M/emm89. We also reported, for the first time, the existence of a chimeric bp/tee allele, which was assigned into a new subclade (bp/tee3.1). A strong sequence conservation of the bp/tee gene was observed within the individual bp/tee types/subtypes (>97 % sequence identity), as well as between historical and contemporary New Zealand and international GAS strains. This temporal and geographical sequence stability provided further evidence for the potential use of the BP/T-antigen as a vaccine target. PMID:25190737

  1. Bone Marrow Transplantation Improves Autoinflammation and Inflammatory Bone Loss in SH3BP2 Knock-In Cherubism Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Kittaka, Mizuho; Ishida, Shu; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism (OMIM#118400) is a genetic disorder in children characterized by excessive jawbone destruction with proliferation of fibro-osseous lesions containing a large number of osteoclasts. Mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) are responsible for cherubism. Analysis of the knock-in (KI) mouse model of cherubism showed that homozygous cherubism mice (Sh3bp2KI/KI) spontaneously develop systemic autoinflammation and inflammatory bone loss and that cherubism is a TNF-α-dependent hematopoietic disorder. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is effective for the treatment of inflammation and bone loss in Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Bone marrow (BM) cells from wild-type (Sh3bp2+/+) mice were transplanted to 6-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice with developing inflammation and to 10-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice with established inflammation. Six-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2+/+ BM cells exhibited improved body weight loss, facial swelling, and survival rate. Inflammatory lesions in the liver and lung as well as bone loss in calvaria and mandibula were ameliorated at 10 weeks after BMT compared to Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2KI/KI BM cells. Elevation of serum TNF-α levels was not detected after BMT. BMT was effective for up to 20 weeks in 6-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice transplanted with Sh3bp2+/+ BM cells. BMT also ameliorated the inflammation and bone loss in 10-week-old Sh3bp2KI/KI mice. Thus our study demonstrates that BMT improves the inflammation and bone loss in cherubism mice. BMT may be effective for the treatment of cherubism patients. PMID:25445458

  2. Replication pattern of human repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Meneveri, R; Agresti, A; Breviario, D; Ginelli, E

    1984-10-01

    Either aphidicolin- or thymidine-synchronized human HL-60 cells were used to study the replication pattern of a family of human repetitive DNA sequences, the Eco RI 340 bp family (alpha RI-DNA), and of the ladders of fragments generated in total human DNA after digestion with XbaI and HaeIII (alpha satellite sequences). DNAs replicated in early, middle-early, middle-late and late S periods were labelled with BUdR or with [3H]thymidine. The efficiency of the cell synchronization procedure was confirmed by the transition from a high-GC to a high-AT average base composition of the DNA synthesized going from early to late S periods. By hybridizing EcoRI 340 bp repetitive fragments to BUdR-DNAs it was found that this family of sequences is replicated throughout the entire S period. Comparing fluorograph densitometric scans of [3H]DNAs to the scans of ethidium bromide patterns of total HL-60 DNA digested with XbaI and HaeIII, it was observed that DNA synthesized in different S periods is characterized by approximately the same ladder of fragments, while the intensity of each band may vary through the S phase; in particular, the XbaI 2.4 kb fragment becomes undetectable in late S. PMID:6089891

  3. Enhanced TLR-MYD88 Signaling Stimulates Autoinflammation in SH3BP2 Cherubism Mice and Defines the Etiology of Cherubism

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitaka, Teruhito; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Kittaka, Mizuho; Alford, Lisa M.; Masrani, Salome; Ishida, Shu; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yamada, Motohiko; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Reichenberger, Ernst J.; Ueki, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cherubism is caused by mutations in SH3BP2. Studies of cherubism mice showed that TNF-α-dependent autoinflammation is a major cause for the disorder, but failed to explain why human cherubism lesions are restricted to jaws and regress after puberty. We demonstrate that the inflammation in cherubism mice is MYD88-dependent and is rescued in the absence of TLR2 and TLR4. However, germ-free cherubism mice also develop inflammation. Mutant macrophages are hyper-responsive to PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (damage-associated molecular patterns) that activate TLRs, resulting in TNF-α overproduction. Phosphorylation of SH3BP2 at Y183 is critical for the TNF-α production. Finally, SYK depletion in macrophages prevents the inflammation. These data suggest that the presence of a large amount of TLR ligands, presumably oral bacteria and DAMPs during jawbone remodeling, may cause the jaw-specific development of human cherubism lesions. Reduced levels of DAMPs after stabilization of jaw remodeling may contribute to the age-dependent regression. PMID:25220465

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charge pattern optimization for energy cost and battery longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashash, Saeid; Moura, Scott J.; Forman, Joel C.; Fathy, Hosam K.

    This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge pattern of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), defined as the timing and rate with which the PHEV obtains electricity from the power grid. The optimization goal is to simultaneously minimize (i) the total cost of fuel and electricity and (ii) the total battery health degradation over a 24-h naturalistic drive cycle. The first objective is calculated for a previously-developed stochastic optimal PHEV power management strategy, whereas the second objective is evaluated through an electrochemistry-based model of anode-side resistive film formation in lithium-ion batteries. The paper shows that these two objectives are conflicting, and trades them off using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. As a result, a Pareto front of optimal charge patterns is obtained. The effects of electricity price and trip schedule on the optimal Pareto points and the PHEV charge patterns are analyzed and discussed.

  5. A Study of the Mechanisms of Attachment of Allergised Lymphocytes to BP8 Ascites Tumour Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P. J.; Cater, D. B.

