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Sample records for 24-h lc50 values

  1. Toxicity of an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, to a freshwater fish, Rita rita: determination of LC50 values by different methods.

    PubMed

    Roy, D

    1988-04-01

    LC50 values and their 95% confidence limits for various intervals of exposure to an anionic detergent, dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, have been determined using recommended methods. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in light of the variations in the values. Different visible behaviors of the fish under the influence of the detergent have also been explained. PMID:3378536

  2. Using Microtox to predict LC50`s

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, C.M.; Evans, K.A.; Lyons, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The ability of Microtox to predict Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout LC50`s has been evaluated with a variety of industrial process chemicals biocides, polymers, amines, dispersants, corrosion and scale inhibitors. The LC50`s of these materials range from less than 1.0 mg/L to greater than 5,000 mg/L. A correlation between Microtox EC50`s and acute LC50`s indicate that Microtox can be used as an effective tool for estimating LC50 values. However, correlations are limited for certain kinds of chemical formulations, such as oil-based materials, surfactant-based materials and some amines.

  3. European Chemicals Agency dossier submissions as an experimental data source: refinement of a fish toxicity model for predicting acute LC50 values.

    PubMed

    Austin, Thomas; Denoyelle, Marieva; Chaudry, Amjad; Stradling, Sam; Eadsforth, Charles

    2015-02-01

    As a result of the stringent data requirements of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation, a vast amount of ecotoxicological data has become available through the dissemination portal of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). As of April 2014, the database contained 12,439 unique substances from 47,909 dossiers. This vast database could be used to refine existing, or to create new, non-testing methods, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Acute fish toxicity data were mined from the ECHA database using the eChemPortal; after filtering for single organic substances, 1159 experimental data points remained, representing 564 compounds. To evaluate the quality and accessibility of this data, the authors used the data to refine and improve an existing QSAR. The reliability of the data submitted to the ECHA database, as well as the effectiveness of the Klimisch scoring system, were assessed by comparing the refined QSAR with established QSAR benchmarks. The model developed meets all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development principles, has strong internal (leave-one-out internally cross-validated correlation coefficient [Q(2)(LOO)] = 0.91) and external (external coefficient of determination (predicted vs experimental [test set])) validation statistics, and can provide reliable fish median lethal concentration (LC50) predictions for non-polar narcotics. Although some issues with dossier misinformation were discovered, it was found that the ECHA dissemination portal is a valuable and reliable data source. When queried using the eChemPortal, chemical dossiers containing reliable data could be found quickly. The ECHA dissemination portal holds great potential for future QSAR development and improvement, such as updating QSARs within the Ecological Structure-Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) program. PMID:25470737

  4. METHODS FOR CALCULATING AN LC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of graphical and computational methods can be used to derive a median lethal concentration (LC50) from concentration-mortality data produced by an acute mortality test. In the selection of a method, practical considerations should receive as much attention as the usual ...

  5. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL CARRIERS ON AVIAN LC(50) TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subacute dietary (LC50) toxicity of a pesticide as prescribed by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act and of toxic substances as defined by the Toxic Substances Control Act is a routine data point for many chemicals. The methods under which the LC50 data are ...

  6. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  7. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis. PMID:26909513

  8. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: Bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Vargas, Roger I; Banks, John E

    2015-07-01

    Historically, point estimates such as the median lethal concentration (LC50) have been instrumental in assessing risks associated with toxicants to rare or economically important species. In recent years, growing awareness of the shortcomings of this approach has led to an increased focus on analyses using population endpoints. However, risk assessment of pesticides still relies heavily on large amounts of LC50 data amassed over decades in the laboratory. Despite the fact that these data are generally well replicated, little or no attention has been given to the sometime high levels of variability associated with the generation of point estimates. This is especially important in agroecosystems where arthropod predator-prey interactions are often disrupted by the use of pesticides. Using laboratory derived data of 4 economically important species (2 fruit fly pest species and 2 braconid parasitoid species) and matrix based population models, the authors demonstrate in the present study a method for bridging traditional point estimate risk assessments with population outcomes. The results illustrate that even closely related species can show strikingly divergent responses to the same exposures to pesticides. Furthermore, the authors show that using different values within the 95% confidence intervals of LC50 values can result in very different population outcomes, ranging from quick recovery to extinction for both pest and parasitoid species. The authors discuss the implications of these results and emphasize the need to incorporate variability and uncertainty in point estimates for use in risk assessment. PMID:25760716

  9. The relationship of total copper 48-h LC50s to Daphnia magna dry weight

    SciTech Connect

    Lazorchak, J.M. ); Waller, W.T. )

    1993-05-01

    A study was conducted with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of neonate weight loss or lack of weight gain on experimentally derived copper 48-h LC50s. Standard unfed tests as well as algal-fed (Selenastrum capricornutum) tests were used to look at weight loss and gain. No significant relationship was found between amount of weight loss and copper LC50s. However, dry weight of unfed and algal-fed control organisms could be used to predict total copper LC50s.

  10. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  11. A review of available LC/50/ data. [on toxic gases encountered in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Several gaseous products of pyrolysis and combustion have been evaluated for LC/50/, defined as the concentration of toxic gas in the atmosphere being inhaled by test animals that will produce death in 50% of the animals within a given time period. The products tested included CO, HCl, HF, HCN, NO2, and SO2. It was found that HCN and NO2 were consistently the most toxic of the gases reviewed, and that mice were more susceptible than rats to HCl and HF, although less susceptible than rats to NO2. Extrapolation of LC/50/ data to humans indicates that metabolic rate may be a valid basis for extrapolation when the toxicity mechanism is interference with oxygen transport and utilization, or pulmonary edema, but not when it is irritation and damage to the upper respiratory tract.

  12. Sensitivity of species to chemicals: dose-response characteristics for various test types (LC(50), LR(50) and LD(50)) and modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Awkerman, Jill A; de Zwart, Dick; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2013-11-01

    While variable sensitivity of model species to common toxicants has been addressed in previous studies, a systematic analysis of inter-species variability for different test types, modes of action and species is as of yet lacking. Hence, the aim of the present study was to identify similarities and differences in contaminant levels affecting cold-blooded and warm-blooded species administered via different routes. To that end, data on lethal water concentrations LC50, tissue residues LR50 and oral doses LD50 were collected from databases, each representing the largest of its kind. LC50 data were multiplied by a bioconcentration factor (BCF) to convert them to internal concentrations that allow for comparison among species. For each endpoint data set, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of species' lethal level per compound. Next, the means and standard deviations were averaged by mode of action. Both the means and standard deviations calculated depended on the number of species tested, which is at odds with quality standard setting procedures. Means calculated from (BCF) LC50, LR50 and LD50 were largely similar, suggesting that different administration routes roughly yield similar internal levels. Levels for compounds interfering biochemically with elementary life processes were about one order of magnitude below that of narcotics disturbing membranes, and neurotoxic pesticides and dioxins induced death in even lower amounts. Standard deviations for LD50 data were similar across modes of action, while variability of LC50 values was lower for narcotics than for substances with a specific mode of action. The study indicates several directions to go for efficient use of available data in risk assessment and reduction of species testing. PMID:23932508

  13. Compliance of LC50 and NOEC data with Benford's Law: an indication of reliability?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of research data is essential, especially when potentially far-reaching conclusions will be based on them. This is also, amongst others, the case for ecotoxicological data used in risk assessment. Currently, several approaches are available to classify the reliability of ecotoxicological data. The process of classification, such as using the Klimisch score, is time-consuming and focuses on the application of standardised protocols and the documentation of the study. The presence of irregularities and the integrity of the performed work, however, are not addressed. The present study shows that Benford's Law, based on the occurrence of first digits following a logarithmic scale, can be applied to ecotoxicity test data for identifying irregularities. This approach is already successfully applied in accounting. Benford's Law can be used as reliability indicator, in addition to existing reliability classifications. The law can be used to efficiently trace irregularities in large data sets of interpolated (no) effect concentrations such as LC50s (possibly the result of data manipulation), without having to evaluate the source of each individual record. Application of the law to systems in which large amounts of toxicity data are registered (e.g., European Commission Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) can therefore be valuable. PMID:24064261

  14. A mechanistic explanation for the In(LC50) vs In(hardness) adjustment equation for metals

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.

    1999-03-15

    The author demonstrates that a combination of (a) competitive binding of transition-metal cations, hardness cations, and protons to transition-metal-binding sites on fish gills and (b) aqueous complexation of transition-metal cations by HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} explains why the regression slopes of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) for five divalent transition metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are {approximately}1, where LC50 is the median lethal concentration. For these calculations, the author assumed the amount of the transition metal bound to the fish gill at 50% mortality is constant (i.e., independent of water quality). Although the slopes theoretically should vary between 0 and 2, a slope of {approximately}1 is expected at midrange hardness if alkalinity covaries with hardness--a common condition in most laboratory toxicity tests. But if alkalinity is held constant while hardness is varied, a slope of {approximately}0.5 is expected at midrange hardness. Although predictions of LC50s using regressions of In(LC50) vs In(hardness) might be acceptable for regulating discharges of transition metals to waters in the midrange of hardness, extrapolations beyond this range might drastically overpredict metal toxicity.

  15. Incorporating variability in point estimates in risk assessment: bridging the gap between LC50 and population endpoints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the use of point estimates such as the LC50 has been instrumental in assessing the risk associated with toxicants to rare or economically important species. In recent years, growing awareness of the shortcomings of this approach has led to an increased focus on analyses using populatio...

  16. Health in a 24-h society.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, S M; Arendt, J

    2001-09-22

    With increasing economic and social demands, we are rapidly evolving into a 24-h society. In any urban economy, about 20% of the population are required to work outside the regular 0800-1700 h working day and this figure is likely to increase. Although the increase in shiftwork has led to greater flexibility in work schedules, the ability to provide goods and services throughout the day and night, and possibly greater employment opportunities, the negative effects of shiftwork and chronic sleep loss on health and productivity are now being appreciated. For example, sleepiness surpasses alcohol and drugs as the greatest identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in all modes of transport. Industrial accidents associated with night work are common, perhaps the most famous being Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Bhopal. PMID:11583769

  17. What are the sources and conditions responsible for exceedences of the 24 h PM 10 limit value (50 μg m -3) at a heavily trafficked London site?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Aurélie; Harrison, Roy M.; Quincey, Paul

    The European Union has set limit values for PM 10 to be met in 2005. At Marylebone Road, London, where the traffic is heavy, the daily limit value of 50 μg m -3 is exceeded more than 35 times a year. A total of 185 days with daily PM 10 concentrations exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 measured between January 2002 and December 2004 (data capture of 89.5%) are discussed in this paper. These exceedences were more frequent in early spring and in autumn. Concentrations have been disaggregated into regional, urban (background) and local (street) contributions. Most of the episodes of gravimetric PM 10 above the limit value were associated with a high regional background and very often the regional contribution dominated the PM 10 mass. The secondary aerosol (especially the particulate nitrate) made a major contribution to the PM 10 load. These situations were frequently observed when air masses came from the European mainland (showing that both emissions from the UK and other EU countries contributed to the exceedences), and less frequently with maritime air masses that have stagnated over the UK (showing that emissions from the UK alone less frequently contributed to the high regional background). However, the higher frequency of episodes breaching the limit value at the roadside site than at the rural site and the higher frequency of PM 10 concentrations above the limit value on weekdays show that the high regional contributions are additional to local and urban emissions. Local emissions mainly due to traffic were the second important contributor to the exceedences, while the contribution of the urban background of London was less important than the local emissions and the regional background. Applying the pragmatic mass closure model of Harrison et al. [2003. A pragmatic mass closure model for airborne particulate matter at urban background and roadside sites. Atmospheric Environment 37, 4927-4933], revealed that the regional aerosol is comprised very

  18. Subacute toxicity testing with young birds: Response in relation to age and intertest variability of LC50 estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The variability in toxic response of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to a standardized 5-day subacute feeding trial was studied while age was increased at weekly intervals from 1 to 21 days and at different times with 14-day-old birds. The objectives were to identify the strengths and limitations of this subacute toxicity protocol and to provide possible explanations for differences in response among the various classes of pesticides. The variables included the median lethal concentration (LC50), the dose-response slope, food consumption, mortality patterns, and procedures of preparing toxic diets. Carbamate, organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and organic mercury compounds were represented. A total of 60 subacute tests were involved in this evaluation. The general conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The basic protocol yields good within-laboratory reproducibility of results. (2) The LC50s increase as birds grow older, and the change was reasonably predictable between 7 and 21 days of age. (3) Monitoring of time-related response patterns, such as food consumption, onset and remission of overt toxicity, and mortality, is critical to the evaluation of potential hazard. (4) Different orders of toxicity may occur at different ages for an array of compounds, but differences do not appear to be large enough to seriously alter the interpretation. (5) For optimal comparisons, all testing should be conducted on birds of a single age.

  19. Aquatic toxicity of acrylates and methacrylates: quantitative structure-activity relationships based on Kow and LC50

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    Recent EPA scrutiny of acrylate and methacrylate monomers has resulted in restrictive consent orders and Significant New Use Rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act, based on structure-activity relationships using mouse skin painting studies. The concern is centered on human health issues regarding worker and consumer exposure. Environmental issues, such as aquatic toxicity, are still of concern. Understanding the relationships and environmental risks to aquatic organisms may improve the understanding of the potential risks to human health. This study evaluates the quantitative structure-activity relationships from measured log Kow's and log LC50's for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and Carassius auratus (goldfish). Scientific support of the current regulations is also addressed. Two monomer classes were designated: acrylates and methacrylates. Spearman rank correlation and linear regression were run. Based on this study, an ecotoxicological difference exists between acrylates and methacrylates. Regulatory activities and scientific study should reflect this difference.

  20. [Effect of diurnal distribution of food intake on 24-h profiles of plasma lipoproteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tauber, H

    1981-02-16

    The lipid infiltration theory of atherogenesis accepted, 24 h lipoprotein profiles may be more relevant than preprandial morning samples. Such profiles were performed in 12 metabolically healthy volunteers during two dietetic regimes identical in total food content but differing in the distribution over the day: form A meant an evening meal of 15% of total caloric intake, form B of 40%. After one week of each form, 24 h lipoprotein profiles differed significantly in the time course of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and in the mean values over 24 h in VLDL and LDL phospholipids and HDL cholesterol. These findings are cautiously interpreted as possible signs of differences in the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, remnants and intermediate lipoproteins. The difference in HDL cholesterol which was higher in form A is discussed in the context of recent epidemiologic evidence. PMID:7194945

  1. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  2. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  3. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  4. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  5. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  6. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  7. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  8. A new portable device for recording 24-h indirect blood pressure in hypertensive outpatients.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, O; Kaneko, Y; Yokoi, H; Yukinari, Y

    1985-12-01

    To simplify 24-h blood pressure (BP) recording in hypertensive outpatients, we devised a new portable, automatic BP recorder and studied its accuracy and usefulness. The fully automatic recorder, measuring 5 x 16 x 18 cm with a cuff of usual size, weighs approximately 1 kg and is driven by a rechargeable battery. The cuff is inflated by a compact CO2 cartridge and two microphones are used to detect differentially the Korotkoff sounds in the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) are automatically measured, displayed with the time of measurement, and recorded on a memory card at intervals of 15 min for 24 h. This equipment has high noise immunity and works very quietly. It predicts approximate BP during the period of increasing cuff pressure, and measures BP more quickly than the conventional method (the time required for each measurement was reduced by about half). Afterwards, mean values with standard deviations, trendgrams and histograms of BP and HR over a certain period of time can be displayed and recorded with an accessory analyser. The accuracy of the BP values recorded by this device were compared with those measured by the auscultatory method. The average differences were -0.6 +/- 2.1 (s.d.) mmHg for SBP and 0.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg for DBP (n = 152). The BP values by this method were also compared with those obtained directly from the brachial artery, the differences being -5.8 +/- 5.9/0.3 +/- 6.0 mmHg (n = 85). In 30 ambulatory hypertensive patients, 24-h BP was recorded using this recorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2856737

  9. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure. PMID:26310187

  10. Nqrs Data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

  11. Transient energy deficit induced by exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation in young trained men.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kurihara, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hibi, Masanobu; Oishi, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Koichi; Ogata, Hitomi; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Experimental meals were designed to achieve individual energy balance. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was similar among the trials, but 24-h fat oxidation was 1,142 ± 97, 809 ± 88, and 608 ± 46 kcal/24 h in descending order of its magnitude for AM, AM/PM, and PM, respectively (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour carbohydrate oxidation was 2,558 ± 110, 2,374 ± 114, and 2,062 ± 96 kcal/24 h for PM, AM/PM, and AM, respectively. In spite of energy-balanced condition over 24 h, exercise induced a transient energy deficit, the magnitude of which was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). Similarly, transient carbohydrate deficit after exercise was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.40, P < 0.05). The time of the day when exercise is performed affects 24-h fat oxidation, and the transient energy/carbohydrate deficit after exercise is implied as a factor affecting 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:25554797

  12. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  13. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  14. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  15. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  16. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  17. Association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with 24-h aortic ambulatory blood pressure: the SAFAR study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Kollias, G; Argyris, A A; Papaioannou, T G; Tountas, C; Konstantonis, G D; Achimastos, A; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Protogerou, A D

    2015-07-01

    Aortic blood pressure (BP) and 24-h ambulatory BP are both better associated with target organ damage than office brachial BP. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these two techniques would be the optimal methodology to evaluate patients' BP in terms of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) prevention. In 230 participants, office brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated BP monitor and a tonometry-based device, respectively. 24-h ambulatory brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated ambulatory BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Germany). Systematic assessment of patients' LVDD was performed. After adjustment for age, gender, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, septum and lateral E/Ea were significantly associated with office aortic systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) and 24-h brachial and aortic SBP and PP (P ⩽ 0.04), but not with office brachial BP (P ⩾ 0.09). Similarly, 1 standard deviation in SBP was significantly associated with 97.8 ± 20.9, 86.4 ± 22.9, 74.1 ± 23.3 and 51.3 ± 22.6 in septum E/Ea and 68.6 ± 2 0.1, 54.2 ± 21.9, 37.9 ± 22.4 and 23.1 ± 21.4 in lateral E/Ea, for office and 24-h aortic and brachial SBP, respectively. In qualitative analysis, except for office brachial BP, office aortic and 24-h brachial and aortic BPs were all significantly associated with LVDD (P ⩽ 0.03), with the highest odds ratio in 24-h aortic SBP. Furthermore, aortic BP, no matter in the office or 24-h ambulatory setting, showed the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curves (P ⩽ 0.02). In conclusion, 24-h aortic BP is superior to other BPs in the association with LVDD. PMID:25391758

  18. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  19. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  20. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  1. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  2. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  3. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  4. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  5. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory dysregulation over 24 h following acute heat stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Carrie M; Audet, Gerald N; Charkoudian, Nisha; Leon, Lisa R

    2015-08-15

    The influences of severe heat stroke (HS) on cardiovascular function during recovery are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that HS would elicit a heart rate (HR) increase persisting through 24 h of recovery due to hemodynamic, thermoregulatory, and inflammatory events, necessitating tachycardia to support mean arterial pressure (MAP). Core temperature (Tc), HR, and MAP were measured via radiotelemetry in conscious male Fischer 344 rats (n = 22; 282.4 ± 3.5 g) during exposure to 37°C ambient temperature until a maximum Tc of 42.0°C, and during recovery at 20°C ambient temperature through 24 h. Rats were divided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe groups based on pathophysiology. HS rats exhibited hysteresis relative to Tc with HR higher for a given Tc during recovery compared with heating (P < 0.0001). "Reverse" hysteresis occurred in MAP with pressure during cooling lower than heating per degree Tc (P < 0.0001). Mild HS rats showed tachycardia [P < 0.01 vs. control (Con)] through 8 h of recovery, elevated MAP (P < 0.05 vs. Con) for the initial 5 h of recovery, with sustained hyperthermia (P < 0.05 vs. Con) through 24 h. Moderate HS rats showed significant tachycardia (P < 0.01 vs. Con), normal MAP (P > 0.05 vs. Con), and rebound hyperthermia from 4 to 24 h post-HS (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed tachycardia (P < 0.05 vs. Con), hypotension (P < 0.01 vs. Con), and hypothermia for 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed 14- and 12-fold increase in heart and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, respectively. Hypotension and hypothermia in Severe HS rats was consistent with inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated systemic vasodilation. These findings provide mechanistic insight into hemodynamic and thermoregulatory impairments during 24 h of HS recovery. PMID:26071550

  6. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  7. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  8. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  9. A "second window of protection" occurs 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1998-06-01

    We and others found that cardioprotection is acquired not only soon after, but also 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in canine and rabbit myocardial infarction models (second window of protection). However, a second window phenomenon against myocardial infarction was dependent on species limitations and has not been observed in porcine hearts. In this study, we examined whether the "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction is observed in the rat heart. In the ischemic preconditioning (IP) group, the left main coronary artery (LCA) of rats was occluded four times for 3 min. each separated by reperfusion for 10 min. After 0, 3, and 24 h, the rats were subjected to a 20-min LCA occlusion followed by 48-h reperfusion. At 0 and 24 h after IP, infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia were significantly reduced compared with corresponding sham-operated groups without preconditioning. After 3 h of IP, there were no differences either in the incidence of VF during ischemia or in infarct size. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) content in ischemic (LCA) region of myocardium significantly increased as compared with that of sham-operated rats 24 h after IP. Treatment with N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, an antioxidant and a hydroxyl radical scavenger, during IP abolished the early-phase (0 h after IP) and late-phase (24 h after IP) cardioprotection and the corresponding late increase in Mn-SOD content. These results indicate that a "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction also exists in rat hearts and the induction of an intrinsic scavenger, Mn-SOD, via free radical production during IP may be important in the second window of protection. PMID:9689592

  10. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  11. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  12. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  13. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  14. Ovine platelet function is unaffected by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the first 24 h.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rylan A; Foley, Samuel; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; McDonald, Charles; Fraser, John F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated platelet dysfunction during short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and secondarily to determine if hyperoxaemia contributes to this dysfunction. Healthy sheep were anaesthetized and maintained on ECMO for either 2 or 24 h, with or without induction of smoke inhalation acute lung injury. A specialized animal-operating theatre was used to conduct the experimentation. Forty-three healthy female sheep were randomized into either a test or a control group. Following anaesthesia, test groups received ECMO ± smoke inhalation acute lung injury (SALI), whereas control groups were maintained with ventilation only ± SALI. Physiological, biochemical and coagulation data were obtained throughout via continuous monitoring and blood sampling. Platelet function was quantified through whole blood impedance aggregometry using Multiplate. Ovine platelet activity induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was unaffected during the first 24 h of ECMO. However, progressive divergence of ADP-induced platelet activity was noted at cessation of the experiment. PaO2 was inversely related to ADP-dependent platelet activity in the ECMO groups--a relationship not identified in the control groups. ADP and collagen-dependent platelet activity are not significantly affected within the first 24 h of ECMO in sheep. However, dysfunction in ADP-dependent platelet activity may have continued to develop if observed beyond 24 h. Hyperoxaemia during ECMO does appear to affect how platelets react to ADP and may contribute to this developing dysfunction. Long-term animal models and investigation in clinical animals are warranted to fully investigate platelet function during ECMO. PMID:26196193

  15. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamerow, Madonna M; Mettler, Joni A; English, Kirk L; Casperson, Shanon L; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Layman, Donald K; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    The RDA for protein describes the quantity that should be consumed daily to meet population needs and to prevent deficiency. Protein consumption in many countries exceeds the RDA; however, intake is often skewed toward the evening meal, whereas breakfast is typically carbohydrate rich and low in protein. We examined the effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women (n = 8; age: 36.9 ± 3.1 y; BMI: 25.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). By using a 7-d crossover feeding design with a 30-d washout period, we measured changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner distributed evenly (EVEN; 31.5 ± 1.3, 29.9 ± 1.6, and 32.7 ± 1.6 g protein, respectively) or skewed (SKEW; 10.7 ± 0.8, 16.0 ± 0.5, and 63.4 ± 3.7 g protein, respectively). Over 24-h periods on days 1 and 7, venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained during primed (2.0 μmol/kg) constant infusion [0.06 μmol/(kg⋅min)] of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. The 24-h mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 25% higher in the EVEN (0.075 ± 0.006%/h) vs. the SKEW (0.056 ± 0.006%/h) protein distribution groups (P = 0.003). This pattern was maintained after 7 d of habituation to each diet (EVEN vs. SKEW: 0.077 ± 0.006 vs. 0.056 ± 0.006%/h; P = 0.001). The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal. PMID:24477298

  16. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  17. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  18. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  19. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  1. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    PubMed

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. PMID:26718783

  2. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of −0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: −0.40 to −0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  3. Identifying waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in adults using an automated algorithm.