    1969-01-01

    The attachment of allergised and non-allergised lymph-node cells from C57B1 mice to BP8 ascites tumour cells were compared in vitro in the presence of vaso-active agents and mediators of the inflammatory reaction. It was found that Priscol, noradrenaline, adrenaline, 5-HT and histamine caused some cell adherence, while bradykinin and lysolecithin caused a marked increase of adherence of the allergised lymph-node cells to the BP8 cells. Electrophoretic studies of BP8 cells in the presence of polyornithine showed an abolition of the anodic mobility. Theories of action of the various agents are discussed. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 1-4 PMID:5364386

  6. Optical and mechanical behavior of GeC and BP antireflection coatings under rain erosion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, Jean-Marie; Cimma, B.; Lacuve, J.; Laprat, Patrice

    1994-09-01

    Thick germanium carbide (GeC) and boron phosphide (BP) films are successfully grown on various zinc sulfide and germanium substrates at temperatures up to 450 degree(s)C by reactive radio-frequency sputtering (RRFS). The sputtering conditions are respectively a germanium target within a medium of methane-argon for GeC films and a high density boron target in a sputtering medium of phosphine-argon for BP films. The rain erosion resistance of GeC and BP films protected or not by diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on top are measured for water drop diameter of 1.2 mm or 2 mm with an impact velocity ranging from 210 m/s to 265 m/s on the Saab-Scania whirling-arm rig facilities (Linkoping, Sweden). Rain erosion resistance of BP films for a wavelength band in the 8 micrometers to 10 micrometers range shows no damage for a speed up to 250 m/s with an exposure time up to 10 min, whereas the GeC rain erosion resistance shows no damage up to 235 m/s for the same exposure time. The transmission of each film is well correlated to its optical absorption at 10.6 micrometers . The GeC absorption can be reduced down to 40 cm-1 whereas the BP absorption stays around 220 cm-1 for sputtered films. So the compromise between the optical performance and the rain erosion resistance can be achieved by the use of GeC or BP films.

  7. Environmental change in the Limfjord, Denmark (ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP): a multiproxy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jonathan P.; Ryves, David B.; Rasmussen, Peter; Knudsen, Karen L.; Petersen, Kaj S.; Olsen, Jesper; Leng, Melanie J.; Kristensen, Peter; McGowan, Suzanne; Philippsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    The Limfjord region of northern Jutland, Denmark, supports a rich archaeological record dating back to the Mesolithic, which documents long-term change in human practices and utilisation of marine resources since approximately 7500 BP. The presence and availability of marine resources in the Limfjord is sensitively regulated by environmental parameters such as salinity, sedimentary regime, nutrient status and primary productivity, but long-term changes in these parameters are currently poorly understood. In this study a multiproxy approach (including sedimentary parameters, diatoms, molluscs, foraminifera, sedimentary pigments, C and O stable isotopes and plant macrofossils) has been adopted to assess environmental change over the period ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP at Kilen, a coastal fjord (before AD 1856) situated in the Western Limfjord. A diatom-based salinity transfer function based on a pan-Baltic training set has been applied to the fossil diatom dataset for quantitative assessment of salinity change over the study period. This study demonstrates that large-scale shifts in salinity are a common feature of the Limfjord's long-term history and are driven by the level of connection with the North Sea and the Skagerrak respectively, which in turn is likely driven by the complex interplay between climate, sea-level change, current velocity and rates of erosion/sedimentary accretion. Three shifts in state at Kilen are identified over the study period: a deep, periodically stratified fjord with medium-high salinity (and high productivity) between ca 7500-5000 BP, followed by a gradual transition to a shallow benthic system with more oceanic conditions (i.e. higher salinity, lower productivity, slower sedimentary accumulation rate and poorer fossil preservation) after ca 5000 BP and no stratification after ca 4400 BP, and lastly, within this shallow phase, an abrupt shift to brackish conditions around 2000 BP. Environmental-societal interactions are discussed on the

  8. The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marcus D; Benlekbir, Samir; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Sherker, Alana; Julien, Jean-Philippe; McEwan, Andrea; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Sicheri, Frank; Rubinstein, John L; Durocher, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit a histone modification cascade that controls DNA repair. This pathway involves the sequential ubiquitination of histones H1 and H2A by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, respectively. RNF168 ubiquitinates H2A on lysine 13 and lysine 15 (refs 7, 8) (yielding H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub, respectively), an event that triggers the recruitment of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to chromatin flanking DSBs. 53BP1 binds specifically to H2AK15ub-containing nucleosomes through a peptide segment termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment motif (UDR), which requires the simultaneous engagement of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) by its tandem Tudor domain. How 53BP1 interacts with these two histone marks in the nucleosomal context, how it recognizes ubiquitin, and how it discriminates between H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub is unknown. Here we present the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a dimerized human 53BP1 fragment bound to a H4K20me2-containing and H2AK15ub-containing nucleosome core particle (NCP-ubme) at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub recognition involves intimate contacts with multiple nucleosomal elements including the acidic patch. Ubiquitin recognition by 53BP1 is unusual and involves the sandwiching of the UDR segment between ubiquitin and the NCP surface. The selectivity for H2AK15ub is imparted by two arginine fingers in the H2A amino-terminal tail, which straddle the nucleosomal DNA and serve to position ubiquitin over the NCP-bound UDR segment. The structure of the complex between NCP-ubme and 53BP1 reveals the basis of 53BP1 recruitment to DSB sites and illuminates how combinations of histone marks and nucleosomal elements cooperate to produce highly specific chromatin responses, such as those elicited following chromosome breaks. PMID:27462807

  9. NotCal04 - Comparison / Calibration 14C records 26-50 cal kBP

    SciTech Connect

    der Plicht, J v; Beck, J; Bard, E; Baille, M

    2004-11-11

    The radiocarbon calibration curve, IntCal04, extends back to 26 cal kBP. While several high resolution records exist beyond this limit, these data sets exhibit discrepancies one to another of up to several millennia. As a result, no calibration curve for the time range 26-50 cal kBP can be recommended as yet, but in this paper the IntCal04 working group compares the available data sets and offers a discussion of the information that they hold.

  10. Mitochondrial intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion, a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ren, Weihua; Li, Yawei; Li, Rui; Feng, Hongbo; Wu, Shuangting; Mao, Yuhui; Huang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic 9-bp deletion is one of the most commonly studied human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms. It consists of the loss of one of two tandemly repeated copies of the sequence CCCCCTCTA from a non-coding region located between cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and tRNA(Lys) gene. Most recently, case-control studies have shown a positive association between this deletion with hepatocellular cancer. In this study, we first performed a detailed analysis between this deletion and clinical diseases; moreover, we took the phylogenetic approach to examine the pathogenicity status of 9-bp deletion. PMID:26017042

  11. Placement of the GaBP ring system in the banded gastric bypass operation.

    PubMed

    Fobi, Mathias A L

    2005-09-01

    Currently, bariatric surgeons fashion the band or ring reinforcement prosthesis, to control the stoma in the vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations for morbid obesity. To meet this need, the GaBP Ring system has been developed in various sizes, and consists of 4 main parts to provide a means for inserting a ring around the gastric pouch in the banded gastric bypass or the vertical banded gastroplasty. The pre-manufactured and sterilized device provides for better standardization and quality control than individually surgeon-fashioned devices. The GaBP Ring system is described, and the technique of placement and the pertinent initial clinical results are presented. PMID:16197796

  12. Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P.

    PubMed

    Chen, F H; Dong, G H; Zhang, D J; Liu, X Y; Jia, X; An, C B; Ma, M M; Xie, Y W; Barton, L; Ren, X Y; Zhao, Z J; Wu, X H; Jones, M K

    2015-01-16

    Our understanding of when and how humans adapted to living on the Tibetan Plateau at altitudes above 2000 to 3000 meters has been constrained by a paucity of archaeological data. Here we report data sets from the northeastern Tibetan Plateau indicating that the first villages were established only by 5200 calendar years before the present (cal yr B.P.). Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that a novel agropastoral economy facilitated year-round living at higher altitudes since 3600 cal yr B.P. This successful subsistence strategy facilitated the adaptation of farmers-herders to the challenges of global temperature decline during the late Holocene. PMID:25593179

  13. Solution NMR Structure of the Ca2+-bound N-terminal Domain of CaBP7

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Hannah V.; Patel, Pryank; Herbert, Andrew P.; Lian, Lu-Yun; Burgoyne, Robert D.; Haynes, Lee P.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-binding protein 7 (CaBP7) is a member of the calmodulin (CaM) superfamily that harbors two high affinity EF-hand motifs and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. CaBP7 has been previously shown to interact with and modulate phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III-β (PI4KIIIβ) activity in in vitro assays and affects vesicle transport in neurons when overexpressed. Here we show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of CaBP7 is sufficient to mediate the interaction of CaBP7 with PI4KIIIβ. CaBP7 NTD encompasses the two high affinity Ca2+ binding sites, and structural characterization through multiangle light scattering, circular dichroism, and NMR reveals unique properties for this domain. CaBP7 NTD binds specifically to Ca2+ but not Mg2+ and undergoes significant conformational changes in both secondary and tertiary structure upon Ca2+ binding. The Ca2+-bound form of CaBP7 NTD is monomeric and exhibits an open conformation similar to that of CaM. Ca2+-bound CaBP7 NTD has a solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface that is more expansive than observed in CaM or CaBP1. Within this hydrophobic pocket, there is a significant reduction in the number of methionine residues that are conserved in CaM and CaBP1 and shown to be important for target recognition. In CaBP7 NTD, these residues are replaced with isoleucine and leucine residues with branched side chains that are intrinsically more rigid than the flexible methionine side chain. We propose that these differences in surface hydrophobicity, charge, and methionine content may be important in determining highly specific interactions of CaBP7 with target proteins, such as PI4KIIIβ. PMID:22989873

  14. Synthesis of n-type boron phosphide films and formation of Schottky diode: Al/n-BP/Sb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalui, S.; Pal, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphorous rich BP in thin film form was deposited onto fused silica substrates by co-evaporating boron (99.99%) and phosphorous (99.995%) from a tantalum boat and indirectly heated alumina crucible, respectively. Schottky diode structures for n-type BP (Al/n-BP/Sb) were fabricated out of these films. Corresponding current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of the Schottky diodes were recorded and analyzed in the light of the existing theories.

  15. Removal of 2-ClBP from soil-water system using activated carbon supported nanoscale zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Tian; Han, Xiaolin; Ying, Weichi

    2016-09-01

    We explored the feasibility and removal mechanism of removing 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) from soil-water system using granular activated carbon (GAC) impregnated with nanoscale zerovalent iron (reactive activated carbon or RAC). The RAC samples were successfully synthesized by the liquid precipitation method. The mesoporous GAC based RAC with low iron content (1.32%) exhibited higher 2-ClBP removal efficiency (54.6%) in the water phase. The result of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model implied that the different molecular structures between 2-ClBP and trichloroethylene (TCE) resulted in more difference in dechlorination reaction rates on RAC than adsorption capacities. Compared to removing 2-ClBP in the water phase, RAC removed the 2-ClBP more slowly in the soil phase due to the significant external mass transfer resistance. However, in the soil phase, a better removal capacity of RAC was observed than its base GAC because the chemical dechlorination played a more important role in total removal process for 2-ClBP. This important result verified the effectiveness of RAC for removing 2-ClBP in the soil phase. Although reducing the total RAC removal rate of 2-ClBP, soil organic matter (SOM), especially the soft carbon, also served as an electron transfer medium to promote the dechlorination of 2-ClBP in the long term. PMID:27593281

  16. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  17. SCYL1BP1 modulates neurite outgrowth and regeneration by regulating the Mdm2/p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghua; Chen, Ying; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Youhua; Duan, Yinong; Cheng, Chun; Shen, Aiguo