    PubMed

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Willems, Paul J B; van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Bosma, Hans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-10-01

    As accelerometers are commonly used for 24-h measurements of daily activity, methods for separating waking from sleeping time are necessary for correct estimations of total daily activity levels accumulated during the waking period. Therefore, an algorithm to determine wake and bed times in 24-h accelerometry data was developed and the agreement of this algorithm with self-report was examined. One hundred seventy-seven participants (aged 40-75 years) of The Maastricht Study who completed a diary and who wore the activPAL3™ 24 h/day, on average 6 consecutive days were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and the Bland-Altman method was used to examine associations between the self-reported and algorithm-calculated waking hours. Mean self-reported waking hours was 15.8 h/day, which was significantly correlated with the algorithm-calculated waking hours (15.8 h/day, ICC = 0.79, P = < 0.001). The Bland-Altman plot indicated good agreement in waking hours as the mean difference was 0.02 h (95% limits of agreement (LoA) = -1.1 to 1.2 h). The median of the absolute difference was 15.6 min (Q1-Q3 = 7.6-33.2 min), and 71% of absolute differences was less than 30 min. The newly developed automated algorithm to determine wake and bed times was highly associated with self-reported times, and can therefore be used to identify waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:26837855

  4. Local 24-h hyperglycemia does not affect endothelium-dependent or -independent vasoreactivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Houben, A J; Schaper, N C; de Haan, C H; Huvers, F C; Slaaf, D W; de Leeuw, P W; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, C

    1996-06-01

    Hyperglycemia induces regional hemodynamic changes, as suggested by animal studies. These hemodynamic changes may play an initiating role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute local hyperglycemia for 24 h on basal human forearm muscle and skin blood flow and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasoreactivity. Local hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mM) was induced by infusion of 5% glucose into the brachial artery of the nondominant arm. In control experiments, the same individual amount of glucose was infused intravenously in the dominant arm to correct for possible systemic effects of the infused glucose. Vasoreactivity of the forearm vasculature was evaluated by local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and norepinephrine (NE) into the brachial artery. Regional hemodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 h of local hyperglycemia. Median (with interquartile range) basal forearm (muscle) blood flow (FBF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [infused-to-contralateral arm FBF ratio for glucose 1.32 (1.16-1.64) vs. control 1.54 (1.34-1.69)]. Skin microcirculatory blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [LDF ratio for glucose 1.00 (0.62-1.56) vs control 0.80 (0.58-1.14)]. In addition, the vasoreactivity of both muscle and skin (not shown) vasculature to ACh [percent change in FBF ratio for glucose 167% (81-263) vs. control 148% (94-211)], SNP [for glucose 486% (178-586) vs. control 293% (196-454)], L-NMMA [for glucose -36% (-56 to -22) vs. control -41% (-51 to -24)], and NE [for glucose -48% (-72 to -41) vs. control -66% (-79 to -33)] was also not affected by the local hyperglycemia. Thus, in contrast to animal studies, our results suggest that a moderate-to-severe hyperglycemia does not affect the regulation of basal blood flow or

  5. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies. PMID:26652593

  6. Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  7. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  8. Creatinine measurements in 24 h urine by liquid chromatography--tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Watanabe, Takaho; Gee, Shirley J; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-01-23

    A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining urinary creatinine was developed and used to evaluate 24 h urine samples collected during an exposure study. Urine (1 microL) was diluted with methanol and then directly applied to LC-MS/MS. Under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, the transition molecules of creatinine and creatinine- d3 were observed at m/ z 114 > 44 and m/ z 117 > 47, respectively. The retention time of creatinine was 0.59 min. The linear range was 1-2000 ng/mL, with a detection limit in urine of 1 ng/mL. LC-MS/MS and colorimetric end-point methods were significantly associated ( R2 = 0.8785, p < 0.0001). The LC-MS/MS method to determine creatinine in 24 h urine samples had shorter retention times, was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, simple, selective, and used a smaller sample size than other LC-MS/MS or commercial methods. PMID:18092755

  9. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  10. [Assessment of duodenogastric reflux 24h variability in subjects with functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Marek; Chojnacki, Jan; Gil, Jerzy; Piotrowski, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia demonstrate significant variability, among others dependently on the time of the day and on consumed meals. The aim of the study was to find out whether duodenogastric reflux is observed in subjects with nonulcer (NUD) and dysmotor dyspepsia (DD) and whether its intensification changes within 24 h. Investigations comprised 25 subjects with NUD and 25 with DD, aged 19-43 years after exclusion of other diseases and H. pylori infection. The gastric content of bilirubin was registered with Bilitec 2000 Synectics Medical. Duodenogastric reflux episodes were observed in both groups but their intensification and 24h dynamics were differentiated. In subjects with DD total reflux index was significantly higher than in those with NUD (mean=18.0+/-9.5% and mean=6.3+/-4.1%; p<0.05). These differences were particularly visible in after meal (mean=21.2+/-7.9% and mean=10.4+/-6.6%; p<0.01) and night time (mean=8.7+/-3.6% and mean=2.9+/-0.9%; p<0.01). The results of the study indicate that bilimetry may be useful in differentiation of the form of dyspepsia and in selection of rational therapy. PMID:15603369

  11. Preliminary estimation of deoxynivalenol excretion through a 24 h pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-03-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method's accuracy was in a range of 68%-108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  12. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data.In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample.The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women.In this nationwide

  13. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  14. A human calorimeter for the direct and indirect measurement of 24 h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J; Murgatroyd, P R; Cole, T J

    1978-05-01

    1. A calorimeter for the continuous measurement of heat production and heat loss in the human subject, for at least 24 h, is described. The calorimeter operated on the heat-sink principle for direct calorimetry and an open-circuit system for indirect calorimetry. 2. Sensible heat loss was measured using a water-cooled heat exchanger, and the temperature of water entering the heat exchanger was controlled to maintain a mean temperature gradient of zero across the chamber walls. 3. Evaporative heat loss was determined from ingoing and outgoing wet-and-dry bulb temperatures and air flow-rates. 4. Problems associated with the calculation of evapoative heat loss and the estimation of the volume of incoming air in open-circuit systems are considered. 5. The calibration, limits of accuracy, sources of error and experiments with subjects are discussed. PMID:638125

  15. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  16. Using multilevel path analysis in analyzing 24-h ambulatory physiological recordings applied to medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L; Van Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2010-05-01

    A non-clinical group high on heterogeneous medically unexplained symptoms (MUS; n=97) was compared with healthy controls (n=66) on the within-subject relationships between physiological measures using multilevel path analysis. Momentary experienced somatic complaints, mood (tension and depression), cardiac autonomic activity (inter-beat intervals, pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) and respiration (rate and partial pressure of CO(2) at the end of a normal expiration) were monitored for 24 h using electronic diary and ambulatory devices. Relationships between measures were controlled for diurnal variation and individual means. Only subtle group differences were found in the diurnal rhythm and in the within-subject relationships between physiological measures. For participants high on MUS, within-subject changes in bodily symptoms were related to changes in mood, but only marginally to the physiological measures. Results of the current path analysis confirm the subordinate role of cardiac autonomic and respiratory parameters in MUS. PMID:20030762

  17. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans.

    PubMed

    Wright, K P; Hughes, R J; Kronauer, R E; Dijk, D J; Czeisler, C A

    2001-11-20

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day. PMID:11717461

  18. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  19. 24-h activity rhythm and sleep in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Koga, Norie; Hidese, Shinsuke; Nagashima, Anna; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms are key features of depression. Actigraphy, a non-invasive method for monitoring motor activity, can be used to objectively assess circadian rest-activity rhythms and sleep patterns. While recent studies have measured sleep and daytime activity of depressed patients using wrist-worn actigraphy, the actigraphic 24-h rest-activity rhythm in depression has not been well documented. We aimed to examine actigraphically measured sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms in depressed outpatients. Twenty patients with DSM-IV major depressive episode and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Participants completed 7 consecutive days of all-day actigraphic activity monitoring while engaging in usual activities. For sleep parameters, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and sleep fragmentation index were determined. Circadian rhythms were estimated by fitting individual actigraphy data to a cosine curve of a 24-h activity rhythm using the cosinor method, which generated three circadian activity rhythm parameters, i.e., MESOR (rhythm-adjusted mean), amplitude, and acrophase. Subjective sleep was also assessed using a sleep diary and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients showed significantly lower MESOR and more dampened amplitude along with significant sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower MESOR and more fragmented sleep emerged as the significant predictors of depression. Correlations between subjectively and actigraphically measured parameters demonstrated the validity of actigraphic measurements. These results indicate marked disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms of depression. By simultaneously measuring sleep and rest-activity rhythm parameters, actigraphy might serve as an objective diagnostic aid for depression. PMID:26978182

  20. The importance of bioimpedance (BIA) analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in the dialysis programme.

    PubMed

    Löcsey, L; Szlanka, B; Ménes, I; Kövér, A; Vitai, E; Malkócs, Z; Keresztes, P; Paragh, G

    1999-01-01

    The authors performed bioimpedance analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in 66 patients (28 males, 38 females) treated in the chronic haemodialysis programme. They investigated the correlations between the body weights before, during and after dialysis, the changes of the water compartments and fat body weight, and the recorded values of blood pressure and ECG alterations. On the basis of the measurements by this non-invasive method it is concluded that, as a result of dialysis and ultrafiltration, the total body weight and total body water are decreasing in a greater extent in men than in women. By gradually decreasing the body weight, the optimal dry weight could be attained, which resulted in the reduction of blood pressure or even normotension. In the course of dialysis the values of bioimpedance and bioreactance increase. The intradialytic hypotensive indispositions were accompanied by a significant reduction of bioreactance (n = 16). The BMI, total body weight and total body water hyperlipidaemic, hypalbuminic patients with treatment-resistant hypertension are considerably larger than those of the patients with normal blood pressure (p<0.01). During Cardio Tens monitoring 53% of the patients proved to be dippers, 47% of whom had ST depression, while in 73% of the non-dippers ischaemic alterations were encountered together with high hyperbaric impact values. The total body weights and total water compartments of patients returning to dialysis with an excess body weight of more than 3.5 kg were significantly larger than of patients who were cooperative and had no oedemas. In the last hour of dialysis and during the following few hours, arrhythmias and ST depressions of the cardiovascularly instable patients appeared more frequently. The total water compartments of these patients are significantly larger than normotensive, normolipaemic patients with appropriate serum albumin concentrations. The importance of the BIA and Cardio Tens monitoring

  1. Cardiovascular autonomic function analysis using approximate entropy from 24-h heart rate variability and its frequency components in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Shuo; Chen, Hui; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Fangjie

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular autonomic system status of diabetes patients using approximate entropy (ApEn) extracted from 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) and its frequency components. Materials and Methods A total of 29 healthy controls and 63 type 2 diabetes patients were included. Participants’ 24-h HRV signals were recorded, and decomposed and reconstructed into four frequency components: high, low, very low and ultra low. The total 24-h HRV and its four components were divided into 24 1-h segments. ApEn values were extracted and statistically analyzed. Four traditional HRV indices, namely standard deviation of the RR intervals, root mean square of successive differences, coefficient of variance of RR intervals and ratio of low to high power of HRV, were also calculated. Results The low-frequency component contained the most abundant non-linear information, so was potentially most suitable for studying the cardiovascular system status with non-linear methods. ApEn values extracted from low- and high-frequency components of healthy controls were higher than those of diabetes patients. Except for root mean square of successive differences, standard deviation of the RR intervals, low to high power of HRV and coefficient of variance of RR intervals of healthy controls were all higher than those of diabetes patients. Conclusions The results showed that ApEn contained information on disorders of autonomic system function of diabetes patients as traditional HRV indices in time and frequency domains. ApEn and three traditional indices showed accordance to some degree. Non-linear information in subcomponents of HRV was shown, which is potentially more effective for distinguishing healthy individuals and diabetes patients than that extracted from the total HRV. Compared with diabetes patients, the cardiovascular system of healthy controls showed information of higher complexity, and better regulation

  2. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H; Bos, Willem Jan W

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night, thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from FAP by waveform filtering (transfer function) and generalized level (bias) correction that reduces the bias for short-term blood pressure records. OBJECTIVE To investigate if this methodology also decreases the extra bias during the night, thereby yielding a better estimate of the nocturnal dip. METHODS Twenty-four-hour FAP and BAP blood pressure recordings were simultaneously obtained in eight healthy normotensive volunteers and 14 patients with hypertension (ages 19-60 years), during standardized scheduled activities. The data were analysed off-line, applying the brachial reconstruction technique (reBAP) consisting of a waveform filter and level correction. Simultaneous beats yielded systolic, diastolic and mean pressures that were averaged per 30 min, per day, per night, per activity, over the 24-h period, and for volunteers and patients separately. RESULTS Over the full 24 h, FAP systolic, diastolic and mean values for the total group differed from BAP by +1 +/- 10, -8 +/- 7 and -10 +/- 8 mmHg (mean +/- SD), respectively. Similarly, reBAPs differed by +1 +/- 11, -2 +/- 7 and -2 +/- 7 mmHg. BAPs dipped by 20 +/- 8, 13 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively, during the night. These dips were overestimated by +8, +4 and +4 mmHg by FAP, but not by reBAP: -1, +1 and +1 mmHg. The volunteer and the patient groups showed slight differences in results, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The generalized reconstruction technique to obtain near-brachial pressure from non-invasive FAP almost completely removed bias over the full 24-h day-night period and improved tracking of diurnal changes for all three blood pressure values. PMID:12359976

  3. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  4. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  5. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  6. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antônio F M; Moresco, James; Yates, John R; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  7. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  8. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  9. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  10. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  11. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability. PMID:22387713

  12. Short-term blood pressure variability over 24 h and target organ damage in middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Madden, J M; O'Flynn, A M; Dolan, E; Fitzgerald, A P; Kearney, P M

    2015-12-01

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with cardiovascular events; however, the prognostic significance of short-term BPV remains uncertain. As uncertainty also remains as to which measure of variability most accurately describes short-term BPV, this study explores different indices and investigates their relationship with subclinical target organ damage (TOD). We used data from the Mitchelstown Study, a cross-sectional study of Irish adults aged 47-73 years (n=2047). A subsample (1207) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). As measures of short-term BPV, we estimated the s.d., weighted s.d. (wSD), coefficient of variation (CV) and average real variability (ARV). TOD was documented by microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There was no association found between any measure of BPV and LVH in both unadjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression models. Similar analysis found that ARV (24 h, day and night), s.d. (day and night) and wSD were all univariately associated with microalbuminuria and remained associated after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and antihypertensive treatment. However, when the models were further adjusted for the mean BP the association did not persist for all indices. Our findings illustrate choosing the appropriate summary measure, which accurately captures that short-term BPV is difficult. Despite discrepancies in values between the different measures, there was no association between any indexes of variability with TOD measures after adjustment for the mean BP. PMID:25787777

  13. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  14. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. PMID:26253560

  15. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  16. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  17. Cognitive Efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 Versus 4.6 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Richard S; Ferris, Steven; Velting, Drew M; Meng, Xiangyi

    2016-05-01

    Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) data from the 24-week, randomized, double-blind ACTivities of daily living and cognitION (ACTION) study suggest that patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) benefit from treatment with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to further examine the cognitive efficacy of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on individual SIB items, and SIB domains derived using factor analysis of these items. Change from baseline at Week 24 on 9 new factor-defined domains and individual items was calculated and compared using effect sizes (Cohen's d). Numerically less decline was observed with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h patch on all domains and the majority of individual items. Largest least squares mean treatment differences were observed on "visuospatial reasoning," "object naming," "recognition," "design copying," "social agency," "ideational praxis," and "comprehension" domains. These findings suggest 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch demonstrates broad cognitive efficacy across a range of SIB items and domains in patients with severe AD. PMID:26371345

  18. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  19. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  20. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  1. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  2. Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Gill, Samantha K; Hankey, Joanne; Wright, Alice; Marczak, Slawomir

    2014-08-14

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be

  3. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  4. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  5. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

  6. Nqrs Data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

  7. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time. PMID:27242271

  8. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  9. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  10. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  11. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  12. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  13. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  14. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on 24-h energy expenditure and chronic disease risk factors in men123

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jamie A; Watras, Abigail C; Adams, Alexandra K; Schoeller, Dale A

    2009-01-01

    Background: A high-fat (HF) diet and sedentary lifestyle are implicated in the development of obesity. Controlled feeding studies and measures of short-term resting energy expenditure (REE) have suggested that the type of dietary fat may alter energy expenditure (EE). Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of an HF diet rich in either monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and of exercise on EE and chronic disease risk factors. Design: Eight healthy men [age: 18–45 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22 ± 3] were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 crossover design to 1 of 4 treatments: HF diet (50% of energy) with a high amount of saturated fat (22% of energy) plus exercise (SE) or a sedentary (SS) condition or a diet high in monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) plus exercise (UE) or a sedentary (US) condition. The subjects spent 5 d in a metabolic chamber and cycled at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day during the exercise visits. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were measured to determine 24-h EE. Resting metabolic rate was measured on days 2, 4, and 6. Results: Average 24-h EE was not different with respect to dietary FA composition (3202 ± 146, 3208 ± 151, 2240 ± 82, and 2270 ± 104 for SE, UE, SS, and US, respectively). Total and LDL cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly greater after the SE and SS treatments than after the UE and US treatments. Conclusion: Resting metabolic rate and 24-h EE were not significantly different after short-term exposure to an HF diet rich in monounsaturated FAs or after exposure to a diet rich in saturated FAs in healthy, nonobese men. PMID:19321562

  15. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  16. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  17. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  18. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  19. The classification of oesophageal 24 h pH measurements using a Kohonen self-organizing feature map.

    PubMed

    Haylett, K R; Vales, P; McCloy, R F

    2004-06-01

    Analysis of 24 h oesophageal pH studies can be problematic with many patients asymptomatic during the investigation, despite observations of reflux. The aim of this study was to carry out a cluster analysis of ambulatory pH studies to determine any underlying patterns and classes within the data. The results of 900 24 h pH studies were investigated using the Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), a neural network that can be used to identify clusters within multidimensional data. The clinical features were presented to the network and the main classes identified. The SOFM-based analysis showed that patients clinically assessed as having symptomatic reflux during the study could be described by four major classifications. The results also showed that the probability of identifying a correlation between symptoms and reflux during an investigation varies from 0.49 to 0.78 for the classes identified. The developed network may be a useful tool in the classification of pH data. The cluster-based technique may offer an alternative to standard statistical techniques for high-dimensional gastrointestinal data and form the basis of an expert system for the automated analysis of pH data. PMID:15253122

  20. Nintendo® Wii Fit based sleepiness tester detects impairment of postural steadiness due to 24 h of wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Tietäväinen, Aino; Gates, Fred K; Meriläinen, Antti; Mandel, Jeff E; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-12-01

    A field-usable sleepiness tester could reduce sleepiness related accidents. 15 subjects' postural steadiness was measured with a Nintendo(®) Wii Fit balance board every hour for 24 h. Body sway was quantified with complexity index, CI, and the correlation between CI and alertness predicted by a three-process model of sleepiness was calculated. The CI group average was 8.9 ± 1.3 for alert and 7.9 ± 1.4 for sleep deprived subjects (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.94). The Wii Fit board detects the impairment of postural steadiness. This may allow large scale sleepiness testing outside the laboratory setting. PMID:24054980

  1. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  2. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  3. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  4. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  5. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 h after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats Is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtha, Lucy A.; Beard, Daniel J.; Bourke, Julia T.; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-3 h occlusion) was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19–20 months. At 1 h after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 h hypothermia-treatment (32.5°C) or normothermia (37°C). ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 h post-occlusion, and at 24 h post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03). Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 h post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients. PMID:27303291

  6. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required. PMID:26810972

  7. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Eric K.; Caufield, Christina R.; Lowe, Jordan B.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Davis, Brett A.; Thigpen, Lauren K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  8. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be firmly attached to the chest so the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High-voltage areas Magnets Metal detectors Continue ...