    2012-01-01

    SCY1-like 1–binding protein 1 (SCYL1BP1) is a newly identified transcriptional activator domain containing a protein with many unknown biological functions. Recently emerging evidence has revealed that it is a novel regulator of the p53 pathway, which is required for neurite outgrowth and regeneration. Here we present evidence that SCYL1BP1 inhibits nerve growth factor–mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and affects morphogenesis of primary cortical neurons by strongly decreasing the p53 protein level in vitro, all of which depends on SCYL1BP1's transcriptional activator domain. Exogenous p53 rescues neurite outgrowth and neuronal morphogenesis defects caused by SCYL1BP1. Furthermore, SCYL1BP1 can directly induce Mdm2 transcription, whereas inhibiting the function of Mdm2 by specific small interfering RNAs results in partial rescue of neurite outgrowth and neuronal morphogenesis defects induced by SCYL1BP1. In vivo experiments show that SCYL1BP1 can also depress axonal regeneration, whereas inhibiting the function of SCYL1BP1 by specific short hairpin RNA enhances it. Taken together, these data strongly suggested that SCYL1BP1 is a novel transcriptional activator in neurite outgrowth by directly modulating the Mdm2/p53-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in CNS development and axonal regeneration after injury. PMID:23051735

  18. Genome-wide profiles of CtBP link metabolism with genome stability and epithelial reprogramming in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di, Li-Jun; Byun, Jung S.; Wong, Madeline M.; Wakano, Clay; Taylor, Tara; Bilke, Sven; Baek, Songjoon; Hunter, Kent; Yang, Howard; Lee, Maxwell; Zvosec, Celia; Khramtsova, Galina; Cheng, Fan; Perou, Charles M.; Miller, C. Ryan; Raab, Rachel; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Gardner, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a NADH-dependent transcriptional repressor that links carbohydrate metabolism to epigenetic regulation by recruiting diverse histone modifying complexes to chromatin. Here, global profiling of CtBP in breast cancer cells reveals that it drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition, stem cell pathways, and genome instability. CtBP expression induces mesenchymal and stem cell-like features while CtBP depletion or caloric restriction reverses gene repression and increases DNA repair. Multiple members of the CtBP-targeted gene network are selectively down-regulated in aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Differential expression of CtBP-targeted genes predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, and elevated levels of CtBP in patient tumors predict shorter median survival. Finally, both CtBP promoter targeting and gene repression can be reversed by small molecule inhibition. These findings define broad roles for CtBP in breast cancer biology and suggest novel chromatin-based strategies for pharmacologic and metabolic intervention in cancer. PMID:23385593

  19. 78 FR 76851 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: BP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... requirement concerning the CBP Regulations Pertaining to Customs Brokers (19 CFR Part 111). This request...

  20. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),...

  1. [Estimation of Winter Wheat Biomass Using Visible Spectral and BP Based Artificial Neural Networks].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ri-xian; Liu, Ya-dong; Fu, Jin-dong

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using color digital image analysis and back propagation (BP) based artificial neural networks (ANN) method to estimate above ground biomass at the canopy level of winter wheat field. Digital color images of winter wheat canopies grown under six levels of nitrogen treatments were taken with a digital camera for four times during the elongation stage and at the same time wheat plants were sampled to measure above ground biomass. Canopy cover (CC) and 10 color indices were calculated from winter wheat canopy images by using image analysis program (developed in Microsoft Visual Basic). Correlation analysis was carried out to identify the relationship between CC, 10 color indices and winter wheat above ground biomass. Stepwise multiple linear regression and BP based ANN methods were used to establish the models to estimate winter wheat above ground biomass. The results showed that CC, and two color indices had a significant cor- relation with above ground biomass. CC revealed the highest correlation with winter wheat above ground biomass. Stepwise multiple linear regression model constituting CC and color indices of NDI and b, and BP based ANN model with four variables (CC, g, b and NDI) for input was constructed to estimate winter wheat above ground biomass. The validation results indicate that the model using BP based ANN method has a better performance with higher R2 (0.903) and lower RMSE (61.706) and RRMSE (18.876) in comparation with the stepwise regression model. PMID:26669174

  2. SH3BP2 is an activator of NFAT activity and osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lietman, Steven A. Yin Lihong; Levine, Michael A.

    2008-07-11

    Heterozygous activating mutations in exon 9 of SH3BP2 have been found in most patients with cherubism, an unusual genetic syndrome characterized by excessive remodeling of the mandible and maxilla due to spontaneous and excessive osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts differentiate after binding of sRANKL to RANK induces a number of downstream signaling effects, including activation of the calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway. Here, we have investigated the functional significance of SH3BP2 protein on osteoclastogenesis in the presence of sRANKL. Our results indicate that SH3BP2 both increases nuclear NFATc1 in sRANKL treated RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells and enhances expression of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a specific marker of osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, overexpression of SH3BP2 in RAW 264.7 cells potentiates sRANKL-stimulated phosphorylation of PLC{gamma}1 and 2, thus providing a mechanistic pathway for the rapid translocation of NFATc1 into the nucleus and increased osteoclastogenesis in cherubism.

  3. Finished Annotated Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Bp1651, a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Sue, David; Hakovirta, Janetta; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Knipe, Kristen; Sammons, Scott A.; Ranganathan-Ganakammal, Satishkumar; Changayil, Shankar; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Weil, Michael R.; Tatusov, Roman L.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Weigel, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei strain Bp1651, a human isolate, is resistant to all clinically relevant antibiotics. We report here on the finished genome sequence assembly and annotation of the two chromosomes of this strain. This genome sequence may assist in understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance for this pathogenic species. PMID:26634765

  4. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER, AUXILIARY INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING B&P INTERLOCKING TOWER, AUXILIARY INTERLOCKING BUILDING, AND POWER SUBSTATION - Baltimore & Potomac Interlocking Tower, Adjacent to AMTRAK railroad tracks in block bounded by Howard Street, Jones Falls Expressway, Maryland Avenue & Falls Road, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, J.; Thippegowda, P.B.; Kanum, S.A.