  9. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart medicine It may be used to diagnose: Atrial fibrillation or flutter Multifocal atrial tachycardia Palpitations Paroxysmal supraventricular ... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 62. Read More Arrhythmias Atrial fibrillation or flutter Chest pain Electrocardiogram Fainting Heart attack ...

  10. Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003–2008123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. Objective: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. Design: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003–2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. Results: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. PMID:23097271

  11. Refined multiscale entropy: application to 24-h Holter recordings of heart period variability in healthy and aortic stenosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Valencia, José Fernando; Porta, Alberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clarià, Francesc; Baranowski, Rafal; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Caminal, Pere

    2009-09-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) was proposed to characterize complexity as a function of the time-scale factor tau. Despite its broad use, this technique suffers from two limitations: 1) the artificial MSE reduction due to the coarse graining procedure and 2) the introduction of spurious MSE oscillations due to the suboptimal procedure for the elimination of the fast temporal scales. We propose a refined MSE (RMSE), and we apply it to simulations and to 24-h Holter recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from healthy and aortic stenosis (AS) groups. The study showed that the refinement relevant to the elimination of the fast temporal scales was more helpful at short scales (spanning the range of short-term HRV oscillations), while that relevant to the procedure of coarse graining was more useful at large scales. In healthy subjects, during daytime, RMSE was smaller at short scales (i.e., tau = 1-2) and larger at longer scales (i.e., tau = 4-20) than during nighttime. In AS population, RMSE was smaller during daytime both at short and long time scales (i.e., tau = 1 -11) than during nighttime. RMSE was larger in healthy group than in AS population during both daytime (i.e., tau = 2 -9) and nighttime (i.e., tau = 2). RMSE overcomes two limitations of MSE and confirms the complementary information that can be derived by observing complexity as a function of the temporal scale. PMID:19457745

  12. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. PMID:24074803

  13. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  14. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  15. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  16. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2. PMID:27214512

  17. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  18. Dose-finding and 24-h monitoring for efficacy and safety of aerosolized Nacystelyn in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    App, E M; Baran, D; Dab, I; Malfroot, A; Coffiner, M; Vanderbist, F; King, M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the tolerability and activity of a novel mucolytic drug, Nacystelyn (NAL), for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In study 1, involving 10 CF patients, the main objective was to determine the tolerability and potential efficacy of a range of single doses of NAL in comparison to a placebo, in order to establish an optimal dose for further testing. On five consecutive scheduled treatment days, patients inhaled either from two (4 mg) to eight puffs (16 mg) of a single dose of NAL from the range, administered in an open-label fashion, or 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) versus 12 puffs of placebo, administered in a randomized double-blind fashion. Pulmonary function data were unaffected and clinically-adverse effects were limited to wheezing in some patients that inhaled 12 puffs of either placebo or active drug. Subsequent rheological analysis of their sputum showed a dose-dependent decrease in sputum viscoelasticity, accompanied by a decrease in sputum solids content and an increase in chloride and sodium concentrations. In study 2, involving 12 CF patients, the clinical safety and mucolytic activity of a single dose of NAL was monitored over 24 h. On different scheduled treatment days, 7 days apart, patients inhaled a single dose of 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) or 12 puffs of placebo drug in a randomized, double-blind sequence, with sputum samples taken at intervals before and after inhalation. Mucus rigidity decreased following NAL inhalation, with the maximum effect observed at 4 h; the 1-, 2- and 4-h NAL rheology results were significantly different from placebo. No adverse effects were observed. The drug was well tolerated in both studies. Sputum results were predictive of improved clearability by ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. PMID:11866009

  19. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-09-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0.2 ft3 s-1 to more than 20 ft3 s-1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (<2 mg l-1). These results show that infrequent storm events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  20. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  1. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  2. Twice Daily Melatonin Peaks in Siberian but not Syrian Hamsters under 24 h Light:Dark:Light:Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raiewski, Evan E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Glickman, Gena L.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The daily pattern of blood borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the day scotophase of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ~ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset, and duration of nocturnal secretion. PMID:23003567

  3. Estimation of the respiratory tract burden resulting from a prolonged inhalation exposure to aerosols of DU, based on the U in a 24-h urine sample taken years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Valdés, M

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented to estimate the respiratory tract burden from a prolonged inhalation exposure to particulate matter of depleted uranium, in cases where the rate of deposition is an unknown function. The precise range of possible values is identified. The calculations are based on the amount of depleted uranium measured in a single 24-h urine sample. In order to present an example, a simplified pharmacokinetical model is introduced. The results presented in this article are valid for any pharmacokinetical model represented by homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients and non-zero initial values, and that clearly includes the International Commission on Radiological Protection model. In fact, they are applicable to any monitorable quantity measured over a short period of time, a monitorable quantity with a kinetic that can be described using a structurally similar system of differential equations to one describing these pharmacokinetical models. PMID:24682012

  4. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  5. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  6. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the 24-h virological response to PEG-interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, G; Scribano, L; Realdon, S; Marcolongo, M; Mirandola, S; Franceschini, L; Bonisegna, S; Noventa, F; Plebani, M; Martines, D; Alberti, A

    2010-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces response to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), but the mechanisms are still undefined. We examined the relationship between baseline insulin levels, the main component affecting homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessment of IR in non-diabetic patients, and the 'acute' virological response to PEG-IFN measured 24 h after the first injection and taken as correlate of intracellular interferon signalling. In 62 patients treated with PEG-IFN/Ribavirin, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were assessed at baseline, while hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was measured at baseline and 24 h, 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Sustained virological response was examined 24 weeks after therapy discontinuation. Mean baseline insulin was 11.52 +/- 8.51 U/L and mean HOMA-IR was 2.65 +/- 2.01 both being significantly higher with advanced liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C virus-RNA decay observed 24 h after the first injection of PEG-IFN was significantly lower (0.7 +/- 0.8 log) in patients with HOMA > or =3 compared with those with HOMA <3 (1.7 +/- 0.8, P = 0.001). A highly significant (r = -0.42) inverse correlation was observed between baseline insulin levels and the 24-h HCV-RNA decay. The difference in early viral kinetics between patients with HOMA > or =3 or <3 resulted in a significant difference in the percentage of patients achieving rapid (week 4) and sustained virological response. Multivariate analysis, inclusive of patient age, HCV genotype and fibrosis stage, identified baseline insulin levels as the main independent variable affecting the 24-h response to PEG-IFN. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the cellular response to Pegylated-interferon in CHC with IR. Strategies to reduce insulin levels before initiation of treatment should be pursued to improve efficacy of anti-viral treatment. PMID:19878535

  7. Ultra-early microsurgical treatment within 24 h of SAH improves prognosis of poor-grade aneurysm combined with intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUNHUI; ZHU, JUN; HE, JIANQING; WANG, YUHAI; CHEN, LEI; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JINGXU; YANG, LIKUN

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cerebrovascular disease. The conventional treatment for SAH is usually associated with high mortality. The present study aims to assess the prognosis of microsurgical treatment for patients with poor-grade aneurysm (Hunt and Hess grades IV–V) associated with intracerebral hematoma. A total of 18 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with poor-grade aneurysm accompanied with intracerebral hematoma were retrospectively recruited. All patients underwent microsurgical treatment between April 2010 and June 2013 at The 101st Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (Wuxi, China). Among them, 15 cases underwent microsurgery within 24 h of SAH, and 3 cases underwent microsurgery 24 h following SAH. All 18 cases were examined by computed tomography angiography (CTA). The outcome was assessed during a follow-up time of 6–36 months. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, 4 patients experienced a good recovery, 6 were dissatisfied with the outcome, 4 were in vegetative state and 4 succumbed to disease. Poor outcome occurred in patients with an aneurysm diameter >10 mm, exhibited >50 ml volume of intracerebral hematoma or presented cerebral hernia prior to the surgical operation. The outcome of ultra-early surgery (within 24 h of SAH) was improved, compared with that of surgery following 24 h of SAH (P=0.005). Among 7 patients who accepted extraventricular drainage, good outcomes were achieved in 4 of them, whereas dissatisfaction and mortality occurred in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. Therefore, ultra-early microsurgery (within 24 h of SAH) combined with extraventricular drainage may improve the prognosis of patients with poor-grade aneurysm. PMID:27123084

  8. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan. PMID:27094140

  9. Calculation of the structural and NMR properties of the tridecameric AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polycation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2001-09-01

    The aluminum tridecameric polyoxocation, AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ is a major component in partially hydrolyzed Al +3(aq) solutions and has been extensively studied experimentally, mainly using NMR techniques. I have calculated the equilbrium geometry of this cation using the Hartree-Fock method and a polarized double-zeta effective core potential basis set, obtaining bond distances which agree well with X-ray crystallographic studies of selenate and sulfate salts of the polycation (Al[4]: 4 × 1.85 Å calc, 4 × 1.84 Å exp: Al[6]: 4 × 1.85, 2 × 2.05 Å calc, 2 × 1.84, 2 × 1.88, 1.91, 2.04 Å exp [where the numbers in brackets indicate the coordination numbers]). I have also calculated electric field gradients and NMR shielding constants at all the atoms using the standard 6-31G∗ basis set and Hartree-Fock and hybrid Hartree-Fock-density functional (B3LYP) techniques. Using the Hartree-Fock method, the central four-coordinate Al is calculated to be deshielded by ˜56 ppm, and the six-coordinate Al atoms by ˜16 ppm, vs. the Al(OH 2) 6+3 reference, compared to experimental shifts of 63 and 12 ppm, respectively. The central Al[4] is thus shielded by ˜20 ppm with respect to the tetrahedral monomer Al(OH) 4-1. Al-NMR shifts obtained from the B3LYP calculations are very similar. The calculated O-NMR shifts, vs. free gas-phase H 2O, are 17 ppm for the η-OH 2 groups, 30 ppm for the μ-OH and μOH' groups, and 55 ppm for the μ 4-O group, which match well with the experimentally assigned shifts of 20, 30, and 55 ppm, respectively (vs. liquid H 2O). The B3LYP method yields O shifts, which are systematically about 40 to 50% larger. It is not clear whether the discrepancies in the calculated O shifts vs. liquid water are a result of deficiencies in the model (neglect of the aqueous environment) or in the method (lack of correlation in the Hartree-Fock method). Studies on the Al 2(OH) 2(OH 2) 8+4 cation with small numbers of explicit waters hydrogen-bonded to it

  10. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  11. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    PubMed

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors. PMID:15962787

  12. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  13. Predictors of reported consumption of low-nutrient-density foods in a 24-h recall by 8-16 year old US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an explanatory model to predict the number of low-nutrient-density (LND) foods reported in a 24-h recall by US children and adolescents using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The reported number of LND foods was estimated from 24-h dietary recall data for 8-16 year old respondents (n=4137; 2024 males and 2113 females). The LND foods included--baked and dairy desserts, sweeteners, salty snacks, visible/discretionary fat, and miscellaneous. The predictive ability of socio-demographic, family, weight/dieting related, life-style or food consumption related subject characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. The strongest independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods was the amount of nutrient-dense foods from the five major food groups. In addition, number of eating occasions reported was a significant independent positive predictor, and the weekly frequency of consuming a complete school lunch was a significant independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods. These models explained approximately 55% of the variance in LND food reporting in both males and females. Socio-demographic, family, body weight, or lifestyle characteristics contributed little to predicting the number of LND foods reported in a 24-h recall. PMID:14550315

  14. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  15. Lactotripeptides effect on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure stress response, pulse wave velocity and cardiac output in patients with high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Gerocarni, Beatrice; Bacchelli, Stefano; Veronesi, Maddalena; Strocchi, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Contrasting data partially support a certain antihypertensive efficacy of lactotripeptides (LTPs) derived from enzymatic treatment of casein hydrolysate. Our aim was to evaluate this effect on a large number of hemodynamic parameters. We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial, which included 52 patients affected by high-normal blood pressure (BP) or first-degree hypertension. We investigated the effect of a 6-week treatment with the LTPs isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline at 3 mg per day, assumed to be functional food, on office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) values, stress-induced BP increase and cardiac output-related parameters. In the LTP-treated subjects, we observed a significant reduction in office systolic BP (SBP; -5±8 mm Hg, P=0.013) and a significant improvement in pulse wave velocity (PWV; -0.66±0.81 m s(-1), P=0.001; an instrumental biomarker of vascular rigidity). No effect on 24-h ABPM parameters and BP reaction to stress was observed from treatment with the combined LTPs. LTPs, but not placebo, were associated with a mild but significant change in the stroke volume (SV), SV index (markers of cardiac flow), the acceleration index (ACI) and velocity index (VI) (markers of cardiac contractility). No effect was observed on parameters related to fluid dynamics or vascular resistance. LTPs positively influenced the office SBP, PWV, SV, SV index, ACI and VI in patients with high-normal BP or first-degree hypertension. PMID:21753776

  16. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christopher P; McCoy, John G; McKenna, James T; Connolly, Nina P; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2009-10-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea is primarily characterized by hypoxemia due to frequent apneic episodes and fragmentation of sleep due to the brief arousals that terminate the apneic episodes. Though neurobehavioral deficits frequently accompany sleep apnea, the relative roles of hypoxia versus sleep fragmentation are difficult to separate in apneic patients. Here, we assessed cognitive function as measured by water maze in the Fischer/Brown Norway (FBN) rat, comparing 24 h of sleep interruption (SI) to 24 h of intermittent hypoxia (IH), in order to dissociate their relative contributions to cognitive impairment. For SI, automated treadmills were used to induce brief ambulation in rats every 2 min, either prior to, or after, initial water maze acquisition training. IH was simulated by cycling environmental oxygen levels between 6% and 19% every 2 min, again either prior to, or after, acquisition. Twenty-four hours of IH exposure had no significant effect on either acquisition or retention, irrespective of whether IH occurred prior to, or after, acquisition. To replicate previous work, another group of rats, exposed to 3 days of IH (10 h/day) prior to acquisition, had impaired performance during acquisition. A comparison of the 24 h IH and 3 day IH findings suggests that a minimum amount of IH exposure is necessary to produce detectable spatial memory impairments. Although SI before acquisition had no effect on acquisition or later retention of the hidden platform location, SI after acquisition robustly impaired retention, indicating that spatial memory consolidation is more susceptible to the effects of sleep disruption than is the acquisition (learning) of spatial information. PMID:19643093

  17. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  18. Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry1234

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Albu, Jeanine B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has shown a link between short sleep and obesity. Clinical studies suggest a role of increased energy intake in this relation, whereas the contributions of energy expenditure (EE) and substrate utilization are less clearly defined. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep curtailment on 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) by using whole-room indirect calorimetry under fixed-meal conditions. Design: Ten females aged 22–43 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) of 23.4–27.5 completed a randomized, crossover study. Participants were studied under short- (4 h/night) and habitual- (8 h/night) sleep conditions for 3 d, with a 4-wk washout period between visits. Standardized weight-maintenance meals were served at 0800, 1200, and 1900 with a snack at 1600. Measures included EE and RQ during the sleep episode on day 2 and continuously over 23 h on day 3. Results: Short compared with habitual sleep resulted in significantly higher (±SEM) 24-h EE (1914.0 ± 62.4 compared with 1822.1 ± 43.8 kcal; P = 0.012). EE during the scheduled sleep episode (0100–0500 and 2300–0700 in short- and habitual-sleep conditions, respectively) and across the waking episode (0800–2300) were unaffected by sleep restriction. RQ was unaffected by sleep restriction. Conclusions: Short compared with habitual sleep is associated with an increased 24-h EE of ∼92 kcal (∼5%)—lower than the increased energy intake observed in prior sleep-curtailment studies. This finding supports the hypothesis that short sleep may predispose to weight gain as a result of an increase in energy intake that is beyond the modest energy costs associated with prolonged nocturnal wakefulness. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01751581. PMID:24088722

  19. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space: III. Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1987-01-01

    Potatoes are among several crops under consideration for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) being proposed for space colonies. Efficient crop production for such life support systems will require near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. To determine this maximum for potato, cv. Norland plants were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C and harvested at 42, 63, 84, 105, 126 and 148 days from planting. At 42 days, plants were encaged in wire fence cylinders with a cross-sectional area of 0.2 m2. The dry weights (dwt) of tubers and of the entire plants increased under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 572 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h. At a spacing of 0.2 m2 per plant, the 148-day tuber production from plants under continuous light would equate to nearly 40 t ha-1 dry matter (200 t fresh weight), approximately twice that of exceptionally high field yields. Tuber productivity (g m-2 day-1) under the 24-h photoperiod reached a maximum of 29.4 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 126 days, but continued to rise throughout the experiment under the 12-h photoperiod, reaching 19.5 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 14 days, approximately 25 m2 would continuously provide the daily dietary energy requirements for one human. PMID:11539685

  20. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  1. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  2. A pilot study on the effect of telmisartan & ramipril on 24 h blood pressure profile & dipping pattern in type 1 diabetes patients with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, R.; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Kohli, Harbir S.; Walia, Rama; Shanmugasundar, G.; Jayaprakash, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been used to normalize the blood pressure and the dipping pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and nephropathy. However, there are no data on the effect of the dual blockade on the dipping pattern in these subjects. We therefore, carried out this study to evaluate the effect of administrating an ACEI followed by ARB in the optimum doses in T1DM patients with nephropathy on 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile and nocturnal dipping pattern. Methods: An open label interventional pilot study was done during a one year period involving 30 consecutive patients who were treated with telmisartan 80 mg (0800-1000 h) for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg (1200-1400 h) for the next eight weeks. Ambulatory BP, dipping pattern and albumin excretion rate were studied after each phase. Twenty patients were hypertensive and 10 patients had macro- and 20 patients had microalbuminuria. Results: Telmisartan produced a fall in the clinic BP by 4/1.3 mm Hg (P<0.05 and P<0.362, respectively), 2/1.9 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP, 1.4/1.1 mm Hg in the day BP and 3.7/3 mm Hg in the trough BP. Addition of ramipril to telmisartan produced a further reduction of 6.3/5.9 mm Hg in the clinic BP (P<0.001 for both), 4.3/4.2 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively), 5.8/3.9 mm Hg in the day BP (P<0.01 for both), 4.2/2.5 mm Hg in the trough BP, with a reduction of clinic SBP and DBP of 10.3/7.2 mm Hg from the baseline. Telmisartan restored normal systolic dipping pattern in 33.3 per cent of the nondippers (P<0.01) but addition of ramipril was not complimentary. Hyperkalamia (>5.5 mmol/l) was observed only in 2 patients towards the end of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The dual blockade with telmisartan and ramipril had complimentary effect on lowering of the BP, however, similar beneficial effect on the nocturnal dipping

  3. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  4. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  5. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  6. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  7. New high proper motion stars with declinations between -5(deg) and -30(deg) , and right ascensions between 13h 30m and 24h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, H.; Costa, E.

    1999-10-01

    Proper motions, positions, finding charts and magnitudes are given for 293 newly discovered stars with proper motions larger than 0.15 arcsec/year. They are located between -5(deg) and -30(deg) in declination, and 13h 30m and 24h in right ascension. Their blue photographic magnitudes range from approximately 13.0 to 18.5. Six stars of the above sample have proper motions larger than 0.4 (0.401 to 0.534) arcsec/year. An estimated precision level between 7 and 13 mas/year was achieved for the proper motions. Table~2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html and figures~2 are available in the on-line edition of the journal at http://www.edpsciences.com

  8. Impact of hypobaric hypoxia in pressurized cabins of simulated long-distance flights on the 24 h patterns of biological variables, fatigue, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Long-distance flights can cause a number of clinical problems in both passengers and crewmembers. Jet lag as well as mild hypoxia resulting from incomplete cabin pressurization could contribute to these problems. The objective of this study was to assess, using a chronobiological approach, the clinical impact of diurnal hypobaric, hypoxic exposure on fatigue and other common symptoms encountered during high-altitude exposure and to measure changes in blood chemistry (i.e., plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, glycemia, and lipids). Fourteen healthy, diurnally active (from 07:00 to 23:00 h) male volunteers, aged 23 to 39 yrs, spent 8.5 h in a hypobaric chamber (08:00 to 16:30 h), at a simulated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m). This was followed by an additional 8.5 h of study four weeks later at a simulated altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Clinical data were collected every 2 h between 08:00 and 18:00 h, and biological variables were assayed every 2 h over two (control and hypoxic-exposure) 24 h cycles. Clinical symptoms were more frequent with the 12,000 ft exposure. Wide interindividual variability was observed in the clinical tolerance to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. The 24 h profiles of most biochemical variables were significantly altered at each altitude, with changes in mean plasma levels and a tendency toward phase delay, except for uric acid, which showed a phase advance. Changes in appetite mainly occurred with the simulated 12,000 ft exposure and may have been associated with changes in the postprandial glycemia profile. Finally, though the observed biochemical changes were significant, their clinical relevance must be clarified in studies involving actual long-distance flights. PMID:18075804

  9. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes. PMID:26435534

  10. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  11. Mitomycin C with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with biliary tract and periampullar carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Lin, Y C; Jan, Y Y; Liau, C T

    2001-04-01

    We have reported a 33% partial response rate with acceptable toxicity using weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in patients with far advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC). In this study, we added mitomycin (MMC) to 5-FU and LV in an attempt to improve the response rate and survival. From July 1997 to September 1999, 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with pathology-proven far advanced BTC and periampullar cancers were enrolled. The regimen consisted of MMC 10 mg/m(2) every 8 weeks combined with 5-FU 2600 mg/m(2) and LV 150 mg at a schedule of 24-h infusion weekly for 6 weeks followed by a 2 week break. There were 10 males and 15 females with a median age of 57 years (range 40-76). The sites of primary tumor were 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (CC), one perihilar CCs, three distal BTC, three gallbladder cancers (GB) and three periampullar cancers. A total of 148 sessions of chemotherapy were given with a mean of 8 (range 2-18). Nineteen patients were evaluable for response. The response rate was: 26% (five of 19) partial response, 42% (eight of 19) stable disease and 32% (six of 19) progressive disease. All of the patients were evaluable for toxicity. Toxicities more than grade III-IV were thrombocytopenia 16% (four of 25), leukopenia 12% (three of 25) and vomiting 4% (one of 25). There were four treatment-related deaths. The median time to disease progression was 3 months. The median survival was 6 months. A combination of MMC with weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV in patients with BTC did not improve the response rate, but produced more toxicity than weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV alone. PMID:11335790

  12. Distribution and variability of the 24-h average air exchange rates and interzonal flow rates in 26 Japanese residences in 5 seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Takamine, Koichi; Gamo, Masashi

    2011-07-01

    In this study, to evaluate the distribution of air exchange rates in Japan, daily, seasonal, and inter-residence variabilities were determined as well as the air exchange rate itself. In addition, airflows among multiple zones were also evaluated. For this purpose, the 24 h average air exchange rates and interzonal air flow rates were measured using a passive perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) method with three kinds of tracer gases for 1 week in three rooms of 26 Japanese residences over five seasons: summer and autumn of 2005, and winter, spring, and summer of 2006. During these seasons, the weekly average air exchange rates were found to be 1.6 ± 1.7, 0.58 ± 0.94, 0.61 ± 0.93, 1.2 ± 2.5, and 1.7 ± 1.8 h -1, respectively. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the air exchange rates differed significantly with respect to the seasons, residences, and interaction of seasons and residences ( p < 0.01). In addition, the air exchange rates in both summers and spring were statistically higher than those in autumn and winter (Sheffe test, p < 0.01). According to the ANOVA, the percentage contribution of inter-residence variability, seasonal variability, interaction of seasonal and inter-residence variabilities, and daily variability to the total variability of the 24 h average air exchange rates in the present survey was 51%, 44%, 3.7%, and 1.0%, respectively.

  13. Late preconditioning against myocardial stunning. An endogenous protective mechanism that confers resistance to postischemic dysfunction 24 h after brief ischemia in conscious pigs.

    PubMed

    Sun, J Z; Tang, X L; Knowlton, A A; Park, S W; Qiu, Y; Bolli, R

    1995-01-01

    Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3 of stage I). The recovery of systolic wall thickening (WTh) after the 10th reperfusion was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating that the myocardium had become preconditioned against "stunning." 10 d after stage I, pigs underwent again a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions for two consecutive days (days 1 and 2 of stage II). On day 1 of stage II, the recovery of WTh after the 10th reperfusion was similar to that noted on day 1 of stage I; on day 2 of stage II, however, the recovery of WTh was again markedly improved compared with day 1. Blockade of adenosine receptors with 8-p-sulfophenyl theophylline failed to prevent the development of preconditioning against stunning. Northern blot analysis demonstrated an increase in heat stress protein (HSP) 70 mRNA 2 h after the preconditioning ischemia; at this same time point, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a concentration of HSP70 in the nucleus and an overall increase in staining for HSP70. 24 h after the preconditioning ischemia, Western dot blot analysis demonstrated an increase in HSP70. This study indicates the existence of a new, previously unrecognized cardioprotective phenomenon. The results demonstrate that a brief ischemic stress induces a powerful, long-lasting (at least 48 h) adaptive response that renders the myocardium relatively resistant to stunning 24 h later (late preconditioning against stunning). This adaptive response disappears within 10 d after the last ischemic stress but can be reinduced by another ischemic stress. Unlike early and late preconditioning against infarction, late preconditioning against stunning is not blocked by adenosine receptor antagonists, and therefore appears to involve a mechanism different from that of other forms of preconditioning currently known. The increase in myocardial HSP70 is

  14. Phase II study of weekly vinorelbine and 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin as first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K H; Lu, Y S; Hsu, C H; Lin, J F; Chao, H J; Huang, T C; Chung, C Y; Chang, C S; Yang, C H; Cheng, A L

    2005-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of combining weekly vinorelbine (VNB) with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). Vinorelbine 25 mg m−2 30-min intravenous infusion, and high-dose 5-FU 2600 mg m−2 plus LV 300 mg m−2 24-h intravenous infusion (HDFL regimen) were given on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Between June 1999 and April 2003, 40 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were enrolled with a median age of 49 years (range: 36–68). A total of 25 patients had recurrent ABC, and 15 patients had primary metastatic diseases. The overall response rate for the intent-to-treat group was 70.0% (95% CI: 54–84%) with eight complete responses and 20 partial responses. All 40 patients were evaluated for survival and toxicities. Among a total of 316 cycles of VNB–HDFL given (average: 7.9: range: 4–14 cycles per patient), the main toxicity was Gr3/4 leucopenia and Gr3/4 neutropenia in 57 (18.0%) and 120 (38.0%) cycles, respectively. Gr1/2 infection and Gr1/2 stomatitis were noted in five (1.6%) and 59 (18.7%) cycles, respectively. None of the patients developed Gr3/4 stomatitis or Gr3/4 infection. Gr2/3 and Gr1 hand–foot syndrome was noted in two (5.0%) and 23 (57.5%) patients, respectively. Gr1 sensory neuropathy developed in three patients. The median time to progression was 8.0 months (range: 3–25.5 months), and the median overall survival was 25.0 months with a follow-up of 5.5 to 45+ months. This VNB–HDFL regimen is a highly active yet well-tolerated first-line treatment for ABC. PMID:15770209

  15. Acute toxicity of heavy metals for benthic epiphytic foraminifera Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) and influence of seaweed-derived DOC

    SciTech Connect

    Bresler, V.; Yanko, V.

    1995-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury to the benthic epiphytic foraminiferan Pararotalia spinigera (Le Calvez) was investigated using seven different vital cytophysiological and cytochemical methods. The ability to enzymatically hydrolyze the fluorogenic substrates fluorescein diacetate or fluorescein dibutyrate was the most sensitive method of LC50 value determination. The LC50 (24-h) values for cadmium, copper, and mercury determined by this assay with fluorescein diacetate was 0.56, 1.4, and 0.07 {micro}M, respectively. The content of seaweed-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC), measured by absorbance at 436 nm, produced a dramatic increase of LC50 values for the heavy metals in a dose-dependent manner. ``Intact`` epiphytic foraminifera attached to seaweeds are less sensitive to acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and mercury than are ``detached`` foraminifera.

  16. Reference Values for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The widespread clinical application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values. This multicenter study aims to establish preliminary normal reference values for CGM parameters in a sample of healthy Chinese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 434 healthy individuals with normal glucose regulation completed a 3-day period of glucose monitoring using a CGM system. The 24-h mean blood glucose (24-h MBG) and the percentage of time that subjects' blood glucose levels were ≥140 mg/dl (PT140) and ≤70 mg/dl (PT70) within 24 h were analyzed. RESULTS There was excellent compliance of finger stick blood glucose values with CGM measurements for subjects. Among the 434 subjects, the daily blood glucose varied from 76.9 ± 11.3 to 144.2 ± 23.2 mg/dl. The 24-h MBG, PT140, and PT70 were 104 ± 10 mg/dl, 4.1 ± 5.8%, and 2.4 ± 5.3%, respectively. As for these parameters, no significant differences were found between men and women. The 95th percentile values were adopted as the upper limits of CGM parameters, which revealed 119 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l) for 24-h MBG, 17.1% for PT140, and 11.7% for PT70. CONCLUSIONS We recommend a 24-h MBG value <119 mg/dl, PT140 <17% (4 h), and PT70 <12% (3 h) as normal ranges for the Chinese population. PMID:19389816

  17. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  19. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  20. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  1. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  2. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  3. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  4. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during “peak” hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture “peak” spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600–1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011–2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012–2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km2). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  5. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during "peak" hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture "peak" spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600-1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011-2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012-2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km(2)). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  6. Two or 24 h of daily contact with sexually active males results in different profiles of LH secretion that both lead to ovulation in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, M; Duarte, G; Flores, J A; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Hernández, H; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to (a) determine whether sexually active males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of anestrous female goats when duration of contact is reduced to an intermittent contact shorter than 4 daily hours and (b) compare the pattern of secretion of LH when anestrous goats are exposed either permanently or intermittently to males. In the first experiment, 4 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed to sexually active males for 24, 4, 2, or 1 h/d during 15 consecutive days, whereas control females remained isolated. More than 89% of females in the groups exposed to the sexually active bucks ovulated, whereas only 5% did so in the control group (P < 0.001). However, the proportion of females ovulating before day 4 was greater in the 2-, 4-, or 24-h contact groups than in the control, whereas it did not differ between the control group and the 1-h contact group (P = 0.02, <0.001, <0.001 and 0.23, respectively). In the second experiment, 3 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed permanently (24 h/d) or intermittently (2 h/d) to bucks during 5 d or remained isolated. We found that pulsatility of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased in the intermittent and permanent contact groups after males were introduced to females (P = 0.05); this pulsatility of LH remained elevated in the permanent-contact group, whereas it decreased in the intermittent-contact group, once the male was removed (P = 0.32 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that 1 or 2 daily hours of contact with sexually active males is sufficient to stimulate ovulatory activity in anovulatory goats; however, ovulation is obtained through a different pattern of secretion of LH. PMID:24906934

  7. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration. PMID:18295446

  8. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  9. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  10. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  11. Histopathological biomarkers in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to a sublethal lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Lautaro; Weber, Paula; Dressler, Valderi; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Vigliano, Fabricio Andrés

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of lead (Pb) in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, and to determine histopathological biomarkers in fish exposed for 96-h to a sublethal concentration at 25% of the LC50. The 96-h LC50 was 108 mgl(-1). In gills, the length and thickness of lamella and thickness of the filament epithelium were significantly higher in fish exposed to Pb for 48-h than in control fish whereas the interlamellar distance decreased. In the liver, the area occupied by lipid droplets and size of hepatocytes showed significantly higher values after 24-h of exposure. The percentage of abnormal renal tubules was higher in fish exposed to Pb, exhibiting a time-dependent increase. These variations in histopathological biomarkers permit the definition of the overall response of R. quelen to Pb and the potential usefulness in the monitoring of Pb contamination. PMID:25521338

  12. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-12-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  13. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-01-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  14. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h) leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control), constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling), and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination). In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing leaves and roots of the same

  15. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  16. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  17. Association between 24h Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Decline or Death in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and eGFR More than 30 ml/min/1.73m2

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Takanobu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Katsuno, Takayuki; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding the association between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with kidney outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus is currently scarce. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study in which 1230 patients with diabetes who had undergone a 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion test were analyzed. Patients with incomplete urine collection were excluded based on 24h urinary creatinine excretion. Outcomes were the composite of a 30% decline in eGFR or death. Multivariate cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and outcomes. Results With a mean follow up period of 5.47 years, 130 patients reached the outcomes (30% decline in eGFR: 124, death: 6). Mean (SD) eGFR and 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion at baseline were 78.6 (19.5) ml/min/1.73m2, 4.50 (1.64) g/day, and 2.14 (0.77) g/day. Compared with sodium excretion < 3.0 g/day, no significant change in risk of outcomes was observed with increased increments of 1.0 g/day. Compared with potassium excretion of < 1.5 g/day, 2.0–2.5 g/day, and 2.5–3.0 g/day were significantly associated with a lower risk of outcomes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49 and 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.84 and 0.22 to 0.87). Conclusions 24h urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with a risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death in patients with diabetes. However, an increased risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death was significantly associated with 24h urinary potassium excretion < 1.5 g/day than with 2.0–2.5 g/day and 2.5–3.0 g/day. PMID:27136292

  18. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of copper in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri under different pH values: Impacts of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Yang, Shaogui; Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Zunyao; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-15

    Aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (L. hoffmeisteri) has been commonly used as a lethal and/or sub-lethal toxicological model organism in ecological risk assessments in contaminated water environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential toxic effects of copper (Cu(II)) with or without perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) under different pH values (6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) on LC50, bioaccumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in L. hoffmeisteri after 3 and 7 days. The LC50 values of Cu(II) decreased with the increasing pH and the addition of PFOS. After each exposure, increasing bioaccumulation of Cu(II) in L. hoffmeisteri was observed in the combined exposure treatments, whereas the bioaccumulation of PFOS decreased. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase, the level of glutathione, and the content of malondialdehyde were significantly altered after these exposures, possibly indicating that the bioaccumulation of Cu(II) and PFOS caused adverse effects on antioxidant defenses of L. hoffmeisteri. The integrated biomarker response index, indicates that the combined effect was proposed as synergism, which is coincided with the results of toxic unit. Moreover, this work showed that aquatic environment may become more livable when water conditions changed from acidic to near-neutral or alkaline. PMID:26686481

  19. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  20. Near interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in "gate-controlled-diode" configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (VG > |20 V|) through the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (Ntrap ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-2).

  1. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  2. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  3. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely. PMID:20653234

  4. Testing the individual effective dose hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hung T; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The assumption of the individual effective dose is the basis for the probit method used for analyzing dose or concentration-response data. According to this assumption, each individual has a uniquely innate tolerance expressed as the individual effective dose (IED) or the smallest dose that is sufficient to kill the individual. An alternative to IED, stochasticity suggests that individuals do not have uniquely innate tolerance; deaths result from random processes occurring among similar individuals. Although the probit method has been used extensively in toxicology, the underlying assumption has not been tested rigorously. The goal of the present study was to test which assumption, IED or stochasticity, best explained the response of Daphnia magna exposed to multiple pulses of copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) over 24 d. Daphnia magna were exposed to subsequent age-dependent 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of copper (Cu). Age-dependent 24-h LC50 values and Cu depuration test were determined prior to the 24-d bioassay. The LC50 values were inversely related to organism age. The Cu depuration of D. magna did not depend on age or Cu concentration, and 5 d was sufficient recovery time. Daphnia magna were exposed to 4 24-h Cu exposures, and surviving organisms after each exposure were transferred to Cu-free culture media for recovery before the next exposure. Stochasticity appropriately explained the survival and reproduction response of D. magna exposed to Cu. PMID:24318469

  5. Correlation between glycemic trends assessed by 24 h continuous monitoring and autonomic activity in patients with recent onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Borgognoni, Laura; Picciarella, Alice; Di Stefano, Angelo; Fontana, Vincenzo; Russo, Alessandro; Pascucci, Matteo; Paris, Alberto; Tubani, Luigi; Fiorentini, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    We observe, in patients with type 2 diabetes of recent onset, the activity of the autonomic nervous system and glucose metabolic impairment. The data indicate the hyperactivity of the sympathetic and minimal changes in glucose values. The role played by glycemia appeared to be less important than that represented by insulin resistance. PMID:23497980

  6. Nqrs Data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

  7. EEG in postanoxic coma: Prognostic and diagnostic value.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, J; van Putten, M J A M

    2016-04-01

    Evolution of the EEG background pattern is a robust contributor to prediction of poor or good outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. At 24h, persistent isoelectricity, low voltage activity, or burst-suppression with identical bursts predicts a poor outcome without false positives. Rapid recovery toward continuous patterns within 12h is strongly associated with a good neurological outcome. Predictive values are highest in the first 24h, despite the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia and sedative medication. Studies on reactivity or mismatch negativity have not included the EEG background pattern. Therefore, the additional predictive value of reactivity parameters remains unclear. Whether or not treatment of electrographic status epilepticus improves outcome is studied in the randomized multicenter Treatment of Electroencephalographic STatus epilepticus After cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (TELSTAR) trial (NCT02056236). PMID:26971488

  8. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults. PMID:25743698

  9. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day. PMID:25930989

  10. Captopril at 50 mg as well as at 100 mg once a day reduces blood pressure for up to 24 h: a double-blind randomized crossover study in mild to moderate hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, A; Circo, A; Raciti, S; Gulizia, M; Cardillo, R; Miceli, S; Botta, G

    1988-12-01

    The extent and the duration of the antihypertensive effect of captopril, given once a day at a dose of 50 mg, compared with placebo and with the 100 mg once daily dose was studied in 30 mild or moderate uncomplicated essential hypertensives (mean +/- s.e.m. age 52.0 +/- 1.5 years), who responded (mean blood pressure decrease greater than 10%) to a single oral dose (12.5 mg) of captopril. According to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, they were given 50 mg captopril four times a day, 100 mg captopril four times a day or matched placebo for 1 month. At the end of each treatment period blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 min from 3 h before to 2 h after the last dose. Although the heart rate did not change, mean blood pressure after the 50- and 100-mg doses of captopril was consistently significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) lower than after placebo. The hypotensive effect peaked at the second hour and was still significant 24 h after dosing without any significant differences between the 50- and the 100-mg doses. These findings indicate that captopril, given chronically once a day at a dose of 50 mg to mild to moderate hypertensive responders, exerts its hypotensive effect up to 24 h and that doubling the dose does not increase either the extent or the duration of its action. PMID:3071596

  11. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  12. Characterization of the effects of nitrogen and hydrogen passivation on SiO2/4H-SiC interface by low temperature conductance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiyu, Wang; Zhaoyang, Peng; Huajun, Shen; Chengzhan, Li; Jia, Wu; Yachao, Tang; Yanli, Zhao; Ximing, Chen; Kean, Liu; Xinyu, Liu

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the effects of NO annealing and forming gas (FG) annealing on the electrical properties of a SiO2/SiC interface by low-temperature conductance measurements. With nitrogen passivation, the density of interface states (DIT) is significantly reduced in the entire energy range, and the shift of flatband voltage, ΔVFB, is effectively suppressed to less than 0.4 V. However, very fast states are observed after NO annealing and the response frequencies are higher than 1 MHz at room temperature. After additional FG annealing, the DIT and ΔVFB are further reduced. The values of the DIT decrease to less than 1011 cm-2 eV-1 for the energy range of EC - ET > 0.4 eV. It is suggested that the fast states in shallow energy levels originated from the N atoms accumulating at the interface by NO annealing. Though FG annealing has a limited effect on these shallow traps, hydrogen can terminate the residual Si and C dangling bonds corresponding to traps at deep energy levels and improve the interface quality further. It is indicated that NO annealing in conjunction with FG annealing will be a better post-oxidation process method for high performance SiC MOSFETs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61106080, 61275042) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2013ZX02305).

  13. Toxicities and tolerances of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a primary producer (Isochrysis galbana) and in a primary consumer (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Omar, H; Tan, S G

    2004-02-01

    Studies on toxicities and tolerances of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in the brown alga Isochrysis galbana and in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were conducted by short-term bioassays using endpoints growth production and mortality, respectively. The 5-day EC(50) and 24-h LC(50) of these heavy metals were determined in the brown alga and mussel, respectively. The EC(50) values calculated for the alga were 0.74 mg/l for Cd, 0.91 mg/l for Cu, 1.40 mg/l for Pb and 0.60 mg/l for Zn. The LC(50) values for the mussels were 1.53 mg/l for Cd, 0.25 mg/l for Cu, 4.12 mg/l for Pb and 3.20 mg/l for Zn. These LC(50) values were within the concentration ranges as reported by other authors who used P. viridis as the test organism. Based on these EC(50) and LC(50) values, the alga was most sensitive to Zn, followed by Cd, Cu and Pb while the mussel was most sensitive to Cu, followed by Cd, Zn and Pb. Differences in the trophic levels, metal handling strategies, biology and ecology of the primary producer (brown alga) and the primary consumer (mussel) are believed to be the plausible causes for the different toxicities and tolerances of the metals studied. PMID:14680893

  14. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  15. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  16. Surface photovoltage and Auger electron spectromicroscopy studies of HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC and HfO2/Al2O3/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanowska, A.; Miczek, M.; Ucka, R.; Matys, M.; Adamowicz, B.; Żywicki, J.; Taube, A.; Korwin-Mikke, K.; Gierałtowska, S.; Sochacki, M.

    2012-08-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of the interface region in the structures obtained by the passivation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC layers with bilayers consisting of a 5 nm-thick SiO2 or Al2O3 buffer film and high-κ HfO2 layer were investigated. The main aim was to estimate the influence of the passivation approach on the interface effective charge density (Qeff) from the surface photovoltage (SPV) method and, in addition to determine the in-depth element distribution in the interface region from the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with Ar+ ion profiling. The structure HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC exhibited slightly superior electronic properties in terms of Qeff (in the range of -1011 q cm-2).

  17. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear. PMID:26328470

  18. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  19. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  20. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin. PMID:17939510

  1. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June

    2003-08-01

    The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 microg/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24 h (LC50<100 microg/ml). Of these, the leaf and bark essential oils of Cryptomeria japonica demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the leaf essential oil of C. japonica, with a LC50=37.6 microg/ml (LC90=71.9 microg/ml), followed by the bark essential oil of C. japonica also showing high activity against A. aegypti larvae, with a LC50=48.1 microg/ml (LC90=130.3 microg/ml). The results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and bark essential oils of C. japonica are promising as larvicides against A. aegypti larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds. PMID:12676507

  2. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  3. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum. PMID:25118415

  4. Contrasting low-dimensional magnetism in the 3D metal-organic frameworks [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (pyz = pyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Jamie; Schlueter, John; Goddard, Paul; Singleton, John; McDonald, Ross; Ayala-Valenzuela, Oscar; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O (1) and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (2) form tetragonal frameworks that consist of 2D [Cu(pyz)2]^2+ square lattices that are linked in 3D by bridging VF6^2- (1) or HF2^- (2) anions. Magnetic susceptibility data shows apparent paramagnetism, although not simple Curie-Weiss behavior, in 1. For 2, a broad maximum in χ(T) at 12.5 K and a sharp kink at 4.3 K indicate short- (SRO) and long-range (LRO) magnetic ordering, respectively. Additional experimental data for 1 (e.g., heat capacity and μ^+SR) however, indicate that a LRO state occurs below 3.6 K whereas pulsed-field magnetization data suggest a superposition of AFM Cu^2+ layers and fluctuating V^4+ moments. The structural and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 will be described as well as possible new directions.