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. FOXO/4E-BP Signaling in Drosophila Muscles Regulates Organism-wide Proteostasis During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Demontis, Fabio; Perrimon, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The progressive loss of muscle strength during aging is a common degenerative event of unclear pathogenesis. Although muscle functional decline precedes age-related changes in other tissues, its contribution to systemic aging is unknown. Here, we show that muscle aging is characterized in Drosophila by the progressive accumulation of protein aggregates that associate with impaired muscle function. The transcription factor FOXO and its target 4E-BP remove damaged proteins at least in part via the autophagy/lysosome system, while foxo mutants have dysfunctional proteostasis. Both FOXO and 4E-BP delay muscle functional decay and extend lifespan. Moreover, FOXO/4E-BP signaling in muscles decreases feeding behavior and the release of Insulin from producing cells, which in turn delays the age-related accumulation of protein aggregates in other tissues. These findings reveal an organism-wide regulation of proteostasis in response to muscle aging, and a key role of FOXO/4E-BP signaling in the coordination of organismal and tissue aging. PMID:21111239

  7. Tests of simulated Gaia BP/RP spectra with LDS (Low Dispersion Spectroscopy) photographic sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, René; Hudec, Lukáš

    2011-12-01

    The LDS (Low Dispersion Spectroscopy) performed in various extended sky surveys with optical telescopes using objective prism and photographic plates offers an interesting opportunity to test simulated low-dispersion spectra for the Gaia BP/RP photometers and to compare them with real data, especially for objects with strong emission lines. We present a review of astrophysics with LDS performed in the past, as well as an overview of existing extended sky surveys (with photographic plates) providing LDS data. Some of them provide almost complete coverage of the northern or southern hemisphere (e.g. the Northern and Southern Mt Wilson - Michigan Hα surveys or the German La Paz Bolivia Southern Spectral Sky Survey). We show examples of these data and discuss a comparison of existing LDS plate data with expected/simulated Gaia BP/RP data. We show examples of real data for objects with very strong and wide emission features confirming that such features will be detectable with Gaia BP/RP. We also discuss the importance of Gaia RP/BP low-dispersion spectroscopy for astrophysical studies.

  8. 75 FR 60097 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... oil spill and to develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills... mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. Tentative Agenda... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...

  9. 75 FR 69652 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... oil spill and to develop options to guard against, and mitigate the impact of, any oil spills... mitigate the impact of, any oil spills associated with offshore drilling in the future. Tentative Agenda... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling AGENCY: Department...

  10. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... options for guarding against, and mitigating the impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling... established the National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the... with their ongoing activities in response to the oil spill, shall provide the Commission...

  11. The C-terminal domain of the transcriptional corepressor CtBP is intrinsically unstructured.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Marco; Svergun, Dmitri; Konarev, Peter V; Spanò, Stefania; Fasano, Mauro; Bracco, Chiara; Pesce, Alessandra; Donadini, Alessandra; Cericola, Claudia; Secundo, Francesco; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela; Bolognesi, Martino

    2006-05-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are moonlighting proteins involved in nuclear transcriptional corepression and in Golgi membrane tubule fission. Structural information on CtBPs is available for their substrate-binding domain, responsible for transcriptional repressor recognition/binding, and for the nucleotide-binding domain, involved in NAD(H)-binding and dimerization. On the contrary, little is known about the structure of CtBP C-terminal region ( approximately 90 residues), hosting sites for post-translational modifications. In the present communication we apply a combined approach based on bioinformatics, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering, and we show that the CtBP C-terminal region is intrinsically unstructured in the full-length CtBP and in constructs lacking the substrate- and/or the nucleotide-binding domains. The flexible nature of this protein region, and its structural transitions, may be instrumental for CtBP recognition and binding to diverse molecular partners. PMID:16597837

  12. The discovery and taxonomic implications of a novel 41bp chloroplast DNA deletion in wild potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 241-bp chloroplast deletion in the intergenic region flanking the 3'end of the trnV-UAC gene has been shown to have major phylogenetic importance in determining the origin of the cultivated potato, as it characterizes most landrace populations from lowland Chile and putative wild species in Bolivi...

  13. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP Deepwell Horizon Spill Surface Oil Burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particle sample gathered from the plume of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic acids, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and chloro-org...

  15. Relative validity of dietary patterns during pregnancy assessed with a food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the relative validity of maternal dietary patterns derived from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A total of 162 pregnant women aged 19-40-years-old were enrolled from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Birth Cohort Study in year 2010 and 2011. The FFQ was compared with three 24-h dietary recalls (DRs). Two major dietary patterns were derived from the principle component analysis which are labeled as Healthy and Less-Healthy patterns. The Pearson correlation coefficients between FFQ and DRs for Healthy and Less-Healthy patterns were 0.59 and 0.63, respectively. At least 45% of the participants were correctly classified into the same third from the FFQ and DR for both dietary patterns. The weighted kappa showed moderate agreement for Healthy pattern while good agreement for Less-Healthy pattern between these two dietary assessment methods. Our results indicate reasonable validity of the dietary patterns identified from the FFQ in pregnant women. PMID:23594439

  16. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Yolanda F.; Lundblad, Tammy M.; Ford, Eric A.; House, Lawrence M.; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate‐responsive element‐binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior. PMID:24744913