  5. Estimation and interpretation of fermentation in the gut: coupling results from a 24 h batch in vitro system with fecal measurements from a human intervention feeding study using fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber.

    PubMed

    Koecher, Katie J; Noack, Jackie A; Timm, Derek A; Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2014-02-12

    Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF). The in vitro fermentation of the fiber blend resulted in a delayed pH decrease and gas and SCFA production compared to the FOS and inulin. Human samples had higher SCFA on FB compared to FF (p = 0.029). BCFA were not different between formulas. By using a blend of fibers, we observed a slower fermentation in vitro but still increased fecal SCFA when fed to human subjects. PMID:24446899

  6. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  8. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

    PubMed

    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control. PMID:21485368

  9. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  10. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  11. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  12. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  13. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  14. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  15. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  16. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae. PMID:21559763

  17. Dietary intake of radiocesium in adult residents in Fukushima prefecture and neighboring regions after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident: 24-h food-duplicate survey in December 2011.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Tsukidate, Ayako; Asai, Fumikazu; Koizumi, Akio

    2013-03-19

    Since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima in March 2011, the Japanese government has conducted screening and removal of contaminated foods from the market that exceed provisional regulation limits for radionuclides. This study aimed to provide an urgent estimate of the dietary exposure of adult residents recruited from three areas in Japan to cesium 134 ((134)Cs), cesium 137 ((137)Cs), and, for comparison, natural potassium 40 ((40)K) on December 4, 2011. Fifty-three sets of 24-h food-duplicate samples were collected in Fukushima Prefecture and neighboring regions. The (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (40)K levels in the samples were measured using a germanium detector. Items in the food-duplicate samples were recorded and analyzed for radiocesium intake. Radiocesium was detected in 25 of 26 samples from Fukushima. The median dietary intake of radiocesium was 4.0 Bq/day (range <0.26-17 Bq/day). The estimated annual dose from radiocesium was calculated assuming that the daily intake of radiocesium was constant throughout the year. The median estimated dose level was 23 μSv/year (range <2.6-99 μSv/year). The estimated dose level of radiocesium was significantly higher in Fukushima than in the Kanto region and western Japan. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the intake of fruits and mushrooms produced in Fukushima were significant factors for the dietary intake of (137)Cs in the 26 participants from Fukushima. The average radioactivity (±SD) of locally produced persimmons and apples (n = 16) were 23 ± 28 and 30 ± 35 Bq/kg for (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively. The preliminary estimated dietary dose levels among Fukushima residents were much lower than the maximum permissible dose 1 mSv/year, based on new Japanese standard limits for radiocesium in foods (100 Bq/kg for general foods). In future studies, the exposure estimates should be refined by probability sampling to eliminate biases. PMID:23259847

  18. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  19. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  20. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides.

    PubMed

    Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent

  1. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  2. Can the biotic ligand model predict Cu toxicity across a range of pHs in softwater-acclimated rainbow trout?

    PubMed

    Ng, Tania Y-T; Chowdhury, M Jasim; Wood, Chris M

    2010-08-15

    This study examined the effects of pH (5.0-8.5) on the toxicity of waterborne Cu to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in soft water under flow-through conditions. Relationships between 96 h or 30 day Cu toxicity and 24 h lethal Cu accumulation on the gills (24 h LA(50-Acute) or 24 h LA(50-Chronic)) were examined in the context of predictions made using the biotic ligand model (BLM). Acute toxicity was relatively constant across pHs except for a 2- to 3-fold higher LC(50) at pH 5.0. In the chronic exposure, the fish had similar tolerance to Cu from pH 5.0 to 8.0, but were 3- to 4-fold more tolerant at pH 8.5. This pattern was not captured by the current BLM which predicts that acute and chronic LC(50) values should increase progressively from pH 5.0 to 8.5, with much greater values than those observed at the higher pH range. BLM-based water quality criteria would not be protective for trout at pH 8.0 or 8.5 in acute exposure to Cu in soft water. The measured 24 h LA(50-Acute) and LA(50-chronic) at pH 8.5 were higher, and 24 h LA(50-Chronic) at pH 5.0 was lower than those at the other pHs. This study indicates that gill Cu bioaccumulation does not explain toxicity at high or low pH, and the BLM needs revision to adequately predict Cu toxicity to trout in soft water. PMID:20666459

  3. Integration of botanical and bacterial insecticide against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-02-01

    The present study evaluated the Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaf extract and the bacterial insecticide spinosad, testing the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi. The fresh leaves of O. thymiflorus were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade-dried at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 5 to 8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using a commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of petroleum ether sequentially for a period of 72 h each and then filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 309.16, 337.58, 390.42, 429.68, and 513.34 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 334.78, 366.45, 422.97, 467.94, and 54.02 ppm, respectively. Spinosad against the A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 384.19, 433.39, 479.17, 519.79, and 572.63 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 210.68, 241.20, 264.93, 283.27, and 305.85 ppm, respectively. Moreover, in combined treatment, the A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 202.36, 224.76, 250.84, 288.05, and 324.05 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 217.70, 246.04, 275.36, 315.29, and 353.80 ppm, respectively. Results showed that the leaf extract of O. thymiflorus and bacterial insecticide spinosad are promising as a good larvicidal and pupicidal against dengue vector, A. aegypti and malarial vector, A. stephensi. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of target species of vector control programs. PMID:23242266

  4. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  5. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  6. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. L. aspera showed the highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (sewage water), and hence, these plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22146997

  7. Factors affecting toxicity test endpoints in sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species.

    PubMed

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Rand, G M; Seda, B C

    2015-05-01

    Indigenous species are less commonly used in laboratory aquatic toxicity tests compared with standard test species due to (1) limited availability lack of requisite information necessary for their acclimation and maintenance under laboratory conditions and (2) lack of information on their sensitivity and the reproducibility of toxicity test results. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment aquatic toxicity program in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil incident (2010), sensitive life stages of native Gulf of Mexico species were evaluated in laboratory toxicity tests to determine the potential effects of the spill. Fish (n = 5) and invertebrates (n = 2) selected for this program include the following: the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), red porgy (Pagrus pagrus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and the common moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). Initially in the program, to establish part of the background information, acute tests with reference toxicants (CdCl2, KCl, CuSO4) were performed with each species to establish data on intraspecies variability and test precision as well as identify other factors that may affect toxicity results. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values were calculated for each acute toxicity test with average LC50 values ranging from 248 to 862 mg/L for fish exposures to potassium chloride. Variability between test results was determined for each species by calculating the coefficient of variation (%CV) based on LC50 values. CVs ranged from 11.2 % for pompano (96-h LC50 value) to 74.8 % for red porgy 24-h tests. Cadmium chloride acute toxicity tests with the jellyfish A. aurita had the lowest overall CV of 3.6 %. By understanding acute toxicity to these native organisms from a compound with known toxicity ranges and the variability in test results, acute tests with nonstandard species can be better interpreted and used

  8. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils to the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Alicia K; Appel, Arthur G

    2010-06-01

    The fumigant toxicity of 12 essential oil components [carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citronellic acid, eugenol, geraniol, S-(-)-limonene, (-)-linalool, (-)-menthone, (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, and thymol] to adult male, adult female, gravid female, and large, medium, and small nymphs of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), was determined. 1,8-Cineole was the most toxic essential oil component to adult males and females, gravid females, and large nymphs, with LC50 values of 6.8, 8.4, 5.3, and 11.4 mg/liter air at 24 h, respectively. (-)-Menthone and carvacrol were the most toxic essential oil components to medium and small nymphs, with LC50 values of 9.0 and 3.6 mg/liter air at 24 h, respectively. Citronellic acid was the least toxic essential oil component to all stages of the German cockroach. There was not a consistent relationship between body mass and toxicity; the susceptibility of the stages differed for each oil. LC50 values of all stages were correlated negatively with vapor pressure and positively with molecular weight of the essential oil components. The most toxic essential oil components to the majority of cockroach stages were cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons [1,8-cineole, (-)-menthone, (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, and S-(-)-limonene]. Ring size and the presence of a carbonyl functional group also may have contributed to the toxicity of the compounds. Citronellic acid had no effect on ootheca hatch (100% hatch), whereas (-)-menthone had the greatest effect on ootheca hatch (73% hatch). Percentage of hatched oothecae decreased linearly with increasing concentration for (-)-menthone, S-(-)-limonene, (+)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene. No essential oil component prevented ootheca hatch, suggesting that multiple treatments would be required in the field to eliminate infestations. PMID:20568624

  9. Value Personalisation: A Base for Value Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lydia

    This study examined the impact of the Value Clarification Action Plan on the quality of values education for secondary school students. The study identified values to be modeled through teacher behavior, created an action plan for preservice teachers through the values clarification process, trained students in values personalization, helped…

  10. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  11. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  12. Use of the juvenile clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, as a sensitive indicator of aqueous and sediment toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Katy W; Fulton, Michael H; Scott, Geoffrey I

    2007-07-01

    The hard clam is an economically important bivalve and is abundant along the East Coast of the US. The goal of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity of this test species as compared to that of other benthic and epibenthic organisms. Toxic effects of cadmium (inorganic metal), DDT (organochlorine pesticide), and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) exposure in sediments (10-day) and seawater (24-h) on juvenile (212-350-microm) hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria were determined. The aqueous 24-h LC(50) values were 0.42 mg/L cadmium (95% CL=0.35-0.45 mg/L), 0.61 mg/L DDT (95% CL=0.40-0.95 mg/L), and 0.65 mg/L fluoranthene (95% CL=0.44-1.23 mg/L). Results of sediment toxicity tests indicated that the 10-day LC(50) values were 1.66 mg/kg cadmium (95% CL=1.21-2.28 mg/kg), 5.8 mg/kg DDT (95% CL=4.8-8.3mg/kg), and 1.75 mg/kg fluoranthene (95% CL=1.38-2.09 mg/kg). Based on comparisons to toxicity data for other marine species, these findings suggest that the juvenile clam is one of the more sensitive species to a variety of contaminants and may be a valuable indicator for potential sediment toxicity. PMID:17239949

  13. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  14. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations. PMID:25637788

  15. Toxicity and risk of permethrin and naled to non-target insects after adult mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-08-01

    We derived laboratory LC50 values, assessed non-target insect risks, and conducted a field bioassay for ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides used to manage adult mosquitoes. The house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), was used as an indicator species for medium- to large-bodied ground dwelling insects. The 24-h LC(50) values for Permanone (formulated product of permethrin), Permanone + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), technical grade permethrin, and technical grade permethrin + PBO ranged from 0.052 to 0.9 microg/cm(2). The 24 h LC(50) for technical grade naled and Trumpet((R)) (formulated product of naled) were 0.038 and 0.44 microg/cm(2), respectively. The synergist ratio was 2.65 for Permanone + PBO and 1.57 for technical grade permethrin + PBO. The toxicity of technical grade permethrin was about 10-fold greater than Permanone. A risk assessment using modeled estimated environmental concentrations resulted in risk quotients (RQ) that exceeded regulatory levels of concern, but when compared to field-derived actual environmental concentrations RQs did not exceed a regulatory level of concern, except in the case of technical grade naled. These results were expected because higher tiered risk assessments using field-verified data generally lead to lower risk estimates. Field bioassays using caged crickets showed no significant mortality for permethrin or naled after a single truck-mounted ULV application. The results of the risk assessment using actual environmental concentrations are supported by the field bioassays and suggest that a single ULV application of synergized or unsynergized permethrin and naled most likely will not result in population impacts on medium- to large-bodied insects. PMID:20429029

  16. Synthesis and properties of A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials for environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, Anderson; Cunha, Lumena; Vieira, Andiara C.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) materials were synthesized. {yields} Chemical synthesis produced different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree. {yields} Structural investigation by Raman scattering revealed a complex band structure. {yields} A strong correlation between band structure and ionic radius was determined. -- Abstract: Double layered hydroxide materials of composition A{sub 6}B{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}Cl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ni, Zn, Co, Mn and B = Al, Fe) were synthesized by chemical precipitation at 60 {sup o}C. Different levels of crystallinity and ordering degree were observed depending upon the chemical environment or the combination between divalent and trivalent cations. The results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanostructured layered samples were obtained with interplanar spacing compatible with previous literature. Raman scattering was employed to investigate the complex band structure observed, particularly the lattice vibrations at lower frequencies, which is intimately correlated to the cationic radius of both divalent and trivalent ions. The results showed that strongly coordinated water and chloride ions besides highly structured hydroxide layers have a direct influence on the stability of the hydrotalcites. It was observed that transition and decomposition temperatures varied largely for different chemical compositions.

  17. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period. PMID:22278771

  18. Laboratory study on the ecological impact of sophorolipid used for harmful algae elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Kim, Eunki; Sun, Song

    2010-11-01

    We studied the role of sophorolipid in inhibiting harmful algae bloom (HAB). Different sophorolipid concentrations were tested on marine microalgae, zooplankton, fish, and bivalve ( Mytilus edulis) in laboratory. The result shows that sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of algal species selectively. Among three algae species selected, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis was promoted with increasing sophorolipid concentration; Isochrysis galbana was inhibited seven days later in sophorolipid concentration below 40 mg/L; and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima was inhibited obviously in only a high sophorolipid concentration over 20 mg/L. Therefore, sophorolipid in a low concentration at <20 mg/L could remove certain harmful algae species effectively without harming other non-harmful microalgae. For other animals, sophorolipid could inhibit the growth of ciliate Strombidium sp. by 50% at 20 mg/L sophorolipid concentration after 96 h. The concentration in 96-h LC50 for Calanus sinicus, Neomysis awatschensis, Lateolabrax japonicus, and Paralichthys olivaceus was 15, 150, 60, and 110 mg/L, respectively. The 24 h LC50 value for Artemia salina was 600 mg/L. The relative clearance rate of mussel Mytilus edulis decreased to 80%, 40%, and 20% of the control group after being exposed to 20, 50, and 100 mg/L sophorolipid for 24 h. Therefore, the toxicity for mitigation of harmful algae bloom at previously recommended concentration of 5-20 mg/L sophorolipid is low for most tested organisms in this reaserch.

  19. Statistical universal branching ratios for cosmic ray dissociation, photodissociation, and dissociative recombination of the Cn = 2-10, Cn = 2-4H and C3H2 neutral and cationic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Béroff, K.; Pino, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Désequelles, P.; Martinet, G.; Nguyen-Thi, V. O.; Carpentier, Y.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Fragmentation-branching ratios of electronically excited molecular species are of first importance for the modeling of gas phase interstellar chemistry. Despite experimental and theoretical efforts that have been done during the last two decades there is still a strong lack of detailed information on those quantities for many molecules such as Cn, CnH or C3H2. Aims: Our aim is to provide astrochemical databases with more realistic branching ratios for Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules that are electronically excited either by dissociative recombination, photodissociation, or cosmic ray processes, when no detailed calculations or measurements exist in literature. Methods: High velocity collision in an inverse kinematics scheme was used to measure the complete fragmentation pattern of electronically excited Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules. Branching ratios of dissociation where deduced from those experiments. The full set of branching ratios was used as a new input in chemical models and branching ratio modification effects observed in astrochemical networks that describe the dense cold Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 and the photon dominated Horse Head region. Results: The comparison between the branching ratios obtained in this work and other types of experiments showed a good agreement. It was interpreted as the signature of a statistical behavior of the fragmentation. The branching ratios we obtained lead to an increase of the C3 production together with a larger dispersion of the daughter fragments. The introduction of these new values in the photon dominated region model of the Horse Head nebula increases the abundance of C3 and C3H, but reduces the abundances of the larger Cn and hydrocarbons at a visual extinction AV smaller than 4. Conclusions: We recommend astrochemists to use these new branching ratios. The data published here have been added to the online database KIDA (KInetic Database for Astrochemistry

  20. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  1. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  2. Values for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2007-01-01

    What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

  3. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  4. STM/STS observation of polyoxoanions on HOPG surfaces: the wheel-shaped [Cu20Cl(OH)24(H2O)12(P8W48O184)]25- and the ball-shaped [{Sn(CH3)2(H2O)}24{Sn(CH3)2}12(A-PW9O34)12]36-.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad S; Dremov, Viacheslav; Müller, Paul; Postnikov, Andrei V; Mal, Sib Sankar; Hussain, Firasat; Kortz, Ulrich

    2006-04-01

    A combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) techniques have been performed on the wheel-shaped [Cu20Cl(OH)24(H2O)12(P8W48O184)]25- and the ball-shaped [{Sn(CH3)2(H2O)}24{Sn(CH3)2}12(A-PW9O34)12]36- deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces. Small, regular molecule clusters, as well as separated single molecules, were observed. The size of the molecules is in agreement with the data determined by X-ray crystallography. In STS measurements, we found a rather large contrast at the expected location of the Cu metal centers in our molecules, i.e., the location of the individual Cu ions in their organic matrix is directly addressable by STS. PMID:16562942

  5. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  6. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools. PMID:23206364

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manish Raj; Guo, Huarong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of carbamate insecticide carbaryl to flounder gill (FG) cells and its teratogenicity to zebrafish embryos. The cytotoxicity of carbaryl to FG cells was determined with methods including MTT and neutral red uptaking (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing and Hoechst 33342 and propidium idodide (PI) double staining. Moderate cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner was observed. The 24 h-IC50 value of 53.48 ± 1.21, 59.13 ± 1.19 and 46.21 ± 1.24 mg L-1 carbaryl was obtained through MTT, NRU and LDH assays, respectively. Double fluorescence staining demonstrated that carbaryl induced the death of FG cells mainly through necrosis. There was no significant genotoxicity found in the FG cells exposed to the highest testing concentration of carbaryl (20 mg L-1, P > 0.05) as was demonstrated by Comet assay. Zebrafish embryos exposed to carbaryl at concentrations ≥10 mg L-1 displayed moderate toxic effects on the survival, spontaneous movement, hatching, heart rates of the embryos and their development, which were evidenced by yolk and pericardial sac edemas, body length reduction and tail flexure in time- and concentration-dependent manners at specific stages. The 24 h-, 48 h- and 96 h-LC50 values of carbaryl to zebrafish embryos were 41.80 ± 1.10, 17.80 ± 1.04 and 14.46 ± 1.05 mg L-1, respectively. These results suggested that carbaryl is moderately toxic to FG cells cultured in vitro and zebrafish embryos, and the FG cells were similar to zebrafish embryos in their sensitivity to carbaryl as 24 h-IC50 and LC50 indicated.

  8. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  9. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  10. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  11. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  12. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  13. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  14. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  15. Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie; Cammarano, Cristina; Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward…

  16. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  17. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  18. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  19. A Search for Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  20. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  1. Histopathological changes induced by maneb and carbaryl on some tissues of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Boran, Halis; Altinok, Ilhan; Capkin, Erol

    2010-06-01

    Acute toxicity of the pesticides, maneb and carbaryl, to juvenile rainbow trout were evaluated under static-renewal test conditions. Actual concentrations of maneb ranged from 0.10mg/L to 2.00mg/L and carbaryl ranged from 0.20mg/L to 3.90mg/L. The concentrations of maneb that killed 50% of the rainbow trout (3.27+/-0.9g) within 24-h (24-h; LC(50)), 48-h, 72-h and 96-h were 1.19+/-0.12, 1.04+/-0.11, 0.92+/-0.12 and 0.81+/-0.14mg/L (95% confidence limits), respectively. LC(50) values of carbaryl for 24-h, 48-h, 72-h and 96-h were 2.52+/-0.71, 2.16+/-0.63, 1.71+/-0.46 and 1.39+/-0.15mg/L, respectively. None of the unexposed control fish died and the first fish died 6h after exposure to maneb (>or=1.30mg/L), and carbaryl (>or=2.60mg/L). Lamellar edema, separation of epithelium from lamellae, lamellar fusion, swelling of the epithelial cells and epithelial cell necrosis were observed on maneb and carbaryl exposed fish. Gills also had scattered areas of focal lamellar hyperplasia. Fish exposed to pesticides had inflammation and focal necrosis in liver, trunk kidney and spleen. Maneb and carbaryl had similar histopathological lesions. In order, the most affected organs were gill, trunk kidney and liver. PMID:20430411

  2. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  3. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  4. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  5. Values Clarification in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines the theory and development of Values Clarification and explores its possible applications to English as a foreign language (EFL). The five basic types of Values Clarification exercises are discussed: (1) interviewing, (2) rank-ordering, (3) forced choice, (4) values continuum, and (5) sentence completion. The theory and…

  6. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  7. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  8. Synthesis and Anti-Candida Activity of Cobalt(II) Complexes of Benzene-1,2-Dioxyacetic Acid (bdoaH2). X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3] ⋅3.5H2O and {[CO(phen)3](bdoa)}2⋅24H2O (phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline)

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Majella; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael; Cronin, Fergal; Curran, Martin; McKee, Vickie

    1999-01-01

    Co(CH3CO2)2⋅4H2O reacts with benzene-1,2-dioxyacetic acid (bdoaH2) to give the Co2+ complexes [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3]⋅H2O (1a) and [Co(bdoa)(H2O)3] ⋅3.5H2O (1b). Subsequent reaction of 1a with 1,10- phenanthroline produces [CO(phen)3] bdoa⋅10H2O (2a) and {[CO(phen)3](bdoa)}2⋅24H2O (2b). Molecular structures of 1b and 2b were determined crystallographically. In 1b the bdoa2-- ligates the metal by two carboxylate oxygens and two ethereal oxygens, whereas in 2b the bdoa2- is uncoordinated. The Mn2+ and Cu2+ complexes [Mn(bdoa)(phen)2]⋅H2O (3) and [Cu(pdoa)(imid)2] (4) were also synthesised, 1a-4 and other metal complexes of bdoa H2 (metal = Mn2+, Co2+ ,Cu2+, Cu+ ) were screened for their ability to inhibit the growth ofhe yeast Candida albicans. Complexes incorporating the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand were the most active. PMID:18475879

  9. A study of the lethal and sublethal toxicity of polyphase P-100, an antisapstain fungicide containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC), on fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, A P; Stockner, E; Kennedy, C J

    1998-10-01

    The acute toxicity of Polyphase P-100, an antisapstain wood preservative that contains 97% 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC), was determined for three species of fish (coho salmon, rainbow trout, and starry flounder) and three species of aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, and Neomysis mercedis). The 96-h LC50 values for the various fish species exposed to Polyphase P-100 ranged from 95 ppb for coho smolts (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to 370 ppm for juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus). The sensitivity of coho to Polyphase P-100 was altered by their developmental stage. Coho embryos were six to nine times more tolerant of Polyphase P-100 than coho alevins, which were twice as tolerant as coho smolts. The 48-h LC50 values for the invertebrates D. magna, H. azteca, and N. mercedis were 40 ppb, 500 ppb, and 2,920 ppb, respectively. In addition to a wider range of sensitivity to Polyphase P-100 compared with the fish species, the invertebrate species were characterized by a shallower concentration-response. In acute, 24-h sublethal tests with juvenile starry flounder and rainbow trout, there was no primary or secondary stress response (changes in hematocrit, leucocrit, hemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate concentration, and plasma cortisol concentration) at concentrations up to 50% of the 96-h LC50 value. The acute toxicity of a 1:8 mixture of Polyphase P-100 and Bardac 2280 (another antisapstain compound that contains didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] as the active ingredient) was close to additive for fish, but not for invertebrate species. The acute toxicity of the mixture was seven to eight times more than additive for H. azteca, but two to three times less than additive for D. magna. Some sublethal stress responses were revealed with the mixture that were not observed with the test chemicals alone. PMID:9732479

  10. Value, a nursing outcome.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sharon H

    2013-01-01

    This era of health care reform calls for the ability of hospitals to provide quality patient care while managing costs. Nursing practice is a key determinant of patient care quality and associated costs, or simply put, creating value. The value of nursing has been addressed by multiple qualified authors, yet there is no clear, consistent meaning of the term. Researchers and authors have developed some theoretical foundation for the concept of value, which evolved into important research questions that establish value as an important outcome that is sensitive to nursing practice. The opportunity to attend 2 sessions at the Harvard Business School on health care value has prompted the need for nursing to adapt to common thinking on health care value and establish its meaning for the nursing profession. This report summarizes the nursing literature on value, reflects on the executive education, and proposes direction for nursing leaders in education and practice. PMID:23454991

  11. Predictive value of immunogenic cell death biomarkers HMGB1, sRAGE, and DNase in liver cancer patients receiving transarterial chemoembolization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kohles, Nikolaus; Nagel, Dorothea; Jüngst, Dietrich; Stieber, Petra; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy is an effective locoregional anticancer treatment for liver cancer patients. Serum biomarkers involved in immunogenic cell death may be valuable for early predicting therapy response and estimating prognosis. Sera of 50 prospectively and consecutively included hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, undergoing TACE therapy, were taken before and 24 h after TACE application. In these samples, soluble biomarkers involved in immunogenic cell death, and among them, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), and DNase activity were measured. They were compared with radiological response to therapy. A total of 71 TACE therapies were evaluated, of which 32 were classified as "no progression," and 39, as "progression." While HMGB1 levels increased already 24 h after TACE, there was an early decrease of sRAGE and DNase activity. Pretherapeutic and 24-h values of sRAGE were significantly higher in the no progression group than those in the progression group. There was no difference with respect to treatment response for DNase and HMGB1. Soluble RAGE is a new parameter with predictive relevance in primary liver cancer patients undergoing TACE therapy. PMID:22965881

  12. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  13. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  14. Acute toxicity, bioactivity, and enantioselective behavior with tissue distribution in rabbits of myclobutanil enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingjing; Liu, Donghui; Qiu, Xinxu; Zhou, Qian; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-12-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity against pathogens (Cercospora arachidicola, Fulvia fulva, and Phytophthora infestans) and acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of the fungicide myclobutanil enantiomers were studied. The (+)-enantiomer in an antimicrobial activity test was about 1.79-1.96 times more active than the (-)-enantiomer. In the toxicity assay, the calculated 24-h LC50 values of the (-)-form, rac-form and (+)-form were 16.88, 13.17, and 11.91 mg/L, and the 48-h LC50 values were 10.15, 9.24, and 5.48 mg/L, respectively, showing that (+)-myclobutanil was more toxic. Meanwhile, the enantioselective metabolism of myclobutanil enantiomers following a single intravenous (i.v.) administration was investigated in rabbits. Total plasma clearance value (CL) of the (+)-enantiomer was 1.68-fold higher than its antipode. Significant differences in pharmacokinetics parameters between the two enantiomers indicated that the high bioactive (+)-enantiomer was preferentially metabolized and eliminated in plasma. Consistent consequences were found in the tissues (liver, brain, heart, kidney, fat, and muscle), resulting in a relative enrichment of the low-activity (-)-myclobutanil. These systemic assessments of the stereoisomers of myclobutanil cannot be used only to investigate environmental and biological behavior, but also have human health implications because of the long persistence of triazole fungicide and enantiomeric enrichment in mammals and humans. PMID:25043148

  15. Toxicity of saponin isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) Japanese encephalitis vector mosquito in India.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Kupppusamy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugan; Krishnappa, Kaliamoorthy

    2012-12-01

    To determine the larvicidal activity of various extracts of Gymnema sylvestre against the Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorynchus in Tamilnadu, India. To identify the active principle present in the promising fraction obtained in Chlorofom:Methanol extract of Fraction 2. The G. sylvestre leaf extracts were tested, employing WHO procedure against fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and the larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50 and 100 µg/mL); the 24h LC50 values of the G. Sylvestre leaf extracts were determined following Probit analysis. It was noteworthy that treatment level 100 µg/mL exhibited highest mortality rates for the three different crude extracts and was significantly different from the mean mortalities recorded for the other concentrations. The LC50 values of 34.756 µg/mL (24.475-51.41), 31.351 µg/mL (20.634-47.043) and 28.577 µg/mL (25.159-32.308) were calculated for acetone, chloroform and methanol extract with the chi-square values of 10.301, 31.351 and 4.093 respectively. The present investigation proved that G. Sylvestre could be possibly utilized as an important component in the Vector Control Program. PMID:23152320

  16. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. PMID:26357845

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of rats exposed to vapors of methyl mercaptan and other reduced-sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Tansy, M F; Kendall, F M; Fantasia, J; Landin, W E; Oberly, R; Sherman, W

    1981-01-01

    Acute inhalation experiments were conducted to determine 24-h LC50 values for adult Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes exposed to vapors of methyl mercaptan and other reduced-S compounds for 4 h periods. Using calculated gas concentrations, the following LC50 value for each gas and combination was determined: metyhl mercaptan, 675 ppm; dimethyl sulfide, 40,250 ppm; dimethyl disulfide, 805 ppm; hydrogen sulfide, 444 ppm; and an equimolar mixture of methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, 550 ppm. The effects of body and tissue weights, gross metabolic performance, O2 consumption, systolic blood pressure, various blood parameters, and intestinal transit time associated with 3-mo exposures of young adult male rats to chemically verified concentrations of 2, 17, and 57 ppm methyl mercaptan vapor are summarized in this report. No mortality was experienced by any group. Histopathological findings were essentially nil except for microscopic suggestions of liver damage. The most readily apparent phenomenon was the decrease in body weight. Average values of terminal body weights for all exposed groups were lower than that for the sham control group. This difference was significant in the 57 ppm group and followed a statistically significant dose-related trend. PMID:7328716

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  19. Acute effects of chlorinated resin acid exposure on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.J.; Sweeting, R.M.; Farrell, A.P.; McKeown, B.A.; Johansen, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of an acute exposure to either 14-monochlorodehydroabietic acid (MCDHAA) or 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (DCDHAA) were examined in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The experimentally determined 96-h LC50 values (and their 95% confidence limits) were 1.03 (0.72, 1.48) and 0.91 (0.70, 1.21) mg/L, for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively. To measure effects on several biochemical parameters, swimming performance, and disease resistance, juvenile trout were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of one or the other resin acid in an intermittent-flow respirometer. Hematocrit, plasma lactate, and liver protein were significantly affected by exposure to the highest dose (80% of the 96-h LC50 value) of either of the resin acids. Plasma cortisol levels were 14- and 3-fold higher than were controls. Resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida was significantly reduced; the cumulative percent mortalities due to furunculosis in fish exposed to MCDHAA or DCDHAA reached 20 and 26%, respectively. Swimming performance, measured as critical swimming speed (mean values 6.32 {+-} 0.20 and 5.93 {+-} 0.15 body lengths per second for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively), was not significantly affected by resin acid exposure.

  20. Phytochemical profile and larvicidal properties of seed essential oil from Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-09-01

    The present study deals with investigation of larvicidal activity and their chemical constituents of the essential oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae). Totally, 18 chemical compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis. Thymol (19.13 %) and α-phellandrene (14.9 %) were identified as major chemical components followed by camphor (12.14 %), borneol (11.31 %), and carvacrol (8.65 %). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that the essential oil were evaluated against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC50 = 196.9 and LC90 = 523.5 ppm (A. aegypti), LC50 = 88.1 and LC90 = 272.4 ppm (A.stephensi), and LC50 = 241.6 and LC90 = 545.4 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC50 = 99.9 and LC90 = 300.8 ppm (A. aegypti), LC50 = 53.9 and LC90 = 172.6 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC50 = 141.7 and LC90 = 364.0 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil from seeds of N. sativa is inexpensive food formulation and new source of natural larvicidal agent. PMID:26091760

  1. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  2. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  3. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  4. HPTLC analysis of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) and its larvicidal potential against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the larvicidal activity of Scoparia dulcis aqueous extract against dengue vector and determines its major chemical components. The extract was tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL against Aedes aegypti larvae. The extracts displayed significant larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypt species after 24 h exposure revealing LC50 of 3.3835 (mg/mL) and LC90 of 5.7578 (mg/mL). Finger printing profile carried out by CAMAG automatic TLC sample applicator programmed through WIN CATS software revealed peaks with different Rf values for three different volumes injected: 16, 15 and 18 peaks were spotted for 3, 6 and 9 μL, respectively. Ascending order of Rf values was also ascertained for each peak recorded. This study clearly signifies that S. dulcis extract contains numerous compounds that are known to have larvicidal properties which clearly substantiates its efficacy on Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:25573588

  5. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  6. Effect of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar

    2015-11-01

    Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 μg/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts. PMID:26246308

  7. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  9. Teaching Values through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghammer, Gretta

    One dramatic technique to aid students in their discovery of values and value systems is "theatre-in-education" (TIE), a theatre event that takes place in schools, with actors working through roles for and with children. TIE aims to fuse education and theatre by having team members function as both teachers and actors, and the audiences of young…

  10. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  11. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  12. Weak Value Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2011-03-28

    I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.

  13. The Values Manifesto Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euvrard, George

    2006-01-01

    South Africa and Namibia, two countries building young democracies, face the task of transforming their public education systems to support the values articulated in their new constitutions. This article describes a project designed to incorporate these values into schools. A group of 50 Namibian teachers, who were enrolled in the author's…

  14. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  15. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  16. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  17. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  18. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  19. Selected Papers on Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, C. Robert, Ed.

    This document contains papers and reports read at the August 1968, meeting of the Continuing Interest Group on Values, a subgroup of the National Conference of Professors of Educational Administration, held at the State University of New York at Albany. Included are three papers by C. Robert Blackmon; the first considers values as education's most…

  20. Values Clarification Through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strugala, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to using values clarification exercises in a college freshman composition or a high school English class is presented in this brief article. AUTHOR'S COMMENT (excerpt): Since the integration of writing and thinking is vital in the development of writing abilities, the values clarification experience is a natural bridge for students to…

  1. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  2. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  3. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  4. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  5. Holo- and hemidirected lead(II) in the polymeric [Pb(4)(mu-3,4-TDTA)2(H2O)2]*4H2O complex. N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate ligands derived from o-phenylenediamines as sequestering agents for lead(II).

    PubMed

    Sanchiz, Joaquín; Esparza, Pedro; Villagra, Diego; Domínguez, Sixto; Mederos, Alfredo; Brito, Felipe; Araujo, Lorena; Sánchez, Agustin; Arrieta, Juan Manuel

    2002-11-18

    The coordinating ability of the ligands 3,4-toluenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (3,4-TDTA), o-phenylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (o-PhDTA), and 4-chloro-1,2-phenylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (4-Cl-o-PhDTA) (H4L acids) toward lead(II) is studied by potentiometry (25 degrees C, I = 0.5 mol x dm(-3) in NaClO4), UV-vis spectrophotometry, and 207Pb NMR spectrometry. The stability constants of the complex species formed were determined. X-ray diffraction structural analysis of the complex [Pb4(mu-3,4-TDTA)4(H2O)2]*4H2O (1) revealed that 1 has a 2-D structure. The layers are built up by the polymerization of centrosymmetric [Pb4L2(H2O)2] tetranuclear units. The neutral layers have the aromatic rings of the ligands pointing to the periphery, whereas the metallic ions are located in the central part of the layers. In compound 1, two types of six-coordinate lead(II) environments are produced. The Pb(1) is coordinated to two nitrogen atoms and four carboxylate oxygens from the ligand, whereas Pb(2) has an O6 trigonally distorted octahedral surrounding. The lead(II) ion is surrounded by five carboxylate oxygens and a water molecule. The carboxylate oxygens belong to four different ligands that are also joined to four other Pb(1) ions. The selective uptake of lead(II) was analyzed by means of chemical speciation diagrams as well as the so-called conditional or effective formation constants K(Pb)eff. The results indicate that, in competition with other ligands that are strong complexing agents for lead(II), our ligands are better sequestering agents in acidic media. PMID:12425632

  6. Acute and chronic activity of perchlorate and hexavalent chromium contamination on the survival and development of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Mary A; Jensen, Peter D; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2006-12-01

    Effects of water contamination with perchlorate and hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed. The chronic (10-day) LC50s values for perchlorate and chromium were 74+/-8.0 mg/L and 0.41+/-0.15 mg/L, respectively. Relative Growth Index, a measure of growth and mortality rates in a population, was significantly reduced within 5 days for levels of perchlorate as low as 25 mg/L and for levels of chromium as low as 0.16 mg/L. Neither compound altered wing length of surviving adults. In combination, contaminants were synergistic, causing 14% more mortality than predicted. Acute (24-h) LC50 values for perchlorate and Cr (VI) were 17,000+/-3200 and 38+/-1.3 mg/L, respectively. Effects on mosquito larvae in contaminated environments are likely to be observed for Cr (VI) but not for perchlorate, which generally does not occur at levels as high as those shown here to affect larval mosquitoes. PMID:16675084

  7. Biocatalytic amidation of carboxylic acids and their antinemic activity.

    PubMed

    Bose, Abinesh; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Pankaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K

    2010-04-01

    A series of novel N-alkyl substituted amides, synthesized by enzyme catalysis, were evaluated against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and found to have potential antinemic activity. The corresponding amides were prepared by the condensation of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids with different alkyl amines in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase at 60-90 degrees C in 16-20 h. The reactions were carried out in a non - solvent system without the use of any activating agents. All the products were obtained in appreciable amounts and the yields for different compounds varied between 77.4-82.3%. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopy techniques namely Infra Red (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ((1)H and (13)C). Nematicidal activity of synthesized amides was evaluated against J(2)s of Meloidogyne incognita at 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 ppm concentrations after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposure. Among all the tested compounds, N-propyl-butyramide, N-propyl-pentanamide and N-propyl-hexanamide were found to possess significant activity with LC(50) values of 67.46, 83.49 and 96.53 respectively. N-propyl-butyramide with LC(50) value of 67.46 ppm was found to be most active amide against J(2)s of Meloidogyne incognita. The bioactivity study showed that an increase in alkyl chain significantly decreased the activity of amides against root-knot nematode. PMID:20390959

  8. Repellent and Fumigant Activities of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC Essential Oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oils of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC collected from three different habitats (Gothing, Burphu and Glacier) of Uttarakhand Himalayas, India named as TNG, TNB and TNM respectively, were investigated against the adults of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Among the three samples tested, TNG was found to more potent exhibiting more repellent effect towards the insects and with LC50 values by fumigant bioassay were 13.23 and 8.32 µl per 0.25 L air at 24 and 48 h exposure of insects to the essential oil respectively. In between other two oil samples, TNM was superior in potency showed LC50 value of 14.22 (24 h) & 8.82 µl per 0.25 L air (48 h). During in vivo study all the essential oil samples significantly protected 500 g of wheat grains for 6 months from insect infestation as compared to non fumigated grains and order of efficacy was TNG>TNM>TNB. There were no side effects of essential oils on germination rate of grains (<85%) exposed for 6 months after fumigation. The present study suggests that essential oil of T. nubigenum can be explored as novel natural fumigants for the control of stored product insects. PMID:26235002

  9. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  10. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  11. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  12. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  13. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  14. Balancing Price and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodigan, David L.

    1987-01-01

    In Carleton College's attempts to find a technique for measuring prospective students' perceptions of college price and educational quality, it discovered that student attitudes about educational value were reflected in the relationship between those two dimensions. (MSE)

  15. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  16. Evaluation of the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae. PMID:26346899

  17. Eating routines. Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective.

    PubMed

    Jastran, Margaret M; Bisogni, Carole A; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M

    2009-02-01

    Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-h dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as "routines" or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305

  18. Toxicity of sediment-incorporated drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The 24, 96, or 168-h LC50s of four used drilling fluids or barite incorporated into sediment were determined in toxicity tests with lancelets (Branchiostoma caribaeum), a benthic chordate. The number of lancelets that did not burrow into contaminated sediments was used to calculate EC50s at the same times that LC50s were determined. Observations of the burrowing behavior allowed quantitation of effects after 24-h exposures to each of the drilling fluids whereas lancelet mortality was sufficient to calculate 24-h LC50s for only one drilling fluid. Drilling fluids were less toxic to lancelets when incorporated into sediments than to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) or benthic invertebrate communities in water-column exposures.

  19. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2010-03-01

    : - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance for the period +24 h/+48 h (i.e. the warning period in the Piemonte system); - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterization and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  20. TOXICITY OF COPPER TO CUTTHROAT TROUT ('SALMO CLARKI') UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF ALKALINITY, PH, AND HARDNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) values for acute copper toxicity to 3-10 g cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) have been determined for nine different combinations of alkalinity, hardness, and pH. Equilibrium calculations were performed on the copper LC50 values; seven differe...

  1. TOXICITY OF ACETYLENIC ALCOHOLS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS: NARCOSIS AND PROELECTROPHILE ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 96-h LC50 values for 16 acetylenic alcohols in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were determined using continuous-flow diluters. The measured LC50 values for seven tertiary propargylic alcohols agreed closely with the QSAR predictions based upon data for other organic ...

  2. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  3. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  4. Demystifying values assessment.