  17. RanBP9 Overexpression Accelerates Loss of Dendritic Spines in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruizhi; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Maiti, Panchanan; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lloyd, BN; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Kang, David E; Lakshmana, Madepalli K.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that RanBP9 overexpression increased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque burden, subsequently leading to robust reductions in the levels of several synaptic proteins as well as deficits in the learning and memory skills in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we found striking reduction of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta (52%, p<0.001) and spinophilin area (62.5%, p<0.001) in the primary cortical neurons derived from RanBP9 transgenic mice (RanBP9-Tg) compared to wild-type (WT) neurons. Similar results were confirmed in WT cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-RanBP9. At 6-months of age, the total spine density in the cortex of RanBP9 single transgenic, APΔE9 double transgenic and APΔE9/RanBP9 triple transgenic mice were similar to WT mice. However, in the hippocampus the spine density was significantly reduced (27%, p<0.05) in the triple transgenic mice compared to WT mice due to reduced number of thin spines (33%, p<0.05) and mushroom spines (22%, p<0.05). This suggests that RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice accelerates loss of spines and that hippocampus is more vulnerable. At 12-months of age, cortex showed significant reductions in total spine density in the RanBP9 (22%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (19%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (33%, p<0.01) mice compared to WT controls due to reductions in mushroom and thin spines. Similarly, in the hippocampus the total spine density was reduced in the RanBP9 (23%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (26%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (39%, p<0.01) mice due to reductions in thin and mushroom spines. Most importantly, RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice further exacerbated the reductions in spine density in both the cortex (14%, p<0.05) and the hippocampus (16%, p<0.05). Because dendritic spines are considered physical traces of memory, loss of spines due to RanBP9 provided the physical basis for the learning and memory deficits. Since RanBP9 protein levels are increased in AD brains, RanBP

  18. RanBP9 overexpression accelerates loss of dendritic spines in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruizhi; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Maiti, Panchanan; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Xu, Shaohua; Lloyd, B N; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Kang, David E; Lakshmana, Madepalli K

    2014-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that RanBP9 overexpression increased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque burden, subsequently leading to robust reductions in the levels of several synaptic proteins as well as deficits in the learning and memory skills in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we found striking reduction of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta (52%, p<0.001) and spinophilin area (62.5%, p<0.001) in the primary cortical neurons derived from RanBP9 transgenic mice (RanBP9-Tg) compared to wild-type (WT) neurons. Similar results were confirmed in WT cortical neurons transfected with EGFP-RanBP9. At 6-months of age, the total spine density in the cortex of RanBP9 single transgenic, APΔE9 double transgenic and APΔE9/RanBP9 triple transgenic mice was similar to WT mice. However, in the hippocampus the spine density was significantly reduced (27%, p<0.05) in the triple transgenic mice compared to WT mice due to reduced number of thin spines (33%, p<0.05) and mushroom spines (22%, p<0.05). This suggests that RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice accelerates loss of spines and that the hippocampus is more vulnerable. At 12-months of age, the cortex showed significant reductions in total spine density in the RanBP9 (22%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (19%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (33%, p<0.01) mice compared to WT controls due to reductions in mushroom and thin spines. Similarly, in the hippocampus the total spine density was reduced in the RanBP9 (23%, p<0.05), APΔE9 (26%, p<0.05) and APΔE9/RanBP9 (39%, p<0.01) mice due to reductions in thin and mushroom spines. Most importantly, RanBP9 overexpression in the APΔE9 mice further exacerbated the reductions in spine density in both the cortex (14%, p<0.05) and the hippocampus (16%, p<0.05). Because dendritic spines are considered physical traces of memory, loss of spines due to RanBP9 provided the physical basis for the learning and memory deficits. Since RanBP9 protein levels are increased in AD

  19. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic α-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic α-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for

  20. Drosophila Longevity Assurance Conferred by Reduced Insulin Receptor Substrate Chico Partially Requires d4eBP

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Post, Stephanie; Kang, Ping; Tatar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) pathway extend Drosophila lifespan. Based on genetic epistasis analyses, this longevity assurance is attributed to downstream effects of the FOXO transcription factor. However, as reported FOXO accounts for only a portion of the observed longevity benefit, suggesting there are additional outputs of IIS to mediate aging. One candidate is target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Reduced TORC1 activity is reported to slow aging, whereas reduced IIS is reported to repress TORC1 activity. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein (4E-BP) is repressed by TORC1, and activated 4E-BP is reported to increase Drosophila lifespan. Here we use genetic epistasis analyses to test whether longevity assurance mutants of chico, the Drosophila insulin receptor substrate homolog, require Drosophila d4eBP to slow aging. In chico heterozygotes, which are robustly long-lived, d4eBP is required but not sufficient to slow aging. Remarkably, d4eBP is not required or sufficient for chico homozygotes to extend longevity. Likewise, chico heterozygote females partially require d4eBP to preserve age-dependent locomotion, and both chico genotypes require d4eBP to improve stress-resistance. Reproduction and most measures of growth affected by either chico genotype are always independent of d4eBP. In females, chico heterozygotes paradoxically produce more rather than less phosphorylated 4E-BP (p4E-BP). Altered IRS function within the IIS pathway of Drosophila appears to have partial, conditional capacity to regulate aging through an unconventional interaction with 4E-BP. PMID:26252766

  1. Negative control of circadian clock regulator E4BP4 by casein kinase Iepsilon-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masao; Okano, Toshiyuki; Yujnovsky, Irene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2004-06-01

    Light-dependent transcriptional regulation of clock genes is a crucial step in the entrainment of the circadian clock. E4bp4 is a light-inducible gene in the chick pineal gland, and it encodes a bZIP protein that represses transcription of cPer2, a chick pineal clock gene. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged light period-dependent accumulation of E4BP4 protein is temporally coordinated with a delay of the rising phase of cPer2 in the morning. E4BP4 was phosphorylated progressively and then disappeared in parallel with induced cPer2 expression. Characterization of E4BP4 revealed Ser182, a phosphoacceptor site located at the amino-terminal border of the Ser/Thr cluster, which forms the phosphorylation motifs for casein kinase 1epsilon (CK1epsilon). CK1epsilon physically associated with E4BP4 and phosphorylated it. CK1epsilon-catalyzed phosphorylation of E4BP4 resulted in proteasomal proteolysis-dependent decrease of E4BP4 levels, while E4BP4 nuclear accumulation was attenuated by CK1epsilon in a kinase activity-independent manner. CK1epsilon-mediated posttranslational regulation was accompanied by reduction of the transcriptional repression executed by E4BP4. These results not only demonstrate a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanism for E4BP4 function but also highlight the role of CK1epsilon as a negative regulator for E4BP4-mediated repression of cPer2. PMID:15182670

  2. The pressor effect of NO synthase inhibition correlates to pre-existing systolic BP in the rat.

    PubMed

    Elayan, Hamzeh H; Kennedy, Brian P; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-01-10

    A number of studies have found that the vasopressor effect of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition is small following treatment with hypotensive agents but is enhanced after hypertensive agents, and have implicated NO in the mechanism of action of these drugs. We investigated the hypothesis that the rate of vascular NO synthesis is directly related to blood pressure. The vasopressor effect of 10 mg/kg of L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was studied in relation to changes in BP induced by a variety of treatments in both pentobarbital sodium anesthetized and pithed rats. BP reductions were induced by blood withdrawal, surgery and pithing. BP increases were made by injecting 10 and 15 microg/kg boluses of phenylephrine or by injecting 5% albumin solution. Pithing decreased baseline BP and attenuated the vasopressor effect of L-NAME while phenylephrine increased both BP levels and the hypertensive effect of L-NAME. Volume expansion with 5% albumin solution increased both BP and the vasopressor effect of L-NAME. Both surgery (abdominal incision) and withdrawal of 1 ml blood reduced BP and attenuated the pressor effect of L-NAME. When the results of all these studies were combined, systolic BP was found to correlate strongly with the vasopressor effect of L-NAME (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001). Diastolic BP correlated less well with L-NAME (R2 = 0.36, P < 0.0003). The results suggest that shear stress generated by blood flow during the systole releases NO, and lowers BP. The pressor effect of NO synthase inhibition is closely related to pre-existing systolic BP. PMID:11871783

  3. The Nedd4-binding partner 1 (N4BP1) protein is an inhibitor of the E3 ligase Itch.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Andrew; Malatesta, Martina; Aqeilan, Rami I; Rossi, Mario; Salomoni, Paolo; Murillas, Rodolfo; Sharma, Prashant; Kuehn, Michael R; Oren, Moshe; Croce, Carlo M; Bernassola, Francesca; Melino, Gerry

    2007-07-01

    Nedd4-binding partner-1 (N4BP1) has been identified as a protein interactor and a substrate of the homologous to E6AP C terminus (HECT) domain-containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3), Nedd4. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized functional interaction between N4BP1 and Itch, a Nedd4 structurally related E3, which contains four WW domains, conferring substrate-binding activity. We show that N4BP1 association with the second WW domain (WW2) of Itch interferes with E3 binding to its substrates. In particular, we found that N4BP1 and p73 alpha, a target of Itch-mediated ubiquitin/proteasome proteolysis, share the same binding site. By competing with p73 alpha for binding to the WW2 domain, N4BP1 reduces the ability of Itch to recruit and ubiquitylate p73 alpha and inhibits Itch autoubiquitylation activity both in in vitro and in vivo ubiquitylation assays. Similarly, both c-Jun and p63 polyubiquitylation by Itch are inhibited by N4BP1. As a consequence, genetic and RNAi knockdown of N4BP1 diminish the steady-state protein levels and significantly impair the transcriptional activity of Itch substrates. Notably, stress-induced induction of c-Jun was impaired in N4BP1(-/-) cells. These results demonstrate that N4BP1 functions as a negative regulator of Itch. In addition, because inhibition of Itch by N4BP1 results in the stabilization of crucial cell death regulators such as p73 alpha and c-Jun, it is conceivable that N4BP1 may have a role in regulating tumor progression and the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy. PMID:17592138

  4. Rasputin, more promiscuous than ever: a review of G3BP.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine; Stirling, Renee; Hume, David; Kennedy, Derek

    2004-12-01

    In this review, we highlight what G3BP's domain structure initially suggested; that G3BPs are "scaffolding" proteins linking signal transduction to RNA metabolism. Whilst it is most attractive to hypothesise about G3BP's role in signalling to mRNA metabolism, it is not known whether all G3BP functions impinge on their RNA-binding activities, so any theories are naturally subject to this qualification. It is hypothesised that, in coordination with an array of other proteins, G3BP, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of a subset of mRNAs, at least some of which are in common with those regulated by Hu proteins. These transcripts, partially controlled at the post-transcriptional level by G3BPs, code for proteins important in transcription (e.g. c-Myc) and cytoskeletal arrangement (e.g. Tau), amongst other as yet undetermined pathways. The subtle differences between G3BP family members could dictate binding to a variety of signalling proteins, so each of the G3BPs may participate in different, though possibly related mRNPs, which are assembled in response to different stimuli. The combinatorial nature of the mRNP complex offers a powerful means of regulating gene expression, beyond that provided by a simple mRNA sequence. The ways in which mRNP flexibility and specificity may be harnessed to coordinate gene expression of functionally or structurally related mRNAs are not yet fully appreciated. Characterising mRNP composition and the function/s of mRNP components, such as the G3BPs, will aid in the understanding of how post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to the global regulation of gene expression. PMID:15602692

  5. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  6. Treatability test plan for the 200-BP-1 prototype surface barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November of 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Area is divided into operable units based on waste disposal information, location, facility, type, and other characteristics. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is one specific site located within the 200 East Area. Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RI) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination and assessing risks to human health and the environment at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. In March of 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan for the 200-BP-1 operable unit was issued (DOE-RL 1990a). The work plan outlined the first phase of site characterization activities, which were completed in March of 1993 with the issuance of Phase I Remedial Investigation Report for the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1993, Draft A). Remedial action objectives outlined in the RI report suggest that a likely remedial action at the 200-BP-1 operable unit could involve the use of a surface barrier. To further evaluate this technology, additional performance and constructability data are needed to implement this remedial action. This test plan describes the general methodology for conducting a prototype barrier treatability study. The objectives of this treatability study are to determine overall performance and constructability data on an actual waste site in conjunction with the Hanford Site Barrier Development Program.