    PubMed

    Raffaele, R

    1996-01-01

    The current climate of networking and restructuring among healthcare providers calls for measurable methods to assess an organization's adherence to its fundamental values. In response to that need, the SSM Health Care System (SSMHCS) prepared a guide to assessing values integration. This innovation tool has proven to be adaptable for many uses: it helps organizations examine the compatibility of potential partners' values, as well as their own progress toward integration of their stated mission, values, and philosophy. The guide outlines 10 key areas that serve to focus and define the values assessment: Vision. Serving the poor. Serving the community. Continuous quality improvement. Employment practices. Role of leaders. Stewardship Advocacy. Wellness. Church. The guide includes a discussion of the significance of each of these key areas: the implications of including each area; and key indicators, or standards statements, for assessment. Users' response to the guide has been overwhelmingly positive. This guide should provide valuable systemwide data and identify areas of strength or needed growth. PMID:10161797

  5. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert P., Jr.; King, Everett Louis, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  6. Removal of Two Species of Harmful Algae Using Gramine Modified Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Li; Wang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Fei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    A series of gramine modified montmorillonites (gramine-MMTs) were prepared and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential measurements. These modified clays with various amounts of gramine all exhibited higher removal efficiencies of both Chattonella marina and Alexandrium tamarense than did natural clay. With the augmentation of gramine content in the modified clays, the removal efficiency increased. The 24 h LC50 values of gramine-MMT with 12.68 % of gramine on C. marina and A. tamarense were 9.16 and 10.21 mg L(-1), respectively. These data suggest gramine-MMT might be a promising material to remediate harmful algal blooms. PMID:26920698

  7. New single-molecule magnet based on Mn12 oxocarboxylate clusters with mixed carboxylate ligands, [Mn12O12(CN-o-C6H4CO2)12(CH3CO2)4(H2O)4]·8CH2Cl2: Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Kushch, L A; Sasnovskaya, V D; Dmitriev, A I; Yagubskii, E B; Koplak, O V; Zorina, L V; Boukhvalov, D W

    2012-11-28

    A new high symmetry Mn(12) oxocarboxylate cluster [Mn(12)O(12)(CN-o-C(6)H(4)CO(2))(12)(CH(3)CO(2))(4)(H(2)O)(4)]·8CH(2)Cl(2) (1) with mixed carboxylate ligands is reported. It was synthesized by the standard carboxylate substitution method. 1 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a. Complex 1 contains a [Mn(12)O(12)] core with eight CN-o-C(6)H(4)CO(2) ligands in the axial positions, four CH(3)CO(2) and four CN-o-C(6)H(4)CO(2) in equatorial positions. Four H(2)O molecules are bonded to four Mn atoms in an alternating up, down, up, down arrangement indicating a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 isomer. The Mn(12) molecules in 1 are self-assembled by complementary hydrogen C-H···N bonds formed with participation of the axial o-cyanobenzoate ligands of the adjacent Mn(12) clusters. The lattice solvent molecules (CH(2)Cl(2)) are weakly interacted with Mn(12) units that results in solvent loss immediately after removal of the crystals from the mother liquor. The electronic structure and the intramolecular exchange parameters have been calculated. Mn 3d bands of 1 are rather broad, and the center of gravity of the bands shifts down from the Fermi level. The overlap between Mn 3d bands and 2p ones of the oxygen atoms from the carboxylate bridges is higher than in the parent Mn(12)-acetate cluster. These changes in the electronic structure provide a significant difference in the exchange interactions in comparison to Mn(12)-acetate. The magnetic properties have been studied on a dried (solvent-free) polycrystalline sample of 1. The dc magnetic susceptibility measurements in the 2-300 K temperature range support a high-spin ground state (S = 10). A bifurcation of temperature dependencies of magnetization taken under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions observed below 4.5 K is due to slow magnetization relaxation. Magnetization versus applied dc field exhibited a stepwise hysteresis loop at 2 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility data revealed the frequency dependent out-of-phase (χ(M)'') signals characteristic of single-molecule magnets. PMID:23059752

  8. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  9. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  10. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  11. Biolarvicidal and pupicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Euphorbia hirta against Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Karthikeyan Agalya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Ponarulselvam, Sekar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2012-09-01

    Vector control is a critical requirement in epidemic disease situations, as is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for nontarget organisms and the environment. Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) plant leaf extract against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm) and methanol crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm) were tested against larvae of A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs from E. hirta were highly toxic than methanolic crude extract against malarial vector, A. stephensi. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction. SEM analyses of the synthesized showed that AgNPs, measuring 30-60 nm in size, were clearly distinguishable. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (10.14, 16.82, 21.51, and 27.89 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (31.98, 50.38, 60.09, and 69.94 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of pupae of 34.52 and 79.76 ppm, respectively. Methanol extract exhibited the larval toxicity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) (121.51, 145.40, 169.11, and 197.40 ppm, respectively), LC(90) (236.44, 293.75, 331.42, and 371.34 ppm, respectively), and the LC(50) and LC(90) values of

  12. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C

  13. Ecotoxicological impact of Zequanox®, a novel biocide, on selected non-target Irish aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Sara; Shannon, Adam; Gruber, Bridget; Rackl, Sarahann M; Lucy, Frances E

    2014-09-01

    Effective, species-specific zebra mussel control is needed urgently for Ireland׳s freshwater bodies, which became infested with non-native zebra mussels in the 1990s. Zequanox®, a newly commercialized product for zebra and quagga mussel control, is composed of dead Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145A cells. This paper describes ecotoxicology tests on three representative native Irish freshwater species: Anodonta (duck mussel), Chironomus plumosus (non-biting midge), and Austropotamobius pallipes (white-clawed crayfish). The species were exposed to Zequanox in a 72-h static renewal toxicity test at concentrations of 100-750mg active ingredient per liter (mga.i./L). Water quality parameters were measured every 12-24h before and after water and product renewal. After 72h, endpoints were reported as LC10, LC50, and LC100. The LC50 values derived were (1) Anodonta: ≥500mga.i./L (2) C. plumosus: 1075mga.i./L, and (3) A. pallipes: ≥750mga.i./L. These results demonstrate that Zequanox does not negatively affect these organisms at the concentration required for >80percent zebra mussel mortality (150mg a.i/L) and the maximum allowable treatment concentration in the United Sates (200mga.i./L). They also show the overall species-specificity of Zequanox, and support its use in commercial facilities and open waters. PMID:24927392

  14. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ruchi; Tyagi, Varun; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K; Mendki, Murlidhar J; Jain, Ashok K; Sukumaran, Devanathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory. Methods: Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20–400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior) against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50), while OAI (Oviposition activity index) was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts. Results: Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466) at 100ppm. Conclusion: Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito. PMID:26114131

  15. Value of Information spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  16. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  17. Values in action.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve." PMID:10168661

  18. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  19. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  20. R-values

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K

    2009-03-03

    I'll try to keep this short and simple. R{sub LANL} = (beta cpm of X{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of X on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U)/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U). As I understand it, the above equation is the historical (as well as current) way of determining R-values using data from beta counting at LANL. The ratio in the denominator, a little 'r', is the 'baseline' or 'calibration' value for a specific beta detector. Over time, if the detector 'drifts' one would see a variation in this 'r' during a thermal calibration measurement. This baseline is what LANL likes to track to monitor specific detector performance - this is not relevant to LLNL where gamma detection is used for determining R-values. LANL states that uncertainty is only dependent upon the count statistics for the isotopes measured. If one tries to convert this to an atom basis, the uncertainties will increase due to the incorporation of the uncertainties in the nuclear data used to convert the cpm to atoms. LLNL switched to gamma detection methods in the 1970s thus replacing our beta counting effort. The equation below is how we have since determined R-values. The numerator ratios atom values of isotopes that are determined by measuring gamma cpm (usually? using several peaks per isotope) and then converting to particle decay in dpm using detector efficiency for each peak and the appropriate branch ratio for each gamma emission. Isotope decay is then converted to atoms using specific activity, mass or volume?, and Avogadro's number. The denominator is simply the ratio of published, cumulative fission product chain yields for isotopes produced in a thermal irradiation on 235U - values of England & Ryder are used by LLNL for the NTNF program. Uncertainties in LLNL R-values are dependent upon gamma counting statistics as well as the nuclear data for each isotope. R{sub LLNL} = (Atoms of X{sub exp

  1. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-...

  2. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  3. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  4. Values and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John A.

    Science and technology are in trouble today. And the world of people and of other living things is in trouble because of them. This seven-part book provides an introduction to the origin and nature of these troubles. Major areas considered in the first six parts are: (1) values; (2) science and technology in an ideal world (examining growth of…

  5. Gender and Job Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers distinct differences and a few similarities between men and women concerning values and expectations associated with employment. Women attach greater importance to intrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards. Earlier research suggested significant gender differences regarding extrinsic rewards; however, this category revealed no…

  6. Valuing Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2006-01-01

    It is not enough to declare that differentiated instruction is going to be the order of the day. It also is not enough to call in a consultant and have teachers listen to a presentation about product, process, and assessment paradigms. Differentiated instruction is a practice that grows out of certain values that are important in the way school…

  7. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  8. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  9. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  10. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  11. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  12. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  13. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  14. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  15. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  16. Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed Central

    Warikoo, Radhika; Ray, Ankita; Sandhu, Jasdeep Kaur; Samal, Roopa; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7–11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569887

  17. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  18. Global value trees.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term "global value chains" (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  19. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  20. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  1. The structure of value.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Keys to success in developing the right framework for delivering greater value in an era of reform include the following: Have a compelling vision. In evaluating potential partnerships, carefully consider the extent to which the organizations' cultures are aligned. Ensure that initiatives stay on course. Develop sustainable energy among leaders and staff through early wins. Measure patient, physician, and employee satisfaction before and after initiatives are implemented and respond accordingly. PMID:24511778

  2. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  3. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities. PMID:6484620

  4. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  5. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  6. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  7. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  8. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  9. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  10. Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides.

    PubMed

    Van Herk, W G; Vernon, R S; Tolman, J H; Saavedra, H Ortiz

    2008-04-01

    Ten insecticides representing seven chemical groups were applied at various concentrations topically by using a Potter Spray Tower to evaluate their relative toxicities on the European wireworm Agriotes obscurus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Wireworms were stored at 15 degrees C after exposure to organophosphate (OP) (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), pyrethroid (tefluthrin), thianicotinoid (thiamethoxam, clothianidin), chloronicotinoid (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), organochlorine (lindane), and spinosyn (spinosad) insecticides, and their postapplication health was evaluated weekly for up to 301 d. LC50, LC90, LT50, and LT90 values were calculated for each chemical except acetamiprid, and compared with those of lindane, clothianidin, and chlorpyrifos. Wireworms exposed to OPs died or recovered more quickly (LT50 < 20 d, LT90 < 50 d), than those exposed to all other insecticides tested except tefluthrin (LT50 = 25.5 d, LT90 = 66.5 d). Wireworms exposed to sublethal concentrations of all neonicotinoids quickly became moribund after application but made a full recovery. Wireworms exposed to fipronil at concentrations near the LC90 value showed no intoxication symptoms for up to 35 d, and they did not recover after symptoms developed. For each chemical, increasing the concentration increased the time required for wireworms to recover but decreased the time required to kill wireworms. Fipronil was highly toxic to wireworms (LC50 = 0.0001%), but acetamiprid (LC50 = 1.82%), imidacloprid (LC50 = 0.83%), tefluthrin (LC50 = 0.23%), diazinon (LC50 = 0.54%), and spinosad (LC50 = 0.51%) were not. The toxicity of both clothianidin (LC50 = 0.07%) and thiamethoxam (LC50 = 0.17%) were similar to those oflindane (LC50 = 0.06%) and chlorpyrifos (LC50 = 0.10%). PMID:18459401

  11. Sensitivity of Oncomelania hupensis to Niclosamide: A Nation-Wide Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jianrong; Li, Youzi; Wang, Wei; Xing, Yuntian; Qu, Guoli; Liang, Yousheng

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, transmitted by the intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis of the causative agent Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public-health concern in China, and control of this snail is one of the major approaches used in attempts to interrupt the transmission of this neglected tropical disease. Niclosamide is currently the only commercial molluscicide available for the control of O. hupensis snails in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide in China. O. hupensis snails derived from 17 sampling sites from eight schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China were used for the molluscicidal tests. Active adult snails (10 for each drug concentration), were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg/L of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25°C, and then the snail mortality was estimated and LC50 values were calculated. All field-derived O. hupensis snails were dead following immersion in 0.5 and 1 mg/L WPN for 24 h, whereas no death was observed after immersion in 0.008 mg/L WPN for 24 h. Immersion in 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032 and 0.016 mg/L WPN for 24 h resulted in 80%–100%, 63.33%–100%, 0%–85%, 0%–50%, 0%–15%, and 0%–5% snail mortalities, respectively. The 24 h WPN LC50 values for the O. hupensis snails derived from the 17 sampling sites in China ranged from 0.0743 to 0.2285 mg/L, and no significant difference was detected by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p = 0.2). The results indicate that there is no regional variation in the current susceptibility to niclosamide in O. hupensis populations in China. It is suggested that the current sensitivity of niclosamide against O. hupensis remains high and has not changed after more than two decades of repeated, extensive application for snail control in the main endemic areas of China. PMID:24625624

  12. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  13. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  14. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  15. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  16. Acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived compounds and hydrodistillate constitutes toward Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Lee, Ju-Hee; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Young Su; Lee, Sang-Guie

    2016-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived principles, methyleugenol, safrole, 3-carene, α-asarone, pentadecane and A. heterotropoides root steam distillate constituents was tested against poultry red mites Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer). All active principles were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Methyleugenol (24 h LC50 = 0.57 µg/cm(2)) and safrole (24 h LC50 = 8.54 µg/cm(2)) were the most toxic compounds toward D. gallinae, followed by 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, estragole, α-terpineol, verbenone, eucarvone, linalool, and terpinen-4-ol (LC50 = 15.65-27.88 µg/cm(2)). Methyleugenol was 16.7× and 11.0× more toxic than benzyl benzoate (LC50 = 9.52 μg/cm(2)) and DEET (LC50 = 6.28 μg/cm(2)), respectively; safrole was 1.1× and 0.73× more toxic. Asarum heterotropoides root-derived materials, particularly methyleugenol and safrole, merit further study as potential acaricides. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments justify further studies on A. heterotropoides root extract and steam distillate preparations containing the active constituents described as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of mites. PMID:26708137

  17. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into ‘‘exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the

  18. Lethal levels of selected water quality variables to larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Monda, D.P.; Bellerud, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource managers hypothesize that occasional fish kills during summer-early fall in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, may be linked to unfavorable water quality conditions created by massive algal blooms. In a preliminary effort to address this concern, short-term (96-h-long) laboratory tests were conducted with larval and juvenile Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers to determine the upper median lethal concentrations (LC50s; also referred to as median tolerance limits) for pH, un-ionized ammonia, and water temperature, and the lower LC50s for dissolved oxygen. The mean LC50s varied among species and life stages as follows: for pH, 10.30-10.39; for un-ionized ammonia, 0.48-1.06 mg litre-1; for temperature, 30.35-31.82??C; and for dissolved oxygen, 1.34-2.10 mg litre-1. Comparisons of 95% confidence limits indicated that, on average, the 96-h LC50s were not significantly different from those computed for shorter exposure times (i.e., 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). According to two-way analysis of variance, LC50s for the four water quality variables did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) between fish species. However, LC50s for pH (exposure times of 24 h and 48 h) and dissolved oxygen (exposure times of 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) between life stages, whereas LC50s for un-ionized ammonia and water temperature did not exhibit significant differences. In general, larvae were more sensitive than juveniles to high pH and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. When compared to ambient water quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, our results strongly suggest that near-anoxic conditions associated with the senescence phase of algal blooms are most likely to cause high mortalities of larval and juvenile suckers.

  19. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity. PMID:24781026

  20. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  1. Values in Education and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Norman T.

    Based on six years of research, this book is an interdisciplinary investigation of human values and value systems. The author believes that the concept of values enables the social scientist to bridge the gap between the analysis of the individual and the analysis of the society in which that individual lives. Chapter 1 discusses value systems and…

  2. Work Values and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongo, Celestine

    1978-01-01

    As career education calls for business educators to be concerned with developing students' work values as well as teaching skills, school experiences should be structured to influence work values development. The author discusses the nature of values, group differences, strategies for personal value sharing, industry-school interactions, and…

  3. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  4. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  5. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  6. "Value"ing Children Differently? Migrant Children in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers dilemmas around "value" and the "valuing" of children and childhood(s) in schools. I argue that in neo-liberal contexts, processes of children's identity making become aligned with the idea of the corporate citizen--value and worth derived from the capacity to produce, excel, self-regulate as well as…

  7. Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the values of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher values that are necessary for quality values education. This question is addressed by…

  8. Effects of the organophosphate paraoxon-methyl on survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna: importance of exposure duration and recovery.

    PubMed

    Duquesne, Sabine; Reynaldi, Sebastián; Liess, Matthias

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exposure duration (1 h, 24 h, continuous) to paraoxon-methyl on the magnitude of lethal and sublethal effects, the shape of the concentration-response relationships and the recovery processes in Daphnia magna. Survival was more severely reduced in the continuous than in the pulse exposure regimes. The lethal concentrations (3d median lethal concentration [LC50] values) were 233, 2.33, and 1.14 microg/L after 1-h, 24-h, and continuous exposure, respectively. The shapes of the concentration-response relationships for survival were significantly different after 1 h of exposure than after 24-h and continuous exposure. Indeed, the slopes of the curves defined by the ratios LC90/LC10 (ratio of 90 and 10% lethal concentrations) were 100, 1.74, and 1.97 for 1-h, 24-h, and continuous exposure, respectively. The large difference between 1 h and longer durations of exposure shows that the population is partially affected (10-90%) over a much broader range of concentrations when exposure is short. Negative effects on reproductive outputs occurred mostly at concentrations affecting partly the survival and therefore also over a broad range of concentrations after 1 h of exposure. However, these effects were only transient in the pulse exposure regimes as individual performances recovered. By contrast, reproductive outputs of survivors exposed continuously remained impaired. These results suggest that a refined risk assessment should consider exposure duration because it influences the magnitude of effects and recovery. PMID:16704048

  9. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  10. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  11. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine. PMID:16366477

  12. Business Education, Values and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    An Australian study compared the value systems of business students from primarily Western and Asian backgrounds. Their diverse conceptions of integrity, honesty, fairness, and other values should be considered in teaching business ethics. (SK)

  13. Private Values and Public Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    Explores the relationships among social change, values, and education. Concludes that educators should inquire into and teach about values through classic works by authors such as Homer, Plato, Ibsen, and Mark Twain. (Author/DB)

  14. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  15. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  16. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  17. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  18. Making Values Education Everyone's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzner, Louis I.; Nieman, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    Adults are typically required to make values-based decisions multiple times each day. Why, then, should a discussion of values not be explicit across the college curriculum and intentionally integrated into the cocurriculum? The authors describe a place where the work of values education is widely shared. (Contains 9 notes.)

  19. American Values through Russian Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatsepina, Olga; Rodriguez, Julio

    This paper discusses impressions held by Moscow State University (Russia) students about American values. In class discussions and written assignments, students were asked to comment on thirteen values, giving their perceptions of American attitudes in each case. The values included: personal control over the environment; change; time and its…

  20. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  1. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

  2. 78 FR 53380 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing value engineering... Leuderalbert, Value Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...

  3. Values Education: Interdisciplinary Curriculum Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The instructional objectives of values education to be taught in the K-12 Utah public schools are outlined and cross-referenced to each subject area in the curriculum. It is the responsibility of the schools to help students clarify perceptions and values with respect to self and society. The major categories of values education goals are: rights…

  4. Student Development and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, John D., Comp.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles explores the value development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and values in student development and educational approaches to values development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…

  5. Make your values mean something.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values. PMID:12140851

  6. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    PubMed Central

    Han, K. J.; McCormick, M. E.; Derouen, S. M.; Blouin, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages. PMID:25178371

  7. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  8. Oxygen challenge test in septic shock patients: prognostic value and influence of respiratory status.

    PubMed

    Mari, Arnaud; Vallée, Fabrice; Bedel, Jérome; Riu, Béatrice; Ruiz, Jean; Sanchez-Verlaan, Pascale; Geeraerts, Thomas; Génestal, Michèle; Silva, Stein; Fourcade, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (PtcO2) value in response to an increase of FiO2 or oxygen challenge test (OCT) in ventilated patients has been reported to be related to peripheral perfusion and outcome during septic shock. However, patients with sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome could demonstrate compromised arterial oxygenation with OCT impairment decoupled to circulatory failure. The aims of this study were to confirm the prognostic value of OCT and to explore the influence of respiratory status on OCT results. This was a prospective study set in an intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. Fifty-six mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock criteria were studied. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure was measured at baseline and after OCT, at intensive care unit admittance (T0), and 24 h later (T24). Survival at day 28 and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were analyzed and compared according to outcome and respiratory status. Central hemodynamic parameters or static transcutaneous data did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors at enrollment. The OCT was statistically different at T24 according to outcome (P < 0.001), but sensitivity was low (53%). Moreover, patients with low OCT results at T24 exhibited more severe respiratory failure (P < 0.01). The OCT at T24 is related to outcome but is influenced by the severity of respiratory failure. Our results suggest considering with caution hemodynamic management based on OCT in septic shock patients with altered pulmonary function. PMID:24667627

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Girmay, Askual; Fekadu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia. Methods The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure. Results The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control. Conclusions This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future. PMID:25183156

  10. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics. PMID:16803974

  11. Values Added: Some Sociological Interpretations of Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines current British concerns about the need for values education from the perspective of postmodern social theorists. Argues that, viewed sociologically, the current approach to values education is broadly functionalist (and conservative), for it fails to come to terms with the deep structure of contemporary society, specifically consumerism…

  12. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  13. Effect of vanadium toxicity at its different oxidation states on selected bacterial and protozoan isolates in wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-08-01

    This study assesses and compares vanadium toxicity in its different oxidation states towards bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis) and protozoan isolates (Peranema sp. and Trachelophyllum sp.). The isolates were exposed to various concentrations of V in mixed liquors and their tolerance to V was assessed at 30 degrees C at a pH of 4. The results revealed that the increase in V oxidation state increased its toxicity to bacterial isolates, whereas its toxicity decreased for protozoan isolates. Among the bacterial isolates, P putida was found to be more tolerant to V3+(24h-median lethal concentration (LC50): 390mg/l), V4+(24h-LC50: 230-250mg/l) and V5+(24h-LC50: 180-200mg/l), whereas for the protozoan isolates, Peranema sp. appeared to be more tolerant to V3+(24 h-LC50: 110-120 mg/l), V4+(24 h-LC50: 160-170 mg/l) and V5+(24 h-LC50: 160-200 mg/l). A comparison of both groups of organisms revealed Trachelophyllum sp. as the most sensitive organism to V at its various oxidation states. The visual and spectrophotometric methods used to assess V reduction revealed that P. putida was the only isolate able to reduce V5+, V4+ and V3+ to V2+ in mixed liquor media. Vanadium (+2) in concentrations of approximately 46.46 mg/l, 29.57 m mg/l and 38.01 mg/l found in the media was treated with V3+, V4+ and V5+, respectively, and inoculated with P. putida. This study revealed that the ability of V reduction, adopted with P putida, can be an effective strategy to remove V from polluted environments. This study also showed that the toxicity of V, in terms of its oxidation states, differs from one species to another and in kingdoms. PMID:24956802

  14. Updating the singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Philip I.; Smith, M. I. Matthew I.

    2004-09-01

    The spectral decomposition of a symmetric matrix A with small off-diagonal and distinct diagonal elements can be approximated using a direct scheme of R. Davies and Modi (Linear Algebra Appl. 77 (1986) 61). In this paper a generalization of this method for computing the singular value decomposition of close-to-diagonal is presented. When A has repeated or "close" singular values it is possible to apply the direct method to split the problem in two with one part containing the well-separated singular values and one requiring the computation of the "close" singular values.

  15. Computer simulation of the self-assembly of crystal structures of zeolites Ca64(Sr,K,Ba)48(Cu12(O,Cl))4[Si192Al192O786](H2O) n (tschoertnerite, TSC, V = 31 614 Å3) and Ca2K2[Al6Si6O24](H2O)10 (willhendersonite, cha, V = 804 Å3) from template nanocluster precursors K48 and K12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, G. D.; Blatov, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    The self-assembly of zeolites Ca64(Sr,K,Ba)48(Cu12(O,Cl))4[Si192Al192 O786](H2O) n (tschoertnerite, TSC-type framework, V = 31614 Å3) and Ca2K2[Al6Si6O24] (H2O)10 (willhendersonite, CHA-type framework, V = 804 Å3), which form paragenetic associations, has been simulated using computational methods (TOPOS program package). A new method for analyzing zeolites of any complexity has been used, which is based on the complete expansion of the three-dimensional structural graph (3 D factor graph) in tiles and the selection of nonintersecting tiles forming a packing. The code of self-assembly of 3 D structures from complementary linked nanocluster precursors is reconstructed: primary chain → microlayer → microframework. A supracluster precursor K48 with the symmetry bar 43 m, formed of four K12 clusters corresponding to the t-hpr tile, is established for TSC. The K48 cluster contains Ca template cations, which stabilize its local region in the stages of K12 → K24 → K48 self-assembly. Bifurcations of evolution paths (structural branching points) during the self-assembly of TSC and CHA microframeworks are established in the stage of formation of the K24 supracluster from invariant templated K12 clusters. The models under consideration explain the 100% localization of B = Ca cations, which play the role of templates, and the 50% occupation of the positions of K, Sr, and Ba spacer cations (in TSC) and K spacer cations (in CHA).

  16. Effects of developmental stage, salts, and food presence on aquatic toxicological endpoints using Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to standardize the testing protocol for aquatic toxicity tests with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several variables which may be important in determining the test outcome were investigated in a randomized block design. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium Pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The endpoints measured were 24 and 96-h mortality, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarly to a given toxicant for all endpoints measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p<0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24-h and 96-h mortality (LC50 value) tests, as well as 96-h reproduction tests.

  17. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  18. Lethal and sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on the whitefly predator Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) through different exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng-Luan; Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Desneux, Nicolas; He, Yu-Xian; Weng, Qi-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Given expectations for a booming usage of thiamethoxam and increasing availability of the promising biological agent Serangium japonicum for the control of Bemisia tabaci in China, an evaluation of their compatibility is crucial for integrated pest management (IPM). This study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on S. japonicum through three exposure routes. An acute toxicity bioassay showed that LC50 values of thiamethoxam for S. japonicum through residue contact, egg-dip, and systemic treatment were 6.65, 4.37, and 2.43 mg AI L(-1), respectively. The prey consumption of S. japonicum given different densities of B. tabaci eggs under control, discontinuous, egg-dip and systemic exposure scenarios showed a good fit to a Type II functional response. Predation of S. japonicum was most affected under systemic exposure, followed by egg-dip, and discontinuous, which was only slightly affected. In all cases tested, however, predators recovered their predation capacity rapidly, either after 24h of exposure or 24h after the end of exposure. Thiamethoxam was highly toxic to S. japonicum regardless of exposure routes. Sublethal effects of thiamethoxam applied systemically or foliar both impaired the biological control of S. japonicum on B. tabaci. Therefore, thiamethoxam should be used with caution in IPM of B. tabaci. PMID:25655818

  19. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus. PMID:27294957

  20. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus. PMID:27294957

  1. Extension's Values: A Bridge across Turbulent Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safrit, R. Dale; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Cooperative Extension organizational values systems include personnel values, process values, and product (program) values. The values systems are the basis for making program decisions and a source of professional satisfaction if the values are congruent with beliefs. (SK)

  2. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests. PMID:19757032

  3. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  4. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  5. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  6. Cultural Values for International Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Argues that understanding how values operate, both in individual and cultural contexts, could help educators to determine what can and should be achieved with students and to build an appropriate program. Stresses that values specific to the international school's situation must be considered. (AUTH/NB)

  7. Finding Value in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    In the field of higher education Newman has been dismissed as irrelevant and out of date. Ronald Barnett, for example, is highly critical of his "value-laden" vision of a particular kind of university. This article seeks to consider the question of values more carefully, suggesting that Newman's writings do have strong resonances…

  8. Marital Therapy and Changing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1976-01-01

    Implications of Feminist and Humanistic values for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that value orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…

  9. 77 FR 34073 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... (53 FR 3140), and the Circular was last revised in May 1993 (58 FR 31056). The Circular specifically... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy Value Engineering AGENCY: Office of Federal Procurement... Circular No. A-131, ``Value Engineering''. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) in...

  10. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  11. Valuing Confrontations with the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop valuing skills. Entitled Valuing Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…

  12. 77 FR 15250 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register at 76 FR 36410 soliciting public comments on its... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of value engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement...

  13. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  14. Values in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Considers various ways that values enter into counseling or psychotherapy, with particular attention to goals of the process and methods or procedures by which counselor or therapist implements process. Suggests approach to counseling and psychotherapy that recognizes and incorporates values basic to democratic philosophy and the goal of…

  15. Values Education: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This column describes and evaluates almost 40 texts, instructional kits, and teacher resources on values, interpersonal relations, self-awareness, self-help skills, juvenile psychology, and youth suicide. Eight effective picture books for the primary grades and seven titles in values fiction for teens are also reviewed. (SJL)

  16. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity. PMID:25630696

  17. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  18. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  19. Performance Measurement to Demonstrate Value.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Joseph A; Hebl, James R

    2015-12-01

    Anesthesiologists are obligated to demonstrate the value of the care they provide. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has multiple performance-based payment programs to drive high-value care and motivate integrated care for surgical patients and hospitalized patients. These programs rely on diverse arrays of performance measures and complex reporting rules. Among all specialties, anesthesiology has tremendous potential to effect wide-ranging change on diverse measures. Performance measures deserve scrutiny by anesthesiologists as tools to improve care, the means by which payment is determined, and as a means to demonstrate the value of care to surgeons, hospitals, and patients. PMID:26610623

  20. Alerting of Laboratory Critical Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Paik, Hyeon Young; Lee, Chi Woo; Bang, Su Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, In-Sook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yoon

    Critical value is defined as a result suggesting that the patient is in danger unless appropriate action is taken immediately. We designed an automated reporting system of critical values and evaluated its performance. Fifteen critical values were defined and 2-4 doctors were assigned to receive short message service (SMS).Laboratory results in LIS and EMR were called back to the DIA server. The rule engine named U-brain in the CDSS server was run in real-time and decision if the laboratory data was critical was made. The CDSS system for alerting of laboratory critical values was fast and stable without additional burden to the entire EMR system. Continuous communication with clinicians and feedback of clinical performance are mandatory for the refinement and development of user-friendly CDSS contents. Appropriate clinical parameters are necessary for demonstration of the usefulness of the system.

  1. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions. PMID:25092260

  2. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  3. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  4. Clarifying values: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines have recommended that decision aids include a process for helping patients clarify their values. We sought to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to the use of values clarification methods in patient decision aids. Methods Building on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration’s 2005 review of values clarification methods in decision aids, we convened a multi-disciplinary expert group to examine key definitions, decision-making process theories, and empirical evidence about the effects of values clarification methods in decision aids. To summarize the current state of theory and evidence about the role of values clarification methods in decision aids, we undertook a process of evidence review and summary. Results Values clarification methods (VCMs) are best defined as methods to help patients think about the desirability of options or attributes of options within a specific decision context, in order to identify which option he/she prefers. Several decision making process theories were identified that can inform the design of values clarification methods, but no single “best” practice for how such methods should be constructed was determined. Our evidence review found that existing VCMs were used for a variety of different decisions, rarely referenced underlying theory for their design, but generally were well described in regard to their development process. Listing the pros and cons of a decision was the most common method used. The 13 trials that compared decision support with or without VCMs reached mixed results: some found that VCMs improved some decision-making processes, while others found no effect. Conclusions Values clarification methods may improve decision-making processes and potentially more distal outcomes. However, the small number of evaluations of VCMs and, where evaluations exist, the heterogeneity in outcome measures makes it difficult to determine their

  5. From value chain to value constellation: designing interactive strategy.

    PubMed

    Normann, R; Ramírez, R

    1993-01-01

    In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the value chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies. PMID:10127040

  6. A nomogram for P values

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background P values are the most commonly used tool to measure evidence against a hypothesis. Several attempts have been made to transform P values to minimum Bayes factors and minimum posterior probabilities of the hypothesis under consideration. However, the acceptance of such calibrations in clinical fields is low due to inexperience in interpreting Bayes factors and the need to specify a prior probability to derive a lower bound on the posterior probability. Methods I propose a graphical approach which easily translates any prior probability and P value to minimum posterior probabilities. The approach allows to visually inspect the dependence of the minimum posterior probability on the prior probability of the null hypothesis. Likewise, the tool can be used to read off, for fixed posterior probability, the maximum prior probability compatible with a given P value. The maximum P value compatible with a given prior and posterior probability is also available. Results Use of the nomogram is illustrated based on results from a randomized trial for lung cancer patients comparing a new radiotherapy technique with conventional radiotherapy. Conclusion The graphical device proposed in this paper will enhance the understanding of P values as measures of evidence among non-specialists. PMID:20233437

  7. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

  8. Valuing biodiversity: reality or mirage?

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Webb, David

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to consider the social value of biological diversity and explore if this value could be expressed in terms of a unidimensional metric in money. Economics distinguishes between use-values and non-use-values, which are critically evaluated for valuing biodiversity. It is shown that these utility-based valuations have severe limitations as they treat species in isolation from their ecological contexts. In contrast, ecosystem ecology regards ecosystems as an integrated non-linear and nonconvex system in which ecosystem functions can be understood as a four-component cycle; exploitation, accumulation of biomass, creative destruction and renewal. Within such a cycle, ecosystems can be seen to have two properties: stability and resilience. A good proxy for resilience is the probability of extinction of species, and social value of biodiversity can be expressed as a partial ordering with this probability as an index. This approach is consistent with decision theory, of which social choice is an important component, pioneered by Arrow. PMID:12859001

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Azadirachta indica--a most effective method for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, Subbiah; De Britto, Lourduraj John; Praba, V Lakshmi; Mani, C; Praveen, M

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes transmit major communicable diseases such as dengue, malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so on. Vector control is important in epidemic disease situations as there is an urgent need to develop new and improved mosquito control methods that are economical and effective yet safe for non-targeted organisms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from the aqueous leaf extract of neem plant (Azadirachta indica), and their effects on mosquito vectors (Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were assessed. The synthesised AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 442 ± 1.5 nm with an average size of 41-60 nm. The XRD data showed six well-defined diffraction peaks, corresponding to a relative intensity of the crystal structure of metallic silver 36.42, 100.00, 53.70, 14.20, 16.05, and 6.79, respectively. The FT-IR data showed strong prominent peaks in different ranges, reflecting its complex nature. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs synthesized from the neem leaves under investigation (0.07-25 mg/l) for 24 h; this revealed larvicidal activity of AgNPs with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.006 and 0.04 mg/l for A. aegypti, respectively. Further, the LC50 and LC90 values were also identified as 0.047 and 0.23 mg/l for Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The result obtained from this study presents biosynthesized silver nanoparticle from A. indica as the biolarvicidal agent with the most potential for mosquito control. PMID:25226837

  10. Efficacy of adulticidal and larvicidal properties of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of dried leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Manilkara zapota, Ipomoea staphylina, and Acalypha indica against the adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate parasitic effects; however, the percent parasitic mortality observed in the crude leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of N. nucifera and M. zapota against H. bispinosa were 80, 74, 72, and 100 and 100, 83, 74, and 91, respectively, and the activity for I. staphylina and A. indica against Hip. maculata were 100, 93, 87, and 66 and 78, 90, 87, and 100 at 2,000 ppm, respectively; the larvicidal activity for the same extracts of I. staphylina against A. subpictus were 76, 82, 84, and 100 at 100 ppm, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf methanol extract of N. nucifera, hexane extract of M. zapota and leaf hexane extract of I. staphylina, and methanol extract of A. indica against the adults of H. bispinosa and Hip. maculata with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 437.14 and 200.81, and 415.14 and 280.72 ppm, 1,927.57 and 703.52 ppm, and 1,647.70 and 829.39 ppm, respectively. The effective larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of I. staphylina against A. subpictus with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 10.39 and 37.71 ppm, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of H. bispinosa, Hip. maculata, and the medically important vector A. subpictus. PMID:21861064

  11. Toxic Effect of a Marine Bacterium on Aquatic Organisms and Its Algicidal Substances against Phaeocystis globosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiuchan; Chen, Lina; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Yin, Pinghe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v) for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v), respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms. PMID:25646807

  12. Efficacy of pesticide mixtures against the western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Amy L; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2013-02-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande is a commonly encountered and economically important insect pest of greenhouses. Greenhouse producers typically apply pesticides as mixtures to mitigate western flower thrips populations; however, there is limited information available on the compatibility and efficacy of commonly used pesticide mixtures. This study assessed nine binary and three tertiary pesticide mixtures used in greenhouses which included pesticides containing abamectin, acephate, azadirachtin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, imidacloprid, novaluron, pymetrozine, and spinosad. Compatibility was determined for the binary pesticide mixtures using jar tests. In addition, the binary mixtures were applied to nine horticultural plant species to determine phytotoxicity based on visual appearance assessed 7 d after treatment. Bean-dip bioassays were performed in a laboratory using green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to determine LC50 values for each individual pesticide and the mixtures to establish whether the mixtures were synergistic, antagonistic, or there was no effect. The mortality of western flower thrips was assessed after 24 h, and LC50 values were calculated. Furthermore, semifield bioassays were performed in greenhouses for binary and tertiary mixtures to evaluate the efficacy (based on percent mortality) of the pesticide mixtures against western flower thrips. Results indicated that all binary mixtures were visibly compatible, and not phytotoxic to any of the plant species evaluated. Combination index calculations based on laboratory results indicated most of the binary mixtures were synergistic; however, the mixture containing spinosad + bifenazate appeared to be antagonistic against western flower thrips. The semifield bioassays demonstrated significantly reduced efficacy associated with mixtures containing azadirachtin, however, all binary mixtures provided approximately 80% western flower thrips mortality. PMID:23448038

  13. Impact of Predator Cues on Responses to Silver Nanoparticles in Daphnia carinata.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangqiu; Xiong, Yunxia; Tang, Song; Zhao, Peng; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Hecker, Markus; Wang, Mao; Liu, Hongling; Lu, Haoliang; Du, Huamao

    2015-11-01

    The past decades have witnessed a boom in nanotechnology that has led to increasing production and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the textile industry due to their antimicrobial properties. Increase in the manufacture and use of NPs inevitably has resulted in their increased release into aquatic environments resulting in the exposure of organisms living in these environments. Recently, the risk of exposure to NPs and the potential interaction with biological systems has received increasing attention. The present study investigated the potential effects of predator cues on the toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of AgNPs in Daphnia carinata at organismal and biochemical levels. The results of this study show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of AgNPs can result in adverse effects on daphnids with 24- and 48-h LC50 values of 3.56 and 1.75 μg/L, respectively. Furthermore, significant inhibition of reproduction was observed at concentrations as low as 0.5 μg/L. Exposure to predator cues alone resulted in an increase in reproduction and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity in daphnids. However, coexposure to predator cues interacted in an antagonistic manner with AgNPs with a 24-h LC50 value of 10.81 μg/L compared with 3.56 μg/L for AgNPs alone. In summary, AgNPs could pose risks to aquatic invertebrates at environmentally relevant concentrations. Interestingly, the presence of other factors, such as predator cues, moderated the effects of exposure to AgNPs. Therefore, there is a need to further investigate the potential interactions between NPs and biological factors that can modulate toxicity of NPs for application to the risk assessment of aquatic invertebrates. PMID:26044927

  14. Mosquito larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activity of Artemisia nilagirica (Family: Compositae) against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study, to evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent, and adulticidal activities of methanol crude extract of Artemisia nilagirica were assayed for their toxicity against two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The fresh leaves of A. nilagirica were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade dried at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 5-8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powdered was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of methanol sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 272.50, 311.40, 361.51, 442.51, and 477.23 ppm, and the LC(90) = 590.07, 688.81, 789.34, 901.59, and 959.30 ppm; the A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 300.84, 338.79, 394.69, 470.74, and 542.11 ppm, and the LC(90) = 646.67, 726.07, 805.49, 892.01, and 991.29 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of plant extract of A. nilagirica plants at five different concentrations of 50, 150, 250, 350, and 450 ppm were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, the plant crude extract gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. nilagirica, with the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 205.78 and 459.51 ppm for A. stephensi, and 242.52 and 523.73 ppm for A. aegypti

  15. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs. PMID:21750871

  16. Triterpenoid Saponins from Clematis graveolens and Evaluation of their Insecticidal Activities.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Rajeev; Reddy, S G Eswara; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Sharma, Upendra

    2015-09-01

    A new hederagenin based triterpenoid saponin, clematograveolenoside A (1), along with three known saponins, tomentoside A (2), huzhangoside D (3) and clematoside S (4), were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Clematis graveolens. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D NMR spectra. Compound 2 was found the most effective against aphid (Aphis craccivora) with an LC50 of 1.2 and 0.5 mg/mL after treatment for 72 and 96 h, respectively and was followed by compound 4 (LC50 = 2.3 and 1.9 mg/mL) and 1 (LC50 = 3.2 and 2.6 mg/mL). In case of termite (Coptotermis homii), compound 1 was found more toxic with an LC50 of 0.1 mg/L after 24 h of treatment followed by compound 2, 3 and 4 (LC50 = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively). PMID:26594749

  17. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  18. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Papas, Phil J; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC(50) values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC(50) obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC(50)). This LC(50) value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC(50). For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC(50) and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC(50) of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC(50) values. In contrast, LC(50) determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. PMID:15016457

  19. Active inference and epistemic value.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) value. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic value or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic value (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic value is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic value. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms. PMID:25689102

  20. Education for values and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860

  1. Applied extreme-value statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  2. Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of value-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…

  3. On Improving the World: The Value(s) of WICS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Models of giftedness are not versions of the way the world is, but programmes for improving the world. They uphold visions of the good life, good society, and worthy character. They are vehicles for values. Sternberg acknowledges this in his conclusion: "The important thing is to work together toward a common good--toward devising the best ways to…

  4. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  5. The Value in Value Added Depends on the Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author states that, as the contributions of the focal articles make clear, there is much to learn about how value-added models (VAMs) are actually used in a variety of settings. Indeed, it is important to remember that VAM scores are but one component of a complex evaluation system that can play out differently in different…

  6. Diversity, Value and Technology: Exposing Value Pluralism in Institutional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark; Smyth, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore ways in which value pluralism in institutional learning-technology strategy can be exposed and managed with the use of learning activities involving stakeholder groups across and between educational institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The case-study of a series of national workshops on…

  7. What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

  8. NON-INVASIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MONITORING: A SENSITIVE METHOD FOR DETECTING SUBLETHAL NEUROTOXICITY IN EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earthworms were exposed, by external surface contact, to three chemical pollutants: dieldrin (a known neurotoxicant), dimethyl phthalate and fluorene (a possible neurotoxicant). After 48 h of exposure, LC50 values were determined and compared with concentrations required for subl...

  9. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

  10. Re-valuing the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent advances indicate that the amygdala represents valence: a general appetitive/aversive affective characteristic that bears similarity to the neuroeconomic concept of value. Neurophysiological studies show that individual amygdala neurons respond differentially to a range of stimuli with positive or negative affective significance. Meanwhile, increasingly specific lesion/inactivation studies reveal that the amygdala is necessary for processes – e.g., fear extinction and reinforcer devaluation – that involve updating representations of value. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human amygdala mediates performance on many reward-based decision-making tasks. The encoding of affective significance by the amygdala might be best described as a representation of state value – a representation that is useful for coordinating physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses in an affective/emotional context. PMID:20299204

  11. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  12. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  13. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms

  14. Evaluation of the feeding value of palm press fibre using in vitro digestibility techniques.

    PubMed

    Obese, F Y; Osafo, E L; Okai, D B

    2001-04-01

    Palm press fibre (PPF) was obtained from two sources, a small-scale oil palm processing unit and a large-scale factory processing unit, and its chemical composition was determined. In vitro digestibility techniques were used to assess the feeding value of untreated, defatted and sodium hydroxide-treated PPF. For the NaOH treatment, 0.5 g oven-dried PPF was treated for 24 h with 5% NaOH in three ways: treated and not washed (NaNW); treated and washed (NaW); and treated after milling (NAD). The results indicate that, on a dry matter basis, PPF is low in nitrogen (12-13 g/kg), moisture (37-90 g/kg) and ash (53-62 g/kg), but high in ether extract (269-355 g/kg), neutral detergent fibre (532-768 g/kg), acid detergent fibre (375-548 g/kg) and lignin (219 g/kg). The in vitro dry matter digestibility values were low for the samples from both sources, but the large-scale factory-processed PPF had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility (0.215 vs 0.166) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (0.196 vs 0.145). Defatting the PPF and treating it with 5% NaOH solution significantly (p < 0.01) improved both the dry matter and organic matter digestibility. Washing the NaOH-treated PPF resulted in a higher digestibility of dry matter as against NaNW or NAD. These results suggest that defatting and treatment with 5% NaOH would improve the feeding value of PPF. PMID:11254076

  15. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  16. Adding value to your work.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373

  17. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  18. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  19. [Comparison of analized and calculated energy, fat, protein, dietary fiber, iron and zinc values in diets from different socioeconomic levels in northern México].

    PubMed

    Estrada, R O; Wyatt, C J

    1995-06-01

    Traditional methods of dietary assessment such as measuring nutrient intake with 24 h dietary recalls, food frequency questionnaires and multiple-day food records, depend upon the use of data base systems to estimate nutrient data. Certain problems exist with the data from these sources. For Mexico, the most serious one is that in many of the systems certain nutrient data is lacking and many of the traditional foods are not included. The objective of this study was to analyze regional diets for protein, fat, dietary fiber, iron and zinc and compare these values with those estimated from two different data bases, ALIM 10.000 which includes regional dishes and foods and Nutritionist III, which includes data from Handbook 8. Energy values were calculated using reported values. The results showed that the bases produced comparable values to those analyzed for energy, protein, fat, however for micronutrients the data bases generally overestimate the analyzed values. The results of this study emphasize the need to update data bases with new product information, re-examine certain values on basis of newer methods, and to include data for ethnic foods. PMID:8729268

  20. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and