  7. Records of the paleoclimate during the fast transgression period (13 ka BP-8 ka BP) from the mud area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.

    2015-12-01

    A 35.30m-long core (MZ02) recovered from a water depth of 32.4m from the inner shelf mud deposit of the East China Sea was analyzed for sedimentary characteristics, color reflectance, clay mineral, and element geochemistry components as well as by AMS 14C dating to research the sedimentation rate, sediment provenance and paleocwan mountainous river and clay fralimate evolution during the fast transgression period in the study area. Rare earth element and clay mineral proxies indicated that the mixed provenance sediment accumulated in the foreshore-nearshore region at the beginning of the fast transgression period, with a higher sedimentation rate of 5.58m/ka. While from 9800-9500 a B.P., the sedimentation rate keep lower about 1.73m/ka, and the sediment provenance changed obviously, silt fraction were apt to Taiction prone to be transported from the Yangtze River. Multiple proxy system including sediment redness (a*), chemical index of alteration (CIA), clay mineral proxy (smectite/kaolinite), major and trace element proxy (CaO/MgO, Ba/Sr) also showed a good paleoclimate record during the fast transgression period, which could be divided into three units. All the proxies changed little during Unit I (13-11.3ka B.P.) and revealed the climate kept in a relative stable level. Obvious fluctuation happened in Unit II (11.3-10.1ka B.P.) and the temperature kept decreasing more than 1ka till the Younger Dryas event, showed a well regional response to global climate changes. While continuous warming trend resumed again in Unit III (10.1-8 ka B.P.), which may be the signal for Holocene warm period. In addition, we also found significant 80yr, 89yr and 100yr cycles in our CIA, CaO/MgO and Ba/Sr records that imply a possible solar influence on the regional climate changes during the fast transgression period. Keywords: East China Sea, provenance, transgression, mud deposit, late Pleistocene, paleoclimate

  8. MRX87 family with Aristaless X dup24bp mutation and implication for polyAlanine expansions

    PubMed Central

    Laperuta, Carmela; Spizzichino, Letizia; D'Adamo, Pio; Monfregola, Jlenia; Maiorino, Antonio; D'Eustacchio, Angela; Ventruto, Valerio; Neri, Giovanni; D'Urso, Michele; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Ursini, Matilde Valeria; Miano, Maria Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments are heterogeneous conditions, and it is estimated that 10% may be caused by a defect of mental function genes on the X chromosome. One of those genes is Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) encoding a polyA-rich homeobox transcription factor essential for cerebral patterning and its mutations cause different neurologic disorders. We reported on the clinical and genetic analysis of an Italian family with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and intra-familial heterogeneity, and provided insight into its molecular defect. Methods We carried out on linkage-candidate gene studies in a new MRX family (MRX87). All coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of ARX gene were analysed by direct sequencing. Results MRX87 patients had moderate to profound cognition impairment and a combination of minor congenital anomalies. The disease locus, MRX87, was mapped between DXS7104 and DXS1214, placing it in Xp22-p21 interval, a hot spot region for mental handicap. An in frame duplication of 24 bp (ARXdup24) in the second polyAlanine tract (polyA_II) in ARX was identified. Conclusion Our study underlines the role of ARXdup24 as a critical mutational site causing mental retardation linked to Xp22. Phenotypic heterogeneity of MRX87 patients represents a new observation relevant to the functional consequences of polyAlanine expansions enriching the puzzling complexity of ARXdup24-linked diseases. PMID:17480217

  9. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J; Hirakis, Sophia P; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2016-01-01

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ∼90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant 'reading head' in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M-C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design. PMID:27595425

  10. Synthesis and Anti-Candida Activity of Cobalt(II) Complexes of Benzene-1,2-Dioxyacetic Acid (bdoaH2). X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3] ⋅3.5H2O and {[CO(phen)3](bdoa)}2⋅24H2O (phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline)

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Majella; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael; Cronin, Fergal; Curran, Martin; McKee, Vickie

    1999-01-01

    Co(CH3CO2)2⋅4H2O reacts with benzene-1,2-dioxyacetic acid (bdoaH2) to give the Co2+ complexes [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3]⋅H2O (1a) and [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3] ⋅3.5H2O (1b). Subsequent reaction of 1a with 1,10- phenanthroline produces [CO(phen)3] bdoa⋅10H2O (2a) and {[CO(phen)3](bdoa)}2⋅24H2O (2b). Molecular structures of 1b and 2b were determined crystallographically. In 1b the bdoa2-- ligates the metal by two carboxylate oxygens and two ethereal oxygens, whereas in 2b the bdoa2- is uncoordinated. The Mn2+ and Cu2+ complexes [Mn(bdoa)(phen)2]⋅H2O (3) and [Cu(pdoa)(imid)2] (4) were also synthesised, 1a-4 and other metal complexes of bdoa H2 (metal = Mn2+, Co2+ ,Cu2+, Cu+ ) were screened for their ability to inhibit the growth ofhe yeast Candida albicans. Complexes incorporating the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand were the most active. PMID:18475879

  11. Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP Binding Protein: Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317–326 Sequence Does Not Involve G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Alessandro; Dousse, Aline; Martin, Sophie; Tazi, Jamal; Widmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317–